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# Textbook

## ME 364 – Vehicle Dynamics Fundamentals of Vehicle

Dynamics
by Thomas Gillespie

## Chapter 1 - Introduction Published by SAE

(ISBN 1560911999)

## Figure 1.4 – SAE Vehicle Axis

References System
Race Car Vehicle Dynamics
by William F. Milliken and Douglas L. Milliken
The Multibody Systems Approach to Vehicle Dynamics
by Michael Blundell and Damian Harty
Vehicle Dynamics: Theory and Application
by Reza N. Jazar
Automotive Chassis: Engineering Principles
by Jornsen Reimpell and Helmut Stoll
Theory of Ground Vehicles
by J. Y. Wong
Bosch Automotive Handbook
by Robert Bosch Gmbh
Figure 1.5 – Vehicle in Earth Figure 1.5 – Vehicle in Earth
Fixed Coordinate System Fixed Coordinate System

## Figure 1.6 – Arbitrary Forces Figure 1.6 – Arbitrary Forces

Acting on a Vehicle Acting on a Vehicle
DA = _______________________

Rh =_________

Θ=angle
of road W
f =no L=w
rm heel
___ al force base
_ __
_ _ _ on
___ Wr =n
o
____ rmal for
_ __ _ ce
____ on Rxf, Rxr = ______________________ forces on front / rear wheels
_ __
Fxf, Fxr = ______________________ forces on front / rear wheels
Summing Arbitrary Forces Summing Arbitrary Forces
Acting on a Vehicle Acting on a Vehicle

+X +X

## Summing Arbitrary Forces Summing Arbitrary Forces

Acting on a Vehicle Acting on a Vehicle

+X
Solving for Dynamic Axle
Loads Dynamic Axle Loads

##  Sum moments about rear wheel ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ W

W f = ⎜ ⎟⎜⎜W cos θ ⋅ ____ − Rhx ⋅ ____ − Rhz ⋅ ____ − a x ⋅ ___
contact point, A, to get Wf ⎝ L ⎠⎝ g
{ Note that by right-hand rule “positive” − DA ⋅ ____ − W sin θ ⋅ ____ )
moments are clockwise (why?)
 Sum moments about front wheel ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛
Wr = ⎜ ⎟⎜⎜W cos θ ⋅ ___ + Rhx ⋅ ____ + Rhz ⋅ (_______ ) + a x ⋅ ____
W
contact point, B, to get Wr ⎝ L ⎠⎝ g
+ DA ⋅ ____ + W sin θ ⋅ ____ )

## Case #1 – ’96 Ford Ranger Case #1 – ’96 Ford Ranger

EXPERT AUTOSTATS - Ver. 4.2w

1996 FORD RANGER SUPER CAB 2DR 4X2 PICKUP  Measure wheelbase
CURB WEIGHT: 3208 lbs. 1455 kg.  Locate CG (i.e. find b and c)
Curb Weight Distribution -Front: 62% Rear: 38%
 Estimate CG height, h
During “hard braking” event: μ=0.75
HORIZONTAL DIMENSIONS Inches Feet Meters
Total Length 201 16.75 5.11 
Wheelbase: 125 10.42 3.17 { estimate wheel loads
CENTER OF GRAVITY (No Load): { estimate braking forces at each wheel
Inches behind front axle = 47.50
Inches in front of rear axle = 77.50  During “hard accel” event: ax=0.20g
Inches from side of vehicle = 34.50
Inches from ground = 24.61 { estimate wheel loads
Inches from front corner = 87.58 { estimate traction forces at each rear wheel
Inches from rear corner = 125.34
Inches from front bumper = 80.50
Inches from rear bumper = 120.50
Case #1 – ’96 Ford Ranger Case #2 – ’06 Ford Taurus

##  Add 3-100 lb bags of sand to truck bed  Going up an incline of θ = 5°

{ Where is the best place to add them?  During “hard braking” event: μ=0.80
 Locate new CG { estimate wheel loads
{ estimate braking forces at each wheel
 During “hard braking” event: μ=0.75
 During “hard accel” event: ax=0.25g
{ estimate wheel loads
{ estimate wheel loads
{ estimate braking forces at each wheel
{ estimate traction forces at each front
wheel

Determining CG Height, h

##  How can you determine the height of

the center of gravity, h, by
measurements?
W

b c
Wf Wr