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BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED,

BHOPAL

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT

Under the guidance of:


Mr.Nitin Khatri
Sr. Engineer

MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCEGWALIOR-05


Submitted in the partial fulfillment in requirement for award of Degree of
Bachelor of Engineering

Submitted To: Submitted By:


VT SECTION Anuj Kumar Mishra
HRDC VT 4152/17
BHEL, BHOPAL MECHANICAL
Acknowledgement

I am highly thankful to BHEL Bhopal engineers and technical staff for providing
me vital and valuable information during the time period of my training.

I express my gratitude to Human Resource and Development Department for


giving me a chance to feel the industrial environment and its working in BHEL
Bhopal and I am thankful to my project guide MR.NITIN KHATRI (Sr.Engineer) for
giving his precious time and helping me in understanding various theoretical and
practical aspects and accomplishment of my training in BHEL.

ANUJ KUMAR MISHRA


Preface

At very outset of the prologue it becomes imperative to insist that vocational


training is an integral part of engineering curriculum. Training allows us to gain
an insight into the practical aspects of the various topics, with which we come
across while pursuing our B.Tech i.e. vocational training gives us practical
implementation of various topics we already have learned and will learn in near
future. Vocational training always emphasizes on logic and commonsense
instead of theoretical aspects of subjects.

On my part, I pursued four weeks training at BHEL Bhopal. The training involved
a study of various departments of the organization as per the time logically
scheduled and well planned given to us.
CONTENTS

Introduction
BHEL a brief profile
Power Sector
Vision, Mission, Focus and Values
Establishment and development stages
Hydro power plant
Hydro turbine (Reaction and Impulse)
Pelton Wheel
Francis
Kaplan
Pelton
Valves (Spherical and Butterfly)
Mechanical BOPs
EOT cranes
Firefighting Systems
HVAC Systems
Elevator
Mechanical workshop
Electrical BOPs
DC System
LTAC (415V Switchgear)
Cable System
DG Set
Illumination System
Grounding System for Power House
Security and Surveillance System
Public Address and Communication System
Electrical Workshop
Starters for Generator and Turbine Auxiliaries
Conclusion
INTRODUCTION

In the post-independence era when India was moving towards industrialization,


the thrust by the government was in the core sector. With this objective BHARAT
HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED was setup in Bhopal in August 1956, with
view to reach self-sufficiency in industrial products and power
equipments.Today BHEL has become the largest Engineering plant employing
over 60,000 employees.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited is countrys Navratna company and has


earned its place among very prestigious national and international companies. It
finds its place among the top class companies of the world for the manufacture
of electrical equipment. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz.,
Power Generations &Transmission, Industry, Transportation,
Telecommunication, Renewable Energy etc.

BHEL has already attained ISO-9000 certification for quality management, and
ISO-14001 certification for environment management and OHSAS18001
certification for Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems. The
Company today enjoys national and international presence featuring in the
Fortune International-500 and is ranked among the top 10 companies in the
world, manufacturing power generation equipment.

BHEL is the only PSU among the 12 Indian companies to figure in Forbes Asia
Fabulous 50 list. Probably the most significant aspect of BHELs growth has
been its diversification .The constant reorientation of the organization to meet
the varied needs in time with a philosophy that has led to total development of
a total capability from concepts to commissioning not only in the field of energy
but also in industry and transportation.

In the world power scene BHEL ranks among the top ten manufacturers of
power plant equipment not only in spectrum of products and services offered, it
is right on top. BHELs technological excellence and turnkey capabilities have
won it worldwide recognition. Over 40 countries in world over have placed
orders with BHEL covering individual equipment to complete power stations on
turnkey basis.

BHEL - A BRIEF PROFILE

BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the


energy related infrastructure sector today. The wide network of BHEL including
17 manufacturing division, 4 power Sector regional centers, 6 overseas offices,
over 150 project sites, 8 service centers and 4 regional offices enable the
Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable
products, systems and services efficiently and at competitive prices. Probably
the most significant aspect of BHELs growth has been its diversification.

