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Problems

Section 4-2 Node Voltage Analysis of Circuits with Current Sources

P4.2-1

KCL at node 1:

v v −v
1 1 2 − 4 −4 − 2
0= + +i = + + i = −1.5 + i ⇒ i = 1.5 A
8 6 8 6

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)

P4.2-2
KCL at node 1:
v −v v
1 2 1
+ + 1 = 0 ⇒ 5 v − v = −20
20 5 1 2
KCL at node 2:
v −v v −v
1 2 2 3
+2= ⇒ − v + 3 v − 2 v = 40
20 10 1 2 3
KCL at node 3:
v −v v
2 3 3
+1 = ⇒ − 3 v + 5 v = 30
10 15 2 3
Solving gives v1 = 2 V, v2 = 30 V and v3 = 24 V.

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)


P4.2-3

KCL at node 1:

v −v v
1 2 1 4 − 15 4
+ =i ⇒ i = + = −2 A
5 20 1 1 5 20

KCL at node 2:

v −v v −v
1 2 2 3
+i =
5 2 15
⎛ 4 − 15 ⎞ 15 − 18
⇒ i = −⎜ ⎟+ =2A
2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 15

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)


P4.2-4

Node equations:
v1 v1 − v2
−.003 + + =0
R1 500
v1 − v2 v2
− + − .005 = 0
500 R2
When v1 = 1 V, v2 = 2 V
1 −1 1
−.003 + + = 0 ⇒ R1 = = 200 Ω
R1 500 1
.003 +
500
−1 2 2
− + − .005 = 0 ⇒ R2 = = 667 Ω
500 R2 1
.005 −
500

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)


P4.2-5
Node equations:
v1 v − v 2 v1 − v3
+ 1 + =0
500 125 250
v − v2 v − v3
− 1 − .001 + 2 =0
125 250
v − v3 v1 − v3 v3
− 2 − + =0
250 250 500
Solving gives:

v1 = 0.261 V, v2 = 0.337 V, v3 = 0.239 V

Finally, v = v1 − v3 = 0.022 V

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)

P4.2-6

12 Ω + ( 40 Ω & 10 Ω ) = 20 Ω

60 Ω & 120 Ω = 40 Ω

The node equations are


v1 − v 2 v1 − v 3
3 × 10−3 = + ⇒ 0.06 = 2v1 − ( v 2 − v 3 )
20 20
v1 − v 2 v 2 − v3
2 × 10−3 + = ⇒ 0.04 = −v1 + 3v 2 − 2v 3
20 10
v2 − v3 v1 − v 3
0 = − ( 2v 1 + 4 v 2 ) + 7 v 3
v3
+ = ⇒
10 20 40

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

⎡ 2 −1 −1⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡.06⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡0.244⎤


⎢ −1 3 −2 ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ = ⎢.04⎥ ⇒
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢v 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0.228⎥
⎢⎣ −2 −4 +7 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ v 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ ⎢⎣0.200⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦
( )
(a) The power supplied by the 3 mA current source is 3 ×10−3 ( 0.244 ) = 0.732 mW. The power
(
supplied by the 2 mA source is 2 ×10−3 ( 0.228) = 0.456 mW. )
v1 − v 2 0.244 − 0.228
(b) The current in the 12 Ω resistor is equal to the current i = = = 0.8 mA
20 20
so the power received by the 12 Ω resistor is ( 0.8 ×10 −3 2
) (12 ) = 7.68 ×10 −b
= 7.68 μ W.

(checked: LNAP and MATLAB 5/31/04)

P4.2-7
Apply KCL at node a to get

va va va − vb 7 7 7 − 10 7 1
2= + + = + + = + ⇒ R=4Ω
R 4 2 R 4 2 R 4

Apply KCL at node b to get

va − vb vb vb 7 − 10 10 10
is + = + = is + = + ⇒ is = 4 A
2 8 8 2 8 8

(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)


Section 4-3 Node Voltage Analysis of Circuits with Current and Voltage Sources

P4.3-1

Express the branch voltage of the voltage source in terms of its node voltages:

0 − va = 6 ⇒ va = −6 V
KCL at node b:

va − vb v −v −6 − vb v −v vb v −v
+2= b c ⇒ +2= b c ⇒ −1− +2= b c ⇒ 30 = 8 vb − 3 vc
6 10 6 10 6 10

vb − vc vc 9
KCL at node c: = ⇒ 4 vb − 4 vc = 5 vc ⇒ vb = vc
10 8 4

⎛9 ⎞
Finally: 30 = 8 ⎜ vc ⎟ − 3 vc ⇒ vc = 2 V
⎝4 ⎠
(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)

P4.3-2

Express the branch voltage of each voltage source in terms of its node voltages to get:

va = −12 V, vb = vc = vd + 8
KCL at node b:
vb − va vb − ( −12 )
= 0.002 + i ⇒ = 0.002 + i ⇒ vb + 12 = 8 + 4000 i
4000 4000
KCL at the supernode corresponding to the 8 V source:
v
0.001 = d + i ⇒ 4 = vd + 4000 i
4000

so vb + 4 = 4 − vd ⇒ ( vd + 8) + 4 = 4 − vd ⇒ vd = −4 V

4 − vd
Consequently vb = vc = vd + 8 = 4 V and i = = 2 mA
4000

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)

P4.3-3

Apply KCL to the supernode:


va − 10 va va − 8
+ + − .03 = 0 ⇒ va = 7 V
100 100 100

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)

P4.3-4
Apply KCL to the supernode:

va + 8 ( va + 8 ) − 12 va − 12 va
+ + + =0
500 125 250 500

Solving yields
va = 4 V

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)


P4.3-5

The power supplied by the voltage source is

⎛ v −v v −v ⎞ ⎛ 12 − 9.882 12 − 5.294 ⎞
va ( i1 + i 2 ) = va ⎜ a b + a c ⎟ = 12 ⎜ + ⎟
⎝ 4 6 ⎠ ⎝ 4 6 ⎠

= 12(0.5295 + 1.118) = 12(1.648) = 19.76 W

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)

P4.3-6
Label the voltage measured by the meter. Notice that this is a node voltage.

Write a node equation at the node at which


the node voltage is measured.

