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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 5: ALTERNATIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS

GRID SLAB OR WAFFLE SLAB


DEFINITION
A waffle slab is a type of building material that has two-directional reinforcement
on the outside of the material, giving it the shape of the pockets on a waffle.
This type of reinforcement is common on concrete, wood and metal
construction. A waffle slab gives a substance significantly more structural stability
without using a lot of additional material.
This makes a waffle slab perfect for large flat areas like foundations or floors.

CHARACTERISTICS
Has two directional reinforcement
The top portion is generally smooth but underside has a
shape like a WAFFLE.
FEATURES
Fig. 1 two directional reinforcement
- Slab Thickness: 85-100 mm
- Internal Beams: 100-200 mm wide
- use of cardboard slab panel/void formers (waffle pods)
- slab panels are on 1m grid (approximately)
- used on flat sites and wholly above ground

Fig. 2 underside portion of the slab

Fig. 3 waffle pods

Fig. 4 sample dimension of waffle slab

Fig. 5 Flat grid or waffle slab reinforced concrete floor.


BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 5: ALTERNATIVE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS

PROCESS

1. Prepare the building path. It has to be a clean and leveled building surface.
2. Install underground utilities, and place the perimeter formwork.
3. Then layout the waffle boxes. These boxes create voids in the foundation; also it
has to be laid out correctly.
4. Install the reinforcement steel for maximum slab strength.
5. If everything is in place and inspected, pour over the concrete.
APPLICATION

It can be used as both ceiling and floor slab, usually in areas having huge spans
It is usually used for specialized projects involving clean rooms
It is used in projects such as centers, airports, parking garages commercial and
industrial buildings requiring extra stability

EXAMPLES OF GRID/ WAFFLE SLAB BUILDINGS

YALE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY-NEW HAVEN,CONNECTICUT


METROPOL PARASOL-SEVILLE, SPAIN
LODYTEL COMMUNICATION DEVELOPMENT CENTER-MADRID, SPAIN
ADVANTAGES OF FLAT GRID SLAB/WAFFLE SLAB

LIGHTWEIGHT
HOLD LONGER SPAN
MORE STABLE THAN TRADITONAL SLAB
CAN SAVE 15%CONCRETE & 10% STEEL
GOOD RESISTANCE TO VIBRATION
CRACK ANG SAGGING RESISTANT

DISADVANTAGES

Construction requires strict supervision and skilled labor.


The casting forms or molds required for pre-cast units are very costly.
Headroom is reduced , hence greater storey height.
Creates problem in lighting facilities and hanging pipes or ducts.
Difficult to prefabricate reinforcement.
Curved partitions are hard to build.
Low fire rating.