Você está na página 1de 58
CFTRA Global Confidence Foundation A Peer Reviewed Refereed Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to
CFTRA Global
Confidence Foundation
A Peer Reviewed Refereed Journal
Vol IV issue no 2
May to August 2017

CONTENTS

Sr.

Title

Author

Page No.

No.

1.

Voces ex machina: a literature review of the key elements necessary for success in online courses.

Dr. Willie McGuire

1- 10

 

Female Identity in the poems Rupi Kaur's Milk

   

2.

And Honey and select short stories of James Trip Tree's

Dr. Neelam Tikkha

11- 21

 

Mentoring in Educational Institutes:

   

3.

A Holistic Approach

Dr. Anita Patra

22

- 31

4.

Portrayal of Women in Shashi Deshpande's Novels

Prof. N. V. Gohad

32-35

 

A Study Of The Influence of Study Habits on

   

5.

Academic Achievement Of Higher Secondary School Students Of Raipur

Dr. Sonali N. Channawar

36

- 42

6.

Organised Labour and Labour Organisation

Pramodkumar S. Chopkar

43

- 48

 

Environmental Problems and its

Dr. Pravina

 

7.

Social Implications

Nagpurkar

49-53

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Voces ex machina: a literature review of the key elements necessary for success in online courses.

Willie McGuire

Abstract

University of Glasgow

This paper begins with a description of the architecture of an online teacher education course the evolution of which was informed by this critical review. The course structure is described; links between online learning and teacher education are outlined; key research questions are identified; a synoptic overview of the online course is provided and finally a critically review of key literature is given in relation to the factors affecting success in online platforms. The review itself is contextualised using the three online learning domains identified in the seminal work of Garrison, D.R, and Anderson, T. (2003): Teacher-student interaction (T-S), its reverse, (S-T), and finally, Student-Design interaction (S-D) in which the student interacts with the course design itself. Ultimately, the findings are amplified in the conclusions section and success vectors identified.

Context of the Review

The School of Education of Glasgow University designed and implemented a unique programme of study in Scotland in 2014 through close collaboration with Dumfries and Galloway Council and the University of Paisley through directly funded support from the Scottish Executive. The Council had faced considerable challenges when attempting to recruit appropriately qualified Secondary school teachers, particularly in English and the Sciences. The geographic position of this authority in relation to ITE providers together with its internal scale combined to create significant staffing difficulties. One potential solution was felt to be the provision of Professional Graduate Diploma courses in a range of shortage subjects delivered through the medium of distance learning in conjunction with the University of Paisley. So, Glasgow University agreed to provide the necessary subject-related components for a PGDE (Secondary) in English as part of this synergistic work with Paisley University.

Online Learning and Teacher Education: A Widened Perspective

While the online learning construct just described might appear to be singular and esoteric as a one-of-a- kind distance learning course, online learning as a pedagogic tool or scaffold to support teacher education is a phenomenon in the throes of considerable growth within University Schools of Education in Scotland (and even globally if we examine the geographies of the articles selected for review). In Glasgow, the platform used is Moodle; in Strathclyde, Blackboard, whereas the universities of Stirling and Aberdeen both use WebCT. These developments within Higher Education environments are happening against the wider backdrop of online developments on a national level for schools such as the National Grid for Learning in England, the recent launch of the schools' intranet GLOW in Scotland and developments in e-assessment by the Scottish Qualifications Authority.

It is arguable, therefore, the development of our knowledge of online environments is significant both intrinsically, for use within our own teacher education courses and extrinsically, for use by our graduates within the Further education, Secondary, and Primary sectors.

Indeed, while Ramsden (2003) argued that, “Higher education has become part of a global shift to a new way of creating and using knowledge,” his sentiments could hardly be more apposite to the imaginative crossroads at which we now find ourselves in terms of the opportunities and challenges presented by online

1
1
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Voces ex machina:

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

learning in the 21st century as, according to Anderson, T (2004) “it [online learning] is still very much in a fluid and changing state,” while at the same time curricular change at the level of the school curriculum is seismic.

Key research question: What are the key elements necessary for success in online learning environments?

A cross – sectional view of the online course

 
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 learning in the

Overview

It may be helpful, at this point, to provide a synoptic overview of the actual course design as a referent for the literature review that follows. Initially conceived of as a course requiring minimal levels of intervention, it was based on an established and successful course (according to both student and external examiner evaluations). It was, therefore, assumed that it should be able to run with minimal tutor input. However, as the course progressed, this minimalist viewpoint changed. It became evident that no matter how well-prepared the instructional design of the course is, there appears to be an imperative towards humanising the machine environment, so that tutors really hear the voces ex machina – the voices from the machine. Tutors will attempt this, as will students as is evinced in their meetings in a real café instead of the perfectly functional virtual café provided online. At the heart of online learning there also seems to be the need to interact not only with the medium and the activities (inner or outer) but also with each other and with tutors.

The course was designed to be a mirror image of its faculty-based counterpart to create an authentic learning experience for the participants and to dilute the text-based form of the medium. It began with a f2f meeting during which students were also provided with a training session on the use of the Moodle intranet. The online course is divided into three units of learning which mirror those of the conventional course. Each unit is then sub-divided into learning blocks. These blocks contain links to journal articles, professional literature and also serve as a receptacle for the collaborative work of students. Each block opens with a 'signposting' providing direction for the learner through the activities associated with the block. Skeletally, each block is gelled together by a podcast of the lecture and a copy of the power point used with that lecture together with electronic copies of all resources issued at the lecture. Students are asked to listen to the podcast while tracking through the power point at the same time. Activities are of two kinds: inner activities, which are asynchronous and outer activities, which are broadly synchronous and require collaboration in the conferencing forum. All activities are designed to be authentic in terms of their direct applicability to the professional skills required while on school placements. A social forum is also provided to enable students to support each other through the course. To enhance the outer activities and to promote greater interaction, a chat room is provided and the opportunity for teacher-student interaction via not only the forum but also through direct e-mail and telephone contact. Online

 
2
2
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 learning in the

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

journals are also used to create the opportunity for critical reflection while students are on teaching placements. The following review, then, explores what the literature says about the key elements for successful online learning.

Literature Review

This critical review begins with an attempt to frame the course within the parameters defined by Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T. (2003) and to then weigh these against the other findings in the literature. The comment by Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T (2003:2) that we are still experiencing e-learning in its embryonic form and that it is currently an “enhancement of current practices” and echoing the sentiments of Marshall McLuhan (1995) that “the content of a new medium is always an older medium,” certainly resonates with this university teacher in terms of his own professional development as an online provider. Key management strategies are provided including: the use of a collaborative, constructivist approaches; the need to protect against information overload; managing experiences both individual and collective; creating the opportunities for active learning as well as emphasising the communicative and interactive features of online learning. Citing Bereiter's (1992) idea that “the teaching of high level concepts inevitably involves a considerable amount of discourse” they ask if e-learning can change the “educational transaction” to “fuse individual objective and shared objective worlds” (2003: 3) to create a blend of individual and collaborative learning experiences. Additionally, the transactional qualities of online learning are emphasised, in order to create an appropriate balance between content and depth of learning and so the following analysis will make use of the categories and focus on the broad interactive strategies of: student-design (S-D), tutor-student (T-S) and student-tutor (T-S) interactions.

Anderson, T. (2004) follows up on this earlier work using the “four lenses of convergence for virtual learning environments” devised by Bransford, Brown and Cocking (1991) cited in Anderson, T. (2004:35). The four key “convergences” are: the learner-centric; knowledge-centric; assessment-centric and the community- centric. Addressing the central problem of learner centredness means the need to know something of student's pre-existing knowledge and while Anderson, T. (2004) recognises that this is a significant problem in online learning, his solution - a kind of middle way – to make time for the student to “express any issues or concerns” possibly through the use of “virtual icebreakers,” (2004:36) cannot address the fundamental problem he identifies - whether the student is a match to the course as well as the reverse. Within the boundaries of the knowledge - centred dimension, Anderson, T. (2004) also identifies a number of crucial concepts and, in particular, the idea that the subject itself will have an impact on how it is transmuted into the course in terms of content and so: “effective learning is both defined and bounded by the epistemology, language and context of disciplinary thought.” (2004:37).

In terms of assessment, the importance of formative feedback is stressed as well as student self - evaluation while the final dimension of community - centredness is more problematic in that it is more challenging than we might think to sustain online communities. To reinforce this, Anderson cites an ethnographic study by Hine (2000) in which a lack of “placedness” (2004:40) was found among the students, although ultimately, Anderson re-emphasises the importance of interaction, both expanding and amplifying his earlier work with Garrison, D. R. and Anderson, T. (2003) to broaden the scope of online interaction to:

student–student, student-content, tutor-tutor, tutor-content, and content-content.

3
3
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 journals are also

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

The earlier work of Britain, S. and Liber, O. (1999:1) is also significant for the later study in that it “focuses on developing a theoretical basis from which to draw pedagogical evaluation criteria.” In it, they cite three models of online architecture: the “content and support; the wrap-around model, (where materials are wrapped by activities and discussions); the integrated approach (which is resource-based with dynamic contents and with contributions by tutors)” and although they rightly point out that the focus in much of the literature is, perhaps, misdirected as improving quality “and learning and teaching and reducing administrative burdens will not per se improve attainment outcomes.” Essentially, their work identifies four criteria drawn from Laurillard's (1993) conversation framework, the key characteristics of which are the: discursive, adaptive, interactive and reflective domains from which they extrapolate four helpful key questions to be asked in the process of evaluating the effectiveness of an online course: How well does it support conversation? (T-S, S-S); How easy is it to adapt activities? (S-D, T-D); Does it allow students to reconstruct the materials presented? (S- D); and are there opportunities for reflection? (S-S, S-T, T-S). Using the emboldened categories devised by Garrison, D. R. and Anderson, T. (2003), it can be seen (via the mapping) that Britain, S. and Liber, O. (1999) are strongly supportive of an interaction-based, constructivist model of online course design.

This constructivist philosophy is also evident in the work of Jennings, D. (2005) who, citing Ramsden, P. (1992) argues that students are “interacting with and transforming received knowledge so as to make it their own and make it personally meaningful.” (2005:160). According to Jennings, D. (2005:160) citing Nicol et al (2002) students do this by “actively constructing or reconstructing information.” Indeed, he takes this idea one step further by positing that one of the potentials for blended learning environments is the possibility that “the academic may…initiate online collaborative projects to stimulate and develop ideas and theories beyond their face-to-face meetings.” (2005:Introduction). In other words, the potentialities for the mutual support of both the online and the f2f elements of the course are observed. Jennings goes on to construct a “set of guiding principles” (2005:160) to determine, “the measure of a learning environment” (2005:160) and argues that it should provide: clear learning objectives and learning outcomes; learning grounded in effective, i.e. contextual, authentic, case-based examples; a manageable workload; an emphasis on time to be spent on task; encouragement for contact between students and faculty; an environment where reciprocity and co-operation are fostered among students; opportunities for active learning; deep learning; relevant assessment; rewards for critical thinking; prompt feedback that is commensurate with performance; high expectations; and respect and the accommodation of diverse ways of learning. The flaw in the paper is that is does not delineate how these, entirely laudable, goals are to be achieved and at what cost.

The case study by Kim, H. and Hannafin, M. J. (2007) using case-based reasoning in the training of teachers narrows the (perhaps dilated) evaluative lens of Jennings, D. (2005) somewhat to emphasise the importance of four key issues: situated learning, the use of expert cases, authentic tasks, and activities for novice learners in online courses. Citing Brown et al (1989) and Lave and Wenger (1991) the ideas of both cognitive apprenticeship and legitimate peripheral participation clearly underpin this paper. Indeed, the authors believe that students “apprentice in the experts' practices” (2007:151) while developing the understanding, knowledge and skill of a given community and prospective teachers seek to develop the knowledge and skill of expert teachers as well as to transition to the teaching community of practice.

The key problem rightly identified by Putnam and Borko (2000) as well as Sykes and Bird (1992) cited

 
4
4
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 The earlier work

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

by Kim, H. and Hannafin, M.J. (2007) is the lack of routine access to experienced teachers and everyday classroom dilemmas, although what is omitted is the fact that while access during periods in faculty might not be routine, school placements are a reality in which student teachers would have “routine” access to expert professionals. Another key issue omitted from this paper would appear to be the idea of bridging the digital divide between the online course and the vocational landscape, although the study concludes that prospective teachers “self-reference, analyse, articulate, and interweave their understanding with experts' knowledge and skill as they initiate their transition and accumulation to the practising teaching community.” (2007:166).