BHEL has:-

Installed equipment for over 90,000MW of power generation


for utilities captive and industrial users.
Supplied over 2, 25,000 MVA transformer capacity and
other equipment operating in transmission and distribution network up
to 400 kV (AC & DC).
Supplied over 25,000 motors with drive control systems to power projects,
petrochemicals, refineries, steel, aluminum, fertilizers, cement plants
etc.
Supplied Traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12,000kms
railway network.
Supplied over one million valves to power plants and other industries.

POWER SECTOR
Power generation sector comprises thermal, hydro and nuclear power plant
business. BHEL supplied utility sets accounts to 87,646 MW which is 60% of the
total installed capacity of 1, 38,175 MW in the country, as against nil in 1969-
1970.
As part of Indias largest Solar Power based Island Electrification Project in India,
BHEL has successfully commissioned two Grid interactive Solar Power plants of
100 KW capacities in Lakshadweep.

With this, the company has commissioned a total of eleven Solar Power Plants
in these Islands adding over 1 MW power generating capacity of coral islands.

BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power projects from
concept to commissioning and manufacturers boilers, thermal turbine
generator sets and Auxiliaries up to 500 MW.
It possesses the technology and capability to procure thermal power
generation up to 1000MW.Co-generation and combined cycle plants
have also been introduced.
BHEL manufactures 235 MW nuclear sets and has also
c commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator sets.
Custom made hydro sets of Francis, Kaplan and Pelton Wheel turbines for
different head discharge combination are also engineered and manufactured by
BHEL.

In all, 700 utility sets of thermal, hydro and nuclear have been placed on the
company as on date. The Power plant equipment manufactured by BHEL is
based on contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world.

The company has proven expertise in plant performance improvement through


renovation, modernization and upgrade of various power plant equipments
besides specialized know how of residual life assessment and life extension of
plants.

VISION
A Global Engineering enterprise providing solutions for a better tomorrow.

MISSION
Providing sustainable business solutions in the fields of Energy, Industry and
Infrastructure.

FOCUS
To build a high degree of customer confidence by providing increased value for
his/her money through International Standards of products performance
superior customer service.

VALUES
Meeting commitments made to external and internal customers.
Foster learning creativity and speed response.
Respect for dignity and potential of individuals.
Loyalty and Pride in the company.
Team playing.
Zeal to excel.
Integrity and fairness in all matters.

ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STAGES


Established in 1960s under the Indo-Soviet Agreements of 1959 and 1960
in the area of Scientific, Technical and Industrial Cooperation.
DRR prepared in 1963-1964, construction started from October63.
Initial production of electric equipment started from January 1967.
Major construction / erection / commissioning completed by 1971-1972 as
per original DPR scopes.
Annual Manufacturing capacity for thermal sets was expanded from 1500
MW to 3500 MW under LSTG. Project during 1979-1985 (sets up to 500
MW, extensible to 1000/1300 MW unit sizes with marginal addition in
facilities) with collaboration of KWU Siemens, Germany.
Motor manufacturing technology updated with Siemens collaboration
during 1984-87.
Facilities being modernized continuously through replacements,
reconditioning retrofitting and technological/operational balance

HYDRO POWER PLANT

Hydro power or water power is power derived from energy of falling water
which may be harnessed for useful purposes. When water drops through a
height, its energy is able to rotate turbines which are coupled to alternators and
thus used for electricity generation.
India has a Hydel potential of 600 billion units of firm annual energy and 85000
MW of firm hydel power at 60% load factor. Only about 23% has been exploited
so far.

Figure 1 Hydropower Plant

The above picture shows the general layout of a hydro power plant. Water is
stored in reservoir which is then released through control gates and then it
travels through Penstock to turbine through a main inlet valve. Thus, turbine
rotates which is coupled to an alternator and therefore electricity is produced
which is carries through transformers from power house and distributed to
power lines accordingly. The water after impact on turbine exits to tail race.

The useful life of hydro power plants is about 60 years. These dont require any
fuel and hence operating cost is low. Problems concerning storage and handling
of fuel are also nullified. There are no standby losses in hydro power plants and
load adjustment is rapid. These are generally multipurpose projects as in
addition to electric power generation they are also useful for irrigation, flood
control, navigation etc. The only problem is location of these plants in remote
areas and submerging of nearby areas for reservoir during their installation.