⎛ 12 − v m ⎞ v m v −8
−⎜ ⎟+ + 0.002 + m =0
⎝ 6000 ⎠ R 3000

That is

⎛ 6000 ⎞ 6000
⎜3 + ⎟ v m = 16 ⇒ R = 16
⎝ R ⎠ −3
vm

(a) The voltage measured by the meter will be 4 volts when R = 6 kΩ.
(b) The voltage measured by the meter will be 2 volts when R = 1.2 kΩ.
P4.3-7

Apply KCL at nodes 1 and 2 to get

10 − v1 v1 v1 − v 2
= + ⇒ 23v1 − 3v 2 = 150
1000 3000 5000
10 − v 2 v1 − v 3 v3
+ = ⇒ -4v1 + 19v 3 = 50
4000 5000 2000

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

⎡ 23 −3⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡150⎤
⎢ −4 19 ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ = ⎢ 50 ⎥ ⇒ v1 = 7.06 V and v1 = 4.12 V
⎣ ⎦⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ ⎦

Then
v1 − v 2 7.06 − 4.12
ib = = = 0.588 mA
5000 5000

Apply KCL at the top node to get

v 1 − 10 v 2 − 10 7.06 − 10 4.12 − 10
ia = + = + = −4.41 mA
1000 4000 1000 4000

(checked: LNAP 5/31/04)


P4.3-8
vo v o − v1 vo − v2 v1 v2
+ + =0 ⇒ vo = +
R3 R1 R2 R R R R
1+ 1 + 1 1 + 2 + 2
R 2 R3 R1 R 3
(a) When R 1 = 10 Ω, R 2 = 40 Ω and R 3 = 8 Ω
v1 v2
vo = + = 0.4v1 + 0.1v 2
1 5 1+ 4 + 5
1+ +
4 4
So a = 0.4 and b = 0.1.

(b) When R 1 = R 2 and R 3 = R 1 & R 2 = R 1 / 2


v1 v2
vo = + = 0.25v1 + 0.25v 2
1+1+ 2 1+1+ 2
So a = 0.25 and b = 0.25.
(checked: LNAP 5/31/04)

P4.3-9
Express the voltage source voltages as functions of the node voltages to get

v 2 − v1 = 5 and v 4 = 15

Apply KCL to the supernode corresponding to the 5 V source to get

v1 − v 3 v 2 − 15
1.25 = + =0 ⇒ 80 = 5v1 + 2v 2 − 5v 3
8 20
Apply KCL at node 3 to get

v1 − v 3 v3 v 3 − 15
= + ⇒ − 15v1 + 28v 3 = 150
8 40 12

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

⎡ −1 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ v 1 ⎤ ⎡ 5 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ 22.4 ⎤
⎢ 5 2 −5⎥ ⎢ v ⎥ = ⎢ 80 ⎥ ⇒
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ v 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 27.4 ⎥
⎢⎣ −15 0 28 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ v 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣150 ⎥⎦ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ ⎢⎣17.4 ⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦

So the node voltages are:

v1 = 22.4 V, v 2 = 27.4 V, v 3 = 17.4 V, and v 4 = 15

(checked: LNAP 6/9/04)


P4.3-10
Write a node equation to get

⎛ 12 − 4.5 ⎞ 4.5 4.5 − 6 7.5 4.5 1.5


−⎜ + + =0 ⇒ − + − =0
⎜ R1 ⎟⎟ R 3 R2 R1 R 3 R 2
⎝ ⎠

7.5
Notice that is either 0.75 mA or 1.5 mA depending on whether R1 is 10 kΩ or 5 kΩ.
R1
4.5 1.5
Similarly, is either 0.45 mA or 0.9 mA and is either 0.15 mA or 0.3 mA. Suppose R1
R3 R2
and R2 are 10 kΩ resistors and R3 is a 5 kΩ resistor. Then

7.5 4.5 1.5


− + − = −0.75 + 0.9 − 0.15 = 0
R1 R 3 R 2

It is possible that two of the resistors are 10 kΩ and the third is 5 kΩ. R3 is the 5 kΩ resistor.

(checked: LNAP 6/9/04)

P4.3-11
Label the node voltages:

Express the voltage source voltages in terms of the node voltages:

v1 − v 2 = 8 and v 5 = −28

Apply KCL to the supernode corresponding to the 8-V source:


v1 − v 6 v2 v 2 − v3 v2 − v3
2= + + + +3 ⇒ − 3v1 + 3v 6 − 28v 2 + 24v 3 = 48
16 12 3 6

Apply KCL at node 6 to get

v 6 − v1 v6
2+ + =0 ⇒ 5v1 − 9v 6 = 160
16 20

Apply KCL at node 3 to get

v 2 − v3 v2 − v3 v3 − v 4
+ = ⇒ − 15v 2 + 18v 3 − 3v 4 = 0
6 3 10

Apply KCL at node 4 to get

v3 − v4 v 4 − v5
3+ = ⇒ 210 = −7v 3 + 17v 4 − 10v 5
10 7

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

⎡ 1 −1 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ 8 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ −8.5 ⎤
⎢0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢
⎢ 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢v 2 ⎥ ⎢⎢ −28⎥⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ −16.5⎥

⎢ −3 −28 24 0 0 3 ⎥ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ ⎢ 48 ⎥ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ ⎢ −15.5⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⇒ ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥
⎢ 5 0 0 0 0 −9 ⎥ ⎢ v 4 ⎥ ⎢160 ⎥ ⎢ v 4 ⎥ ⎢ −10.5⎥
⎢ 0 −15 18 −3 0 0 ⎥ ⎢v 5 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ v 5 ⎥ ⎢ −28 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ 0 0 −7 17 −10 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ v 6 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 210 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ v 6 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ −22.5⎦⎥

(checked: PSpice 6/12/04)


P4.3-12
Express the voltage source voltages in terms of the node voltages:

v 2 − v1 = 8 and v 3 − v 1 = 12

Apply KVL to the supernode to get

v2 v1 v3
+ + =0 ⇒ 2v 2 + 5v1 + 4v 3 = 0
10 4 5
So
2 ( 8 + v1 ) + 5v1 + 4 (12 + v1 ) = 0
64
⇒ v1 = − V
11
The node voltages are
v1 = −5.818 V
v 2 = 2.182 V
v 3 = 6.182 V
(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)
Section 4-4 Node Voltage Analysis with Dependent Sources

P4.4-1
Express the resistor currents in terms of the
node voltages:

va − vc
i 1= = 8.667 − 10 = −1.333 A and
1
v −v 2 − 10
i 2= b c = = −4 A
2 2

Apply KCL at node c:

i1 + i 2 = A i1 ⇒ − 1.333 + ( −4 ) = A (−1.333)
−5.333
⇒ A= =4
−1.333

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)

P4.4-2
Write and solve a node equation:

va − 6 v v − 4va
+ a + a = 0 ⇒ va = 12 V
1000 2000 3000

va − 4va
ib = = −12 mA
3000

(checked using LNAP 8/13/02)

P4.4-3
First express the controlling current in terms of
the node voltages:
2 − vb
i =
a 4000
Write and solve a node equation:

2 − vb v ⎛ 2 − vb ⎞
− + b − 5⎜ ⎟ = 0 ⇒ vb = 1.5 V
4000 2000 ⎝ 4000 ⎠

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)


P4.4-4
Apply KCL to the supernode of the CCVS to get

12 − 10 14 − 10 1
+ − + i b = 0 ⇒ i b = −2 A
4 2 2

Next
10 − 12 1⎫
ia = =− ⎪ −2 V
4 2⎬ ⇒ r = =4
1 A
r i a = 12 − 14 ⎪⎭ −
2

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.4-5
First, express the controlling current of the CCVS in
v2
terms of the node voltages: i x =
2

Next, express the controlled voltage in terms of the


node voltages:
v2 24
12 − v 2 = 3 i x = 3 ⇒ v2 = V
2 5

so ix = 12/5 A = 2.4 A.

