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27/10/2016 Achieve3000:Lesson

Printedby:IsabelleGorgeu
Printedon:October27,2016

AncientMiddleEast:WhoBuiltthePyramids?NowWeKnow!

BeforeReadingPoll

SomemythssaythatslavesbuilttheGreatPyramidsofGiza.Now,scientistsbelievethatthepyramidswere
builtbypaidworkers,notslaves.Whatdoyouthink?

Mythsareusuallywrong.

Agree

Disagree

Explainwhyyouvotedthewayyoudid.
Amythisastorywhichcallsofstrangeandimaginarypersons,butsometimesthesecharacters
correspondtoanidealhumanoroneperfectmodel.

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Article

PART1

CAIRO,Egypt(Achieve3000,June20,2011).Egyptianarchaeologists
havediscoveredasetoftombs.Thesetombsarebelievedtobelongto
workers.ExpertsbelievetheworkersdiedbuildingtheGreatPyramidsof
Giza.TheGreatPyramidshousethemummiesofEgyptiankings.
Accordingtopopularmyth,thesepyramidswerebuiltbyslaves.But
expertssaythisiswrong.TheysaythatEgypt'sancientpyramidswere
builtbypaidworkers.Theysaythenewlydiscoveredtombsareproofthat
thisideaiscorrect.

ArchaeologistsfoundthetombsintheshadowsoftheGreatPyramids.
Thetombscontainadozenskeletons.Theboneswereperfectlypreserved Photocredit:AP/AmrNabil
bydrydesertsand.Theskeletonswerefoundsurroundedbypotsand
Scientistsfoundthebonesof
jars.Thesecontainerswereoncefilledwithsuppliesfortheafterlife. workerswhobuilttheGreat
Thesesuppliesincludedfoodanddrinks.ZahiHawassisanexperton PyramidsinEgypt.
ancientEgypt.AccordingtoHawass,thetombsareover4,000yearsold.

Archaeologistsbelievethetombsbelongtoworkers.TheybelievetheseworkersbuilttheGreatPyramids.Thetombs
aremadeofmudbrick.AccordingtoHawass,itwasnormalforworkers'tombsfromlongagotobemadeofmudbrick.
Archaeologistsbelievethetombscouldnothavebelongedtokings.Thetombsdidnothavegoldorotherprecious
materials.Also,thebodieswerenotmummified.

Accordingtopopularbelief,thebuildersoftheGreatPyramidswereslaves.Formanyyears,however,expertshave
calledthisamyth.Hawasspointedtothelocationoftheworkers'tombs.This,hesays,provestheideawrongonce
andforall.

"Thesetombswerebuiltbesidetheking'spyramid.[Thisshows]thatthesepeoplewerenotbyanymeansslaves.If
theywereslaves,theywouldnothavebeenabletobuildtheirtombsbesidetheirking's."

Sowheredidthemythcomefrom?Expertshaveseveralideas.

SomeexpertssuspecttheideacamefromHerodotus.HerodotuswasanancientGreekhistorian.Hesaidthepyramid
builderswereIsraeliteslaves.Thismythwaslaterspread,expertssay,byHollywoodmovies.

Thetombssupporttheideathatthepyramidbuilderswereindeedfreecitizens.Slavesornot,however,thepyramid
buildersdidworkhard.Theskeletonsshowsignsofthis.Theirlowerbackbonesshowlivespassedindifficulty.

"Theirbonestellusthestoryofhowhardtheyworked,"saidAdelOkasha.Okashaoversawtheunburyingofthe
tombs.

Theworkers'workwashighlyrespected,Hawasssaid.Theworkersweregivenagreathonor.Theywereburiednear
thepyramids.

"Nowaywouldtheyhavebeenburied[withsuchhonor]iftheywereslaves,"Hawasssaid.

InformationforthisstorycamefromAP.

