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1 Explain how a standard aircraft bolt is identified in terms of

a. Length

Length of bolts are measured in 1/8 inch increments. Bolts that are longer than 7/8 inches the dash code will be 10. e.g. 1 inch
bolt identified as a -10 or 1.5 inch bolt would be a -14 (10 being 1 inch and 4 being 4/8 or ) Note: clevis bolts length is
measured in 1/16 increments.

b. Grip length
Grip length is the distance from the bottom of the head to the start of the threaded portion.

c. Diameter
Diameter is measurement across the shank of the bolt. It is measured in 1/16 inch increments e.g. AN4-7 Bolt is 4/16 or
diameter and 7/8 inches long. Threaded fasteners that are smaller than inch diameter are dimensioned in screw sizes rather
than 1/8 inch diameter increments

5.4.2 Describe the AN codification system (and how it is broken down) for standard aircraft bolts and the common head styles for
AN bolts.
AN bolts come in 3 different head styles: hex head, clevis and eye bolt AN type aircraft bolts can be identified by the code
markings on the bolt heads. The markings generally denote the bolt manufacturer, the material of which the bolt is made, and
whether the bolt is a standard AN type or a special purpose bolt.

AN standard steel bolts are marked with either a raised dash or asterisk. Corrosion resistant steel is indicated by a single raised
dash and AN aluminium alloy bolts are marked with two raised dashes. Additional information, such as bolt diameter, bolt
length, and grip length may be obtained from the bolt part number.

5.4.3 Describe the UNF markings on a bolt in terms of diameter and TPI.
UNF markings on a bolt refer to the diameter and threads per inch. For example: 1-12UNF bolt refers to a 1 inch diameter bolt
with 12 threads per inch. The difference between UNF (American Standard Unified Fine) and NF (American National Fine) is that
NF has 14 threads per inch whereas a UNF has 12.

5.4.4 Describe the SAE and metric classification system for aircraft bolts.
In the United States, fasteners used on aircraft must meet government specifications (i.e. MS, AN) or accepted industry
standards (i.e. SAE). Aircraft and parts manufacturers are bound by those regulations. Likewise, foreign countries recognise their
own government and industry standards and foreign aircraft manufacturers are hound by the regulations of their own aviation
regulatory body.

Metric fasteners are fabricated with a variety of thread standards including: the American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
the German Institute for Standardisation (DIN), and the International Standards Organisation (ISO). While most metric hardware
is compatible, the published standards are not always the same, Organisations also may not publish standards for certain types
of parts. Since the ISO standard is the most widely recognised, this discussion will utilise ISO specifications to provide a
fundamental understanding of metric threaded fasteners.

5.4.5 Specify how the manufacturing thread tolerance of an aircraft bolt is classified and give examples of the classes of fit
associated with common types of bolt.
The ISO metric thread standard is based on a 60 degree thread form with three pitch variations: ISO metric constant pitch, ISO
metric fine pitch, and ISO metric coarse pitch. Metric fasteners utilise coarse pitch threads and spark plugs utilise constant pitch

Metric thread form is further defined by the tolerance classification or class of fit. The ISO metric thread tolerance class is a
combination of the tolerance grade and the tolerance position for external and internal threads. External threads use a series of
numbers and lower case letters to classify the major diameter and pitch diameter tolerances. Internal threads use upper case
letters end numbers 10 classify the major diameter and pitch diameter. The numbers indicate the tolerance grade. In general,