Knowledge of quantity of water flowing in the stream and its variations and its
variation with time over a period of many years is necessary to estimate
available energy. Plants are setup as per detailed survey and flow variation
studies conducted for several years.

These are generally classified according to flow regulation, load and available
head in the area. Turbines installation and their type also depend on these
factors.

HYDRO TURBINES
A water turbine is a rotary engine that takes energy from moving water. They
are mostly used for electric power generation. They harness a clean and
renewable energy source. Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a
turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. In this way, energy is transferred
from the water flow to the turbine. The turbine is coupled to the electric
generator shaft which rotates the rotor of the generator. Thus electrical energy
is produced. The precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the
supply pressure of water, and the type of impeller selected.

Water turbines are divided into two groups:


Reaction turbines
Impulse turbines

Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves


through the turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain
the water pressure (or suction), or they must be fully submerged in the water
flow.

Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are used in low (<30m)
and medium (30-300m) head applications. In reaction turbine pressure drop
occurs in both fixed and moving blades. Kaplan and Francis turbines are reaction
turbines.

Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet pushes on the
turbine's curved blades which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting
change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. Since the
turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work) and the diverted
water flow is left with diminished energy.

Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential energy) is
converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. No pressure
change occurs at the turbine blades, and the turbine doesn't require housing for
operation.

Impulse turbines are most often used in very high (>300m) head applications.
Pelton wheel turbine is an example of impulse turbine.

Depending upon the Head, Discharge rate and Geographical conditions the
following types of hydro turbines are used in a power plant.
Pelton wheel turbine
The Pelton wheel is an impulse turbine which is among the most efficient types
of water turbines. The Pelton wheel extracts energy from the impulse
(momentum) of moving water, as opposed to its weight like traditional overshot
water wheel. Pelton's paddle geometry was designed so that when the rim runs
at the speed of the water jet, the water leaves the wheel with very little
speed, extracting almost all of its energy, and allowing for a very efficient
turbine. The Pelton wheel is used for very high water heads generally above 300
m.

Figure 2 Pelton Wheel Turbine

The water flows along the tangent to the path of the runner. Nozzles direct
forceful streams of water against a series of spoon-shaped buckets mounted
around the edge of a wheel. As water flows into the bucket, the direction of the
water velocity changes to follow the contour of the bucket. When the water-jet
contacts the bucket, the water exerts pressure on the bucket and the water is
decelerated as it does a "u-turn" and flows out the other side of the bucket at
low velocity. In the process, the water's momentum is transferred to the
turbine. For maximum power and efficiency, the turbine system is designed such
that the water-jet velocity is twice the velocity of the bucket. A very small
percentage of the water's original kinetic energy will still remain in the water;
however, this allows the bucket to be emptied at the same rate it is filled, thus
allowing the water flow to continue uninterrupted. Often two buckets are
mounted side-by-side, thus splitting the water jet in half. This balances the side-
load forces on the wheel, and helps to ensure smooth, efficient momentum
transfer of the fluid jet to the turbine wheel.

Francis turbine
The Francis is a reaction type turbine which is most commonly used nowadays.
They operate in a head range of 10 to 650 meters (33 to 2,133 feet) and are
primarily used for electrical power production. The power output generally
ranges from 10 to 750 megawatts, though mini-hydro installations may be lower.
Runner diameters are between 1 and 10 meters (3 and 33 feet). The speed
range of the turbine is from 83 to 1000 rpm. Medium size and larger Francis
turbines are most often arranged with a vertical shaft. Vertical shaft may also be
used for small size turbines, but normally they have horizontal shaft.
Figure 3 Cross-sectional View of a Francis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid
changes pressure as it moves through the turbine, giving up its energy. A
casement is needed to contain the water flow. The turbine is located between
the high-pressure water source and the low-pressure water exit, usually at the
base of a dam.

The inlet is spiral shaped. Guide vanes direct the water tangentially to the
turbine wheel, known as a runner. This radial flow acts on the runner's vanes,
causing the runner to spin. The guide vanes (or wicket gate) may be adjustable
to allow efficient turbine operation for a range of water flow conditions.