PART2

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DigDeeper

Somepeopleliketothinkthatwithhardworkandgoodluck,peoplecan"strikeitrich."InancientEgypt,thatwasn't
so.Peoplewereseparatedintoclasses,anditwashardtomovefromoneclasstoanother.Royaltymadeupthetop
class.Therulingclass,whichincludedmembersoftheking'sfamily,priests,andleaderswhohelpedtheking,came
next.Soldierswerenext.Theywerefollowedbyscribes,whokeptrecords.Merchants,whocouldbecomewealthyin
business,werenext.Artisanshadspecialskills.Theymadejewelry,pottery,tools,andothergoods.Artisansrankeda
littlelowerbecausetheyworkedwiththeirhands.Still,theycouldmakemoneybysellingtheirgoods.Forthisreason,
theywereusuallyricherthanthepeoplebelowthem.Farmers,servants,andslaveswereatthebottom.

Thearticle"WhoBuiltthePyramids?NowWeKnow!"saysthatthepyramidbuildersweren'tslaves.Sowhatclassdid
theycomefrom?It'spossiblethattheycamefromthelowerclasses.InancientEgypt,farmersdidn'tjustgrowcrops
andraiseanimals.Theywerealsooftencalledupontodigoutstoneandbuildmonuments.Theworkerswhobuiltthe
pyramidsmighthavecomefromthisclass.Farmersweren't"owned"likeslaves.Theymighthaveworkedforsomeone
fromahigherclass,though.Oneauthorsuggeststhattheselaborjobsweresometimesboughtandsold.Soit's
possiblethatifanupperclasspersonwantedtobuildamonument,hecouldbuytheworkofthosepeopleforhisown
use.Thismighthavebeenthekindoflaboryoureadaboutinthearticle.

Dictionary

archaeologist(noun)someonewhostudiesthebuildings,tools,andotherobjectsofpeoplewholivedinthepast

belief(noun)whatsomeonethinksistrue

monument(noun)somethingthatisbuilttoremembersomeoneorsomething

pyramid(noun)atriangleshapedbuildingusedinancientEgyptkingsandotherimportantpeoplewereburiedinside
pyramids

slave(noun)apersonwhoisforcedtoworkfornomoney

tomb(noun)aplacewherepeopleareburied

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Activity

PART1

Question1

Basedonthearticle,whichfitsbestintheemptyboxabove?

Archaeologistsfoundmanytombsintheshadowsofkings'pyramids.

Archaeologistsbelievethetombsareover4,000yearsold.

Archaeologistsbelievethetombscouldnothavebelongedtokings.

Archaeologistsfoundmanythingsinthenewlydiscoveredtombs.

Question2
Thinkaboutthenewsarticle.Sincetheworkers'workwashighlyrespected,then__________.

Theywereburiedwithpotsandjars.

Theywereburiednearthepyramids.

Theyweremovedtothepyramids.

Theyweregiventheirownslaves.

Question3

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Thearticlestates:
ZahiHawassisanexpertonancientEgypt.AccordingtoHawass,thetombsareover4,000yearsold.
Whichistheclosestantonymforthewordancient?

Regular

Popular

Modern

Natural

Question4
Basedonthearticle,whichismostlikelytohappennext?

Archaeologistswillcontinuetostudythebonesoftheworkers.

Archaeologistswillmovetheworkers'bonestothepyramids.

Thetombsofslaveswillbediscoverednexttothepyramids.

TheGreatPyramidswillbetakenapartsotheycanbestudied.

Question5
Thearticlestates:
SomeexpertssuspecttheideacamefromHerodotus.
Whichwouldbetheclosestsynonymforthewordsuspect?

Defend

Blame

Mention

Suppose

Question6
Thenewsarticlesaysallofthefollowingexcept__________.

TheGreatPyramidshousethemummiesofkings.

TheGreatPyramidsweremadeofmudbrick.

AdelOkashaoversawtheunburyingofthetombs.

ZahiHawassisanexpertonancientEgypt.

Question7

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Supposeyouwerewritingasummaryofthenewsarticle.Whichwouldbemostimportanttoincludeinasummary?