In contrast to the former case study, Zhang, D., Zhao, J. L., Zhou, L., and Nunamaker, J. F. (2004) use experimental data to compare the effectiveness of e-learning and conventional classroom learning. They (perhaps unintentionally) circumnavigate the problem of the availability of expert staff by proposing the concept of the virtual mentor and in doing so generate an even greater potential difficulty-its applicability. In most scenarios, this would mean a first principles reconstruction of existing courses and their underlying structures in order to embed the design features of their proposed, prototypical VM called LBA (Learn by Asking) which uses interactive multimedia (including video compressed and stored on a video streaming server) to “present synchronised multimedia materials in an interactive and cohesive manner.” (2004:77). Essentially, while this solves one of the great problems of the Moodle platform-the lack of a subject-specific search engine-it possibly generates more problems than it would solve in terms of its applicability, despite claims that it provides “a real alternative to the traditional classroom.” (2004: 76)

The Turkish study by Akkoyunlu, B. and Soylu, M. Y. (2008) probes another key dimension of success by investigating learning styles and student views of blended learning. Using a questionnaire and Kolb's Learning style Inventory (LSI) they found that two of the four styles-assmilators and divergers did not have their achievement affected as, “assimilator and diverger learning styles are both equally successful in the online environment.” (2008:188). The key weakness of this study, however, is that it did not track the other two learning styles referred to in Kolb's inventory, those of: convergers and accommodators, thus, perhaps overshadowing what otherwise have been certainly fascinating and possibly significant findings. However, three key implications emerge for online teachers: the proportions of the blend between f2f and online learning and so: “it is important to construct equilibrium between e-learning and f2f environments in view of the advantages of both methods during the process of designing a blended learning environment.” (2008: 184). The second significant finding reinforces the significance of learning styles and, in terms of online architecture, highlights some salient issues. The researchers reinforce this through reference to Osguthorpe and Graham's (2003) idea that: “instructional objectives; many different personal learning styles and learning experiences; the condition of online resources and the experience of trainers plays an important role designing an effective blended learning environment.” (2008: 184). The final and perhaps most important finding is the value placed on the f2f element by students and so the “results of the findings show that f2f interaction is a must for students.”

(2008:188).

A second Turkish study by Delialioglu, O. & Yildirim, Z. (2007) also examines the effective characteristics of online learning environments by using in-depth interviews and a log system that kept records of web component usage. This was, essentially, a mixed methods approach using a combination of quantitative data such as frequency count and activity durations as well as the rich qualitative data from interviews in order to

 
5
5
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 by Kim, H.

ISSN 2454-2105

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

Another comparative study by Johnson, S. D., Aragon, S.R., Shaik, N., and Palma-Rivas, N. (2000:30) seeks to, “accurately determine the benefits and pitfalls of online instruction, particularly when compared to the more traditional face-to-face learning environment.” (2000:30). The points of comparison, “included student

The central finding is that the design, development, and implementation processes for a blended learning environment are different from those in a purely traditional, face-to-face lecturing course or a purely web-based course and so from the “results of this study, the following suggestions are made for the development and implementation of hybrid instruction: don't hybridise only the technologies; hybridise the pedagogical philosophies, theories, and instructional design methodologies; give special attention to student motivation in hybrid courses; provide tools for metacognitive support; use multimedia in the web component to enhance learning; encourage and provide facilities for student-student and student-instructor communication; provide students with online self-assessment tools”; and most interestingly “provide print materials.” (2007:144).

Traditional Elements

Hybrid Course

Delivery of Material

Website, online materials

Interaction with materials

Multimedia, web browsing, cognitive tools, homework, quizzes, classroom activities

Interaction with the teacher

Web announcements, forum, phone, face-to-face, interaction, consultation

Interaction between students

Web forum, e-mail, group work, class discussions, projects

Intra-action

Class discussions, group work, web forum

pedagogical philosophy (from instructivism to constructivism); learning theory (from behavioural to cognitive); goal orientation (from sharply focused to general); task orientation (from academic to authentic); source of motivation (from extrinsic to intrinsic); teacher role (from didactic to facilitative); metacognitive support (from unsupported to integrated); collaborative strategies (again from unsupported to integral); cultural sensitivity (from insensitive to respectful); and finally structural flexibility (from fixed to open). These are then applied to the pragmatic elements of online learning using Caladine's (1999) MOLTA model (Model for learning and teaching activities) which compares the differences between blended and traditional courses. See below:

compare traditional and f2f learning. The findings of the study, as acknowledged by the researchers themselves, support the, “no significant difference phenomenon.” (2007:133). However, they acknowledge that “learning should be at the centre of interest,” (2007:133) as opposed to the exploitation of the potentialities of the web as an end in itself-which is significant. One of their key suggestions is that, “the idea behind both (hybrid and blended systems) is to redesign the instruction to maximise the advantages of both face to face and online modes of instruction.” (2007:133). Citing Reeves (2002), they delineate the most effective dimensions of interactive web-based learning by expanding on the existing frameworks to encompass on a 10 point continuum:

6
6
Another comparative study by Johnson, S. D., Aragon, S.R., Shaik, N., and Palma-Rivas, N. (2000:30) seeks
Another comparative study by Johnson, S. D., Aragon, S.R., Shaik, N., and Palma-Rivas, N. (2000:30) seeks

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

ratings of instructor and course quality; assessment of course interaction, structure, and support; and learning outcomes such as course projects, grades, and student self-assessment of their ability to perform various ISD tasks.” (2000:30). Their study “is an attempt to determine if properly designed environments that differ on many characteristics, can be equivalent in terms learning and satisfaction,” (2000:30) and therein lies its principal flaw in that two essentially different things are being compared. However, many of their findings both reinforce other findings in the literature and contribute to it. They recognise, for example, that although student perceptions are important, the ultimate indicator of course effectiveness “is the degree to which students reach the learning objectives.” (2000:41). This is also reflected in the work of McGuire, W. (2009) where it is argued that much of the literature tends to focus on levels of student satisfaction divorced from learning outcomes when determining the effectiveness of courses. Equally, “student satisfaction with their learning experience tends to be slightly more positive for students in a traditional course format although there is no difference in the quality of the learning that takes place.” (2000:44). It is possible that “even though the amount of interaction may have been adequate to support their learning, it may not have been equal to what was expected.” (2000:45).

One of the key the findings in this study suggests that “online instruction may not be suitable for courses that require high degrees of student-instructor interaction and feedback, such as performance-based training methods… courses that rely on considerable mentoring and coaching until the technologies for online instruction better simulate real time interaction.” (2000:47).

Shifting focus from comparative studies, the personal reflection based on ten years experience of online teaching by Lieblein, E. (2000) examines the critical factors for successful online delivery and it, essentially, adds the following key ingredients: on- campus visits or an adequate substitute (notably recognising that online courses must be maintained); creating a sense of class, school and university (or group identity); maintaining a teacher-present environment; providing timely responses; and providing a clear description of the approach to pedagogy to be undertaken by the tutor.

While personal reflections can (and should) contribute to the literature, one of the core omissions in the field is recognized by Sitter, V., Carter, C., Mahan, R., Massello, C., and Carter, T. (2009) citing Reasons et al who note that, “there is a lack of definitive longitudinal research supporting hybrid course designs.” (2009:41). As is the case with Garrison, D. R. & Anderson, T. (2003) and Anderson, T. (2004) their central concern in exploring the views of both faculty and students of an MBA programme is with the concept of interaction. They believe that pure online courses cannot provide the quality of interaction necessary for effective learning. Citing Hensley (2005) who “found that something was missing,” (2009:40) and Shachar & Neumann (2003) who found that “wholly online courses did not provide the critical interaction between professor and student that has been deemed as essential for effective learning.” (2009:40). In contrast, they cite Rovai and Jordan's (2004) findings that “the concern regarding student and faculty presence (i.e., interaction) was lessened in hybrid or blended courses,” (2009:43) although challenges still persist. For example, they cite Lynch and Dembo (2004) who found “that assessing learning outcomes in a hybrid course design requires an integrative and collaborative interaction between the student and the instructor,” (2009:43) while the work of Stodel, Thompson, and MacDonald, (2006) is cited to demonstrate that “although many online, interactive learning events such as online discussion and collaborative projects do promote interaction, it is important that faculty continually reinforce, challenge and provoke learners to critically reflect on course concepts and construct new bases of

 
7
7
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 ratings of instructor

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

knowledge as they interact in these events.” (2009:42). This view is also shared by Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, (2001) whom they also cite to reinforce that “to achieve high levels of interaction and collaboration, faculty must guide, support, and nurture a learning environment.” (2009:42). At the same time, though, they recognise that learners must be “challenged to take responsibility for their own learning,” (2009:42) citing Bonk, Kyong-Jee, & Zeng, (2004).

The study of student characteristics for online learning success by Kerr, M.S, Rynearson, K., and Kerr, M.C. (2006) looks at the whole issue of blended learning from the other side of the looking glass. Instead of considering what can be done to make the learning environment itself more conducive to success, they ask the question: what student characteristics are required for success? They note that, “many have documented the need for sound research on online learning and student characteristics,” (2006:92) citing (Bocchi, Eastman, & Swift, 2004; Moore, 2004; Watkins & Schlosser, 2003).

Across the three studies, four perhaps unexpected characteristics emerged as most important for understanding and predicting online student success including: reading and writing skills, independent learning, motivation, and computer literacy, although during the study the search for successful characteristics online becomes secondary, perhaps, to validating the TOOLS construct. Nonetheless, this perspective is akin to the learning styles or preferences issue identified by Akkoyunlu, B. and Soylu, M.Y. (2008) and Osguthorpe and Garnham (2003) and deserves further investigation.

Again, while helpful, the latter study, does not focus on the specificity of issues surrounding blended learning in Initial Teacher Education programmes. King, K. P.'s (2002) study, however, does. The focus of this penultimate study, like the final one, is clearly situated in teacher education. The study by King, K. P. (2002) seeks not only to identify the, “purpose, potential and place of online learning in teacher education,” (2002:232) but also moves the quantification of success, “beyond test scores and achievement, and instead reaches toward personal and professional perspectives, learning communities, communities of practice, and lifelong learning,” (2002:234) and in doing so highlights six essential elements for the success of online learning: “the presentation of accurate, current, and substantial content; in-depth dialogue among course participants about the content meaning, application, and implication; the ability for learners to be able to ask questions and share responses in an environment that can be personalised to support responsiveness, trust, and insight; the ability of the technology to work smoothly enough to not detract from learning ;the capability to facilitate collaborative work among learners easily; the development of assignments that can both apply to the classroom and to academic research.” (2002:235). While these are laudable aims, it would appear that the definition adopted of “quality courses” is not indexed against learning outcomes but to the construction of a course along constructivist or transformative lines.

In the final paper for this review, the focus remains on teacher education. The USA study by Schrum, L. Burbank, M. D. and Capps, R. (2007) considers how best to prepare future teachers online by focusing on student perspectives as, citing Scrum (2002), they

recognise that, “most of the literature has focused on programmatic, technological, and implementation issues, rather than on student-centered perspectives.” (2007:205). Using a four way data set comprising of: a survey, two open ended questions posted each month, and a post-survey their approach combines both quantitative

 
8
8
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 knowledge as they

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

analysis and narrative data while the framing of the study “includes three elements: the domain of knowledge; the community of people; and shared practice.” (2007:206). Interestingly, they found the most successful aspects to be: flexibility of timing; e-mail interactions; interactions through postings; and tutor involvement while one of the least successful aspects was engagement in group assignments.