As the water moves through the runner, its spinning radius decreases, further
acting on the runner. At the exit, water acts on cup-shaped runner features,
leaving with no swirl and very little kinetic or potential energy. The turbine's exit
tube is shaped to help decelerate the water flow and recover the pressure.
In addition to electrical production, they may also be used for pumped storage,
where a reservoir is filled by the turbine (acting as a pump) during low power
demand, and then reversed and used to generate power during peak demand.

Kaplan turbine
The Kaplan turbine is a propeller-type water turbine which has adjustable
blades. It was developed in 1913 by the Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan, who
combined automatically adjusted propeller blades with automatically adjusted
wicket gates to achieve efficiency over a wide range of flow and water level.

.
Figure 4 Kaplan Turbine

The Kaplan turbine was an evolution of the Francis turbine. Its invention allowed
efficient power production in low-head applications that was not possible with
Francis turbines. The head ranges from 10-70 meters and the output from 5 to
120 MW. Runner diameters are between 2 and 8 meters. The
range of the turbine is from 79 to 429 rpm. Kaplan turbines are now widely used
throughout the world in high-flow, low-head power production

The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the
working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its
energy. Power is recovered from both the hydrostatic head and from the kinetic
energy of the flowing water. The design combines features of radial and axial
turbines.

Water is directed tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a


propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin. The outlet is a specially shaped draft
tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic energy.

The turbine does not need to be at the lowest point of water flow as long as the
draft tube remains full of water. Kaplan turbine efficiencies are typically over
90%, but may be lower in very low head applications. Because the propeller
blades are rotated by high-pressure hydraulic oil, a critical element of Kaplan
design is to maintain a positive seal to prevent emission of oil into the waterway.

Bulb turbine
Bulb turbine is suitable for heads from 2m to 20m and large discharge. Its
feature is that the water flow is axial throughout the passage from the inlet to
the outlet, so that the passage is a straight conduit essentially. The bulb turbine
is characterized by good characteristic of water flow and high efficiency.
Figure 5 Cross-sectional view of Bulb Turbine

Selection of turbine
Turbine selection is based mostly on the available water head, and less so on
the available flow rate. In general, impulse turbines are used for high head sites,
and reaction turbines are used for low head sites. Kaplan turbines with
adjustable blade pitch are well-adapted to wide ranges of flow or head
conditions, since their peak efficiency can be achieved over a wide range of flow
conditions.
S.No. TYPE HEAD (m) SPEED (rpm) RUNNER DIA (m)

1. Francis 10 300 68.2 1500 0.4 6

2. Kaplan 2 70 68.2 750 0.8 8

3. Pelton 80 1600 150 1500 0.8 6

4. Bulb 2 20 7.5 500 0.8 6


VALVES
A valve is used for isolating and regulating the flow of water in the hydro
turbine. It is present at one or both ends of the penstocks depending upon the
head and impact of the water.

Generally, two kinds of valves are used in a hydro power plant:

Sphericalvalve
Butterfly valve

A spherical valve is a valve with a A butterfly valve is generally favored


spherical disc, the part of the valve because it is lower in cost to other
which controls the flow through it. valve designs as well as being lighter
When the port is in line with both in weight, meaning less support is
ends of the valve, flow will occur. required. The closing mechanism
When the valve is closed, the hole is takes the form of a disk. The disc is
perpendicular to the ends of the positioned in the center of the pipe,
valve, and flow is blocked. They are passing through the disc is a rod
used to achieve perfect shut over connected to an actuator on the
and decrease the hammering effect outside of the valve. Rotating the
of water to a great extent. One actuator turns the disc either parallel
drawback of these valves is that they or perpendicular to the flow.
are very costly.

Figure 6 Spherical Valve Figure 7 Butterfly Valve


In BHEL Bhopal, the designing of hydro power plant and the supply of its
auxiliaries is dealt by the following divisions:

HTE (Hydro Turbine Engineering)


HGE (Hydro Generator Engineering)
HLE (Hydro Lab Engineering)
HSE (Hydro Station Engineering)

The HTE division deals with the manufacturing and supply of turbine and its
auxiliaries such as governor oil pressure unit (OPU), main inlet valve (MIV) OPU,
oil leakage system, centralized grease lubrication system, cooling water system,
top cover drainage system, drainage and dewatering system, compressed air
system (H.P & L.P)

The HGE division deals with the manufacturing of generators and its auxiliaries
like H.P. lubricating system, brake dust collector system, stator heater system,
hydraulic power pack, brake and jack panel, Carbon dioxide equipments and
excitation systems.

