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2004 IEEEIPES Transmission 8 Distribution Conference & Exposition: Latin America

GCSC - Gate Controlled Series Capacitor: a


New Facts Device for Series Compensation of
- . . -.
'lransmission Lines
E. H. Watanabe, Senior Member, IEEE, L. F. W.de Souza, Member, IEEE, F. D. de Jesus,
J. E. R. Alves, Member, IEEE and A. Bianco, Member, IEEE

also to improve power system stability, through the fast ac-


Abstract - Controllable series compensation is a useful tech- tuation of its control loops after disturbances. Moreover, re-
nique to increase tbc efficiency of operation of existing transmis- cent changes in the power industry throughout the world in-
sion lines and improve overall power system stability. Up to date, creased the interest in equipment capable of control power
the TCSC is the most adopted solution whenever controllable
flow through pre-determined paths, meeting transmission
series compensation is required. This paper introduces the Gate
Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC), a novel FACTS device for contract requirements even in highly meshed systems.
series compensation. The principle of operation and some pro- Thyristor Controlled Series Compensators (TCSC) were
spective applications of the equipment nre presented. Special the first generation of series compensation FACTS devices.
attention is given to the duaIity of the GCSC with the well-known Actually, TCSC may be credited as a cornerstone of FACTS
thyristor controlled renctor, used for sbunt compensation. It is deveIopment, as the first equipment developed under the
shown that the GCSC can be more attractive than the TCSC in
FACTS concept. TCSC are made of a parallel connection of a
most situations. Simulation results illustrate the time response of
the equipment and its ability to control power flow in a transmis- capacitor and a thyristor-controlled reactor [2]. In fact, the
sion line. Finally, technology issues regarding high power self TCSC is simply a static voltage controller (SVC) [3] con-
commutating valves are discussed. nected in series with a transmission line. The thyristor is its
switching device. Existing TCSC installation in the world and
Ztidex TermsScries Compensation, TCSC, GCSC, FACTS. in Brazil already proved the efficiency and robustness of the
equipment. Although the TCSC is capable of continuously
I. INTRODUCTION adjust its reactance, it has the disadvantage of presenting a

N owadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to build


new transmission lines, due to restrictions regarding en-
vironment and financial issues. Besides that, electrical
parallel resonance between the capacitor and the thyristor
controlled reactor at the fundamental frequency, for a given
firing angle of the thyristor. Also, the variation range of the
energy consumption continues to increase, leading to a situa- reactance presented by the TCSC is somewhat narrow.
tion where utilities and independent system operators have ta This paper presents a novel equipment for controlled series
operate existing transmission systems much more efficiently compensation: the Gate Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC)
and closer to their stability limits. One important benefit of [4]. The GCSC, shown in Fig. 1, based on a concept first in-
FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) technology is troduced by Kurudy et al. [SI, is made simply of a capacitor
that it makes it possible to improve the use of the existing and a pair of self-cornmutated semiconductor switches in anti-
power transmission system and to postpone or avoid the con- parallel, e.g., the GTO (Gate Tum-off Thyristor) or the IGCT
struction of new transmission facilities. (Wegrated Gate Commutated Thyristor) [6]. It i s capable of
Among FACTS devices, those for series compensation continuously vary its reactance from zero to the maximum
play an important role in a country as Brazil, where long compensation provided by the capacitor. The GCSC is simpler
transmission lines connect remote hydro-generation plants to
Iarge urban areas. Conventional series compensation, provided
by f i e d capacitor bank, is a useful tool to improve the power
transfer capacity by neutralizing part of the series reactance of
transmission lines [I]. With the new controlled series compen-
sators, it is possible not only to control the power flow
through transmission lines, avoiding power flow loops, but

E. H. Watauabe and F. D.de Jesus a n with the Federal University of Rio


de Jaaeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil( watanahe@ufj.br; fabio@coe,uf?.br).
L. F. W. de Souza and J. E.R. Alves are with Cepel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ.
Brasil (Ifclipe@cepel.br; alves@cepel.br).
A. Bianco is with Andrade e Cauellas Consulting, S a Paulo, SP,Brasil
(andre.bianco@andradecanellas.com.br). -
Fig. I The Gate ControolledSeries Capacitor 4 C S C .