Conclusions

The literature supports the following findings and identifies key success vectors: that hybrid/blended courses are perhaps more successful than purely online courses in terms of levels of student satisfaction, although the, “no significant difference” response highlighted by Delialioglu, O., and Yildirim, Z. (2007:133) is very common in terms of the attainment of learning outcomes. Equally significant is that the concept of interaction is also highlighted as a key feature of successful online learning whether this is within the three point model of Garrison, S. D. and Anderson, T. (2003): T-S, S-T, S-D, or the amplified design by Anderson, T. (2004) which recognises: S-S, S-C, T-T, T-C, and even C-C interactions. These interactions, however, need to be managed, for example, in the balance across individual and group activities and in the broader mix between f2f and online activities as well as in the attempt to seek an equilibrium in these acceptable to all students. Indeed, the latter idea also seems to resonate positively with the notion of digital interconnectivity where we attempt to bridge the gap between theory and practice. There would also appear to be a consensus in the literature that an adherence to constructivist principles will improve the success of online learning environments and so:

collaborative work; opportunities for deep learning; self assessment; and active learning are all advocated as significant success determiners. The research methods deployed in the field, too, while varied, show definite signs of the deployment of mixed methods to include both quantitative and qualitative strains and there would appear to be a strong emphasis on student perceptions of success in online courses. Finally, there is also evidence of the issue of success in online learning being examined from the other side of the looking glass, for example in the research examining the student characteristics necessary for successful online learning.

References

Akkoyunlu, B., & Soylu, M. Y. (2008). A Study of Students' Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment Based on Different Learning Styles. Educational Technology & Society, 11 (1), 183-193.

Anderson, T. (2004). Towards a Theory of Online Learning Ch 2 from Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Athabasca University. 35-60.

Bereiter, C. (1992). Referent-centred and problem-centred knowledge: Elements of an educational epistemology. Interchange 23(4), 337–361.

Britain, S and Liber, O (1999). A Framework for the Pedagogical Evaluation of Learning Environments. 1-78. http://zope.cetis.ac.uk/members/pedagogy/files/4thMeet_framework/VLEfullReport

Last accessed 16.11.16.

Caladine, R (1999). Teaching for Flexible Learning: learning to apply the technology. Abergavenny, Monmouthshire.

Delialioglu, O, Yildirim, Z. (2007). Students' Perceptions on Effective Dimensions of Interactive

 
9
9
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 analysis and narrative

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Learning in a Blended Learning Environment. Education, Technology and Society 10 (2) 133-146. Garrison, D.R., and Anderson, T. (2003). RoutledgeFalmer. E-Learning in the 21st Century. 2-41.

Jennings, D. (2005)Virtually Effective: the measure of a learning environment. All Ireland Society for Higher Education. AISHE. Dublin. 158-166.

Johnson,

S D., Aragon, SR. Shaik, N. & Palma-Rivas, N. (2000). Comparative Analysis of Learner

Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 11(1) 29-49.

Kim, H and Hannafin, M.J. (2007). Web–enhanced case – based activity in Teacher education: a case study Instructional Science Journal Springer Netherlands.151-170.

King, KP. (2002). Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development. Internet and Higher Education 5, 231–246.

Kerr, M S., Rynearson, K. & Kerr, M C. (2006). Student characteristics for online learning success. Internet and Higher Education 9. 91–105.

Lave, J & Wenger, E (2002). Legitimate Peripheral Participation in Communities of Practice. 56-63.

Lieblein, E. 2000. (2000). Critical Factors for successful delivery of online programs. Internet and Higher Education. 3. 161-174.

McLuhan, M. (1995) The Medium is the Message. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man.

McGuire, W. (2009). Humanising the Machine: is human interaction in online learning environments necessary for successful distance learning? A review of recent literature. Journal of Teacher Education and Teachers' Work Vol.1, Issue 1, April 2009. 46-57.

Ramsden, P. (2003) Learning to Teach in Higher Education. RoutledgeFalmer.

 

Schrum, L. Burbank, MD. Capps, R. (2007). Preparing future teachers for diverse schools in an online learning community: perceptions and practice. Internet and Higher Education 10, 204–211.

Sitter, V., Carter, C., Mahan, R., Massello, C., and Carter, T. (2009) Hybrid Course Design: Faculty and Student Perceptions. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Proceedings. 40-51.

Zhang, D., Zhao, J.L., Zhou, L., & Nunamaker, JF. (2004) Can E-Learning Replace Classroom Learning? Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Vol 47, No5. 75-79.

 
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Learning in a
10
10
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Learning in a

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Female Identity in the poems Rupi Kaur's Milk And Honey and

select short stories of James Trip Tree's

Dr. Neelam Tikkha,

RTM Nagpur University

9422145467

Abstract

neelam.tikkha@gmail.com

Women and nature have been exploited by man equally and ravaged for his convenience. Women are considered more close to nature because of their power to procreate and their biological rhythms coinciding with lunar cycles. If we go back into the history we see that women are considered as inferior to men, 'nature' is considered inferior to 'culture', and human being are implicitly considered as being distinct from, and often superior to, the natural environment. This has led to more and more destruction of nature and exploitation of women which has led to ruining of planet earth. Women and nature have suffered equally at the hands of man. Women have been hunted as witches and similarly the planet earth is being hunted in the name of industrialization. The concern of female gender for her future generation is natural because the children are going to be born in a world that is going to be extinct.

Women has to take up strong steps to protect future generation and nature like nursing of Chinkara , Chipko Movement and Land burial movement. In this paper an attempt is being made to re read Rupi Kaur's Milk and Honey and James Triptree Jr.'s stories in the light of Female Identity

Introduction:

Women and nature have been exploited by man equally and ravaged for his convenience. Women are considered more close to nature because of their power to procreate and their biological rhythms coinciding with lunar cycles. If we go back into the history we see that women are considered as inferior to men, 'nature' is considered inferior to 'culture', and human being are implicitly considered as being distinct from, and often superior to, the natural environment. This has led to more and more destruction of nature and exploitation of women which has led to ruining of planet earth. Women and nature have suffered equally at the hands of man. Women have been hunted as witches and similarly the planet earth is being hunted in the name of industrialization. The concern of female gender for her future generation is natural because the children are going to be born in a world that is going to be extinct. Naomi Klein states "Becoming a mother in an age of extinction brought the climate crisis into my heart in a new way" Klein reflects (419). "If the earth is indeed our mother, then far from the bountiful goddess of mythology, she is a mother facing a great many fertility challenges of her own" one who prompts us to create "a worldview based on regeneration and renewal rather than domination and depletion" (424) “Women in various movements – ecology, peace, feminist and especially health – rediscovered the interdependence and connectedness of everything they also discovered, the spiritual dimension of life… which was termed spirituality” (Mies and Shiva 1993).

Feminist women realized that men are propagating human happiness to be synonymous for material good production. The ecofeminist came to understand the significance of witch hunt after the murder of witches which was mainly because of their association with protection of women and nature. The murder of witches destroyed even nature (.C 1983). The charges were only against women. “From the 1960s, when quality scholarship about witch trials first started, down through the 1980s, it was generally said that virtually all accused witches were women. Authors in that period, often feminists who were not actually scholars, asserted

11
11
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Female Identity in

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

that witch trials were explicitly about misogyny, and that the witch trials were a women's Holocaust.” (Aelarsen

2017)

Definition of Ecocriticism and Ecofeminism:

Ecocriticism:

The word "ecocriticism" was coined by William Rueckert in the year 1978 in his essay "Literature and Ecology: An Experiment in Ecocriticism" but remained dormant in critical expressions till the year 1989, when Cheryll revitalized the term and urged its implication to "the study of nature writing." Cheryll's essay was endorsed by “Glen Love (Professor of English at the University of Oregon) in his Past President's speech, entitled "Revaluing Nature: Toward an Ecological Literary Criticism." (Branch 1994) Since then Ecocriticism has become popular in literature studies in relation to physical environment.

The common ground on which all strands of ecocriticism stand is the assumption that the ideas and structures of desire which govern the interactions between humans and their natural environment (including perhaps most crucially, the very distinction between the human and the non- human ) are of central importance, if we are to get a handle on our ecological predicament. (Bergthaller 2017)

Ecofeminism :

It can be defined as domineering attitude of man on nature and women.

Liberal Feminism: It provides “an opportunity, women can transcend the social stigma of their biology and join men in the cultural project of environmental conservation.” (Datar 2011)

Cultural Ecofeminism:

It “is a response to the perception that women and nature have been mutually associated and devalued in Western culture. ”(Datar 2011) Noël Sturgeons says ecofeminism is "a multivoiced and vibrant set of political positions" with "very different theorizations of the connections between the unequal status of women and the life-threatening destruction of the environment" does not always do enough to acknowledge the messy connections , as well as distinctions, that characterize these ecofeminist attitudes (1997), (Evans 2015).

Significance of the Study:

Rupi Kaur a Candian writer, who became popular by her Instagram posts and first publication Milk and Honey (Kaur 2015), which was hailed as a number one best seller by New York Times . She has boldly poured her heart out in her poems and illustrations. There is a wave in India about making children understand 'good touch and bad touch' and landmark legislations like “Nirbhaya” for protection of women. Rupi Kaur's poems are full of ravaging by man and incest love. She is a Liberal feminist writer who boldly exposes the exploits of man. She is a powerful writer but as yet not been noticed in the literary academia and no article has been written so far on Rupi Kaur 's work.

James Tiptree Jr. was a science fiction writer in the 1970's which was a decade of second wave feminism. The stories of Tiptree are usually associated with this wave. It was called an "environmental decade," It was the era of landmark American Legislation . It was the time when population growth, pollution, preservation, and species endangerment became subjects of great concern. Tip s writings (fictional and otherwise)

12
12
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 that witch trials

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

demonstrate consistent angst about environmental degradation.

In this paper an attempt is being made to re read Rupi Kaur's Milk and Honey and James Triptree Jr.'s stories in the light of Liberal Feminism ,Ecofeminism and Ecocriticism.

James Triptree Jr. was an American Science fiction writer. She was the one who broke the barrier that writing science fiction is essentially the work of male writers. Mrs. Alice Sheldon, "Alii" wrote under a male pseudonym James Tiptree. Her Science fiction stories became very popular. She won the highest honors available to Science Fiction writers – two Nebula and two Hugo awards. Robert Silverberg in Introduction to Tiptree's stories in the year 1975 compared Tiptree's works with Hemingway –“lean, muscular, supple" like Hemingway' s fiction. Her work was welcomed and marked the culmination of male – dominated era of Science Fiction . She was praised by Le Guin in the year 1978 in an introduction to her works – by calling her "beautiful Jill- in-the-box.” Her work projects the naturalness of male violence towards women and nature. The work highlights the ecofeminist –association of nature with femininity and Ecocritical aspect. James Tiptree's stories demonstrate many responses to ecofeminist essentialism. Ecocritics and Ecofeminist feel that men treats nature and women the same— a source of exploitation to fulfill his desires and demands. James Tiptree in her story “The Last Flight of Dr. Ain,” says that man wants a woman to – “ eroticize, master, and possess her.”

Rupi Kaur mentions the plight of women and the exploitative nature of man in her popular book Milk and Honey.

“a vacant body empty enough

Her poems are replete with examples which talk about a woman being treated as a machine –

She states that a woman's identity has been reduced to that of a receptacle—

for guests but no one ever comes and is willing to stay (Kaur, The Hurting 2015,13)”

“ the first boy that kissed me held my shoulders down like the handlebars of the first bicycle he ever rode i was five” (Kaur, The hurting 2015,12)

She describes the exploitation of a five year old girl by her own uncle, cousins and all wrong men. Yet, she is taught by her alcoholic father to be quiet. She poignantly mentions—

“When my mother opens her mouth , To have a conversation at dinner My father shoves the word hush , Between her lips and tells her to Never speak with her mouth full, This is how the women in my family learned to live with their mouths closed our knees pried open by cousins and uncles and men our bodies touched by all the wrong people that even in the bed full of safety we are afraid

13
13
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 demonstrate consistent angst

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

The voice of the girl is stifled because if the truth comes out it would expose the man . The girl learns the lesson since childhood to stifle the voice.