The HLE division deals with the models of various turbines and laboratory test
conducted on them.

The HSE division deals with station layout and balance of plants (mechanical
and electrical), and system integration of various packages. This division
provides the auxiliaries needed for the smooth functioning of the plant. This
process also includes the buying of equipments from different vendors and then
supplying them to the power plant companies. Most of the present and future
contracts are on turnkey basis comprising of complete supply of all
electromechanical control systems and BOP packages and also complete system
integration of all packages of BHEL scope and bought out equipment is also the
responsibility of BHEL.
To cope up with the above requirements of hydro business and contractual
commitments of customers like NHPC, NTPC, NEEPCO, KPCL, APGENCO,
WAPCOS, and other customers, HSE group of BHEL Bhopal has been entrusted
with this task of design and execution of turnkey contracts.

As per allotment of this division for the vocational training, above mentioned
dealings of this division are explained in following sections.

WHAT IS BOP?
The Balance of Plant (BOP) includes all the engineering and supply of
subsystems - excluding the turbine and generator - required for efficient
operation of a hydro plant.

BOP covers:

Electrical Engineering/ Electrical Systems


Mechanical Engineering/Mechanical System
Miscellaneous systems

MECHANICAL BOPs
Major Mechanical BOPs applicable for Hydro power stations are:

EOT Crane
Firefighting system
HVAC system
Elevator
Mechanical workshop
EOT (Electric Overhead Travelling) cranes
An overhead crane, commonly called a bridge crane, is a type of crane found in
industrial environments. An overhead crane consists of parallel runways with a
traveling bridge spanning the gap. A hoist, the lifting component of a crane,
travels along the bridge. These are used for handling of heaviest parts of
Generator items like Rotor, Stator, MIV, Runner etc. In such cranes auxiliary hoist
is provided which is used for lifting of less heavier objects. Lifting capacity varies
with design specifications and requirement.

Figure 8 EOT Crane

Types of cranes:
Powerhouse Main Crane
Valve House Crane
Runner Removal Crane
Unloading Bay Crane
GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear) Hall Crane

Following factors are considered in crane design:


Lifting Capacity
Stability of Crane
Safety Aspects (Dynamic effect, Dead load effect, Temperature effect,
Altitude Effect)

FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM
Fire extinguishers put out fire by taking away one or more elements of the fire
triangle. Principals of Extinguishing Fires include cooling the fuel below its
ignition point, removing the oxygen supply and separating the fuel from the
oxygen. Firefighting system includes pumps and water house, HP hydrant
system, HVW spray system, Fire detection and Alarm system, Foam protection
system etc.

Figure 9 Fire Triangle

Classification of Fire
Class A (Paper, wood, textiles and rubbish)
Class B (Liquids, such as gas, alcohol, oil and grease)
Class C (Electrical: Live or energized wires)
Class D (Occur in certain metals like magnesium, sodium, potassium,
titanium or zirconium)
Extinguishing Agents

1. Class A

Responds best to water or water type which lower the fuel below its ignition
point.

2. Class B

Responds to carbon dioxide and dry chemicals, all of which displace the oxygen
supply making combustion impossible.

3. Class C

Halons or dry chemicals may be used but the powder contamination can lead to
further damage of electrical components.

4. Class D

Responds best to dry powder which prevents oxidation and the resulting flame.

Requirements for Fire Protection Systems

The system must be durable and resistant to damage from all the
environmental factors that may exist in the location where it is
installed.
The system must include an accurate and effective method for testing to
assure system integrity.
The system must be easily inspected, removed and installed.
The design and installation of the system shall comply with regulations of
Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) of India.
HVAC SYSTEMS
HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) is the technology of indoor and
automotive environmental comfort. HVAC system design is a major sub
discipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of
thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. HVAC is important in the
design of medium to large industrial and office buildings where safe and healthy
building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity,
using fresh air from outdoors.

