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1.- demuestre que V es un espacio vectorial.

A ) El conjunto de matrices diagonales de 3 x 3 ( ver unidad 2 , matriz diagonal), bajo la suma de


matrices ordinaria y multiplicacin por un escalar ordinaria.
2 0 0
U = [0 3 0]
0 0 4
1 0 0
V = [0 4 0]
0 0 2
3 0 0
W = [0 4 0]
0 0 6
=2

=3

1) U + V V
2 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0
[ 0 3 0] + [ 0 4 0] = [ 0 7 0]
0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 6
2) U + V = V + U
3 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0
[ 0 7 0] = [ 0 4 0] + [0 3 0]
0 0 6 0 0 2 0 0 4
3 0 0 3 0 0
[ 0 7 0] = [ 0 7 0]
0 0 6 0 0 6
3) (U + V) + W = U + (V + W)
3 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0
[ 0 7 0] + [ 0 4 0] = [ 0 3 0] + [ 0 4 0] + [ 0 4 0]
0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 6
6 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0
[0 11 0 ] = [0 3 0] + [0 8 0]
0 0 12 0 0 4 0 0 8
6 0 0 6 0 0
[0 11 0 ] = [0 11 0]
0 0 12 0 0 12
4) U + 0 = U
2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
[0 3 0] + [0 0 0]= [0 3 0]
0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 4
5) U + (-U) = 0
2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
[0 3 0] + [ 0 3 0 ] = [0 0 0]
0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 0

6) (U + V) V
2 0 0 4 0 0
2 * [0 3 0] = [ 0 6 0]
0 0 4 0 0 8
7) ( U + V ) = U + V
3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0
2 * [0 7 0] = 2* [0 3 0] + 2* [0 4 0]
0 0 6 0 0 4 0 0 2
6 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0
[0 14 0 ] = [0 6 0] + [ 0 8 0]
0 0 12 0 0 8 0 0 4
6 0 0 6 0 0
[0 14 0 ] = [0 14 0 ]
0 0 12 0 0 12
8) ( * ) U = U + U
2 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0
2 + 3 * [0 3 0 ] = [ 0 6 0 ] + 3 * [ 0 3 0]
0 0 4 0 0 8 0 0 4
2 0 0 4 0 0 6 0 0
5 *[0 3 0 ] =[ 0 6 0 ] + [0 9 0]
0 0 4 0 0 8 0 0 12
10 0 0 10 0 0
[ 0 15 0 ] = [ 0 15 0 ]
0 0 20 0 0 20
9) ( U ) = ( ) U
2 0 0 2 0 0
2 * 3*[0 3 0] = 6 [0 3 0]
0 0 4 0 0 4
6 0 0 12 0 0
2* [0 9 0 ] = [ 0 18 0 ]
0 0 12 0 0 24
12 0 0 12 0 0
[ 0 18 0 ] = [ 0 18 0 ]
0 0 24 0 0 24
10 ) 1 * U = U
2 0 0 2 0 0
1* [0 3 0 ] = [0 3 0]
0 0 4 0 0 4

Nota:

Por lo tanto, el conjunto de matrices 3 x3 es un espacio vectorial


B) sea V la dimensin R3 Suma ordinaria y multiplicacin por escalar definida por:

C (x, y) = (3cx,3cy,0). CONDICION

U = (1, 2, 3)

V = ( -2, 3, 4)

W = (3, 5, 6)

=3

=2

1) U + V V

(1, 2, 3) + ( -2, 3, 4) = ( -1, 5, 7)

2) U + V = V + U

( -1, 5, 7) = ( -2, 3, 4) + (1, 2, 3)

( -1, 5, 7) = ( -1, 5, 7)

3) (U + V) + W = U + (V + W)

( -1, 5, 7) + (3, 5, 6) = (1, 2, 3) + ( -2, 3, 4) + (3, 5, 6)

(2, 10, 13) = (1, 2, 3) + (1, 8, 10)

(2, 10, 13) = (2, 10, 13)

4) U + 0 = U

(1, 2, 3) + (0, 0, 0) = (1, 2, 3)

5) U + (-U) = 0

(1, 2, 3) + (-1, -2, -3) = (0, 0, 0)


6) (U + V) V

3 * (1, 2, 3) = (3*3*1, 3*3*2, 0)

= (9, 18, 0)

7) ( U + V ) = U + V

3*(-1, 5, 7) = (9, 18, 0) + 3* ( -2, 3, 4)

(3*3*-1, 3*3*5, 0) = (9, 18, 0) + (3*3*-2, 3*3*3, 0)

(-9, 45, 0) = (9, 18, 0) + (-18, 27, 0)

(-9, 45, 0) = (-9, 45, 0)

8) ( * ) U = U + U

( 3 + 2) * (1, 2, 3) = (9, 18, 0) + 2* (1, 2, 3)

5 * (1, 2, 3) = (9, 18, 0) + (2*3*1, 2*3*2, 0)

(5*3*1, 5*3*2, 0) = (9, 18, 0) + (6, 12, 0)

(15, 30, 0) = (15, 30, 0)

9) ( U ) = ( ) U

3 * (6, 12, 0) = 6 * (1, 2, 3)

(3*3*6, 3*3*12, 0) = (6*3*1, 6*3*2, 0)

(54, 108, 0) = (18, 36, 0)

Nota:

Por lo tanto, el conjunto en R3 no tiene solucin ya que en el axioma nmero 9 no se cumple


C ) el conjunto de puntos en R2 que se encuentra sobre una recta que no pasa por el origen.

V = R2 ( x, y ), donde zy = mx + b, m= pendiente y b= ordenada al origen

Suma ordinaria y multiplicacin por escalar ordinaria.

m=3 ( x, mx + b )

b=4 ( x, 3x + 4 )

U = ( 2, 10 )

V = ( 5, 19 )

W = ( 3, 13 )

1) U + V V

( 2, 10 ) + ( 5, 19 ) = ( 7, 29 )

Nota:

Por lo tanto, el conjunto en R2 no tiene solucin ya que desde el primer axioma no se cumple