You were so afraid of my voiceI decided to be afraid of it too…(17) she was a rose in the hands of those who had no intention of keeping her(18). Her line written to fathers with daughters Every time you tell your daughter You yell at her Out of love You teach her to confuse Anger with kindness Which seems like a good idea Till she grows up to Trust men who hurt her Cause they look so much

Like you (19) The missing role played by her father is demonstrated in beautiful lines—

“He was supposed to be the first male love of your life You still search for him everywhere… It is your blood in my veins tell me how I'm supposed to forget” (16) “the thing about having an alcoholic parent is an alcoholic parent does not exist simply an alcoholic who could not stay sober long enough to raise their kids” “The idea that we were still capable of love But still chose to be toxic” (23) “There is no bigger illusion in the world Than the idea that a woman will Bring dishonor into a home If she tries to keep her heart and body safe”(24). She talks of the cultural chain that pins a woman. “You pinned my legs to the ground With your feet and demanded I stand up” (25) Sex takes the consent of two She defines rape in lucid words and demonstrates how sex has been reduced to rape in a world where woman is treated as a commodity. “If one person is lying there not doing anything Cause they are not ready Or not in the mood Or simply don't want to yet the other is having sex With their body it's not love It is rape” (22) She also talks about what rape does to a woman's identity:

“The rape will tear you in half But it will not end you” (26).

14
14
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 The voice of

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

 

ISSN 2454-2105

 
   

It is painful to read the lines that the

The divide between mother and father is like a rift between two countries:

“Your mother Is in the habit of Offering more love Than you can carry Your father is absent You are a war The border between two countries The collateral damage The paradox that joins the two But also splits them apart.”

She calls it—“the art of being empty” which a woman must learn in a male dominated world. Use of small i also shows how insignificant is the woman.

moment daughter is born she becomes invisible to the world and loses her identity—

“Emptying out of my mother's belly Was my first act of disappearance Learning to shrink for a family Who likes their daughters invisible Was the second The art of being empty Is simple Believe them when they say You are nothing Repeat it to yourself Like a wish I am nothing I am nothing I am nothing So often the only reason you know you're still alive is from the heaving of the

chest(33).”

“ perhaps i don't deserve nice things Cause i am paying

The same desire of a woman to be

“I do not want to have you

Cause the two of us combined could set it on

She feels proud to be a woman –

“ I love that about us

For sins i don't remember ”(Kaur, The Healing 2015,147) The illustration along with this poem allegorizes it to be the planet earth . Both women and the earth suffers for sins of others.

How do you turn a forest fire like me So soft I turn into Running water (Kaur, The hurting 2015, 65)

individually complete is echoed here as by James Tip tree in her short story “"Houston, Houston, Do You Read”

To fill the empty parts of me I want to be full on my own I want to be so complete

The healing begins with the idea that a woman is complete and looks for support in her own company—“Loneliness is a sign you are in desperate need of yourself.(Kaur, The Healing 2015,153)”

“Fall in love with your solitude( 161)” You are in the habit of co-depending on people to make up for what you think you lack Who tricked you into

I could light a whole city And then I want to have you

fire”(Kaur, The Loving 2015, 59)

How capable we are of feeling

believing

another person was meant to complete

How unafraid we are of breaking

you when the most they can do is complement (154)” “ perhaps the saddest of all Are those who

live waiting For someone they're not sure Exists. 7 billion people (157)

 

And tend to our wounds wwith grace just being a woman calling myself a woman

Makes me utterly whole And complete( 169).”

15
15
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 It is painful

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

She is most poignantly mentions the plight of women of color –

“ Our backs tell stories no books have spine to carry (171).” “ Your body is a museum of natural disasters Can you grasp how Stunning that is ( 173). “Other women's bodies Are not our battlegrounds (176)” The most striking lines are Apparently it is ungraceful of me To mention my period in public Cause the actual biology Of my body is too real It is okay to sell what's Between a woman's legs More than it is Okay to mention its inner workings The recreational use of this body is seen as beautiful while the nature is seen as ugly( 177).” My heart aches for sisters more than anything It aches for women helping women Like flowers ache for spring (187)”

Milk and Honey is a collection of poem specially for women and teenaged girls. Her mother when she was a 5 year old child her mother handed her paint brush and asked “ to draw her heart out” (Kaur, Milk and Honey 2015). Rupi Kaur through her illustrations and poem has opened her heart out and set on an artistic journey. The poems flow like a smooth mellow river melting and exposing her heart out. The poems will shatter the reader, tear open the heart and move the reader to tears. Women reader will feel looking into a looking glass. The poems saddens the reader because women where they expect love are returned with hate . The love they get from the male gender is akin to incest and rape. The poems are replete with hate for men and male relatives who exploited her and handled her like a commodity.

“Rupi Kaur has successfully managed to deliver difficult perspective and emotions in these very short works. There is variety both in length and style with the poems. Also, Rupi Kaur's clean and simple illustrations on almost every poem gives an edge to the imagination of the reader.

A strong theme of self-confidence and finding strength in one's self ran throughout this entire collection—each section builds upon it until it cultivates in the last fourth. Overall, it's a very important satirical message to the society.” (Bergthaller 2017)

Vandana Shiva furthers in the exposition of the plight of women. She feels that women's role is just for fertility and the body has been reduced to a container to hold the babies till birth. Her role of a mother who gives birth has been diminished.

“The Womb of women are containers to be captured by the ideologies and practices of those who do not believe that women are able to take care of themselves. The capturing of women's wombs is the domination of the physicalist and masculanist scientific paradigm, the ultimate logic, not merely of the medicalization of life, but of a Cartesian world-view , in which the behavior of bodies can be explained and controlled independently of minds.” (Oakley 1989)

Similarly, nature is being controlled by white coat experimenters in laboratories. She talks about the ceaserian deliveries doctors are fond of because human body has been reduced to a commodity and promotes

16
16
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 She is most

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

natural deliveries as abnormal and risky. Similalrly, “ change in the nature of seed is justified by creating a value and meaning system that treats self regenerative seed as primitivie, as raw germ plasm, and the seed that, without inputs is inert and non reproducible as ' advanced' or improved.” (Mies and Shiva, Ecofeminism 2010)The seed is comoditised it cannot reporoduce. Thus , farmers seeds become valueless and indigenous farmers are termed as ' primitive'.

Similar, is the male gender's attitude towards mother earth. He has ravaged and exploited both female gender and the earth for his benefit. Women have been exploited and ravaged hence can relate with the mother earth and the environment hence shows her concern about the environment and the planet Earth.

Naomi Klein in the introduction to her famous novel and film “This Changes Everything” points out “ the incomprehensibility of climate change through her maternal fears about the future her son will inherit (2014, 26-28). "Becoming a mother in an age of extinction brought the climate crisis into my heart in a new way" (419 ).

“The Women Men Don' t See" presents James Tiptree's patriarchal cynicism. The story starts as an adventure story when marooned after a plane crash, two travelers discuss feminism, with Don lecturing Ruth on the need to get over her "trauma" and realize that she "can't hate all men"(Tiptree 2004, 133).

"Oh, there wasn't any trauma, Don, and I don't hate men, " Ruth gently explains; "That would be as silly as - as hating the weather" (133). In fact, all feminist resistance is "doomed": Women have no rights, Don, except what men allow us. Men are more aggressive and powerful, and they run the world. When the next real crisis upsets them, our so-called rights will vanish like - like that smoke. We'll be back where we always were: property. And whatever has gone wrong will be blamed on our freedom, like the fall of Rome was. You'll see. (134) Don refutes, "Women and men aren't different species, Ruth.

Women do everything men do," leaves Ruth unconvinced: "'Do they?'

. She mutters something that could be 'My Lai' and looks away. All the endless wars

. It'll never change unless you change the whole world. I dream sometimes of - of going away - '" (134). Another famous story "Houston, Houston, Do You Read” where in three astronauts slip into time

machine into a future and discover themselves in all female population and one thing is certain that no man is allowed to reproduce on the Earth. The three men are drugged with an inhibition-lowering serum. Yet, one man endeavors to rape, the second invites for a religious coup, and the third, Lorimer, who behaves well yet ends up

defending his companions. He states "They aren' t bad men

Everybody has aggressive fantasies," he argues.

It was hard. It was a fight, a bloody fight all

biologically violent and only way in which women can protect themselves is by isolation and extinction of men. Cloning of men is perhaps another possibility to protect women from exploitation.

James Tiptree's feminist stories demonstrate that it is not necessary nature of gender but, our willingness

to submit to the ravages of man. Tiptrees

most important story "The Last Flight of Dr. Ain," (1969 s)

17
17
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 natural deliveries as

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

corresponds to the gendering of nature. The work highlights a strong association between female gender and nature. It demonstrates how women and nature are ignored by man and are identified as substance only for exploitation. The man gets concerned only when he feels the impact of repercussions of his exploitation.

The story starts mysteriously and enigmatically narrating the onlookers' observation of the doctor but not paying any heed to the woman who is wounded and dying. She is only noticed when her effect on Ain are becoming evident. While on the journey Ain recalls the day when he first met the woman:

“ He caught a falling ripple of green and recognized the shocking girl- flesh, creamy, pink-tipped

.

Young Ain held his breath, his nose in the sweet moss and his heart going crash - crash. And then he was staring at the outrageous fall of that hair down her narrow back, watching it dance around her heart-shaped buttocks. (3) The relationship with the woman has infatuated Ain: "He was obsessed with her, with the miracle, the wealth of

her body, her in exhaustibility

[and] reveled in her, possessed her, allowed her no secrets" (4). In the later part

The stories suggest that " female gender" and "nature" were intertwined for her. examples of intertwining of gender and nature in India as well.

We find several

 
18
18
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 corresponds to the

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Bishnoi's consider nature as divine and protect at any cost. Chinkara the endangered species is breast fed by Bishnoi women.

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Bishnoi's consider nature

Bishnoi woman nursing orphaned Chinkara (htt1)

We find various movements by women which have performed miracles for example Chipko movement, protection of Chinkara black buck by Bishnoi sect of Rajashthan and“Zameen samadhi satyagraha (land burial satyagraha)”.

Calling it “zameen samadhi satyagraha (land burial satyagraha)”, the farmers have dug holes and buried themselves neck-deep. Women, too, are part of the protest

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Bishnoi's consider nature

Women farmers, with their bodies buried till neck in pits, stage 'Satyagrah' protest against forced aquisition of their land by Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) at Nindar Village in Jaipur on Tuesday. (Source: PTI ) (Indian Express 2017)

Thus the reading of the writings of both the writers—Rupi Kaur and James Tiptree Jr. project a truth that female gender and nature both have been exploited and ravaged by man ruthlessly and unless women take

19
19
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Bishnoi's consider nature

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

 

ISSN 2454-2105

 

firm steps it would not stop as men are exploitative and aggressive by nature. According to Rupi Kaur the culture and love is already extinct. A woman needs to love herself and be proud of her body . Nature is closely intertwined with female gender and culture. It is highly essential to protect both women and nature if one cares for the planet earth or else the fears would come true as stated by Naomi Klein that “the children are going to be born in a world that is going to be extinct.”

Bibliography

Merchant, C. The Death of Nature, Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution . San Francisco:

Harper &ROw, 1983.

October 10, 2017. https://www.facebook.com/shortbiographies/posts/276480952851477 (accessed October 10, 2017).

https://in.pinterest.com/pin/469781804851579749/.

Aelarsen. Salem: The Real Problem with the Show. October 05, 2017.

Bergthaller, Hannes. "What is Ecocriticism?" European Association of Literature , Culture and Environment, October 2017.

Biography.in,

Short.

Short

Biography.https://www.facebook.com/shortbiographies/posts/

276480952851477

(accessed October 10, 2017).

Branch, Michael P.O' Grady, Sean. "Defining Ecocritical Theory and Practice." Western Literature Association Meeting. Salt Lake City UTAH , 1994.

Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm, ed. "Literature and Ecology: An Experiment in Ecocriticism ." Iowa Review 9.1 (Winter 1978): 71- 86; rpt. in , 1978: 71-86.

Datar, Chhaya. Ecofeminism Revisited. New Delhi : Rawat , 2011.

Evans, Rebecca. "James Tiptree Jr.: Rereading Essentialism and Ecofeminism in the 1970s." Women's Studies Quarterly (The Feminist Press at the City University of New York) Vol. 43, No. , no. 3/4 (FALL/WINTER 2015): 223-239.

Hathway, Jay. What Is Gamergate, and Why? An Explainer for Non-Geeks. October 10, 2014. http://gawker.com/what-is-gamergate-and-why-an-explainer-for-non-geeks-1642909080 (accessed October 5, 2017). Indian Express. Outside Jaipur, farmers neck-deep in protest against land acquisition. Jaipur, Octoer 05,

2017.