Areas of Powerhouse under HVAC


Mechanical Area: It includes mechanical workshop, fabrication and
welding shops.
Electrical Area: It includes machine hall, service bay, electrical workshop.
Air-conditioning Area: It includes training and conference room, reception,
library, office, canteen etc.

Heating
Heating is generally used in cold climates to heat powerhouses and buildings.
Such a system contains a boiler, furnace to heat water, steam or air. The system
contains piping or duct work to distribute heated fluid and radiators to transfer
heat to air.

The heating elements, radiators or vents should be located in the coldest part of
the room and next to window to minimize condensation.
Ventilation
Ventilation is changing of air in space to remove moisture, odors, smoke, heat
and bacteria. Ventilation also includes both exchange of air to the outside as
well as circulation of air in the building.

Types of ventilation system


Natural Ventilation: This type of ventilation of a building is done with
outside air without use of a mechanical system or a fan. It can be
achieved with operable windows when the spaces to ventilate are small
and the architecture permits.
Forced Ventilation: this is used to control indoor air quality. Excess
humidity, odors and contamination can often be controlled via
replacement with outside air. But in humid climate, much energy is
required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air.

Air Conditioning
An Air conditioning system provides heating, cooling, and ventilation and
humidity control for all parts of the building. The buildings are deep planned
meaning that the middle of the building has to be supplied with fresh air
mechanically. The lighting and office equipment produce a lot of heat, which
needs to be counteracted to maintain comfortable conditions.

Objectives:
To prevent temperature stratification.
To furnish outside air necessary for human comfort as regard to
temperature, humidity and oxygen content.
To furnish clean/tempered air.
ELEVATOR
Elevator serves as means of transportation of man and material from floor to
floor. These serve as faster ways to carry heavy goods from one floor to another
and also mass transportation can be done through these.

Types of elevator
Passenger Elevator
Goods Elevator

Key Design Considerations


Number of floors to be served.
Floor to Floor distance.
Number of persons.
Location of the building.

MECHANICAL WORKSHOP
Items are needed for carrying out day to day repair, maintenance works at site
of the powerhouse. Such items are dealt and repaired in machine shop.

Items covered mostly are:

Lathe Machine, Drilling Machine, Milling Machine, Power Machine, Welding


Machine, Pipe Bending Machine, Special Tools etc.
ELECTRICAL BOPS

Types of Electrical BOP

DC SYSTEM
LTAC (415 V SWITCHGEAR)
CABLE
DG SET
ILLUMINATION
PUBLIC ADDRESS & COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL WORKSHOP
GROUNDING SYSTEM FOR POWER HOUSE
SECURITY & SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

DC SYSTEM
It is the last critical equipment that supplies power for safe shutting down of
expensive equipment, turbines and their auxiliaries in the event of total
blackout in the plant.

In addition to that it provides backup for supplying DC supply for:

Control of various electrical and mechanical systems and subsystems


Protection of electrical equipment and system
Data acquisition and storage
Communication system

Main Items in this system are:


BATTERY
CHARGER
DCDB

Batteries used
in HEP
(AH)

Lead acid Nickel-


battery cadmium
Lead Acid Battery
Lead acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston plante. These
are oldest types of rechargeable battery.

Battery specifications: Types of Lead acid Battery


Selfdischarge rate : 20%/month Flooded / Wet cell battery
Flat pasted type
Cycle duration : 500-800 cycles
Tubular type
Nominal cell voltage : 2V Plante type
Anode : lead VRLA battery
Absorbed glass mat battery (AGM)
Cathode : lead oxide Gel cell battery
Electrolyte : Sulfuric acid
Nickel Cadmium Battery
Waldemar Jungner of Sweden created the first nickel-cadmium battery in
1899.The batteries were "pocket type," constructed of nickel-plated steel
pockets containing nickel and cadmium active material.

Around the middle of the twentieth century, sintered plate nickel-cadmium


batteries became increasingly popular. These require less care and are difficult
to damage. Incur virtually no loss of capacity when subjected to high discharge
currents.

Battery specifications:
Self-discharge rate :10% per month
Cycle durability : 2000cycles
Nominal cell voltage : 1.2V
Positive electrode : Nickel Hydroxide
Negative electrode : Cadmium Hydroxide
Alkaline electrolyte (commonly KOH)

LTAC (415 V SWITCHGEAR)

The scope of work under this section covers the provision of 415 V A.C Station
Service board (SSB), Unit Auxiliary Board (UAB), & other distribution boards for
providing A.C supply at Power house, Valve house etc.