HollywoodmademoviesabouttheGreatPyramids.

ArchaeologistsdiscoveredtombsofworkerswhobuilttheGreatPyramids.

HerodotuswasanancientGreekhistorian.

Potsandjarswereoncefilledwithfoodanddrinksfortheafterlife.

Question8
Thearticlestates:
HerodotuswasanancientGreekhistorian.HesaidthepyramidbuilderswereIsraeliteslaves.
Theauthorprobablywrotethesesentencestohelpthereaderknow__________.

WhyIsraeliteslavesbuiltpyramids

WhyHerodotusbecameanhistorian

Howtheworkersbuiltthepyramids

Howthemythmayhavebeenstarted

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RESULTS

Activity First Second


Try Try

1.

()
Basedonthearticle,whichfitsbestintheemptyboxabove?()

2. Thinkaboutthenewsarticle.Sincetheworkers'workwashighlyrespected,then________
__.()

3. Thearticlestates:
ZahiHawassisanexpertonancientEgypt.AccordingtoHawass,thetombsareo
ver4,000yearsold.
Whichistheclosestantonymforthewordancient?()

4. Basedonthearticle,whichismostlikelytohappennext?()

5. Thearticlestates:
SomeexpertssuspecttheideacamefromHerodotus.
Whichwouldbetheclosestsynonymforthewordsuspect?()

6. Thenewsarticlesaysallofthefollowingexcept__________.()

7. Supposeyouwerewritingasummaryofthenewsarticle.Whichwouldbemostimportantt
oincludeinasummary?()

8. Thearticlestates:
HerodotuswasanancientGreekhistorian.HesaidthepyramidbuilderswereIsra
eliteslaves.
Theauthorprobablywrotethesesentencestohelpthereaderknow__________.()

ActivityScore 88% 88%

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AfterReadingPoll

Nowthatyouhavereadthearticle,indicatewhetheryouagreeordisagreewiththisstatement.

Mythsareusuallywrong.

Agree

Disagree

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ThoughtQuestion

Whatfactsdidyoufindinthetextthatbackuptheideathatpaidworkers,notslaves,builttheGreatPyramidsofGiza?
Arethereenoughfactstomakeyouagree?Whatclaimsweremadeinthetextthatarenotbackedupbyfacts?Backup
youranswerwithfactsfromthelesson.

Typeyouranswerintheboxbelow.

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PollResults

OPINIONSTATEMENT:Mythsareusuallywrong.

BEFOREREADING AFTERREADING

HOWYOUVOTED

Agree Agree
Disagree Disagree

Youdidnotchangeyouropinionafterreadingthearticles.

Click here(javascript:void(0))toseetheresponseyouwrotebeforereading.

WORLDWIDERESULTS

Agree 59% Agree 68%

Disagree 41% Disagree 32%

28%changedtheiropinionafterreadingthearticle.

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27/10/2016 Achieve3000:Lesson

Math

PART1

Foryears,peoplethoughtslavesbuilttheGreatPyramids.Studythepyramidinthepicturebelow.Forthiskindof
pyramid,Euler'sformulastatesthefollowing:
VE+F=2whereVisthenumberofvertices,Eisthenumberofedges,andFisthenumberoffaces

RearrangeEuler'sformulatosolveforF.

F=2+EV

F=2EV

F=2+E+V

F=2E+V

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RESULTS

Activity First Second


Try Try

1. Foryears,peoplethoughtslavesbuilttheGreatPyramids.Studythepyramidinthepicture
below.Forthiskindofpyramid,Euler'sformulastatesthefollowing:
VE+F=2whereVisthenumberofvertices,Eisthenumberofedges,andFisthe
numberoffaces

()
RearrangeEuler'sformulatosolveforF.()

ActivityScore 100% 100%

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StretchArticle

PART1

CAIRO,Egypt(Achieve3000,June20,2011).Egyptianarchaeologists
havediscoveredasetoftombsthattheybelievetobelongtoworkerswho
diedduringtheconstructionoftheGreatPyramidsofGiza.TheGreat
PyramidshousethemummiesofEgyptiankings(orpharaohs).According
toexperts,thecenturiesoldburialchambersareconclusiveevidencethat
contrarytopopularmyth,Egypt'sancientpyramidswerebuiltbypaid
laborers,notslaves.