(checked using ELab 9/5/02)

P4.4-6
Pick a reference node and label the unknown node voltages:

Express the controlling current of the dependent source in terms of the node voltages:
va va
i4 = − . Then v b = 2 i 4 = − .
6 3
Apply KCL at node a:
v a − 12 va va − vb
+ + =0
3 6 4
So:
⎛ v ⎞
va − ⎜ − a ⎟
v a − 12 v a ⎝ 3 ⎠ =0
+ +
3 6 4

⎛ va ⎞
4 ( v a − 12 ) + 2 v a + 3 ⎜ v a + ⎟ = 0 ⇒ v a = 4.8 V
⎝ 3⎠
12 − 4.8 7.2
The current in the 12-V voltage source is i = = = 2.4 A
3 3
So the power supplied by the voltage source is 12(2.4) = 28.8 W.
(checked: LNAP 5/18/04)

P4.4-7
Label the node voltages:

First, v2 = 10 V, due to the independent


voltage source. Next, express va and ib, the
controlling voltage and current of the
dependent sources, in terms of the node
voltages:

v3 − v2 v 3 − 10
ib = =
8 8
and
v a = v 1 − v 2 = v 1 − 10

Next, express ib and 3va, the controlled voltages of the dependent sources, in terms of the node
voltages:
⎛ v 3 − 10 ⎞
8i b = v 1 − v 3 ⇒ 8⎜ ⎟ = v1 − v 3
⎝ 8 ⎠
and
3v a = v1 ⇒ 3 ( v1 − 10 ) = v1 ⇒ v1 = 15 V
So
v 3 − 10 = 15 − v 3 ⇒ v 3 = 12.5 V
Next
12.5 − 10
v a = 15 − 10 = 5 V and ib = = 0.3125 A
8

Finally, apply KCL to the top node to get

va 5
ic = + ib = + 0.3125 = 2.8125 A
2 2

(checked: LNAP 6/3/04)

P4.4-8

Label the node voltages.

First, v2 = 10 V due to the independent voltage


source. Next, express the controlling current
of the dependent source in terms of the node
voltages:

v3 − v2 v 3 − 10
ia = =
16 16
Now the controlled voltage of the dependent source can be expressed as

⎛ v 3 − 10 ⎞ 3
v1 − v 3 = 8 i a = 8 ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ v1 = v 3 − 5
⎝ 16 ⎠ 2

Apply KCL to the supernode corresponding to the dependent source to get

v1 − v 2 v1 v3 − v 2 v3
+ + + =0
4 12 16 8

Multiplying by 48 and using v2 = 10 V gives

16v 1 + 9v 3 = 150
Substituting the earlier expression for v1

⎛3 ⎞
16 ⎜ v 3 − 5 ⎟ + 9v 3 = 150 ⇒ v 3 = 6.970 V
⎝2 ⎠

Then v1 = 5.455 V and ia = -0.1894 A. Applying KCL at node 2 gives


v1 10 − v1
= ib + ⇒ 12 i b = −3 + 4 v1 = −30 + 4 ( 5.455 )
12 4
So
i b = −0.6817 A.

Finally, the power supplied by the dependent source is

p = ( 8 i a ) i b = 8 ( −0.1894 ) ( −0.6817 ) = 1.033 W

(checked: LNAP 5/24/04)

P4.4-9
Apply KCL at node 2:

v3 − v2 −6 − ( 0 )
i a + bi a = i b = = = −0.3 A
20 20
but
v 2 − v1 0−4
ia = = = −0.1
40 40
so
A
(1 + b )( −0.1) = ( −0.3) ⇒ b =2
A

Next apply KCL to the supernode corresponding to the voltage source.

v1 v3 4 −6 6
+ 2 ia + =0 ⇒ + 2 ( −0.1) + =0 ⇒ R= = 30 Ω
10 R 10 R .2

(checked: LNAP 6/9/04)


P4.4-10
(a) Express the controlling voltage of the dependent source in terms of the node voltages:

va = 9 − vb
Apply KCL at node b to get

9 − vb 18 − 3v b
= A(9 − v b ) +
vb
⇒ A= = 0.02
100 200 200 ( 9 − v b )

(b) The power supplied by the dependent source is

− ( Av a ) v b = − ( 0.02 ( 9 − 18 ) ) (18 ) = 3.24 W

(checked: LNAP 6/06/04)

P4.4-11
This circuit contains two ungrounded voltage sources, both incident to node x. In such a circuit
it is necessary to merge the supernodes corresponding to the two ungrounded voltage sources
into a single supernode. That single supernode separates the two voltage sources and their nodes
from the rest of the circuit. It consists of the two resistors and the current source. Apply KCL to
this supernode to get
v x − 20 v x
+ +4=0 ⇒ v x = 10 V .
2 10

The power supplied by the dependent source is

( 0.1 v ) ( −30 ) = −30 W .


x

(checked: LNAP 6/6/04)


P4.4-12

Express the voltages of the independent voltage sources in terms of the node voltages

v 1 − v 2 = 16 and v 4 − v 5 = 8

Express the controlling current of the dependent source in terms of the node voltages

v3
ix =
6

Express the controlled voltage of the dependent source in terms of the node voltages

⎛ v3 ⎞
v 2 − v 4 = 4i x = 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⇒ − 6v 2 + 4v 3 + 6v 4 = 0
⎝6⎠

Apply KCL to the supernode to get

v1 − v 3 v 4 − v3 v5
+ + =1 ⇒ 12v1 − 20v 3 + 8v 4 + 3v 5 = 24
2 3 8

Apply KCL at node 3 to get

v 3 − v1 v3 v3 − v4
+ + =0 ⇒ − 3v1 + 6v 2 − 2v 4 = 0
2 6 3

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives


⎡ 1 −1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡16 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎤
⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 1 −1⎥⎥ ⎢v 2 ⎥ ⎢⎢ 8 ⎥⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ 8 ⎥
⎢ 0 −6 4 6 0 ⎥ ⎢v 3 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⇒ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ = ⎢12 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢12 0 −20 8 3 ⎥ ⎢ v 4 ⎥ ⎢ 24⎥ ⎢v 4 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎣⎢ −3 0 6 −2 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ v 5 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 ⎦⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ v 5 ⎦ ⎢⎣ −8⎥⎦