0-7803-8775-9/041$20.00 02004 IEEE 981

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-I
90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
Y (degrees)
-
Pig. 3 F u n k n t a l impedance of the GCSC as a function of the blocking
angle
ductor switches. This blocking angle y is measured from the
zero crossing of the line current. Fig. 2 shows typical current
Fig. 2 -Typical voltage and current waveforms of the GCSC and voltage waveforms for the GCSC of Fig. 1, for a given
than the TCSC, utilizes a smaller capacitor, does not need any blocking angle y. It is assumed that the transmission line cur-
reactor and, differently from the TCSC, does not have an in- tent, i,is sinusoidal. In order to avoid dc voltage components
trinsic internal resonance. For these reasons, the GCSC may in the series capacitor, during normal operation, the blocking
be a better solution in most situations where controlled series angle y should be greater than 90" and smaller than 180'.
compensation is required. One potentially interesting applica- Fig. 3 shows the relation between the fundamental imped-
tion of the GCSC is in the retrofitting of existing fixed series ance of the GCSC and the blocking angle y. A blocking angle
capacitors, making them FACTS devices. Another FACTS of 90" means that the capacitor is fully inserted in the circuit,
devices developed for series compensation is the SSSC (Static that is, the fundamental impedance is 1 p.u and the switches
Synchronous Series Compensator) which is based on voltage are turned off completely. On the other hand, if the blocking
source converters .[2]. This device presents high flexibility angle is 180",the switches are on full conduction, bypassing
level but has a much higher cost involved due to the complex- the capacitor, meaning a zero impedance. So, a continuous
ity of the converters. variation of the equivalent series capacitance of the GCSC is
This paper presents the GCSC, its main components, prin- achievable in the range of 90" < y < 180".
ciple of operation, typical waveforms and main applications. Referring again to Fig. 2, one can see that the voltage
An important issue discussed in this paper is the duality of the waveform in the capacitor is non-sinusoidal. Fig. 4 shows the
GCSC with the well-known TCR,largely used in static com- main harmonic components of the voltage waveforms as a
pensation. Some rating comparisons with the TCSC are pre- function of the blocking angle y. The voltages are in per-unit
sented, showing that the GCSC may have several advantages values of the capacitor maximum voltage. As the voltage in
over the TCSC. Technological problems and possible trends the GCSC is lower than the system voltage, depending on the
relating to the development of high-voltage and high-current compensation level, the harmonics will be proportionally
self-commutated valves ate also discussed. Results of ATP lower, in percent values, when converted to the system basis.
digital simulations are presented, showing time-responses of
the GCSC and proving its effectiveness in controlling power B. Prospective Applications
ffow through a meshed transmission system. The GCSC could be typically used in applications where a
TCSC is used today, mainly in the control of power flow and
11. GATECONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR damping of power oscillations. The GCSC may operate with

,
an open Ioop configuration, where it would simply control its
A. Principle of Operalion reactance, or in closed loop, controlling power flow or current
From Fig. 1, one can see that if the self-cornmutated in the line, or maintaining a constant compensation voltage
switches turn off, the capacitor is inserted in the circuit, com- [2]. Power Oscillation Damping schemes may also be easily
pensating the line inductance. When the switches are turned Hannonlcs In like GCSC
0.2, I
on, the capacitor is bypassed, canceling the compensation ef-
fect. The switches start to conduct only when their anode-
cathode voltage tends to become positive, exactly when the
capacitor voltage vc is zero. The line current i of the con- ow
trolled power line flows altemately through the switches and
the series capacitor. U1
The level of series compensation is given by the funda- 4 2
mental component of the capacitor voltage VC. This level may 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
Y (&grreS)
be varied by controlling the blocking angle y of the semicon-
Fig.4 - Harmonic voltages in the GCSC as a function of the blocking angle y.

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attainable with the GCSC.


The typical configuration of the GCSC would be a system /I- II
composed of smaller devices connected in series, in a so-
called multi-module configuration. In this configuration, the
semiconductor valves have lower voltages and voltage har-
+
monic distortions are kept low.
The comparison between a GCSC and a TCSC will favor -2