IntheshadowsoftheGreatPyramids,outsidepresentdayCairo,
archaeologistsfoundaseriesoftombs.Thetombscontainadozen
skeletons.Theboneswereperfectlypreservedbydrydesertsand.The Photocredit:AP/AmrNabil
skeletonswerefoundsurroundedbypotsandjarsoncefilledwithsupplies
Archaeologistsbelievetheyhave
fortheafterlife,includingfoodanddrinks.ZahiHawassisheadofEgypt's discoveredthetombsofworkers
SupremeCouncilofAntiquities.AccordingtoHawass,thenewly whobuilttheGreatPyramidsin
discoveredtombsareover4,000yearsold.TheydatetotheFourth Egypt.
Dynasty.Thistimeperiodspansfrom2575BCE(BeforetheCommonEra)
to2467BCE.Duringthistime,theGreatPyramidswereerected.

Archaeologistsbelievethetombs,whicharemadeofmudbrick,belongtolaborerswhobuilttheGreatPyramids.
AccordingtoHawass,itwastypicalforworkers'tombsfromtheFourthDynastytobemadeofmudbrick.
Archaeologistsbelievetherecentlydiscoveredtombscouldnothavebelongedtokingsorothersofhigherrank.Thatis
becausetheywerelackinggoldorothervaluables.Also,thebodieswerenotmummified.

Accordingtopopularbelief,thebuildersoftheGreatPyramidswereslaves.However,expertsonancientEgyptian
historyandculturecalledEgyptologistshavelongdismissedthenotionasmyth.Thelocationoftheworkers'
tombs,Hawasssays,provestheideawrongonceandforall.

"Thesetombswerebuiltbesidetheking'spyramid,whichindicatesthatthesepeoplewerenotbyanymeansslaves.If
theywereslaves,theywouldnothavebeenabletobuildtheirtombsbesidetheirking's."

Sowheredidthemythcomefrom?Expertshaveseveralideas.

DorothyResigisaneditorofBiblicalArchaeologyReview.Resigsuspectsthemythlikelyarosefromthebiblicalbook
ofExodus,whichsays:"SotheEgyptiansenslavedthechildrenofIsraelwithbackbreakinglabor[andthepharaohput
themtoworktobuildbuildings]."

HerodotuswasanancientGreekhistorian.HealsodescribedthepyramidbuildersasIsraeliteslaves.Thismythwas
laterspread,Egyptologistssay,byHollywoodfilms.

DieterWildungistheformerdirectorofBerlin'sEgyptianMuseum."Themythoftheslavesbuildingpyramidsisonly
thestuffoftabloidsandHollywood,"saidWildung.

"Theworldsimplycouldnotbelievethepyramidswerebuiltwithoutoppressionandforcedlabor,butoutofloyaltyto
thepharaohs."Wildungaddedthatitis"commonknowledgeinseriousEgyptology"thatthepyramidbuilderswerenot
slaves.ThepyramidswereconstructedhundredsofyearsbeforetheIsraelitesweresaidtobeinEgypt,hesaid.

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Thenewlydiscoveredtombssupportthenotionthatthepyramidbuilderswereindeedfreecitizens.Slavesornot,
however,thepyramidbuildersdidleadalifeofhardlabor.AdelOkashasupervisedtheexcavation.Okasha
commentedthattheskeletonsinthetombsdisplaysignsofarthritis.Inaddition,theirlowervertebraereveallives
passedindifficulty.

"Theirbonestellusthestoryofhowhardtheyworked,"Okashasaid.