James, Jr., Suzy McKee Chamas, Ursula K. Le Guin, Raylyn Joanna Rus s, Chelsea Quinn Yarbro. 2009. "Commentary: If Exist, Would Women Have Invented Them?" In Khatru Symposium: in Science Fiction, 81- 95. Oakland, CA: James Tiptree Jr. Literary Council. Warren, Karen J. 1996. Ecological Feminist Philosophies:

An Overview Bloomington: Indiana University.

 

Kaur, Rupi. Milk and Honey. Missourie: Andrew McMeel Publishing, 2015. Kaur, Rupi. "The Healing." In Milk and Honey, by Rupi Kaur, 147-204. Kansas City Missouri: Andrews

 
20
20
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 firm steps it

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

McMeel , 2015.

Kaur, Rupi. "The Healing." In Milk and Honey, by Rupi Kaur, 147-204. Kansas City Missouri: Andrews McMeel, 2015.

Kaur, Rupi. "The hurting." In Milk and Honey, by Rupi Kaur, 13. Missourie: Andrews McMeel Publishing , 2015.

Kaur, Rupi. "The Loving." In Milk and Honey, by Rupi Kaur, 45-77. Kansas City Missouri: Andrew McMeel, 2015.

Know Your Meme . GamerGate - Image #906,290. http://knowyourmeme.com/photos/906290- gamergate (accessed October 5, 2017). Kukuruyo. Gamergate life 37. April 21, 2015. http://kukuruyo.com/comic/gamergate-life-37-english/ (accessed October 5, 2017). Mies, Maria, and Vandana Shiva. Ecofeminism. New Delhi India: Rawat Publications, 1993. Ecofeminism. New Delhi: Rawat, 2010. Oakley, Ann. The Captured Womb. London: Blackwell, 1989. Outside Jaipur, farmers neck-deep in protest against Land Acquisition. Jaipur , October 05, 2017.

Tiptree, James, Jr. 2000. Meet Me At Infinity: The Uncollected Tiptree: Fiction and Nonfiction, edited by David G. Hartwell. New York: Tom Doherty. Symposium: Women in Science Fiction, 13-16. Oakland, CA:

Jr. Literary Award Council.

 
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 McMeel , 2015.
21
21
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 McMeel , 2015.

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Mentoring in Educational Institutes:

Dr. Anita Patra

Abstract

A Holistic Approach

Professor, School of Management Centurion University of Technology and Management P.o.Parlakhemundi Dist. Gajapati Odisha- 761211

The university student learns inside the classroom since the beginning of higher education. A student's mind is stretched and moulded in the classroom due to lecture, class discussion, or homework. Yet in order for students to succeed as whole human beings, students need additional attention and care outside of the classroom. Hence, a student needs advises and mentoring. While advising is a short-term process where the focus is on giving information and guidance to the learner, mentoring is a more intricate, long-term, one-on-one relationship that goes well beyond simply providing information. Mentoring helps mentee both psychologically and academically. A student who pursues a course/ career passes through different stages—starts as a fresher to the course, then pursues to master it and later becomes a job seeker/ holder in the same area. Mentoring could support the young students to reduce the stress that they experience. Such benefits can arise from mentoring programs, it is important that such programs are done well.

A holistic approach would help to achieve the objective of mentoring. To do the mentoring work effectively mentor must understand the job and how to go about it. The Mentor hence needs training for this. Effective mentoring can happen with the support of ICT. Technology is increasingly used in the mentoring process. Holistic approach would add parents support and understanding as they are the most important stakeholders. This paper discusses in details about the holistic model that would make mentoring meaningful and effective. It would analyse the impact of training the mentors, use of ICT and building relationship with the mentees parents. Key words: Mentoring, Holistic, Effective, ICT, Mentee.

Introduction

Mentoring is a term generally used to describe a relationship between a mentee, and a mentor. Mentor is the more experienced person and mentee is a less experienced adult who gets benefitted. Traditionally, mentoring is viewed as a dyadic, face-to-face, long-term relationship between asupervisory adult and a novice student that fosters the mentee's professional, academic, orpersonal development (Donaldson, Ensher, & Grant- Vallone, 2000). Mentoring is aimed at yielding benefit for the mentor. Mentoring can happen in a number of ways, yet it always has a positive effect on the mentee, in both psychosocial and academic ways (Terrion& Leonard, 2007).

MENTORING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

At University level a student get to learn as through classroom lectures and discussions. Teachers engage their students for learning mostly in the classrooms. But, for the all round development of the student it is much needed that the institute and teachers pay attention outside the classroom also. That means, it is very much needed to engage with students apart from the classroom. Hence, advise and mentoring to the students are very much desirable. Advise would mean guiding the students, and it can be done with a large number of students at a time. But mentoring would mean a long term relationship with students on one-to-one basis. Mentoring is

22
22
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Mentoring in Educational

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

beyond just providing information. It helps the mentee both psychologically and academically. A student who pursues a course/ career passes through different stages—starts as a fresher to the course, then pursues to master it and later becomes a job seeker/ holder in the same area.True mentoring is a complex process between professor and college adult learner that supports a mutual enhancement of critically reflective and independent thinking. (Galbraith, 2003). Mentoring provides support to the students by reducing the stress that they get during their growing stage. Such benefits can arise from mentoring programs, it is important that such programs are done well.

Mentoring is a valuable strategy to provide students the support they need so that they can use their potential to the maximum and achieve their best during their studies in the college. By providing information, guidance, and encouragement, mentors can play an important role in nurturing students' college aspirations, helping them prepare for college and, advising them on how to make successful transitions to their first year on campus (Levine and Nidiffer 1996). In addition, mentoring for students in college helps students to feel more connected and engaged on campus, which can ultimately improve student outcomes (Pascarella 1980; Community College Survey of Student Engagement 2009). The positive impact of mentoring has made institutes to research on the best ways of doing it.

Mentoring Process

As for structure, mentoring can involve a one-on-one relationship or a network of multiple mentors (Bird &Didion, 1992). A networkmay vary in timing of access to multiple mentors and in its content. In terms of timing, multiple mentors may be enlisted concurrently (Burlew, 1991; Packard, 2003a) or sequentially (Baugh &Scandura, 1999; Nolinske, 1995). In terms of content, the network can contain peers, “stepahead” peers, or supervisors (Ensher, Thomas, & Murphy, 2001). Furthermore, mentoring relationships can be informal or formally assigned, long-term or short-term in nature, and convened electronically or face-to- face (Kasprisin, Boyle Single, Single, & Muller, 2003; Packard, 2003b).

For the mentoring to be effective three important components of mentoring are to be focussed:

  • 1. Mentee – Person who is getting counselled or supported or guided so that the person can understand his/ her own potentials and use his/her strengths to have highest achievement.

  • 2. Mentor – Person who is elder to the mentor and supports or guides the mentees to use their potential and stretch a little further, so that the mentee is able to get the highest achievement.

  • 3. Support & Supervision – Mentoring is done face-to-face or electronically either regularly / periodically. Mentor interacts with the mentee and understands the mental & emotional status of the mentee. The whole process needs good support and supervision to make it effective.

Issues and Challenges for Educational administrators

Most of the time a school or college starts the mentoring program as it was thought to have a lot of benefits. But lack of proper planning for the program forced it to be implemented with less rigour and as a result did not yield adequate results. Another important reason why such programs failed was that the mentors were untrained. In Higher education, mentoring process is done mechanically without customising it to the environment and requirement of the institute. Hence, most of the time mentoring program does not support by the institute environment.

23
23
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 beyond just providing

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Objective of the Study

The objective of the paper is to understand the mentoring process and find out the best approach to make it effective in an organisation.

Methodology

This paper discusses the approach of Mentoring followed by Centurion University of Technology and Management, a State Private University of Odisha and to discuss the impact of the holistic approach. The reports generated periodically by the University would be used to know about the impact of the mentoring program. Further, a questionnaire has been used to understand the impact of the program from the feedback of the Mentors.

Limitation of the Study

The study is limited to one year study in one of the educational institute.

Backdrop

Centurion University is a State Private University, located at Parlakhemundi, Gajapati District of Odisha. Centurion University had started its journey as an Engineering college in extremist affected rural location, Paralakhemundi. The Engineering College, Jagannath Institute for Technology and Management which started in 1997 was the fourth private engineering college in the state of Odisha. It was declared as a Private University in 2010 by the State Legislative Assembly.

Centurion University offers courses Bachelors and Masters courses in Technology, Masters Courses in Management, Bachelors and Masters Courses in Science, Bachelors courses in Agriculture studies, Bachelor course in Architecture. It also offers Vocational Education from its School of Vocational Education. There are students from all parts of Odisha state as well as from Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Assam. Almost 70% of students reside in the Hostels managed inside the University campus.The student strength is highest in Bachelor of Technology course, where the age is mostly from 17 years to 22 years. The general behaviour of the student is obedient. They mostly come from humble middle class families. Around 50% of the students are dependent on the guidance of their Teachers and seniors with regard to their career.

Holistic approach of centurion university

The University had the mentoring system in the beginning years of its existence. It was not effective as it had been very mechanically done without having any impact on the mentees. On discussion, it was discovered that the mentors did not exactly know the roles they had to play. It was also analysed that the institute had followed the mentoring process without customising it in the context of CUTM environment. The University gets students mostly from the state itself and from other parts of Eastern India. The students are generally shy and very mild in behaviour. They needed a lot of handholding support by faculty to explore their potential and achieve the best. It is therefore very much needed that mentoring be effective in the University. The Senior Management Team of CUTM, in one of its review meetings came up with a suggestion to have a Holistic Approach towards Mentoring of students.

To implement the Mentoring program, each Faculty member had been given a group of 20 students as mentees, as it was felt that 20 would be the convenient span for a Mentor as per the student and Faculty strength. The Mentor would actually get an hour formally in the class timetable itself, but they could have as many single/

24
24
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Objective of the

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

group mentoring sessions apart from it based on the need of the Mentees and the as per the judgement of the Mentors. The Mentoring process followed in the University was as follows:

  • 1. Mentee: A student group of 20 from the same department or class were put under one Faculty mentor.

They would meet their mentor periodically.

  • 2. Mentor: A faculty would have a group of 20 students from his department. Mentor would have meetings

with the assigned Mentees and understand them and support them academically as well as emotionally. Mentors had to deal very empathetically and at the same time be their guides. Mentees being young would need a lot of counselling and discussions so that were able to cope up and do well in their studies. They would need support and solution to make their hostel stay fruitful. There is always a risk of students being diverted from studies and are prone to alcohol, betting etc. They need support in managing their relationships with other classmates or hostel inmates. Hence, a Mentor has to keep track of all the Mentees and keep in regular touch with them by either meeting them physically or discussing though phone or electronically through mails etc.

  • 3. Support or Supervision: The University Mentoring program covered all students by providing Faculty

Mentors. To make it effective a lot of supervision and support was provided.

Mentor Training- Educational administrators must make numerous decisions about the mentoring but perhaps the most difficult decisions relate to who the mentors will be and howthey will be trained. Irrespective of the nature of an organization, not all personnel are suitedto be mentors.

From its earlier experience the University had found out that the training of mentors was inevitable. Hence, the Mentors were provided training at the beginning of the academic year, so that the mentors understood both their roles and the objective of the mentoring program well.

Supervision & Support– For the purpose of mentoring, a class was assigned in the weekly timetable of the students, where a mentor had to meet the mentees. Apart from this one session formally assigned in the timetable, the Mentors were to meet the mentees in groups/ individually as per the need.

The Mentor was required to maintain the documentation for the mentoring sessions as well as the basic details of the student mentioning the address, background, students & Parents contact numbers, academic performance till date, other interests of the students etc. The document of the Faculty Mentors was periodically checked by the Head of the Department. Mentors were supposed to bring up to the Department meetings any such issue which needs attention from the Administration. Mentors would also talk to their colleagues for any support that they needed for their Mentees. The Heads of the Departmentwould in turn discuss with the Dean in the weekly meetings of all Heads of Department, any such important issues of their Department Mentees.

The whole process of Mentoring is supported by ICT. The Mentors can get the basic details of the Mentees from the ERP system present in the University. Further, the regular updates such as class attendance, performance in internal and external examinations, fees payment status etc could be accessed through the ERP. This would help the Mentors to keep track of what the mentee is doing and discuss on problem areas with the mentees. Mentors can interact with the mentees through the cutmmails IDs (bothindividual or group IDs) / facebook / phones calling/ sms etc.

