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Stat 2120

Homework Set 6
DUE: Complete Homework Set 6 Quiz on Collab by October 13, 11:59pm

General Instructions for Homework Sets:

You are to complete the homework set first. You may do so yourself or discuss with classmates.
After completing the homework set, take the homework set quiz found in Collab.
The quiz will randomly select 10 questions from the homework set. Each person will get a different
set of questions. You are no longer allowed to discuss with others after opening the quiz in Collab.

You have 30 minutes to complete the quiz after you open it. Once the quiz is opened the timer
does not stop so only open after you have answered all the questions!

1. A 12 ounce bottle of beer has 355 ml. The Random Brewing Company sets its machinery so that the
contents of a bottle is normally distributed with a mean of 355.5 ml and a standard deviation of 0.6
ml. You may assume the contents of a bottle are also independent from each other.

(a) What is the probability that a randomly selected bottle has at least 355 ml?
(b) What is the probability that the bottles of a randomly selected 6-pack of beer have an average of
at least 355 ml?
(c) What is the probability that the total amount of beer in the 6-pack is less than 2131.5 ml? Hint:
write the total amount in terms of x.

Questions 2 to 4 are based on the following information. For these questions, use the
sample standard deviation, s (i.e. use STDEV.S in EXCEL), in place of the population
standard deviation, .
The file cholest.xlsx contains the following data: A study was conducted at a major north eastern
American medical center regarding blood cholesterol levels and heart-attack incidents. A total of 28
heart-attack patients had their cholesterol levels measured two days, 4 days, and 14 days after the
attack. In addition, cholesterol levels were recorded for a control group of 30 people who had not had
a heart attack. The units of cholesterol measurement are not given in the original reference but are
presumably mg/dL of blood.

Variable Description
Patient Patient number
Group 1 = heart-attack patient; 2 = control
Day Number of days since heart attack
Cholest Cholesterol level

2. For question 2 only consider the heart attack patients, i.e. group 1, and only consider
the cholesterol measurements taken 2 days after a heart attack.

(a) What is the size of the sample?


(b) What target population does the sample represent?
(c) A histogram for the cholesterol levels of the heart attack patients two days after a heart attack is
displayed below. Describe the shape of this histogram.

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(d) Based on your answers to the previous parts, do you think it is reasonable to use the methods
seen in class to construct a confidence interval for the population mean? Briefly explain.
(e) Calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean cholesterol level in the population of heart attack
patients two days after an attack. Be sure to record the values of the estimate and the margin of
error.
(f) Calculate a 99% confidence interval for the mean cholesterol level in the population. Be sure to
record the values of the estimate and the margin of error. How does the 99% CI compare with
the 95% CI from 2e?

3. In question 3, we wish to evaluate if there is a difference in the average cholesterol level of heart attack
patients two days after a heart attack and people without a heart attack (control group).

(a) Calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean cholesterol level in the population of patients
who have no heart attacks. Be sure to record the values of the estimate and the margin of error.
(b) Based on your 95% CIs from parts 2e and 3a, is it reasonable to infer that the mean cholesterol
level in heart attack patients 2 days after a heart attack is higher than the mean cholesterol level
in patients who have not had a heart attack? Briefly explain.

4. Suppose that what were really interested in is how cholesterol levels in heart attack patients change
in the days after a heart attack. We can explore this by comparing the measurements we have from
heart attack patients 2 days after a heart attack to those taken 4 days after a heart attack.

(a) Are the two sets of measurements (day 2 and day 4) independent? Briefly explain.
(b) Create a scatter plot of day 2 measurements and day 4 measurements, one point for each patient.
Describe the relationship between the measurements. Hint: it will be easiest if you copy and
paste the data so that you have the measurements in two side-by-side columns, with one row for
each of the group 1 patients. Recall you also created scatterplots in Homework Set 2. You may
refer to this problem set or the video on Collab.
(c) For each patient in group 1, use EXCEL to calculate the change in their cholesterol levels from
day 2 to day 4. We will call this new variable Change, and is defined as cholesterol level 2 days
after heart attack minus cholesterol 4 days after heart attack. Create a new column for Change.
Are the values of Change for each subject independent from other subjects?

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(d) Calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean of Change. Be sure to record the values of the
estimate and the margin of error. Based on this interval, how do cholesterol levels in heart attack
patients change in the days after a heart attack?

Note: What you have done in question 4 is how we analyze data from a matched pairs experiment.

Help with Excel

Creating Scatterplots in Excel

1. Highlight the two columns you want to make a scatterplot of. The variable on the horizontal axis must
be on the left.

2. Click on the INSERT tab and under Charts, select Insert Scatter (X,Y) or Bubble Chart.
3. Select the first option, Scatter. A scatterplot is produced.
4. You will notice the title and axes are not labeled. Click on the DESIGN tab, select Add Chart
Element, and then Chart Title and select Above Chart to add a title. For the axes, select Axis
Titles and select both Primary Horizontal and Primary Vertical.

5. Click on the words to change the titles.