Thelaborers'workonthepyramids,Hawasssaid,washighlyrespected.Thosewhodiedduringconstructionwere
bestowedthehonorofbeingburiednearthesacredstructuresbuiltforthepharaohs.

"Nowaywouldtheyhavebeenburiedsohonorablyiftheywereslaves,"Hawasssaid.

TheAssociatedPresscontributedtothisstory.

PART2

DigDeeper

IntheUnitedStates,someliketothinkthatwithhardworkandgoodluck,peoplecan"strikeitrich"andlivealifeof
ease.InancientEgypt,thatwasn'tthecase.Peoplewereseparatedintoclasses,anditwashardtomovefromone
classtoanother.Royaltymadeupthetopclass.Therulingclass,whichincludedmembersoftheking'sfamily,
priests,andtopofficialswhoassistedtheking,camenext.Soldierswerenext,followedbyscribes,whokepthistorical
andbusinessrecordsandthereforehadtobewelleducated.Merchants,whocouldbecomewealthyinbusiness,were
next.Artisanswithspecialskillsmadejewelry,pottery,tools,andotherusefulordecorativegoods.Artisansrankeda
littlelowerinsocietybecausetheyworkedwiththeirhands,buttheycouldalsomakemoneybysellingtheirgoods.For
thisreason,theywereusuallywealthierthanthepeoplewhorankedbelowthem.Farmers,servants,andslaveswere
atthebottomofthesocialscale.

"WhoBuiltthePyramids?NowWeKnow!"saysthepyramidbuildersweren'tslaves.Sowhatclassdidtheycome
from?It'spossiblethattheyweredrawnfromthelowersocialclasses.WeknowthatinancientEgypt,farmershadto
domorethanjustgrowcropsandtendlivestocktheywereoftencalledupontoquarrystoneandbuildmonuments.
Theworkerswhobuiltthepyramidsmighthavebeendrawnfromthisclass.Farmersweren'texactly"owned"like
slaves,althoughtheymighthavebeenrequiredtoworkforsomeonefromahigherclass.Oneauthorsuggeststhat
theselaborresponsibilitiesweresometimesboughtandsold,soit'spossiblethatifanoblemanwantedtobuilda
monument,hecouldbuylaborfrompeopletowhomitwasowedandusethatlaborforhisownpurposes.Thismight
havebeenthesourceofthelaboryoureadaboutinthearticle.

Thepeopleassembledtobuildroyaltombsoftenlivedintownsbuiltespeciallytohousethemduringthework.Many
livedinmultifamilydwellingslikeapartmentbuildings,whichweremadeofstone.Theyhadfewfurnishings,apartfrom
bedframesandafewbasketsforstorage,andpeoplesateitheronthefloororonlowstools.Onlysomehomeshad
tables.JustasitwasthroughoutEgyptiansociety,thericheryouwere,themorefurnishingsyouhad.Asyouread,
classdivisionsevenoutlastedlifeitself:Highrankingpeoplewereburiedinstonetombsfullofvaluables,whilepeople
oflowerclasseswereburiedintombsmadeofmudbrick.

Dictionary

bestow(verb)presentasagiftoranhonorconfer

conclusive(adjective)definiteconvincing

dynasty(noun)lineofrulerswhocomefromthesamefamily

excavation(noun)removingdirtfromasite,oftenwhereobjectsfromthepastmightbefound

oppression(noun)thestateofbeingdominatedoroverpoweredbysomeoneorsomething

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StretchActivity

PART1

Question1

Thebestalternateheadlineforthisarticlewouldbe__________.

NewlyDiscoveredTombsShedLightonPopularMyth

ArchaeologistsDiscoverTombsofSlavesWhoBuiltPyramids

ArchaeologistsFindLongLostPyramidsofFourthDynastyRulers

NewlyDiscoveredPyramidsFilledWithAntiques

Question2
Considerthisquotefromthearticle:
"Theworldsimplycouldnotbelievethepyramidswerebuiltwithoutoppressionandforcedlabor,butoutof
loyaltytothepharaohs."
Inlightofthemainideasofthisarticle,whatcausedDieterWildungtomakesuchapublicstatement?