Parents as Support: Parents are one of the most important stake holders of the Educational institutes. They invest

25
25
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 group mentoring sessions
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 ISSN 2454-2105 a
IMJ International Multi Journal
Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017
ISSN 2454-2105
a lot of their earnings for their child study with an expectation that their ward will get a good career and would
settle down well in life. Hence, the University kept all the parents address andcontact numbers in the ERP as well
as the Student counselling cell. The parents receive information through group or individual sms regarding the
attendance (daily and periodically), placement information, fees and registration information, examination
schedule and results, holidays and reporting dates, any indiscipline activity of the ward. Keeping the parents in
confidence helps the University to counsel the students better. The Mentors name and contact number is passed
on to the parents so that they can get information about their wards. Mentors also in turn have the contacts of the
parents and call them up when required.
Student Counselling Cell is also present in the University which keeps on sending information to
parents. Parents can call up the Cell for any information. The Cell does the routine work of sending sms to
parents on daily / periodically. The information dissemination generally happens from here. Further, the
Mentors, Heads of Departments and the Dean can also take up the help of this cell to get contact with parents.
This Cell also helps to provide information to the Mentors/ Heads/ Dean regarding the students who stay in the
Hostel.
26

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Impact of the Holistic Approach

The Mentoring Approach followed at CUTM was very encouraging. It was very much visible in various reports. Also the impact was studied through a questionnaire administered for this purpose.

Parents Feedback: Generally the University connects with its stakeholder, i.e. Parents, through a series of meetings held at different parts of the State in the Mid of the Academic year. The Feedback received from such meetings was really encouraging. The meeting minutes said that the Mentoring approach followed at University provides all the required information to them and they are now very much pleased about the academic and administrative discipline of the University. They were happy that the University had involved them in the process of counselling their wards which provided emotional support their child.

Attendance Reports: The detained list is generated based on the total attendance of students for a particular semester. Generally the list used to have 7 to8 per cent detained for a particular semester. But for the current academic year there had been a fall in the numbers of detained students, i.e. it had around 4 to 5 per cent of students in the detained list.

Mentor Training impact: As mentoring is a two-way or reciprocal process, it provides benefits also for the mentor. For instance, the work of Levinson et al. (1978) found that mentoring rejuvenatesmentors' careers since it enables them to assist and shape the professional and personaldevelopment of mentees. According to Douglas (1997), other benefits for the mentor includeincreased confidence, personal fulfilment and assistance on projects.

A questionnaire was used to get the feedback of the mentors regarding the Mentoring program. The feedback was taken from 40 mentors using stratified random sampling technique. The analysis of the feedback received is as follows:

1.The mentors who provided the feedback had 83% male mentors and 17% female mentors.

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Impact of the
27
27
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Impact of the
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 ISSN 2454-2105 2.
IMJ International Multi Journal
Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017
ISSN 2454-2105
2. Out of the 40 mentors who provided feedback, 40% had done mentoring earlier, but 60% of them were
doing mentoring for the first time.
3.
Mentors being helpful to the mentees in helping them to adjust and managing their emotions. Further,
they were highly helpful in taking out the best in their mentees. Most of the Mentors informed that they had been
very helpful to the mentees in getting them well connected to the University, teachers and resources. The
following chart shows that Mentors helped the Mentees in many ways and helped them to explore their potential
without getting frustrated.
28

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 
  • 4. Each mentor on an average had 18 mentees put under them in the program. Out of the mentees

attendance was as follows for the program:

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 4. Each mentor
  • 5. 75% of Mentors shared that they would like to continue with the same mentee group. But 25% of the

Mentors were not able to continue with the same mentees as they had final year students as mentees, who would be graduating out of the course next academic year.

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 4. Each mentor
  • 6. Communication method used by the Mentors to interact with the mentees were mostly meeting them in

groups/ individually. E-mails and telephone calls were used highest to interact with the mentees. SMS and

Students Counselling Cell were moderately used for support.

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 4. Each mentor
29
29
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 4. Each mentor

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

 

ISSN 2454-2105

 
  • 7. The Mentoring program had been very helpful to improve their own skills. It had benefitted the Mentors.

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 7. The Mentoring
  • 8. The training program had been very helpful to the Mentors in conducting the mentoring program. On an

average the training program helpfulness got 4 score out of 5. About 99.3% of the mentors wished to undergo a

Mentoring training program again to reinforce certain basic concepts such as being a good listener, and being empathetic etc. Mentors have suggested that the mentoring training could be made more effective if it is done along with their mentees.

Conclusion

The Mentoring program is inevitable in an educational institute. There is win-win situation for the Faculty, Students and the University if the program becomes very effective. For the Mentoring program to be effective, the Mentors should be trained so that the objective is understood by all. It can be made effective through an approach where the system is customised as per the need of the University. The process needs to be supervised and supported well. The Holistic approach of CUTM has made the Mentoring program very effective which is obvious from the attendance reports and thus the student engagement. The Mentees are able to get support from Mentor and are able to use their energy for getting the best possible results. The Mentors get benefited too. The whole approach helps the students and Faculty to better engaged and better connected among them and with the University.

References:

  • 1. Campbell, T.A. and Campbell, E.D. 1997. “Faculty/Student Mentor Program: Effects on Academic Performance and Retentions.” Research in Higher Education, 38, 727–742.

  • 2. Burlew,

L.

D.

(1991). Multiple mentor model: A conceptual framework. Journal of Career

Development, 17(3), 213-221.

 
  • 3. Ronald A. Berk, PhD, Janet Berg, MS, RN, Rosemary Mortimer, MS, MSEd, RN, Benita Walton-Moss, DNS, RN, and Theresa P. Yeo, MSN, MPH, RN, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Faculty Mentoring

 
30
30
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 7. The Mentoring

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Relationships”, Academic Medicine, Vol. 80, No. 1 / January 2005.

  • 4. Busch JW. Mentoring in graduate schools of education: mentors' perceptions. Am Educ Res J. 1985;22:257– 65.

  • 5. Lisa C. Ehrich, Brian Hansford, Ms Lee Tennent, “FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION AND OTHERPROFESSIONS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE”, Published in Educational Administration Quarterly, 2004.

  • 6. Foster Lisa, “Effectiveness of Mentoring Programs, Review of Literature from 1995 to 2000”, California Research Bureau, March 2001.

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Relationships”, Academic Medicine,
31
31
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Relationships”, Academic Medicine,

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 
 

Portrayal of Women In Shashi

Prof. N. V. Gohad

Deshpande's Novels

Asstt. Prof. English

Abstract

Yashwantrao Gudadhe Patil College Nagpur.

Indian family has been changing gradually in its structure and functions as it moves from an agrarian and rural to an industrialized and urban social ethos. Shashi Deshpande also focuses on the emergence of the nuclear families from joint family with all its problems of interpersonal relationships. Shashi Deshpande herself writes about families changing structures and women's changing role. Human being is a member of family which provides some degree of mutual caring and sharing that transmits culture, values and material benefits from generation to generation. From the childhood a person learns from family members the patterns of behavior that affects all the later relationships both with other individuals and with society as a whole. Families continue to be society's most basic and pervasive organization, bridging the gap between the individuals and the community. It also forms a cohort with social system in its recreational activities and all the other economic organizations within which one interacts. The present paper intends to study various roles a woman plays as a family member in the life of an individual with special reference to Shashi Deshpande's which revolves around family - a significant institution of society. Key Words: Role of family , Distinctive female identity, alienation , rejection.

Paper:

The present paper intends to study various roles a woman plays as a family member in the life of an individual with special reference to Shashi Deshpande's which revolves around family - a significant institution of society. Shashi Deshpande's almost all novels revolved around this significant institution of society. With the changing times and values, the family, like the rest of society has undergone radical charges. In India the tradition has been of joint family which is nowadays transforming into nuclear family. There have been many positive sides and advantages of living in a joint family, because it gives us an atmosphere to experience variety of emotions, thought and ideas of different members. The company of grandparents sows the seeds of finer sensibilities early in life. Right family gives right dosage to the child to make him a good human being which is not to be found in nuclear families. But many a time it also leads to clashes, conflicts, tensions, boundations, frustrations and expectations etc. Family is also characterized by relationships between individuals and these relationships change along with the experiences of the individuals. Family is a way of living together of meeting emotional needs through interactions. The living, the hating, the fun and the violence all provide an emotional environment within which the individual learn the skills that will determine their interactions with others in the world around them. It will determine their feelings of self-worth and their concern for others. It is the milieu within which people interact in order to deal with the emotional and physical needs of the family members. It is in this milieu that children learn the process of making decisions and the techniques for handling situation, emotional issues, actions etc. Various factors have made the family both the purveyor and the recipient of change. If the individual has contributed to the transformation of the family according to his/her needs, the family too has provided the individual with opportunities for self-discovery which takes place in the process of the individuals interpersonal relationships within the family. Shashi Deshpande is a home going person, where family, family history, relationships - all play an important role. Her novels mostly have women protagonists, so

 
32
32
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Portrayal of Women

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

she presents a woman's view and what she is in a family and what family means to her, she writes: It is the family, the home consisting of parents, children, grand children, siblings, which we hold on to even today as the one sage unchanging place in a changing world. It is the tradition of the family itself, as well as the traditions within the family, that we cherish, it is these that women are supposed to uphold and be steadfast to an important and a much lauded role which has been given to them and which they are, so we are told performing with great sincerity. Woman sincerely plays her role of upholding the traditions of family. Family values a lot to her. Deshapande writes about its relevance in present context : There is no doubt that the family is of enormous importance perhaps more today because it seems to be threatened. We are realizing that it is something we can take for granted. But along with its relevancy and importance it is also true that there are many other things which are more important : At the same time, it is also the less important place, the outside world is where things happen, is the place where important events take place and a modern educated working woman faces some major conflicts and problems in adjusting herself between these two worlds, of family life and career life. Then also it is the family from where the discrimination starts, as Deshpande explains : But the actual reality of the family was, I think correctly spelled out in Eagel's statement that in family the man is bourgeois, the women the proletatriat. The fact is that the family as it is, has been shaped by men for their purpose .

The Indian society can broadly be classified into three hierarchical level in terms of distinctions based on economic and political power : the upper class, the middle class and the working class. Though it is not always true that the three class have very clear and defined boundaries, there is nevertheless a certain distinctive identity that each of these classes projects in terms of life styles and attitudes. Shashi Deshpande deals with the middle class urban life in major. Her protagonists are all product of it. They are educated, cultured, traditional, intelligent and intellectual too. It is contended that the family and familial relationships in the novels of Shashi Deshpande represents crucial transition of modern India, from a conservative and traditional social order to a liberal and urbanized socio-economic and cultural ethos. Shashi Deshpande's novels seeks to explore the psychological complexities in which the Indian middle class family gets implicated in the process of radical changes brought about by industrialization, urbanization and the growing influences of western thoughts and attitudes. Her novels also reflect a radical shift in interpersonal relations and their consequences upon the changes in the Indian family.

The concepts of democracy and individuality, urbanization, greater possibilities of movement, easier communication, contraception, literacy, women going out to work, the increasing number of nuclear families, these have charged the family structure greatly from what it was. Many of these factors have also weakened the power that family wielded over its members. Consequently, women's lives have changed enormously. Most women have welcomes the change, they are receptive to the change partly because it has often meant an improvement in their lives, partly because of pragmatism . To be part of the world, to play ones role in the world as well as inside the home, not to have ones entire life dictated by others – why would women not want these things? There is nothing wrong if women are ambitious and want to put their own mark and identity in world outside along with their home and family. Why male in majority take this as a threat to family and tradition. But the two worlds are closely connected because the family is the smallest cell of social life. Jasbir Jain writes about the novels of Shashi Deshpande in her famous book, Gendered Realities, Human Spaces : The Writing of Shashi Deshpande .

 
33
33
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 she presents a

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Deshpande's novels show a concern with families and space. There are families, nuclear families with memories of living in joint family structures, families with arms extended in every directions, those who hold together and those who don't. Families always work through relationships and interdependence, the base of the families are always marriage. But these families have their critics, rebels and dissidents like any other social group. So families in themselves are powerful medium of socialization. They transmit the values and ideas to next generation. Family have variety of people or members who have their own individual identity.