the fmt equipment in most situations where controllable series ctmn 183
~ringalgleNdeim=)
compensation is needed (see Section III). As research on the Fig. 5- Typical impedance characteristicof the TCSC.
GCSC is still under way, it is possible that a break-even MVA
rating is found, above which the TCSC will be more advanta- function of the firing angle a. The region where operation is
geous due to possible valves and protection requirements of allowed is shaded. The resonance is also shown in this figure.
the GCSC. The authors foreseen that the GCSC should also be , ,Z and Z, are the maximum and minimum values of the
impedance of the TCSC operating in the capacitive region.
a very interesting alternative for retrofitting fixed series ca-
pacitor installations, making them FACTS devices. Z, corresponds to the capacitive reactance oniy, that is, at
this point the thyristors do not conduct and the reactor is not
HI. DUALITY wml TZIE THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR present. , Z
, corresponds to the value of equivalent imped-
ance of the capacitor and the thyristor controlled reactor for
One interesting feature of the GCSC is that its operation is the minimum fuing angle ami,,. This angle is limited in order
exactly the dual of the well-known thyristor Controlled reactor to avoid the potentially dangerous operation near the parallel
( E R ) [2][3], used for shunt compensation, usually with a
resonance region.
fKed capacitor in parallel. In fact, one may easily observe that For the GCSC, the minimum reactance is equal to zero.
the voltage waveform o f the GCSC shown in Fig. 2 is similar
The maximum reactance, which corresponds to the capacitor
to current waveforms of the TCR (e.g., see [2] and [3]). Table
reactance, should be equal to Zmx of the TCSC to obtain the
1 shows a comparison between the dual characteristics of both
same maximum compensation level. The relationship between
equipment. The duality can easily be extended to the valves
[7],making it easier to understand the requisites of a GCSC capacitances of both devices is the following:
valve. Considering that the TCR is the dual of the GCSC and CCLX - 2"
that the former is a longtime adopted solution for controlled (1)
CTCX zm,
shunt compensation, one may conclude that the GCSC is the
natural solution for controlled series compensation.
Moreover, the same steady-state voltage is applied to both
the TCSC and GCSC capacitors. As for the current, it is al-
CHARACTERlSTlCS OF THE GCSC AND THE TCR
TABLE1 -DUAL ways higher in the TCSC than in the GCSC [XI, as the paral-
Gate Controlled Series Capacitor I Thyristor CothUed Reactor lel-connected TCR needs to boost the capacitor current in or-
D Semiconductor switches in S&condu& in
switches der to increase the capacitor voltage.
parallel witb a capacitor series with a reactor Besides needing a larger capacitor, the TCSC will also
L Series connected to transmis- Shunt connected to transmis- need a reactor that should be rated for the same current of the
sion lines sion lines valve. As a general conclusion, the GCSC needs less passive
ISupplied by a current source Supplied by a voltage source components, as its capacitor is much smaller, with lower cur-
ISwitches control amount of Switches control amount of rent rating, and it does not need any reactor at all.
current in the caDacitor voltage in the reactor The valve currents in the TCSC are always higher for de-
e Voltage controlled by switches' Current controlledby switches' vices where the relation between the maximum and minimum
blocking angle m g ansle impedance is greater than 2, what happens in most of the ex-
ISwitches 6re and block with Switches fire and block witb istent installations throughout the world [2][8]. On the other
zero voltage zero current hand, the GCSC valves should be rated for a voltage slightly
higher [XI.
B. Example ofcomparison the BruziIiun North-South Inter-
~

A. Main Components connection


A simple comparison of rating of the GCSC and the widely To illustrate the previous conclusions, a GCSC was rated to
adopted TCSC is presented here. For this analysis, although prospectively substitute one of the TCSC already installed in
the TCSC may be designed to operate in the inductive region, the Brazilian North-South Interconnection [SI. This transmis-
it is assumed that it normally operates only in the capacitive sion line needs a series controller to damp out a low frequency
region. Also, it is considered that the maximum compensation power oscillation between Brazilian North and South grids.
capacity is equal for both devices: they should have the same The existent TCSC has a reactive power rating of I D S Mvar
maximum capacitive impedance when compensating at their and is installed in a 550 kV transmission line with a rated CUT-
maximum. rent of 1500 A. This equipment normally operates with a ca-
Fig. 5 shows a typical impedance curve for a TCSC, as a pacitive reactance of 15.92 0, when there is no need of