Hisdesiretoexplainwhythemythofslavesbuildingthepyramidspersisted

HishopethattheworldwouldbetterunderstandoppressioninEgyptiantimes

HisfrustrationwiththeinaccuratewritingsandideasofhistorianssuchasHerodotus

HisneedtoprovethatBerlin'sEgyptianMuseumwasaheadofitstime

Question3
Whichistheclosestantonymforthewordconclusive?

Obvious

Accurate

Final

Unreliable

Question4
Basedoninformationinthearticle,thereadercanpredictthat__________.

EgyptologistswilltrytoremoveallmentionofHerodotusandhisbeliefsfromhistorical
documents.
EgyptologistswillconcludetheirresearchintoEgyptnowthatthisconclusiveevidencehasbeen
discovered.
Egyptologistswillseektospreadthenewsoftherecentlydiscoveredevidencethatpaidlaborers
builtthepyramids.
Egyptologistswillexplainwhythelongdebatedmythaboutthepyramidbuildersisaccurate.

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Question5
Thearticlestates:
Accordingtoexperts,thecenturiesoldburialchambersareconclusiveevidencethatcontrarytopopular
myth,Egypt'sancientpyramidswerebuiltbypaidlaborers,notslaves.
Whichwouldbetheclosestsynonymforthewordlaborers?

Citizens

Rulers

Scientists

Workers

Question6
Thisarticlecouldbeplacedinacategoryofnewscalled"History."Inwhichothercategorywouldthisarticlefitbest?

HollywoodRumors

TravelTips

MythbustingBeat

GalleriesandMuseums

Question7
Whichbestsummarizesthefirstparagraphofthearticle?

EgyptianlaborersdiedduringtheconstructionoftheGreatPyramids.

TheGreatPyramidsofGizahousethemummiesofEgyptianpharaohs.

ThenewdiscoveryofasetoftombsprovestheGreatPyramidswerebuiltbypaidlaborers.

Egyptianarchaeologistsrecentlydiscoveredasetofcenturiesoldburialchambers.

Question8
Theauthorprobablywrotethisarticleinorderto__________.

InformreadersabouttherecentdiscoveryofvaluableantiquesinEgypt'sGreatPyramidsand
nearbytombs
PointoutseveralmistakesinarecentlyreleasedHollywoodfilmaboutthepeoplewhobuilt
Egypt'spyramids
InformreadersaboutadiscoverythatprovesEgypt'sancientpyramidswerebuiltbypaidlaborers

PointoutthereasonswhyarchaeologistsnowbelieveEgypt'sGreatPyramidsdatetotheFourth
Dynasty

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RESULTS

Activity First Second


Try Try

1. Thebestalternateheadlineforthisarticlewouldbe__________.()

2. Considerthisquotefromthearticle:
"Theworldsimplycouldnotbelievethepyramidswerebuiltwithoutoppression
andforcedlabor,butoutofloyaltytothepharaohs."
Inlightofthemainideasofthisarticle,whatcausedDieterWildungtomakesuchapublic
statement?()

3. Whichistheclosestantonymforthewordconclusive?()

4. Basedoninformationinthearticle,thereadercanpredictthat__________.()

5. Thearticlestates:
Accordingtoexperts,thecenturiesoldburialchambersareconclusiveevidencet
hatcontrarytopopularmyth,Egypt'sancientpyramidswerebuiltbypaidlaborer
s,notslaves.
Whichwouldbetheclosestsynonymforthewordlaborers?()

6. Thisarticlecouldbeplacedinacategoryofnewscalled"History."Inwhichothercategory
wouldthisarticlefitbest?()

7. Whichbestsummarizesthefirstparagraphofthearticle?()

8. Theauthorprobablywrotethisarticleinorderto__________.()

ActivityScore 100% 100%

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