(checked: LNAP 6/13/04)

P4.4-13
Express the voltage source voltages in terms of the node voltages:

v 1 − v 2 = 8 and v 4 − v 3 = 16

Express the controlling current of the dependent source in terms of the node voltages:

v 2 − v3 v1 − v 3
ix = + = 0.2v1 + 0.1v 2 − 0.3v 3
10 5

Express the controlled voltage of the dependent source in terms of the node voltages:

v 5 = 4i x = 0.8v1 = 0.4v 2 − 1.2v 3 ⇒ 0.8v1 + 0.4v 2 − 1.2v 3 − v 5 = 0

Apply KVL to the supernodes

v1 − v 5 v2 − v4 v 2 − v3 v1 − v 3
+ + + =0 ⇒ 14v1 + 7v 2 − 6v 3 − 5v 4 − 10v 5 = 0
2 4 10 5
v4 − v2 v3 v3 − v2 v 3 − v1
+ + + =2 ⇒ − 8v1 − 14v 2 + 17v 3 + 10v 4 = 80
4 8 10 5

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

⎡1 −1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ 8 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡11.32 ⎤
⎢0 0 −1 1 0 ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢16 ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 3.32 ⎥
⎢ 0.8 0.4 −1.2 0 −1 ⎥ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⇒ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ = ⎢ 2.11 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 14 7 −6 −5 −10 ⎥ ⎢v 4 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢v 4 ⎥ ⎢18.11⎥
⎢⎣ −8 −14 17 10 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ v 5 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣80 ⎥⎦ ⎢ v 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ 7.85 ⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦

(checked: LNAP 6/13/04)


P4.4-14
Express the voltage source voltage in terms of the node voltages:

v 3 = 12

Express the controlling signals of the dependent sources in terms of the node voltages:

v2
v y = v1 − v 3 and i x = −
8

Express the controlled voltage of the CCVS in terms of the node voltages:

⎛ v2 ⎞
v 2 − v 4 = 3i x = 3 ⎜ − ⎟ ⇒ 11v 2 − 8v 4 = 0
⎝ 8⎠

Apply KCL to the supernode corresponding to the dependent voltage source:

v 2 − v1 v4 − v3
= 2 ( v1 − v 3 )
v2
+ + ⇒ − 88v1 + 13v 2 + 60v 3 + 20v 4 = 0
5 8 2

Apply KCL at node 1

v1 − v 3 v1 − v 2
3+ + =0 ⇒ − 9v1 + 4v 2 + 5v 3 = 60
4 5

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

⎡ 0 0 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡12 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ −230.4⎤
⎢ −88 13 60 20 ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⇒ ⎢ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ −518.4⎥
⎢ 0 11 0 −8⎥ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ ⎢ 12 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ −9 4 5 0 ⎦ ⎢⎣v 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣60⎦ ⎢⎣ v 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ −712.8⎦

(checked: LNAP 6/13/04)


P4.4-15

Express the controlling voltage and current of


the dependent sources in terms of the node
voltages:
v3 − v4
v a = v 4 and i b =
R2
Express the voltage source voltages in terms of
the node voltages:

v 1 = V s and v 2 − v 3 = A v a = Av 4

Apply KCL to the supernode corresponding to the dependent voltage source

v 2 − v1 v3 − v 4
+ = Is ⇒ − R 2 v1 + R 2 v 2 + R1 v 3 − R1 v 4 = R1 R 2 I s
R1 R2
Apply KCL at node 4:

v3 − v4 v3 − v4 v4 ⎛ R2 ⎞
B + = ⇒ ( B + 1) v 3 − ⎜⎜ B + 1 + ⎟ v4 = 0
R2 R2 R3 ⎝ R 3 ⎟⎠

Organizing these equations into matrix form:

⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎤
⎢ −1 −A ⎥ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ V s ⎤
⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢−R2 R2 R1 − R1 ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢v 3 ⎥ ⎢ R R I ⎥
⎢ ⎛ R 2 ⎞⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 s ⎥
⎢ 0 0 B +1 − ⎜ B +1+ ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎣⎢v 4 ⎦⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎦

⎢⎣ ⎝ R 3 ⎠ ⎥⎦

With the given values:

⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ 25 ⎤ ⎡ v1 ⎤ ⎡ 25 ⎤
⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢
⎢ 1 −1 −5 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥
⎢ 44.4 ⎥⎥
= ⇒ =
⎢ −20 20 10 −10 ⎥ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ ⎢ 400 ⎥ ⎢ v 3 ⎥ ⎢ 8.4 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 0 0 4 −4.667 ⎦ ⎢⎣v 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎢⎣v 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 7.2 ⎦

(Checked using LNAP 9/29/04)


P4.4-16
Express the controlling voltage and current of
the dependent sources in terms of the node
voltages:
v a = v 4 = 22.5 V
and
v 3 − v 4 −15 − 22.5
ib = = = −0.75
R2 50
Express the dependent voltage source voltage
in terms of the node voltages:

v 2 − v 3 = Av a = Av 4
so
v2 − v3 75 − ( −15 )
A= = = 4 V/V
v4 22.5

Apply KCL to the supernode corresponding to the dependent voltage source

v 2 − v1 v3 − v 4 75 − 10 −15 − 22.5
+ = Is ⇒ + = 2.5 ⇒ R1 = 20 Ω
R1 R2 R1 50

Apply KCL at node 4:

v3 − v 4 v4 v3 − v 4 −15 − 22.5 22.5 −15 − 22.5


= +B ⇒ = +B ⇒ B = 2.5 A/A
R2 R3 R2 50 20 50

(Checked using LNAP 9/29/04)

P4.4-17
v 2 − v1 21 − 12 v2 −3
a. R1 = = = 6 Ω and R 2 = = =4Ω
2 − 0.5 1.5 1.25 − 2 −0.75

b. The power supplied by the voltage source is 12 ( 0.5 + 1.25 − 2 ) = −3 W . The power supplied
by the 1.25-A current source is 1.25 ( −3 − 12 ) = −18.75 W . The power supplied by the 0.5-A
current source is −0.5 ( 21) = −10.5 W . The power supplied by the 2-A current source is
2 ( 21 − ( −3) ) = 48 W .
P4.4-18

12 − ( −1.33)
i1 = = 1.666 A
8
and
9.6
i2 = = 2.4 A
4

v 2 − v1 9.6 − 12 v3 −1.33
a. R1 = = = 6 Ω and R 2 = = = 3.98  4 Ω
2 − i1 2 − 2.4 i1 − 2 1.666 − 2

b. The power supplied by the voltage source is 12 ( 2.4 + 1.66 − 2 ) = 24.7 W . The power supplied
by the current source is 2 ( 9.6 − ( −1.33) ) = 21.9 W .
(Checked using LNAP 10/2/04)
Section 4-5 Mesh Current Analysis with Independent Voltage Sources

P4.5-1
2 i1 + 9 (i1 − i 3 ) + 3(i1 − i 2 ) = 0
15 − 3 (i1 − i 2 ) + 6 (i 2 − i 3 ) = 0
−6 (i 2 − i 3 ) − 9 (i1 − i 3 ) − 21 = 0
or
14 i1 − 3 i 2 − 9 i 3 = 0
− 3 i 1 + 9 i 2 − 6 i 3 = −15
−9 i1 − 6 i 2 + 15 i 3 = 21
so
i1 = 3 A, i2 = 2 A and i3 = 4 A.