Major Parts:
SSB ( Station Service Board)
UAB (Unit Auxiliary Board)
SAB (Station Auxiliary Board)
VHB (Valve House Distribution Board)
Main components of these Boards:
Circuit breaker
ACB ( air circuit breaker)
MCB ( Miniature Circuit Breaker)
MCCB (Moulded Case Circuit Breaker)
Power Busbar
Insulator
Earth Bus
Auxiliary Relay
Contactor
Instrumentation Transformer ( CTs, PTs)
Metering Instruments (ammeter, voltmeter)
Control & Selector Switch
Fuse
CABLE SYSTEM
The scope is to provide all cabling and cable routing in Power house complex,
Switchyard, BFV house etc.

Types of Cable:
a) Power Cable
HT POWER CABLE: 11 KV or 22 KV FRLS (Flame Retardant Low Smoke),
Armoured, XLEP Cable (high voltage cable)
LT POWER CABLE: 415 V PVC, 600/1000 volt grade power cable (low
voltage Cable)
b) Control & Instrumentation cable

Parts of Cable:
Conductor (Al/Cu)
Conductor shield (nonmetallic semi-conducting shield)
Insulation (XLPE/PVC)
Insulation shield
Cable Screening
Armor ( hard drawn Al wire/ Galvanized steel tape)
Inner Sheath (PVC)
Outer Sheath (PVC)
Copper Conductor
Extruded Semi conducting
XLPE
XLPE Insulation
Semi-Conducting XLPE
5.Semi-Conducting Water
Swellables Tape
Extruded Seamless Lead
Alloy 'E' Sheath
Semi conducing Bedding
Tape
Copper Wire Screen
Counter helix Copper Tape
Figure 10 HT XLPE CABLE
Extruded Black PVC with a
Graphite Coat

Figure 11 PVC Cable


DG (DIESEL GENERATOR) SET

It is used as emergency equipment for total blackout.

Types of DG set:
Non-Silent
Silent

Major parts of DG set:


Engine with starting system
Alternator
Panels having ACB, Relays, Meters, Switches
Fuel tank with pumps, piping, valves, fuel level indicator, alarm
Acoustic enclosure ( for silent DG)

Figure 12 Silent DG Set Figure 13 Non Silent DG Set


ILLUMINATION SYSTEM

Brief: A Hydro power station consists of wide variety of industrial


environments. Turbine & Generator floor, Machine hall,control rooms,
switchyard. HV sub stations, etc each demanding an individual lighting
approach.

Needs: Lighting for power station can widely be classified as industrial


areas, office areas & outdoor road, area & security lighting.

Lighting Solution: Right lighting levels and lower operating costs form
the basis of selecting the lighting system for power plants. High efficacy
lamps and energy saving gear are chosen along with the right Luminaire
to achieve optimum results.

Proper Designing is done because

The cost of energy in Lighting in industrial area or in plants is huge.


Improper design means more wastage and less efficiency.
Improved lighting placement, technologies and designs can
dramatically cut these costs, while improving productivity.

Illumination System designing is broadly classified as:

INDOOR DESIGN & OUTDOOR DESIGN.


NORMAL AC LIGHTING & DC EMERGENCY LIGHTING
Different Areas and Requirements:
Indoor area: Lighting solution in this area depends on the height of
the ceiling. For lower heights fluorescent luminaires are used and
for high height areas medium-high bays suitable for SON lamps
are used. For semi-outdoor areas and areas with water splashing,
waterproof luminaires (IP65) are employed.
Outdoor area: General lighting is recommended for outdoor areas.
Floodlights with SON-T lamps are installed on top of poles to
provide the required illumination levels.
Maintenance shops: Fluorescent batten with industrial reflectors are
used to achieve the desired illumination level. Where there is a
high ceiling, medium bays suitable for HPI or SON lamps are
employed.
Control rooms: Average lighting levels of 500-1000 lux, extremely
low glare, vertical illumination, are the prime requirements for a
control room. For control rooms which have a false ceiling,
Recessed office range suitable for TL5 or TLD lamps with a C6 type
of reflector would serve the purpose. For non-false ceiling areas,
ceiling mounted luminaires with similar specifications are
recommended.

