Design Problems

DP 1-1
The voltage may be as large as 20(1.25) = 25 V and the current may be as large as (0.008)(1.25)
= 0.01 A. The element needs to be able to absorb (25 V)(0.01 A) = 0.25 W continuously. A
Grade B element is adequate, but without margin for error. Specify a Grade B device if you trust
the estimates of the maximum voltage and current and a Grade A device otherwise.
DP 1-2

(

)

(

)

p ( t ) = 20 1 − e−8t × 0.03 e−8t = 0.6 1 − e−8t e−8t
Here is a MATLAB program to plot p(t):

W

Here is the plot:

clear
t0=0;
tf=1;
dt=0.02;
t=t0:dt:tf;

%
%
%
%

initial time
final time
time increment
time

v=20*(1-exp(-8*t));
i=.030*exp(-8*t);

% device voltage
% device current

for k=1:length(t)
p(k)=v(k)*i(k);
end

% power

plot(t,p)
xlabel('time, s');
ylabel('power, W')

The circuit element must be able to absorb 0.15 W.

1-9

Problems
Section 1-2 Electric Circuits and Current Flow
P1.2-1

i (t ) =

(

)

d
4 1 − e−5t = 20 e−5t A
dt

P1.2-2

(

)

t
t
t
t
4
4
q ( t ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ + q ( 0 ) = ∫ 4 1 − e −5τ dτ + 0 = ∫ 4 dτ − ∫ 4 e −5τ dτ = 4 t + e −5t − C
0
0
0
0
5
5

P1.2-3
q ( t ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ + q ( 0 ) = ∫ 4sin 3τ dτ + 0 = −
t

t

0

0

4
4
4
t
cos 3τ 0 = − cos 3 t + C
3
3
3

P1.2-4
q ( t ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ = ∫ 0 dτ = 0 C for t ≤ 2 so q(2) = 0.
t

t

−∞
t

−∞

q ( t ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ + q ( 2 ) = ∫ 2 dτ = 2τ
t

t

2
t

2
t

2

4
t

4
t

8

8

= 2t−4 C for 2 ≤ t ≤ 4. In particular, q(4) = 4 C.

q ( t ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ + q ( 4 ) = ∫ −1 dτ + 4 = − τ

t
4

+ 4 = 8−t C for 4 ≤ t ≤ 8. In particular, q(8) = 0 C.

q ( t ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ + q ( 8 ) = ∫ 0 dτ + 0 = 0 C for 8 ≤ t .

P1.2-5

dq( t )
i (t ) =
dt

⎧0

i(t ) = ⎨2

−2( t − 2 )
⎩−2e

t <0
0<t < 2
t >2

P1.2-6

i = 600 A = 600

C
s

C
s
mg
Silver deposited = 600 ×20 min×60
×1.118
= 8.05×105 mg=805 g
s
min
C

1-2

Section 1-3 Systems of Units
P1.3-1
Δq = i Δt =

( 4000 A )( 0.001 s )

= 4C

P1.3-2
i=

Δ q 45 ×10−9
=
= 9 ×10−6 = 9 μA
−3
Δt
5 ×10

P1.3-3
electron ⎤ ⎡
C ⎤

−19
1.602
10
=
×
i = ⎢10 billion
⎥⎦ ⎢⎣
s
electron ⎥⎦

C ⎤

9 electron ⎤ ⎡
−19
10
10
1.602
10
×
×
⎢⎣
⎥⎦ ⎢⎣
s
electron ⎥⎦
electron
C
= 1010 × 1.602 ×10−19
electron
s
C
= 1.602 × 10−9 = 1.602 nA
s

Section 1-5 Power and Energy
P1.5-1
a.) q =

∫ i dt = iΔt = (10 A )( 2 hrs )( 3600s/hr ) = 7.2×10

4

C

b.) P = v i = (110 V )(10 A ) = 1100 W
c.) Cost =
P1.5-2

0.06$
×1.1kW × 2 hrs = 0.132 $
kWhr

P = ( 6 V )(10 mA ) = 0.06 W
Δt =

Δw
200 W⋅s
=
= 3.33×103 s
P
0.06 W

1-3

Section 1-3 Systems of Units
P1.3-1
Δq = i Δt =

( 4000 A )( 0.001 s )

= 4C

P1.3-2
i=

Δ q 45 ×10−9
=
= 9 ×10−6 = 9 μA
−3
Δt
5 ×10

P1.3-3
electron ⎤ ⎡
C ⎤

−19
1.602
10
=
×
i = ⎢10 billion
⎥⎦ ⎢⎣
s
electron ⎥⎦

C ⎤

9 electron ⎤ ⎡
−19
10
10
1.602
10
×
×
⎢⎣
⎥⎦ ⎢⎣
s
electron ⎥⎦
electron
C
= 1010 × 1.602 ×10−19
electron
s
C
= 1.602 × 10−9 = 1.602 nA
s