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.5-2
Top mesh:
4 (2 − 3) + R (2) + 10 (2 − 4) = 0
so R = 12 Ω.

Bottom, right mesh:


8 (4 − 3) + 10 (4 − 2) + v 2 = 0
so v2 = −28 V.

Bottom left mesh


−v1 + 4 (3 − 2) + 8 (3 − 4) = 0
so v1 = −4 V.

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)


P4.5-3
−6
Ohm’s Law: i 2 = = −0.75 A
8
KVL for loop 1:
R i1 + 4 ( i1 − i 2 ) + 3 + 18 = 0

KVL for loop 2


+(−6) − 3 − 4 ( i1 − i 2 ) = 0
⇒ − 9 − 4 ( i1 − ( −0.75 ) ) = 0
⇒ i 1 = −3 A
R ( −3) + 4 ( −3 − ( −0.75) ) + 21 = 0 ⇒ R = 4 Ω
(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.5-4

KVL loop 1:

25 ia − 2 + 250 ia + 75 ia + 4 + 100 (ia − ib ) = 0


450 ia −100 ib = −2

KVL loop 2:

−100(ia − ib ) − 4 + 100 ib + 100 ib + 8 + 200 ib = 0


−100 ia + 500 ib = − 4
⇒ ia = − 6.5 mA , ib = − 9.3 mA

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.5-5
Mesh Equations:

mesh 1 : 2i1 + 2 (i1 − i2 ) + 10 = 0


mesh 2 : 2(i2 − i1 ) + 4 (i2 − i3 ) = 0
mesh 3 : − 10 + 4 (i3 − i2 ) + 6 i3 = 0
Solving:
5
i = i2 ⇒ i = − = −0.294 A
17

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)


P4.5-6
60 Ω & 300 Ω = 50 Ω

40 Ω + 60 Ω = 100 Ω
and
100 Ω + 30 Ω + ( 80 Ω & 560 Ω ) = 200 Ω
so the simplified circuit is

The mesh equations are


200 i1 + 50 ( i1 − i 2 ) − 12 = 0
100 i 2 + 8 − 50 ( i1 − i 2 ) = 0
or
⎡ 250 −50⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡12 ⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡ 0.04 ⎤
⎢ −50 150 ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ = ⎢ −8⎥ ⇒ ⎢i ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ −0.04 ⎦

The power supplied by the 12 V source is 12 i1 = 12 ( 0.04 ) = 0.48 W . The power supplied by the
8 V source is −8i 2 = −8 ( −0.04 ) = 0.32 W . The power absorbed by the 30 Ω resistor is
i12 ( 30 ) = ( 0.04 ) ( 30 ) = 0.048 W .
2

(checked: LNAP 5/31/04)


Section 4-6 Mesh Current Analysis with Voltage and Current Sources

P4.6-1
1
mesh 1: i1 = A
2
mesh 2: 75 i2 + 10 + 25 i2 = 0
⇒ i2 = − 0.1 A
ib = i1 − i2 = 0.6 A

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)


P4.6-2

mesh a: ia = − 0.25 A
mesh b: ib = − 0.4 A

vc = 100(ia − ib ) = 100(0.15) =15 V

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.6-3

Express the current source current as a function of the mesh currents:


i1 − i2 = − 0.5 ⇒ i1 = i2 − 0.5
Apply KVL to the supermesh:

30 i1 + 20 i2 + 10 = 0 ⇒ 30 (i2 − 0.5) + 20i2 = − 10


5
50 i2 − 15 = − 10 ⇒ i2 = = .1 A
50
i1 =−.4 A and v2 = 20 i2 = 2 V

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)


P4.6-4

Express the current source current in terms


of the mesh currents:

ib = ia − 0.02

Apply KVL to the supermesh:

250 ia + 100 (ia − 0.02) + 9 = 0


∴ ia = − .02 A = − 20 mA
vc = 100(ia − 0.02) = −4 V

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.6-5

Express the current source current in terms of the mesh currents:


i 3 − i 1 = 2 ⇒ i1 = i 3 − 2
Supermesh: 6 i1 + 3 i 3 − 5 ( i 2 − i 3 ) − 8 = 0 ⇒ 6 i1 − 5 i 2 + 8 i 3 = 8
Lower, left mesh: −12 + 8 + 5 ( i 2 − i 3 ) = 0 ⇒ 5 i 2 = 4 + 5 i 3
Eliminating i1 and i2 from the supermesh equation:
6 ( i 3 − 2 ) − ( 4 + 5 i 3 ) + 8 i 3 = 8 ⇒ 9 i 3 = 24
⎛ 24 ⎞
The voltage measured by the meter is: 3 i 3 = 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 V
⎝ 9 ⎠
(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)
P4.6-6

Mesh equation for right mesh:


10 5
4 ( i − 2 ) + 2 i + 6 ( i + 3) = 0 ⇒ 12 i − 8 + 18 = 0 ⇒ i = − A=− A
12 6

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.6-7

i2 = −3 A
i1 − i2 = 5 ⇒ i1 − ( −3) = 5
⇒ i1 = 2 A
2 ( i3 − i1 ) + 4 i3 + R ( i3 − i2 ) = 0
⇒ 2 ( −1 − 2 ) + 4 ( −1) + R ( −1 − ( −3) ) = 0
⇒ R=5 Ω

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.6-8
Use units of V, mA and kΩ.
Express the currents to the supermesh to get

i1 − i 3 = 2
Apply KVL to the supermesh to get

4 ( i1 − i 3 ) + (1) i 3 − 3 + (1) ( i1 − i 2 ) = 0 ⇒ i1 − 5 i 2 + 5 i 3 = 3
Apply KVL to mesh 2 to get

2i 2 + 4 ( i 2 − i 3 ) + (1) ( i 2 − i1 ) = 0 ⇒ ( −1) i1 + 7i 2 − 4i 3 = 0

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

⎡ 1 0 −1⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎡ i 1 ⎤ ⎡ 3⎤
⎢ 1 −5 5 ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ = ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⇒
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ i 2 ⎥ = ⎢1 ⎥
⎣⎢ −1 7 −4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ i 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 ⎦⎥ ⎢ i 3 ⎥ ⎢⎣1⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦

(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)

P4.6-9
Label the mesh currents:

Express the current source currents in terms of the mesh currents

i x = i1 and i y = i 3 − i 2

Apply KVL to the supermesh corresponding to the current source with current iy to get

4 ( i 3 − i1 ) + v z + 12 ( i 3 − i 4 ) + 2i 2 = 0 ⇒ 4i1 − 2i 2 − 16i 3 + 12i 4 = v z

Substituting i1 = i x and i 2 = i 3 − i y gives

4i x − 2 ( i 3 − i y ) − 16i 3 + 12i 4 = v z ⇒ − 18i 3 + 12i 4 = v z − 2i y − 4i x


Apply KVL to mesh 4 to get
6i 4 + 12 ( i 4 − i 3 ) = 0
3
⇒ i3 = i 4
2
So
⎡ ⎛3⎞ ⎤ v z + 2i y − 4i x
⎢ −18 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + 12 ⎥ i 4 = v z + 2i y − 4i x ⇒ i4 =
−15
⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦

Express the output in terms of the mesh currents to get

1 1 1 2
io = i3 − i4 = i 4 = − v z + i y + i x
2 30 15 15
So
2 1 1
a= , b= and c = −
15 15 30

(checked: LNAP 6/14/04)

P4.6-10
50 ( i 3 − i 2 ) + R 3i 3 + 32 = 0 ⇒ 50 ( 0.0770 − 0.7787 ) + R 3 ( 0.0770 ) + 32 = 0
(a)
⇒ R 3 = 40 Ω

i1 R1 + 20i 2 + 50 ( i 2 − i 3 ) − 24 = 0 ⇒ R1 ( −2.2213) + 20 ( 0.7787 ) + 50 ( 0.7787 − 0.0770 ) = 24


⇒ R1 = 12 Ω
(b)
I s = i 2 − i1 = 0.7787 − ( −2.2213) = 3 A

The power supplied by the current source is

p = I s ( 24 − R1 i1 ) = 3 ( 24 − 12 ( −2.2213) ) = 152 W

(checked: LNAP 6/19/04)


P4.6-11

3 3
Express the current source current in terms of the mesh currents: = i1 − i 2 ⇒ i1 = + i 2 .
4 4
⎛ 3 ⎞
Apply KVL to the supermesh: −9 + 4i1 + 3 i 2 + 2 i 2 = 0 ⇒ 4 ⎜ + i 2 ⎟ + 5 i 2 = 9 ⇒ 9 i 2 = 6
⎝4 ⎠
2 4
so i 2 = A and the voltmeter reading is 2 i 2 = V
3 3

P4.6-12

Express the current source current in terms of the mesh currents: 3 = i1 − i 2 ⇒ i1 = 3 + i 2 .


Apply KVL to the supermesh: −15 + 6 i1 + 3 i 2 = 0 ⇒ 6 ( 3 + i 2 ) + 3 i 2 = 15 ⇒ 9 i 2 = −3
1
Finally, i 2 = − A is the current measured by the ammeter.
3
Section 4-7 Mesh Current Analysis with Dependent Sources

P4.7-1

Express the controlling voltage of the


dependent source as a function of the
mesh current

v2 = 50 i1

Apply KVL to the right mesh:

−100 (0.04(50i1 ) − i1 ) + 50i1 + 10 = 0 ⇒ i1 = 0.2 A


v2 = 50 i1 = 10 V
(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.7-2
1
ib = 4ib − ia ⇒ ib = ia
3
⎛1 ⎞
−100 ⎜ ia ⎟ + 200ia + 8 = 0
⎝3 ⎠
⇒ ia = − 0.048 A

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.7-3

Express the controlling current of


the dependent source as a function
of the mesh current:

ib = .06 − ia

Apply KVL to the right mesh:

−100 (0.06 − i a ) + 50 (0.06 − i a ) + 250 i a = 0 ⇒ ia = 10 mA


Finally:
vo = 50 i b = 50 (0.06 − 0.01) = 2.5 V

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)


P4.7-4
Express the controlling voltage of
the dependent source as a function
of the mesh current:

vb = 100 (.006 − ia )

Apply KVL to the right mesh:

−100 (.006 − ia ) + 3 [100(.006 − ia ) ] + 250 ia = 0 ⇒ ia = −24 mA

(checked using LNAP 8/14/02)

P4.7-5

apply KVL to left mesh : − 3 + 10 × 103 i1 + 20 × 103 ( i1 − i2 ) = 0 ⇒ 30 × 103 i1 − 20 × 103 i2 = 3 (1)


apply KVL to right mesh : 5 × 103 i1 + 100 × 103 i2 + 20 × 103 ( i2 − i1 ) = 0 ⇒ i1 = 8i2 ( 2)
Solving (1) & ( 2 ) simultaneously
6 3
⇒ i1 = mA, i2 = mA
55 220

Power delivered to cathode = ( 5 i1 ) ( i2 ) + 100 ( i2 )2


( 55)( 3 220) + 100 ( 3 220)
2
= 5 6 = 0.026 mW

∴ Energy in 24 hr. = ( 2.6 ×10−5 W ) ( 24 hr ) (3600 s hr ) = 2.25 J


P4.7-6

R2 vo RL R2
(a) vo = − g R L v and v = vi ⇒ = −g
R1 + R 2 vi R1 + R 2

(b) ∴
vo
= −g
(5 ×103 )(103 ) = −170 ⇒ g = 0.0374 S
vi 1.1×103

P4.7-7

Express va and ib, the controlling voltage and current of the dependent sources, in terms of the
mesh currents
v a = 5 ( i 2 − i 3 ) and i b = −i 2

Next express 20 ib and 3 va, the controlled voltages of the dependent sources, in terms of the
mesh currents
20 i b = −20 i 2 and 3 v a = 15 ( i 2 − i 3 )
Apply KVL to the meshes
−15 ( i 2 − i 3 ) + ( −20 i 2 ) + 10 i1 = 0
− ( −20 i 2 ) + 5 ( i 2 − i 3 ) + 20 i 2 = 0
10 − 5 ( i 2 − i 3 ) + 15 ( i 2 − i 3 ) = 0

These equations can be written in matrix form


⎡10 −35 15 ⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
⎢ 0 45 −5 ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 0 10 −10 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ i 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −10 ⎥⎦

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

i1 = −1.25 A, i 2 = +0.125 A, and i 3 = +1.125 A

(checked: MATLAB & LNAP 5/19/04)

P4.7-8
Label the mesh currents:

Express ia, the controlling current of the CCCS,


in terms of the mesh currents

i a = i 3 − i1

Express 2 ia, the controlled current of the


CCCS, in terms of the mesh currents:

i 1 − i 2 = 2 i a = 2 ( i 3 − i 1 ) ⇒ 3 i1 − i 2 − 2 i 3 = 0

Apply KVL to the supermesh corresponding to the CCCS:

80 ( i1 − i 3 ) + 40 ( i 2 − i 3 ) + 60 i 2 + 20 i1 = 0 ⇒ 100i1 + 100i 2 − 120i 3 = 0

Apply KVL to mesh 3

10 + 40 ( i 3 − i 2 ) + 80 ( i 3 − i1 ) = 0 ⇒ -80 i1 − 40 i 2 + 120 i 3 = −10

These three equations can be written in matrix form

⎡ 3 −1 −2 ⎤ ⎡ i 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤
⎢100 100 −120 ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ −80 −40 120 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ i 3 ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ −10 ⎥⎦

Solving, e.g. using MATLAB, gives

i1 = −0.2 A, i 2 = −0.1 A and i 3 = −0.25 A


Apply KVL to mesh 2 to get

v b + 40 ( i 2 − i 3 ) + 60 i 2 = 0 ⇒ v b = −40 ( −0.1 − ( −0.25 ) ) − 60 ( −0.1) = 0 V

So the power supplied by the dependent source is p = v b ( 2i a ) = 0 W .


(checked: LNAP 6/7/04)

P4.7-9
Notice that i b and 0.5 mA are the mesh currents.
Apply KCL at the top node of the dependent
source to get
1
i b + 0.5 × 10−3 = 4 i b ⇒ i b = mA
6
Apply KVL to the supermesh corresponding to
the dependent source to get

( )
−5000 i b + (10000 + R ) 0.5 ×10−3 − 25 = 0
⎛1
⎝6

( )
−5000 ⎜ × 10−3 ⎟ + (10000 + R ) 0.5 × 10−3 = 25

125
R= 6 = 41.67 kΩ
0.5 × 10−3

(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)

P4.7-10
The controlling and controlled currents of the CCCS, i b and 40 i b, are the mesh currents. Apply
KVL to the left mesh to get

1000 i b + 2000 i b + 300 ( i b + 40i b ) − v s = 0 ⇒ 15300i b = v s


The output is given by
v o = −3000 ( 40 i b ) = −120000 i b
(a) The gain is
vo 120000
=− = −7.84 V/V
vs 15300
(b) The input resistance is
vs
= 15300 Ω
ib
(checked: LNAP 5/24/04)
P4.7-11
Express the current source current in terms of the mesh currents:

i 4 − i3 = 1

Express the controlling current of the dependent source in terms of the mesh currents:

i x = −i 3

Apply KVL to the supermesh corresponding to the current source to get

3 ( i 3 − i1 ) + 8 + 8i 4 + 6i 3 = 0 ⇒ − 3i1 + 9i 3 + 8i 4 = −8

Apply KVL to mesh 1 to get

16 + 4 ( −i 3 ) + 3 ( i1 − i 3 ) + 2i1 = 0 ⇒ 5i1 − 7i 3 = −16

Apply KVL to mesh 2 to get

2i 2 − 8 − 4 ( −i 3 ) = 0 ⇒ 2i 2 + 4i 3 = 8

Solving, e.g using MATLAB, gives

⎡0 0 −1 1 ⎤ ⎡ i 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ i 1 ⎤ ⎡ −6 ⎤
⎢ −3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 9 8 ⎥⎥ ⎢i 2 ⎥ ⎢⎢ −8 ⎥⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢ 8 ⎥
= ⇒
⎢5 0 −7 0 ⎥ ⎢i 3 ⎥ ⎢ −16 ⎥ ⎢ i 3 ⎥ ⎢ −2 ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣0 2 4 0 ⎦ ⎢⎣i 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 8 ⎦ ⎢⎣i 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ −1⎦

(checked: LNAP 6/13/04)

P4.7-12
Label the mesh currents.

Express ix in terms of the mesh currents:

i x = i1

Express 4ix in terms of the mesh currents:

4 i x = i3
Express the current source current in terms of the mesh currents to get:

0.5 = i1 − i 2 ⇒ i 2 = i x − 0.5

Apply KVL to supermesh corresponding to the current source to get

5i1 + 20 ( i1 − i 3 ) + 10 ( i 2 − i 3 ) + 25i 2 = 0
Substituting gives

5i x + 20 ( −3i x ) + 10 ( i x − 0.5 − 4i x ) + 25 ( i x − 0.5 ) = 0


35
⇒ ix = − = −0.29167
120

So the mesh currents are


i1 = i x = −0.29167 A
i 2 = i x − 0.5 = −0.79167 A
i 3 = 4i x = −1.1667 A

(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)

P4.7-13
Express the controlling voltage and current of
the dependent sources in terms of the mesh
currents:

v a = R 3 ( i1 − i 2 ) and i b = i 3 − i 2

Express the current source currents in terms of


the mesh currents:

i 2 = − I s and i1 − i 3 = B i b = B ( i 3 − i 2 )

Consequently

i1 − ( B + 1) i 3 = B I s

Apply KVL to the supermesh corresponding to the dependent current source

R1 i 3 + A R 3 ( i 1 − i 2 ) + R 2 ( i 3 − i 2 ) + R 3 ( i 1 − i 2 ) − V s = 0
or
( A + 1) R 3 i1 − ( R 2 + ( A + 1) R 3 ) i 2 + ( R1 + R 2 ) i 3 = V s

Organizing these equations into matrix form:

⎡ 0 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡ − I s ⎤
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 1 0 − ( B + 1) ⎥ ⎢i 2 ⎥ = ⎢ B I s ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢( A + 1) R 3 − ( R 2 + ( A + 1) R 3 ) R1 + R 2 ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ i 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ V s ⎥⎦

With the given values:

⎡0 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡ −2 ⎤ ⎡ i1 ⎤ ⎡ −0.8276 ⎤
⎢1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 −4 ⎥ ⎢i 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 6 ⎥ ⇒ ⎢i 2 ⎥ = ⎢⎢ −2 ⎥⎥ A

⎢⎣ 60 −80 50 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ i 3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 25 ⎥⎦ ⎢ i 3 ⎥ ⎢⎣ −1.7069 ⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦

(Checked using LNAP 9/29/04)

P4.7-14
Express the controlling voltage and current of the dependent sources in terms of the mesh
currents:
v a = 20 ( i1 − i 2 ) = 20 ( −1.375 − ( −2.5 ) ) = 22.5
and
i b = i 3 − i 2 = −3.25 − ( −2.5) = −0.75 A

Express the current source currents in terms of the mesh currents:

i 2 = −2.5 A
and
i 3 − i1 = B i b ⇒ − 1.375 − ( −2.5) = B ( −0.75) ⇒ B = 2.5 A/A

Apply KVL to the supermesh corresponding to the dependent current source

0 = 20 i 3 + Av a + 50 i b + v a − 10 = 20 ( −3.25) + A ( 22.5) + 50 ( −0.75) + 22.5 − 10 ⇒ A = 4 V/V

(Checked using LNAP 9/29/04)


P4.7-15
Label the node voltages as shown. The controlling
va
currents of the CCCS is expressed as i = .
28
The node equations are
va va − vb va
12 = + +
28 4 14
and
va − vb va vb
+ =
4 14 8

va 84
Solving the node equations gives v a = 84 V and v b = 72 V . Then i = = =3A .
28 28

(checked using LNAP 6/16/05)


Section 4.8 The Node Voltage Method and Mesh Current Method Compared

*P4.8-1
Analysis of this circuit requires 1
node equations or 3 mesh equations,
so we will use node equations.

