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TMF1814 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS TUTORIAL 5 S1 2016/2017

TMF1814 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS


TUTORIAL 5

4.2 Applications of Propositional Logic

1. You can graduate only if you have completed the requirements of your major and you
do not owe money to the university and you do not have an overdue library book.
Express your answer in terms of g: You can graduate, m: You owe money to the
university, r: You have completed the requirements of your major, and b: You have
an overdue library book.

g (r (m) (b))

2. Express these system specifications using the propositions p: The message is scanned
for viruses and q: The message was sent from an unknown system together with
logical connectives (including negations).
a) The message is scanned for viruses whenever the message was sent from an
unknown system.
b) The message was sent from an unknown system but it was not scanned for viruses.
c) It is necessary to scan the message for viruses whenever it was sent from an
unknown system.
d) When a message is not sent from an unknown system it is not scanned for viruses.

q p b) q p c) q p d) q p

4.3 Propositional Equivalences

3. Show that each of these conditional statements is a tautology by using truth tables.
a) [p (p q)] q
b) [(p q) (q r)] (p r)
c) [p (p q)] q
d) [(p q) (p r) (q r)] r

For part (a) we have the following table.


p q p p q p (p q) [p (p q)] q
TT F T F T
TF F T F T
FT T T T T
FF T F F T

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TMF1814 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS TUTORIAL 5 S1 2016/2017

For part (b) we have the following table. We omit the columns showing p q and q
r so that the table will fit on the page.
pqr (p q) (q r) q r [(p q) (q r)] (p r)
TTT T T T
TTF F T T
TFT T T F
TFF F F T
FTT T T T
FTF F T F
FFT T T F
FFF T T T

For part (c) we have the following table.


pq pq p (p q) [p (p q)] q
TT T T T
TF F F T
FT T F T
FF T F T

For part (d) we have the following table. We have omitted some of the intermediate
steps to make the table fit.
pqr (p q) (p r) (p r) [(p q) (p r) (p r)] r
TTT T T
TTF F T
TFT T T
TFF F T
FTT T T
FTF F T
FFT F T
FFF F T

4. In order to show that the following two compound propositions are logically equivalent,
either show that both sides are true, or that both sides are false, for exactly the same
combinations of truth values of the propositional variables in these expressions
(whichever is easier).
a) (p q) (p r) and p (q r)
b) (p r) (q r) and (p q) r

a) Suppose that (p q) (p r) is true. We want to show that p (q r) is true,


which means that we want to show that q r is true whenever p is true. If p is
true, since we know that both p q and p r are true from our assumption, we
can conclude that q is true and that r is true. Therefore q r is true, as desired.
Conversely, suppose that p (q r) is true. We need to show that p q is true
and that p r is true, which means that if p is true, then so are q and r . But this
follows from p (q r).

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TMF1814 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS TUTORIAL 5 S1 2016/2017

b) For (p r)(q r) to be false, both of the two conditional statements must be


false, which happens exactly when r is false and both p and q are true. But this is
precisely the case in which p q is true and r is false, which is precisely when (p
q) r is false. Because the two propositions are false in exactly the same
situations, they are logically equivalent.

4.4 Predicates and Quantifiers

5. Translate these statements into English, where R(x) is x is a rabbit and H(x) is x hops
and the domain consists of all animals.
a) x(R(x) H(x))
b) x(R(x) H(x))
c) x(R(x) H(x))
d) x(R(x) H(x))

a) Note that part (b) and part (c) are not the sorts of things one would normally say.
a) If an animal is a rabbit, then that animal hops. (Alternatively, every rabbit hops.)
b) Every animal is a rabbit and hops.
c) There exists an animal such that if it is a rabbit, then it hops. (Note that this is
trivially true, satisfied, for example, by lions, so it is not the sort of thing one
would say.)
d) There exists an animal that is a rabbit and hops. (Alternatively, some rabbits hop.
Alternatively, some hopping animals are rabbits.)

6. Determine the truth value of each of these statements if the domain for all variables
consists of all integers.
a) n(n2 0)
b) n(n2 = 2)
c) n(n2 n)
d) n(n2 < 0)

a) T b) F c) T d) F

7. Translate in two ways each of these statements into logical expressions using predicates,
quantifiers, and logical connectives. First, let the domain consist of the students in your
class and second, let it consist of all people.
a) Everyone in your class has a cellular phone.
b) Somebody in your class has seen a foreign movie.
c) There is a person in your class who cannot swim.
d) All students in your class can solve quadratic equations.
e) Some student in your class does not want to be rich.