Deshpande's protagonists have their own analysis of its various bonds, ties and relationships. Families always plays and important role in her life, she tries her best to struggle for her family's survival. Her protagonists are not radical feminists they don't perish, they don't discard, they don't collapse, but survive through their self-realizational and awareness which emerges from their own mind, which is the centre of struggle, conflict, intellectual amendment and revolution. Deshpande rightly asserts : The point is that the greatest revolution can take place in the mind, all revolutions begin there. How this thinking is translated into action is another thing, it is not necessary to walk out, to commit adultery, to divorce, to show defiance or a rejection of tradition. As in the case of Sarita (save) in The Dark Holds No Terror, who discarded her parental home and her mother's wish, to marry Mohan but suffers a feeling of alienation and guilt, though she tries her best to hide it from others. Same is in Indu's case the protagonist of Roots and Shadows, she also went against the wish of family and married Jayant but her roots are pulling her towards them. Happy family gives healthy vision towards life which is reunite it and give strength to struggle but a family which is not supportive fill individual with a sense of frustration. As in the case of Jaya, That Long Silence, Sumi in A Matter of Time, Urmila in The Binding Vine, Madhu in Small Remedies and Manjari in Moving On. Women have the power to assess and judge their condition and situation. Family is their priority and is of the most important thing but how much the family provides space and freedom to the individual is also a most question. Sometimes it reduces personal space and imposes aspirations and expectations which the individual take as burden in lack of capability to hold it. Rejection by a family, can make the individual alienated and rejection of the family lead to feelings of loneliness and guilt.

During the survey of her novels various aspects and various dimensions of familial relationships emerge, there are mother-daughter, father-daughter, brother-sister relationship with in-laws, but the much focused one is husband-wife relationship which is the foundation and base of family from where many new relations start taking shape and develop. The joint family of character are full of many more relationships uncle- aunt both paternal and maternal, their children and relation with them, the grand children's relation with their grandparents etc. But these relationships have been portrayed in a very realistic and transparent way, not always happy but full of sadness too. A family, has to live both with sorrow and happiness because it is inevitable, nobody can escape it an what kind of impact it leaves in the individual and his/her further life. Shashi Deshpande's own protagonist of Roots and Shadows Indu, comments : I had seen the concept of the family take shape, living in front of my eyes. It has struck me how suddenly, if only momentarily, we had become an entity, a family, united by strong bonds, a common loyalty. Shashi Deshpande's all major novels like The Dark Holds No Terror, Roots and Shadows, That Long Silence, The Binding Vine, Small Remedies, A Matter of Time, Moving On, all present conventional and many a time odd family atmosphere. The protagonists when reflects on her past, dismantles the joint family with sweet and sour experiences. So her novel is a sweet and sour journey

 
34
34
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Deshpande's novels show

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

towards family and familial relationships which is many a time parallel to ours. Distorted, disturbed and scattered family leads to frustration, crime and death as projected in her two crime novellas If I Die Today and Come Up and Be Dead.

References Primary Sources :

  • 1 The Works of Shashi Deshpande The Dark Holds no Terrors. New Delhi: Vikas Publications, 1980.

  • 2 Roots and Shadows. Hyderabad: Sangam Books Orient Longman Ltd., 1983.

  • 3 That Long Silence. New Delhi: Virago, 1988.

  • 4 The Binding Vine. New Delhi: Penguin, 1993.

  • 5 A Matter of Time. New Delhi: Penguin, 1996.

  • 6 Small Remedies. New Delhi: Viking, Penguin, 2000.

  • 7 Moving On. New Delhi: Viking, Penguin, 2004.

Secondary Sources :

  • 1 Atrey, Mukta & Vinay Kirpal. Shashi Deshpande: A Feminist Study of her Fiction. Delhi: B.R. Publication, 1998.

  • 2 Bharucha, Nilufer. E and Vilas Sarang, Indian English Fiction 1980-90: An Assessment : New Delhi:

B.R. Publishing, 1994.

  • 3 Pathak R.S., The Friction of Shashi Deshpande. New Delhi : Creative Books, 1998.

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 towards family and
35
35
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 towards family and

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

A Study Of The Influence of Study Habits on Academic

Dr. Sonali N. Channawar

University of Glasgow

Achievement Of Higher Secondary School

Abstract

Students Of Raipur

Assistant Professor Mahatma Gandhi College Raipur (CG) sonali.channawar@gmail.com

The present study investigates the influence of study habit on academic achievement on higher secondary school student. Descriptive survey method is used to select a sample of 1200 students at the higher secondary level. Study habits Inventory (Dr. M. C Joshi and Jagdish Pandey) was used to measure the study habits of students and check the academic achievement of student to assess student achievement level. The result of the statistical analyses shows a significant difference between gender and types of school on academic achievement. A significant difference not found in gender and locale on study habits. Keywords: Academic Achievement, Study Habits

I: Introduction

Children are the fate of country. It is the obligation of each nation to give instruction its youngsters. Subsequently all chances to every one of its kids in this manner all exertion ought to be coordinated through the arrangement of training for their scholarly upgrade and identity improvement. The significance of interest insight, critical thinking capacity and identity qualities can't be characterized on the grounds that every one of these elements are in charge of scholastic Achievement they found a few intellectual and non-subjective components, which add to scholarly accomplishment.

Study habits is a well-planned and deliberate pattern of study, which has attained a form of consistency on the part of students towards understanding academic subjects and passing examination cited by Oyedeji .There study can be interpreted as a planned program of subject matter master. According to Crow and Crow (2007), The main purpose of study are to acquire knowledge and habits which will be useful for getting new situations, interpreting ideas, making evaluation creating new ideas and to perfect skills. Study habits is a factor, which has its own weight age in establishment of the children in the field of education, Which differs from individual to individual and Study habits are learning tendencies that enables students to work privately.

1.1: Need and Importance of the Study

 

In the present study, study habit is important factor for examination and useful in the learning process. Study habit is one of the important factors to achieve the academic score with the help of good study habit. Study habit make student with proper manner. Good study habit help to students may identify their strengths and weakness in the learning strategies and they may become more conscious about better study. Student can do proper and frequent communication and favourable attitude towards teacher, classroom behaviour and methods will affect the performance and help students for good achievement and positive attitude

II: Review of Related Literature 3.1: Studied Related to Study Habit

 

Aluede and Onolemhemhen (2001) studied the effect of study habit counselling on the academic performance of secondary schools students in English language. The findings of the study were counselling students on good study habits can bring about improvement in the students' academic performance. Sirohi (2004) conducted a study on “under achievement in relation to study habits and attitudes.”A sample of 1000 elementary grade students was taken from composite schools of south District, Delhi. Tools used were teacher

 
36
36
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 A Study Of

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

made achievement test of study habits and attitudes by Mathur. The results found that guidance programme shall lead to better results improving the achievement of the students and thus their potentialities be maximally utilized. Digmati Bhaskara Rao and Sema Surya Prakas Rao[(2004). The finding of the study revealed that secondary school students are possessing high study habits. It is the duty of the teacher to make the students excel in academic achievement as the secondary school students possess high study habits. The student of government and private secondary school possess high study habit without any significant difference. Nadeem,Puja and Bhat (2014) revealed that i]there is significant mean difference between Kashmiri and Ladakhi adolescents' girls on their study habits and the difference is significant at .01 level. The Kashmiri adolescent girls showed better study habits as compared to Ladakhi adolescent's girls. ii]It was also found that kashmiri and Ladakhi adolescents girls differ significantly on their academic achievement and the difference is significantly at .01 level. The Ladakhi adolescent's girls are much below in their academic achievement scores as compared to Kashmiri Adolescent girls. Santha kumari and Chamundeswari (2015).The study revealed that there is a significance difference in the achievement motivation, Study habits and Academic Achievement of students in different categories of school.

III: Methodology of Study

As the methodology of the study is designed on the basis of problem, objectives and hypothesis formulated

3.1: Aim of the Study

  • 1. To study the dependent variable of higher secondary school students i.e. academic achievement.

  • 2. To study the independent variable of higher secondary school students is study habit.

  • 3. To study the influence of independent variable on dependent variable.

3.2: Objectives of the Study

  • 1. To study the mean score of gender, locale, and types school on academic achievement of higher secondary school students.

  • 2. To study the mean score of gender, locale, and types school on study habit of higher secondary school students.

  • 3. To study the influence of subject stream and their interaction on study habit of student.

  • 4. To study the influence of gender, locale and their interaction on academic achievement of students by considering study habit as covariate.

3.3: Hypotheses of the Study

  • 1. There is no significant difference of mean score of gender, locale, and types of school on academic achievement of higher secondary school students.

  • 2. There is no significant difference the mean score of gender, locale, and types of school on study habit of higher secondary school students.

  • 3. There is no significant influence of subject stream and their interaction on study habit of student.

  • 4. There is no significant influence of gender, locale and their interaction on academic achievement of students by considering study habit as covariate.

37
37
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 made achievement test

ISSN 2454-2105

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

3.7: Sample of the Study

3.7: Sample of the Study 38 3.4: Method of the Study The present study based on
38
38

3.4: Method of the Study

The present study based on descriptive survey methods.

3.5: Population of the Study

The present research work entrusted all the higher secondary students of rural and urban school of Raipur (Chhattisgarh).

For the study, the researcher employed stratified random sampling.

Variable

Group

N

Mean Score

SD

Mean diff.

t. value

Significance

Gender

Male

600

63.77

12.43

0.50

3.24

 

Female

600

61.47

12.08

0.49

Significant

 

Urban

600

62.26

12.45

0.50

1.02

Not

Locale

Rural

600

62.98

12.16

0.49

Significant

Types

Government

600

61.46

11.88

0.48

3.29

 

of school

Private

600

63.79

12.61

0.51

Significant

 

Table value 1.96 with df 1198 on 0.05 level of significance.

 

Sample of the present study consisted 1200 higher secondary students, who studying in XII class of Higher Secondary Schools of District Raipur which were affiliated to Chhattisgarh State Board Of Education.

3.8: Tools of the Study

Study habit inventory (Hindi version) Constructed by Dr. M. C Joshi and Jagdish Pandey was used to measure the study habits of students.

IV: Analysis of data

Table 4.1: Genders, Types of school, and Locale Wise M, Sd, N, and t-test of Academic Achievement scores of student.

3.6: Sampling Techniques

From Table 4.1.it shows that the mean score of academic achievement of male and female differ significantly. It may, therefore be said that the male student were found to have significantly higher academic achievement as compared to female student. It indicates that the mean score of academic achievement of urban and rural area school do not differ significantly. It may, therefore be said that mean score of academic achievement was found to be independent on locale. Urban and rural students have similar level on academic achievement. It shows that the mean score of academic achievement of government and private school differ significantly. It may, therefore be said that the private School were found to have significantly higher academic achievement as compared to government school.

3.7: Sample of the Study 38 3.4: Method of the Study The present study based on

ISSN 2454-2105

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

Variable

Group

N

Mean Score

SD

Mean diff.

t. value

Significance

Gender

Male

600

20.48

6.41

-0.68

-1.67

Not

Female

600

21.47

7.72

Significant

 

Urban

600

20.44

7.55

   

Not

Locale

Rural

600

21.21

6.60

-0.77

-1.89

Significant

Types

Government

600

20.22

7.21

-1.21

-2.96

 

of school

Private

600

21.43

6.94

Significant

 

Table value 1.96 with df 1198 on 0.05 level of significance

 

Table 4.3: One way ANOVA of Study habit of higher secondary students belonging to different subject streams.

Table 4.2. It concludes that there is no significant difference in the study habit of higher secondary school male and female students. Table 4.2. also concluded that there is a no significant difference in the study habit of higher secondary school students studying in urban and rural localities. Lastly shows that students studying in government and private schools have no significant difference.

In table 4.3 it concludes that there is a significant difference in the study habit of higher secondary school students belonging to different subject stream. It may, stated that the study habit are independent on different subject stream.The study habit mean scores for art, commerce and science students were 21.03, 20.08 and 21.37 respectively. To find out which of these paired mean scores had a significant difference, the Tukey's HSD (Honestly Significant difference) post hoc test was applied and the results are presented the table 4.7.1(a).

Table -1.2.Gender, Types of school and Locale wise M, Sd, N, and t-test of Study habit scores of student.