Apply KCL at the top node to R3 to


get

v a − v1 va − v2 va v a − Av a
+ + + =0
R1 R2 R3 R4

Solving gives
⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤
⎢ R1 ⎥ ⎢ R2 ⎥
va = ⎢ ⎥ v1 + ⎢ ⎥ v2
⎢ 1 + 1 + 1 + 1− A ⎥ ⎢ 1 + 1 + 1 + 1− A ⎥
⎢R R R3 R 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢R R R3 R 4 ⎥⎦
⎣ 1 2 ⎣ 1 2

Suppose we choose A so that

1 1 1 1 1− A R4 R4 R4 R4
= + + + ⇒ A = 1+ + + −
R R1 R 2 R 3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R

where R is a resistance to be determined later. Then

R R
va = v1 + v2
R1 R2
and
AR AR
v o = Av a = v1 + v2
R1 R2
we require
AR AR
= 2 and = 0.5
R1 R2
so
R 2 = 4 R1
To simplify matters, choose R3 = R 4 = R 2 . Then
4 R1 4 R1
A = 1+ 4 +1+1− = 7−
R R
Now
⎛ 4 R1 ⎞
⎜7 − ⎟ R 7R − 4R
AR ⎝ R ⎠ 6
2= = = ⇒ 2 R 1 = 7 R − 4 R1 ⇒ R=
1
R1
R1 R1 R1 7
Then
4 R1 7
A=7− =
6
R1 3
7

Any value of R1 will do. For example, pick R1 = 10 Ω. Then R 2 = R3 = R 4 = 40 Ω.

(checked: LNAP 6/22/04)

P4.8-2
(a) Apply KVL to meshes 1 and 2:

32i1 − v s + 96 ( i1 − i s ) = 0
v s + 30i 2 + 120 ( i 2 − i s ) = 0
150i 2 = +120i s − v s
4 vs
i 2 = is −
5 150
1
v o = 30i 2 = 24i s − v s
5
So a = 24 and b = -.02.

(b)
Apply KCL to the supernode corresponding to
the voltage source to get

va − (vs + vo ) va − vo vs + vo vo
+ = +
96 32 120 30
So
vs + vo vo vs vo
is = + = +
120 30 120 24
Then
1
v o = 24i s − v s
5

So a = 24 and b = -0.2.
(checked: LNAP 5/24/04)
P4.8-3
(a) Label the reference node and node voltages.

v b = 120 V

due to the voltage source.

Apply KCL at the node between the resistors to get

vb − va va
= ⇒ v a = 20 V
50 10
Then
i a = 0.2 ( 20 ) = 4 A

and the power supplied by the dependent source is

p = v b i a = (120 )( 4 ) = 480 W

(b) Label the mesh currents. Express the controlling


voltage of the dependent source in terms of the mesh
current to get
v a = 10 i 2 − i1 ( )
Express the controlled current of the dependent
source in terms of the mesh currents to get

−i1 = i a = 0.2 ⎡⎣10 ( i 2 − i1 ) ⎤⎦ = 2i 2 − 2i1 ⇒ i1 = 2i 2

Apply KVL to the bottom mesh to get

50 ( i 2 − i1 ) + 10 ( i 2 − i1 ) − 120 = 0 ⇒ i 2 − i1 = 2
So
i 2 − 2i 2 = 2 ⇒ i 2 = −2 A ⇒ i1 = −4 A
Then
v a = 10 ( −2 − ( −4 ) ) = 20 V and i a = 0.2 ( 20 ) = 4 A

The power supplied by the dependent source is

p = 120 ( i a ) = 120 ( 4 ) 480 W


(checked: LNAP 6/21/04)
Section 4.10 How Can We Check … ?

P4.10-1

Apply KCL at node b:

vb − va 1 v −v
− + b c = 0
4 2 5
−4.8 − 5.2 1 − 4.8 − 3.0
− + ≠0
4 2 5

The given voltages do not satisfy the KCL


equation at node b. They are not correct.

P4.10-2
Apply KCL at node a:

⎛v −v ⎞ v
−⎜ b a ⎟ − 2 + a = 0
⎝ 4 ⎠ 2
⎛ 20 − 4 ⎞ 4
−⎜ ⎟−2+ = −4≠ 0
⎝ 4 ⎠ 2

The given voltages do not satisfy the KCL


equation at node a. They are not correct.
P4.10-3
Writing a node equation:

⎛ 12 − 7.5 ⎞ 7.5 7.5 − 6


−⎜ ⎟+ + =0
⎝ R1 ⎠ R3 R 2

so
4.5 7.5 1.5
− + + =0
R1 R3 R2
There are only three cases to consider. Suppose
R1 = 5 kΩ and R 2 = R 3 = 10 kΩ. Then

4.5 7.5 1.5 −0.9 + 0.75 + 0.15


− + + = = 0
R1 R3 R2 1000

This choice of resistance values corresponds to branch


currents that satisfy KCL. Therefore, it is indeed possible
that two of the resistances are 10 kΩ and the other
resistance is 5 kΩ. The 5 kΩ is R1.

P4.10-4
KCL at node 1:

v1 − v 2 v1 −8 − ( −20 ) −8
0= + +1 ⇒ + +1 = 0
20 5 20 5

KCL at node 2:

v1 − v 2 v 2 − v3 −8 − ( −20 ) −20 − ( −6 )
= 2+ ⇒ = 2+
20 10 20 10
12 6
⇒ =
20 10

v2 − v3 v3 −20 − ( −6 ) −6 −4 −6
KCL at node 3: +1 = ⇒ +1 = ⇒ =
10 15 10 15 10 15

KCL is satisfied at all of the nodes so the computer analysis is correct.


P4.10-5

Top mesh: 10 (2 − 4) + 12(2) + 4 (2 − 3) = 0

Bottom right mesh 8 (3 − 4) + 4 (3 − 2) + 4 = 0

Bottom, left mesh: 28 + 10 (4 − 2) + 8 (4 − 3) ≠ 0 (Perhaps the polarity of the 28 V source was


entered incorrectly.)

KVL is not satified for the bottom, left mesh so the computer analysis is not correct.