In order to do the translation the second way, we let C(x) be the propositional
function x is in your class. Note that for the second way, we always want to use

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TMF1814 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS TUTORIAL 5 S1 2016/2017

conditional statements with universal quantifiers and conjunctions with existential


quantifiers.
a) Let P(x) be x has a cellular phone. Then we have xP(x) the first way, or x(C(x)
P(x)) the second way.
b) Let F(x) be x has seen a foreign movie. Then we have xF(x) the first way, or
x(C(x) F(x)) the second way.
c) Let S(x) be x can swim. Then we have xS(x) the first way, or x(C(x)S(x))
the second way.
d) Let Q(x) be x can solve quadratic equations. Then we have xQ(x) the first way,
or x(C(x) Q(x)) the second way.
e) Let R(x) be x wants to be rich. Then we have xR(x) the first way, or x(C(x)
R(x)) the second way.

8. Translate each of these statements into logical expressions using predicates, quantifiers,
and logical connectives.
a) Something is not in the correct place.
b) All tools are in the correct place and are in excellent condition.
c) Everything is in the correct place and in excellent condition.
d) Nothing is in the correct place and is in excellent condition.
e) One of your tools is not in the correct place, but it is in excellent condition.

Let R(x) be x is in the correct place; let E(x) be x is in excellent condition; let T(x)
be x is a [or your] tool; and let the domain of discourse be all things.
a) There exists something not in the correct place: xR(x).
b) If something is a tool, then it is in the correct place place and in excellent
condition: x (T(x) (R(x) E(x))).
c) x (R(x) E(x))
d) This is saying that everything fails to satisfy the condition: x(R(x) E(x)).
e) There exists a tool with this property: x (T(x)R(x) E(x)).

9. Express the negation of these propositions using quantifiers, and then express the
negation in English.
a) Some drivers do not obey the speed limit.
b) All Swedish movies are serious.
c) No one can keep a secret.
d) There is someone in this class who does not have a good attitude.

a) Let S(x) be x obeys the speed limit, where the domain of discourse is drivers.
The original statement is xS(x), the negation is xS(x), All drivers obey the
speed limit.
b) Let S(x) be x is serious, where the domain of discourse is Swedish movies. The
original statement is xS(x), the negation is xS(x), Some Swedish movies are
not serious.
c) Let S(x) be x can keep a secret, where the domain of discourse is people. The
original statement is xS(x), the negation is xS(x), Some people can keep a
secret.

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TMF1814 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS TUTORIAL 5 S1 2016/2017

d) Let A(x) be x has a good attitude, where the domain of discourse is people in
this class. The original statement is xA(x), the negation is xA(x), Everyone in
this class has a good attitude.

4.5 Nested Quantifiers

10. Let T (x, y) mean that student x likes cuisine y, where the domain for x consists of all
students at your school and the domain for y consists of all cuisines. Express each of
these statements by a simple English sentence.
a) T (Abdallah Hussein, Japanese)
b) xT (x, Korean) xT (x, Mexican)
c) y (T (Monique Arsenault, y) T (Jay Johnson, y))
d) xzy ((x z)(T (x, y) T (z, y)))
e) xzy (T (x, y) T (z,y))
f ) xzy (T (x, y) T (z,y))

a) Abdallah Hussein does not like Japanese cuisine.


b) Some student at your school likes Korean cuisine, and everyone at your school
likes Mexican cuisine.
c) There is some cuisine that either Monique Arsenault or Jay Johnson likes.
d) For every pair of distinct students at your school, there is some cuisine that at
least one them does not like.
e) There are two students at your school who like exactly the same set of cuisines.
f) For every pair of students at your school, there is some cuisine about which they
have the same opinion (either they both like it or they both do not like it).

11. Let Q(x, y) be the statement student x has been a contestant on quiz show y. Express
each of these sentences in terms of Q(x, y), quantifiers, and logical connectives, where
the domain for x consists of all students at your school and for y consists of all quiz
shows on television.
a) There is a student at your school who has been a contestant on a television quiz
show.
b) No student at your school has ever been a contestant on a television quiz show.
c) There is a student at your school who has been a contestant on Jeopardy and on
Wheel of Fortune.
d) Every television quiz show has had a student from your school as a contestant.
e) At least two students from your school have been contestants on Jeopardy.

a) xyQ(x, y)
b) This is the negation of part (a), and so could be written either xyQ(x, y) or
xyQ(x, y).
c) We assume from the wording that the statement means that the same person
appeared on both shows: x(Q(x, Jeopardy) Q(x, Wheel of Fortune))
d) yxQ(x, y)
e) x1x2(Q(x1, Jeopardy) Q(x2, Jeopardy) x1 x2)

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TMF1814 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS TUTORIAL 5 S1 2016/2017

12. Express each of these statements using mathematical and logical operators, predicates,
and quantifiers, where the domain consists of all integers.
a) The sum of two negative integers is negative.
b) The difference of two positive integers is not necessarily positive.
c) The sum of the squares of two integers is greater than or equal to the square of
their sum.
d) The absolute value of the product of two integers is the product of their absolute
values.

a) xy((x < 0) (y < 0) (x +y < 0))


b) xy ((x>0) (y>0) (x y>0))
c) xy (x2 + y2 (x + y)2)
d) xy (|xy| = |x||y|)