Section 1-5 Power and Energy
P1.5-1
a.) q =

∫ i dt = iΔt = (10 A )( 2 hrs )( 3600s/hr ) = 7.2×10

4

C

b.) P = v i = (110 V )(10 A ) = 1100 W
c.) Cost =
P1.5-2

0.06$
×1.1kW × 2 hrs = 0.132 $
kWhr

P = ( 6 V )(10 mA ) = 0.06 W
Δt =

Δw
200 W⋅s
=
= 3.33×103 s
P
0.06 W

1-3

P1.5-3

for 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 s:

v = 30 V and i =

30
t = 2t A ∴ P = 30(2t ) = 60t W
15

25
t + b ⇒ v (10 ) = 30 V ⇒ b = 80 V
5
v (t ) = −5t + 80 and i (t ) = 2t A ⇒ P = ( 2t )( −5t + 80 ) = −10t 2 +160t W
for 10 ≤ t ≤ 15 s: v ( t ) = −

30
t +b A
10
⇒ b = 75 ⇒ i (t ) = −3t + 75 A

for 15 ≤ t ≤ 25 s: v = 5 V and i (t ) = −
i (25) = 0

∴ P = ( 5 )( −3t + 75 ) = −15t + 375 W

Energy = ∫ P dt =
= 30t

2 10
0

10

0

60t dt + ∫10 (160t −10t 2 ) dt + ∫15 ( 375−15t ) dt
15

15

25

25

+ 80t 2 − 10 t 3 + 375t − 15 t 2 = 5833.3 J
3 10
2 15

1-4

P1.5-4
a.) Assuming no more energy is delivered to the battery after 5 hours (battery is fully
charged).
5( 3600 )
t
5 ( 3600 ) ⎛
0.5 τ ⎞
0.5 2
τ
w = ∫ Pdt = ∫0 vi dτ = ∫0
d
t
=
+
2 ⎜ 11 +
τ
22

3600 0
3600 ⎠

= 441× 103 J = 441 kJ

b.) Cost = 441kJ ×

1 hr
10¢
×
= 1.23¢
3600s kWhr

P1.5-5

1
⎛1
⎞ 1
p ( t ) = v ( t ) i ( t ) = ( 4 cos 3 t ) ⎜ sin 3 t ⎟ = ( sin 0 + sin 6 t ) = sin 6 t W
6
⎝ 12
⎠ 6
1
p ( 0.5 ) = sin 3 = 0.0235 W
6
1
p (1) = sin 6 = −0.0466 W
6
Here is a MATLAB program to plot p(t):
clear
t0=0;
tf=2;
dt=0.02;
t=t0:dt:tf;

%
%
%
%

v=4*cos(3*t);
i=(1/12)*sin(3*t);

% device voltage
% device current

for k=1:length(t)
p(k)=v(k)*i(k);
end

% power

initial time
final time
time increment
time

plot(t,p)
xlabel('time, s');
ylabel('power, W')

1-5

P1.5-6

p ( t ) = v ( t ) i ( t ) = ( 8sin 3 t )( 2sin 3 t ) = 8 ( cos 0 − cos 6 t ) = 8 − 8cos 6 t

W

Here is a MATLAB program to plot p(t):
clear
t0=0;
tf=2;
dt=0.02;
t=t0:dt:tf;

%
%
%
%

initial time
final time
time increment
time

v=8*sin(3*t);
i=2*sin(3*t);

% device voltage
% device current

for k=1:length(t)
p(k)=v(k)*i(k);
end

% power

plot(t,p)
xlabel('time, s');
ylabel('power, W')

1-6

P1.5-7

(

)

(

)

p ( t ) = v ( t ) i ( t ) = 4 1 − e−2 t × 2 e−2 t = 8 1 − e−2 t e−2 t

W

Here is a MATLAB program to plot p(t):
clear
t0=0;
tf=2;
dt=0.02;
t=t0:dt:tf;

%
%
%
%

initial time
final time
time increment
time

v=4*(1-exp(-2*t));
i=2*exp(-2*t);

% device voltage
% device current

for k=1:length(t)
p(k)=v(k)*i(k);
end

% power

plot(t,p)
xlabel('time, s');
ylabel('power, W')

P1.5-8

P = V I =3 × 0.2=0.6 W
w = PΔ t = 0.6 × 5 × 60=180 J

1-7

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