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-
Fig. 6 GCSC connected to a current source
17KlD1
15WO
, , , , I
06 08 I 1.2 14 16 ia
damping power swings. time ( 5 )
For rating purposes, it was assumed that the GCSC should Pig.8 - Open loop responses of the GCSC and TCSC with low levels of com-
have the same maximum reactance and nominal Mvar of the pensation, varying f"35% to 45% at 800 ms, and back to 35% at 1.3s
TCSC. Also, it was assumed that the GCSC operates at the
same continuous effective reactance of the TCSC. It should be v. RE-SULTSOF DIGITAL fhdlLATIONS
pointed out that, although both devices have the same function
in the power system, they are quite different. For this reason, A. Time Responses
other designing strategies are possible for the GCSC, but it is The GCSC can rapidly vary its reactance, whenever its
beyond the scope of this paper to find an optimal designing blocking angle signal is varied. To demonstrate that, a simple
strategy. Table 2 Summarizes the basic characteristics of the system was modeled in the ATP simulation package, consist-
existing TCSC and a GCSC proposed to substitute it. ing of a GCSC fed by a current source, as shown in Fig. 6.
TABLE 2 -EXISTENT TcsC A N D PROFQSED wsc RATINGS FOR %AZIUAN The GCSC has a maximum reactance of 26.5 R. Initially, the
NORTH-SOUTH INTERCONNECTION
self-commutated switches are operating with a blocking angle
Parameter TCSC I ccsc j of 120". At Zooms, the compensation level is decreased by
Capacitor Reactance 13.27 i2 39.81R increasing the blocking angle to 150'. Then, at Moms, the
Capacitance 200 p 66.6 pF compensation level is returned to the initial value. The result
Max. Reactance 39.81 Q 39.81Q of the simulation is shown in Fig. 7.
Dynamic Control Range 13.27- 39.81 Cl 0 - 39.81 R The topology shown in Fig. 6, although very simple, is in-
Max. Fundamental Voltage 59.7 kV 59.7kV
teresting to analyze the dynamic behavior of the equipment, as
Max. RMS Voltage 60.3 kV 59.7kV
Max. RMS Capacitor Current 5025 A 1500 A
the only other element in the network is an ideal current
Max. Reactor Current (rms) 3735 A no reactor source. The same topology is used in the ATP to test both the
Max. Valve Current (rms) 3735 A 1500 A GCSC and TCSC of Table 2. The current source now has an
Mm.Voltage of the Valves 51.34I 59.73/ rms magnitude of 1500 A. In the fust simulation, each equip-
(rindpeak) 74.41kV 84.47 kV ment is compensating at low level (35% of X-). Next, the
compensation increases to 45% and decreases again to 35%.
Fig. 8 shows the fundamental voltage response of each
equipment to this input. Both equipment have similar open
loop responses at this level of compensation.
Another simulation was performed, with higher levels of
1.5
(kv)
1

0.5

4.5
0

-1

-1.5 0

E
0.1

)-I200
0.2
Time ( 5 )

I.
0.3

FI 50'
r
0.4

[ FI20'
t
=z
%?ow
40000

06 08 1 12
tune (SI
14 16

Fig 9 - Open loop responses of the GCSC and TCSC w~thhgh levefs of
IB

Fig.7 -
Time response of a GCSC connected to a current source compensation, varymg from 80% to 90% at BOO ms,and back to 80% at 13 s

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' Fig, 10 -Equivalent 500 kV and 765 LV Sy&m of the South of Brazil.
series compensation. Now the blocking angle is varied fiom power flows in both lines before and &er the increment of
80% to 90% and back to 80%, in a pattern similar to that of compensation by the GCSC. It i s clear that the device could
the previous simulation. The results are in Fig. 9. It is clear quickly establish power flow equilibrium between both lines.
that the TCSC is much slower than the GCSC at high levels of This test shows, in fact, that the GCSC can be used to control
compensation, i. e., with high currents af capacitor and reac- power flow at different levels, which can be chosen by the
tor. On the other hand, the open loop response of the GCSC system operator. Fig. 12 shows the voltage in the GCSC be-
does not differ too much from that shown in Fig. 8, with low fore and after the step in the compensation of Line 2.
level of series compensation.
VI. HIGH POWER SELF-COMMLJTATED VALVES: SOME
B. Power Flow Scheduling in a Meshed Network
,"OLOGlCAL T"Ds
Zn order to show the capability of the GCSC to control
The design of a reliable high power self-commutated
power flows, an ATP simulation of a meshed transmission
switch is of paramount importance for the development and
system was performed. The system, shown in Fig. 10, is an
manufacturing of a GCSC for an EHV transmission line. A
equivalent of part of the 500 kV and 750 kV South-Southeast
typical GCSC would he a multi-module equipment. Each
Brazilian Network. Transmission lines 1 and 2, both in
module might be designed to be a small GCSC cell, compris-
500 kV, form a loop-flow: PI in Line 1 is 50% higher than the
ing a relatively low voltage switch valve or even a single pair
P2 in Line 2. A GCSC, capable of compensate up to 80% of
of high power switches. Several GCSC cells could be con-
series reactance, is operating with about half of its capacity.
nected in series to form larger multi-module GCSC. The self-
The GCSC increases its compensation to the maximum,
commutated switch could be the GTO or, most likely, a more
thus boosting the power flow through line 2 and establishing
modern semiconductor device, like the IGCT. The switch has
the balance between the usage of both lines. Fig. 11 shows the
to be of the symmetrical type, in order to block reverse volt-
2000 I
I
j
. . .. I
l_._._.l_l_-..
F1400
E 50
5 l2O0
g o
::I
g 1000