GROUNDING SYSTEM FOR POWER HOUSE


Grounding is a conducting connection, whether intentional or
accidental, by which an electric circuit or equipment is connected to the
earth.

Grounding or earthing generally means an electrical connection to the


general mass of the earth.
Objectives of Grounding
To provide a sufficiently low impedance to facilitate satisfactory
protection operation under fault conditions.
To ensure that living beings in the vicinity of substations are not
exposed to unsafe potentials under steady state or fault
conditions
To retain system voltages within reasonable limits under fault
conditions.
Ensure insulation breakdown voltages are not exceeded.

Grounding in power stations and substations


In general grounding installations will be required for:

The neutral points of each separate electricity system


Apparatus framework or other non-carrying metalwork associated
with each system ,for ex-transformer tanks, power cable sheaths
Extraneous metalwork not associated with power systems, for ex-
boundary fences, sheaths of control or communication cables

Methods of grounding
Solid grounding or (effective grounding)
Resistance grounding
Reactance grounding
Peterson coil grounding (resonant grounding)

Grounding Equipment
Earth grid- A system of grounding electrodes consisting of inter-
connected connectors buried in the earth to provide a common
ground for electrical devices and metallic structures.
Earth mat- A grounding system formed by a grid of horizontally
buried conductors and which serves to dissipate the earth fault
current to earth.

SECURITY & SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM


The system provides integrated security and surveillance for two zones
namely power house complex including TRT area and surge shaft area,
valve area including switchyard area.

Major parts of this system are:


Access Control System (panels, proximity card, software)
CCTV System
Intruder detection system
Control, monitoring and related items and services

Major areas covered by it are:


Valve house and power house block
Control room
Transformer hall
Reception area
Entrances of each zone

CCTV System
Surveillance system shall consist of CCTV system for each zone
integrated seamlessly for monitoring from centralized control room in
power house.
It shall have at least the following features:
Zooming
Pan control
Tilt control
Computer interface
Programmability
Alarm interface
Interface with large Video
Figure 14 CCTV SYSTEM
Display in control room.

PUBLIC ADDRESS & COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM shall consist of the following main


components:

Master control station (MCS) including microphone


Central control equipments consisting of central switching system
(CSS)
Field hand set station consisting telephone set
Wall mounted loud speaker
Head microphone
Junction boxes and cables

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM shall consist of the following main


components:

Microprocessor based (digital) EPABX system


Mobile communication system integrated with EPABX system

There are digital audio and video conference system is also a part of the
communication system.

Figure 15 EPABX SYSTEM (Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange)

ELECTRICAL WORKSHOP

Scope of work under this section covers the provision of labour, tools,
plants, materials and performance of work necessary for the design,
manufacture, quality assurance, quality control, shop assembly, shop
testing etc and training of owners personnel.

The workshop contains:

Measuring devices (insulation tester, digital power measuring


instrument, Digital multimeters, frequency meter etc.)
Testing devices (primary current junction set, dc resistance test set,
capacitance and tan delta kit etc)
Transformer oil testing devices
Instrument testing and calibrating devices (transducers, hygrometers
etc.)

STARTERS FOR GENERATOR AND TURBINE AUXILIARIES

Local wall mounted / Floor mounted, DOL / star delta, fixed type starter
panels, complete with MCCB, contactors, indicating lamps, push buttons
etc are provided in this package for the following auxiliaries:

Compressed air system Top cover drainage pump set


Cooling water system Oil Pressure System
Drainage System Generator heater
Dewatering System HP Lub. oil system
Oil leakage unit Brake dust collector
CONCLUSION

Vocational Training is a very vital and significant part of our syllabus, as


it gives us the real world application of our studies. It was a great
learning experience and I have tried my level best to gain the most of it.
I hope it will help me round up as a wholesome Electrical and
Electronics Engineer for efficient performance in my professional life.

It is my proud privilege to express my sincere and deep gratitude to the


Experienced Engineers for teaching and guiding me throughout the
training.