400
03
,

04
- 05 06 07
; -50

time 6)
Fig I 1 - Power flows through Lines I and 2. after campensailon of Line 2
increases from 43%to 80% of the senes reactance

1 d

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6

ages. [4] A. A. Edris, Tower Electronic-Based T&D Controllers At Technologi-


cal Crossroad", EPRI Journal O n h e , August 2002 at
Even with small GCSC cells, it may be necessary to con- http://www.epri.con~~~~~.~p?d~~ea~&id~63.
nect a number of semiconductor switches in series. The series [5] G. G. Karady, T. H. Orbmyer. B. R F'ilvelait, D. Maratukulam, "Con-
connection of GTO in hard-commutated converters to form tinuously Regulated Series Capacitor," IEEE Trnns. Power Delrvery,
high power adjustable speed drive systems (ASD) has been a vol. 8, no.3, July 1993, pp. 1348-1354.
L. F. W.de S o w E.H. Watanabe, M Aredcs, %TO Controlled Series
technical challenge for years. This is not the case of the [6] Capacitors: Multi-modde and Multi-pulse Arrangements,"IEEE Tram.
GCSC, as it is a zero voltage switching equipment, what Power Delivery, vol. 15, no. 2. April 2000. pp. 725-731.
makes the series connection of self-commutated switches {TJ L.F. W.de S o w E.H. Waianabe, M Aredcs. "A GTO Controlled
Series Capacitor for Distribution Lines," Proceedings of CIG& 1998
much easier [9]. Care must be taken with stray inductances Session, Session 14, paper 201, Paris,August 1998.
due to leads and cables that should be considered in the proj- [8] L. F. W.de So- E. H. Watanabe, I. E. R. Alves, L. A. S. Pilotto.
ect of snubber circuits. Another important issue to consider is 'Thyristor and Gate Controlled Series Capaci-tors:Comparison of Com-
ponents Rating", Proceedings of IEEE PES General Meeting, Toronto,
the Wdt limit of the semiconductor switches [lo]. July 2003.
191 E. H.Wafanabe. M Aredes, L.P. W.de S o w M D. BelIar, "Series
VII. CONCLUSIONS C o d o n of Power Switches for Very High Power Appkications and
Zero Voltage Switching." IEEE Trans. Power Elecironics, voL 15. no. 1,
This paper presented a novel equipment for controllable se- January 2000, pp. 44-50.
ries compensation of transmission lines: Gate Controlled Se- [IO] M U N e j 4 T.H. Ortmeyer, "GTO TZlyristor Controlled Series Capaci-
ries Capacitor (GCSC). Some of the basic concepts behind the tor Switch Performance,"IEEE Trnns. Power Delivery, vol. 13, no. 2,
April 1998. pp. 615-621.
equipment were reviewed. Emphasis was given to the fact that
the GCSC is the dual device of the Thyristor Controlled Re- E.BIOGRAPHIES
actor (TCR). This special characteristic not only helps to un-
Edson EIimkam Wntannbe (M'76, SM'02) was born in Rio dc Janeiro State,
derstand the GCSC principle of operation, but also makes the Brazil, on November 07, 1952. He received the B.Sc. in Electronic Engineer-
analysis and possibly the equipment design rather easier. Due ing and MSc. in Electrical Engineering in 1975 and 1976, respectively, h m
to this duality, the authors believe that the GCSC may be a the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. In 1981 he got the D.Eng. degree
&om Tokyo Institute of Tecbnology,Japan. In 1981 he became an Associate
more natural solution for series compensation than the TCSC, Professor and in 1993 a Professor at COPPEiFederal University of Rio de
and may be as widely adopted for series compensation as the Janeiro. where he teaches Power Eleclronics. His main fields of interests arc
TCR is for shunt Compensation. converters analysis, mcdeling and desim active filters and FACTS technolo-
gies.Dr. Watanabe is a member of the IEEJapan, The Brazilian Society for
Comparison with the TCSC has shown that the GCSC is Automatic Controland The Brazilian Power Elecbnics Society.
more compact, with lesser passive components: it does not Luiz Felipe W ~ W de I Son= (S'94, A'98, M W )was bom in Niterbi, Rio
need reactors and its capacitor bank is much smaller. Also, the de Janeiro State. B d . on Januaty IO. 1972. He received the B.Sc. degree
switches and capacitor currents are smaller in the GCSC. Be- from Flumineme Federal University, Rio de Janeiro State, in 1994 a d the
U&.degree in Electrical Engineering from Federal University of Rio de
sides that, the semiconductor of the GCSC should be rated to a Janeiro in 1998. He is cwenlly w o r m towards his doctorate degree at Fed-
slightly higher voltage than the SCR valves of the TCSC. eral University of Rio de Janeiro. From 1994 to 1996 he worked at Fumas
Some important issues regarding the development of high- Centrais Eltirifas W A as a hydro power plant maintenance engineer. Since
1996 he works at CEPEL as a research engineer. His main fields o f interests
power valves are discussed. The main focus is the need of are power quality and FACTS.
development of a high-power valve comprising series con- Fhbio Domingues de Jesw was bom in Bnrretos, S b Paul0 State, B m l , on
nected self-commutated switches capable of blocking reverse M a y 12, 1971. He reoeived the E. S. degree in Electrical Engineering fiom
Federal Institutionof High Education of SHO Jo%Odel Rei, Brazil in 2000 and
voltage. Attention should also be given to the rate of rise of the U S c . degree at Elecbical Engineering Deprbmni in Federal University
current in the valves. of Juiz de Fora, Brazil in 2002. He is pursing his D.Sc.degree at Electrical
Simulation results demonstrate the operating principles of -
Engineering Department from COPPE Federal University of Rio de Jnneim,
the GCSC. Its open-loop dynamical response is faster than B m i l His present research interests include the high-power electronics, m d y -
sis and mni~olin FACTS.
that of the TCSC, specially at higher compensation levels. JX.k Alvm Jr. (M'92F was h m in Juiz de Fora, B d , on November 30,
Also, an example proved the capability of the GCSC to con- 1963. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc. and D.Sc.degrees in electrical engineer-
trol power flow in transmission lines. ing, in 1986,1991 and 1999, respectivety. fiom the Federal University of Rio
de Janeiro. Since.1995 he has been w orm at CEPEL, the Brazilian Eleclrical
As a final remark, the authors believe that this new device Energy Research Center. He is currently Projwt Manager. Dr.Aives' research
may be an excellent solution for transmission line controlled interests are in the analysis of HVdc "ission systems, FACTS devices,
series compensation. In the near future, the authors expect to Power Electronic controllers, Distribution Systems and Metering. He became
a Member of the Institute of Electrical and Elecbnics Engineers (EEE) in
prove this technology by developing a full-scale GCSC pro- 1992. He is currently a Member of the IEEE Power Engineering Society and
totype to operate in an HV transmission system. Sectetary of IEEERio de Janeiro Section.
A n d d Bmnm "99) was born in Nova Igmqy Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on
VIII. R E " C E . 3 Junc 27, 1967. He received ttte B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical enpi-
neering, in 1990 and 1994, respectively fiom the Gama Filho University and
[I] E. W.Kimbark "Improvementof System Stability by Switched Series from the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. From 1990 to 2003 he was
Capacitor,"JEW Trans. Power Apparatus undSystems, vol. 85, Febm- with =EL, initially as a graduafd student and then as a research engineer
ary 1966,pp. 180-188. with inkrest in the transienddynamic analysis of power systems includmg
[2] N. m o r a n i , L. Gyugyi Understanding FACIS: Concept.? and Tech- HVdc transmission and FACTS devices.In 2004, Mr.Bianco joined Andrade
n d o ofFlexible
~ AC Trmsmmton SysIrms. EEE Press,2000. & Canellas Consulting, where he is the head of the elechical and energetic
[31 T.J.E.Miller, Rractrve Power Control in Ekcfric Systems. New York studies group.
Wiley, 1982.

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