39
39
Variable Group N Mean Score SD Mean diff. t. value Significance Gender Male 600 20.48 6.41

Variable

Source of

Sum of

df

Mean

F ratio

Significance

Variation

Square

Squares

Study habit

Between Groups

356.13

2

178.06

3.54**

 

Within Groups

60173.18

1197

50.27

Significant

 

Total

60529.32

1199

 
 

Table value 2.99 with df (2, 1197) on 0.05 level of significance.

 
Variable Group N Mean Score SD Mean diff. t. value Significance Gender Male 600 20.48 6.41

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

Source of variance

SS y.x

df

MSS

F

y.x-

ratio

Sig. Value

Significance

Study habit

579.96

1

579.96

 

3.96

0.047

Significant

Gender(A)

1544.86

1

1544.86

 

10.56

0.001

Significant

Locale(B)

171.42

1

171.42

 

10.17

0.001

Significant

A*B

4482.15

1

4482.15

 

30.64

0.000

Significant

Error

 

1195

       

Total

 

1200

       
 

Table value 3.84 with df (1, 1195) on 0.05 level of significance.

 

* * Not Significant at Alpha 0.05 level

Tukey's post –hoc test shows that there is no significant paired mean difference in the study habit between art and commerce, commerce and science, art and science students and the values are 0.95,-1.29 and - 0.34 which are less than the critical values at alpha 0.05 level of confidence and there is no significant difference in the study habit of art and commerce, art and science commerce and science subject streams. The result of the study shows that a no significant difference exists in the study habit between art and commerce, art and science commerce and science subject stream. It is concluded that all subject stream are independent on study habit because all student does their study work according to their choice.

Table 4.4: Summery Of 2x2 Factorial Design ANCOVA of Gender and Locale by Considering Study Habit as a Covariate

In table 4.4, for the analysis of covariance of gender and locale are treated as different groups. From the F-ratio, it is seen that there is a significant influences of gender, locale and their interaction on academic achievement by taking study habit as a covariate.

40
40
Source of variance y.x df MSS F y.x- ratio Sig. Value Significance Study habit 579.96 1
 

Mean

Critical difference

 

Subject Stream

Difference

(q value)

Art

Com

Science

   

21.03

20.08

 

0.95

2.68**

 

20.08

21.37

-1.29

-3.63**

21.03

 

21.37

-0.34

-0.95**

 

Critical value of q at alpha 0.05 level of significance

Tukey's HSD (Honestly significant difference) Post –Hoc Test for significant difference in the study habit mean scores of higher secondary student belonging to different subject streams.

Source of variance y.x df MSS F y.x- ratio Sig. Value Significance Study habit 579.96 1

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

V: Conclusion

Education is important part of life for upgrading the skill and knowledge in field of education environment. In Chhattisgarh education first focus point to increase the quality of business, market field and environmental base of different area. In Chhattisgarh So many people belong to firm work and business and remaining are in tribal area. Those people are belonging to firm area they need to enhance the quality of education then defiantly they increase the growth of income via education. Same application is use for business and other people who lived in tribal area of Chhattisgarh. They really need to lean education world because it is important to their children also. The educational systems should make an interesting plan for student to develop their capacity to create skill and upgrade knowledge in school in school going student.

The study shows that overview related to academic achievement and study habit of higher secondary school student of Raipur state Chhattisgarh in India. Thus, a broad study is encompassing the good study habit in

various area like note making, use of leisure time, extra time for study, solve daily test booklet on related subject area, routine practice on formative assessment, Self portfolio, self assessment, self feedback of school going student .This is too important to focus the different area of the student for their good academic record. Because good study habit is play one of the most important roles for student's academic achievement. Therefore it is

important to connect to practices on their habit for making in school

.In our culture it shows that still some

areas they focus only boy child but now change the mentality according to 21 st century .Now children are future of our state and also world so encourage the girl child also in education .According to this study researcher found that male student has good academic achievement comparing with female student in some selected place like rural area of (Baikunt cement school) but from last five year it has been observed and analysed that in proper Chhattisgarh the interest of education is more among girls rather than boys. Study reveals that girls were found to be not much difference from boys on the measure of academic achievement. So it is important to aware the particular school whose result getting down due some problem.

Refernces

  • 1. Aluede and Onolemhemhen. (2001), Effect of study habits counselling on the academic performance of secondary schools students in English language.J.Edu.Res.Ext, 38(3):1726.

  • 2. Bagongon,C.K. and Edpalinand,C.R.(2009). Research Proposal on the Effect of Study Habits on the Academic performance of freshmen Education Students in Xavier University, Ca Gayan Deoro City.

  • 3. Bhaskara Rao and Prakash Rao (2004), Study Habits of Secondary school Students. Survey of Research in Education. Yadav, N.S. (Ed.) NCERT, New Delhi.

  • 4. Crow, D.L.,and Crow, A. (2007).Educational Psychology. Delhi: Surject Publications.

  • 5. Garrette, H.E.(1967).Statistics in Psychology and Education, Wakils Kefer and Semens Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.

  • 6. Nadeem, N.A., Puja, J.A., and Bhat, S.A. (2014) “study Habits and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri and Ladakhi Adolescent Girls: A comparative study.”Turkish online Journal of Distance Education- (TOJDE) ISSN 1302-6488, Vol-15 No.:2 Article 7.

41
41
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 V: Conclusion Education

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 
  • 7. Oyedeji-http://www.unibrin.edu.ng/unilorin/journals/education/ije/dec1991/perserverance_ Study _ habit_and_s e lf_Conc ept_a s_pr edi c tors_of_students_pe rformanc e_in_s e conda ry _school_mathematics_in_nigeria/pdf.

  • 8. Santha V.R.and et al (2015).Achievement Motivation, Study habits and Academic Achievement of students at the Secondary Level. International Journal of Emerging Research in Management and Technology.ISSN:2278-9359(vol-4, Issue-10).

  • 9. Sirohi V. (2004). Underachievement in Relation to Study Habits and Attitudes. Journal Indian Education .18 retrieved on 20.06.06 from: http://www.ece-msstate.edu/˜hagler/May2001/05Begin.htm

 
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 7. Oyedeji-http://www.unibrin.edu.ng/unilorin/journals/education/ije/dec1991/perserverance_ Study
42
42
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 7. Oyedeji-http://www.unibrin.edu.ng/unilorin/journals/education/ije/dec1991/perserverance_ Study

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 
 

^^la?kVhr dkexkj o

Áeksndqekj lq[kjketh pksidj

HkaMkjk-

dkexkj la?kVuk**

pchopkar18@redifmail.com

ÁkLrkfod%&

Mol. No.9405510496

Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoGhps ifj{k.k dsys vlrk vls fun'kZukl ;srs dh] Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoG cÚ;kp izek.kkr etcqr ik;koj mHkh vlwu la?kVhr dkexkj oxz ,dk ufou 'kDrhpk Lo:ikr iq<s ;sr vkgs- fnolsafnol uksan.khÑr dkexkj la?kVukaph la[;k ok<r vkgs- ;kf'kok; uksan.kh u dsysY;k vusd vkS|ksfxd] ljdkjh] fueljdkjh {ks=krhy dkexkj la?kVuk ns'kkr foQy izek.kkr LFkkiu gksr vkgsr- R;kaph fuf'pr vkdMsokjh miyC/k gks.ks 'kD; ukgh- Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoGhaP;k lanHkkZr ikf'pekR; fo}ku Jh jkcVZ ;kauk iz'u fopkjyk vlrk R;kauh Li"V 'kCnkr lkafxrys dh] Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj la?kVuk ftrD;k etcwu dk;kZoj mH;k vl.ks vko';d vkgs- frrD;k R;k etcwr ukghr- Hkkjrkps ekth jk"VªRo dkexkj usrs Jh Ogh-Ogh- fxjh Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoGhP;k lanHkkZr Hkk"; djrkauk Eg.kkys gksrs dh] Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoG vtqugh ckY;koLFksr vkgs- Hkkjrkrhy pGoGhpk bfrgkl dsoG xsY;k rhu dkexkj pGoG Qkjp FkksM;k izek.kkr fodflr >kysyh vkgs- fryk ikfgts rso<;k izek.kkr vtwugh ifjiDork vkysyh ukgh-

LFkk;h Jfed oxZ%&

b-l- 1981 e/;s vkiY;k Hkkjr ns'kkr Jfed oxkZr dke dj.kkÚ;k vuU; O;fDraph ,dw.k la[;k gh 24-46 dksVh gksrh- ,danj yksd'kkghP;k rqyusus R;kosGP;k ikgY;kl lokZr eksBh la[;k gh dkj[kkunkjhr jkc.kkÚ;k Jfedkaphp gksrh- dkj.k izR;sd ;qok oxkZpk dy@fopkj gk 'kgjkrhy okLrO; o dkj[kkunkjhr dke ;kdMs tkLr gksrk o vktgh ofjy iz.kkyhrp r:.kkapk tkLr /;kl vkgs-

la?kVhr gksÅu {ks=kr dke dj.kkÚ;k v';k HkO; Jfed leqnkyk la?kVhr Jfed Eg.krkr- dkj.k iS'kkP;k ekscnY;kr 'kkjhfjd Je dj.kkÚ;k O;fDrl Jfed vls Eg.krkr-

gk Jfed tsOgk leqnk; iz.kkyhus vkiys gDdkps j{k.kkLro U;k; ekx.;kdjhrk ,drsps izfrd n'kZforks v';k Jfed leqgkyk ^la?kVuk* 'kCn mn~cks/khr ;srks- gs Jfed dks.kR;kgh dkj[kk.;kr vlks fdaok dks.kR;kgh {ks=kr dk;Z djhr vlks R;kaph ,d la?kVuk r;kj djrkr- T;k la?kVusps dk;Z R;kauk fdaok R;kaP;k leqgkyk ;s.kkÚ;k vuU; leL;k ;koj rksMxk dk<.ks] xjt HkklY;kl 'kklukph U;k; iz.kkyhph enr ?ks.ks vlrks-

gÓkaph lqjokr loZizFke baXyaM e/;s dj.;kr vkyh] dkj.k R;kosGh lokZr tkLr dkj[kkunkjh m|ksx gs baXyaM e/;sp gksrs- R;kdkGh frFksgh Jfedkaph dkj[kkunkjh txrkdMwu fiGo.kwd Ogk;ph- JfedkaP;k fiGo.kwdhl foié voLFksr Bso.kkjh funZ;h v'kh lekt O;oLFkk frFks gksrh- izkjaHkh voLFksr Jfedkauh Qkj okbZV gky&vis"Bsr thou O;rhr dsys- dkj.k R;kaps toG i;kZ; uOgrk- ikfjokjhd miftfodk d'kh djk;ph\gk Toyar iz'u MksG;kleksj mHkk gksrk- v';k fLFkrhr d"V ekyd oxk±uk ikfgts frrds d:u

 
43
43
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 ^^la?kVhr dkexkj o

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

miftfodk ekxZ lk/kus gsp R;kps dk;Z gksrs- ;kr R;k Jfedkps vKkui.kp Eg.kk T;kpk Qk;nk iqathoknh ?ksr vlk;ps-

dkekoj dk;Z djhr vlrkauk nxkoY;kl vuqdaik varxZr R;kaP;kp ifjokjkyk ,dk O;fDryk iq<hy mnjZfuokgkLro uksdjh i.k ehGw ykxY;kr- ;keqGs Jfedkaph dk;Z&bPNk cGdkoyh o rks izlé eqnzsus vkiY;k dk;kZr rRij jkgw ykxyk-

dks.krsgh dk;Z djrkauk loZizFke ekufld&lqn`<rk vl.ks xjtsps vlrs- rs tj R;k O;fDryk izkIr >kysr R;kaP;k ekxhy fpark@ leL;k lqVw ykxY;kr rj ek.kql izlérsus dk;ZrRij vlrks- gs loZ R;kaP;k ,drsps QG vkgs- v'kk ;k Jfed oxkZyk LFkk;h Jfed EgVY;k xsysr-

vLFkk;h Jfed oxZ%

ts Jfed dk;Z@dke dfjr vlrkauk R;kaP;k dkekps Lo:i gs LFkk;h ulrs- Eg.ktsp va'kdkyhu vlrs- T;kauk dke o;kP;k ,dk fuf'pr o;kse;kZnsi;Zau ,dkp fBdk.kh feGr jkghy- ;kph 'kk'orh ulrs- ts vla?kfVr vlrkr- T;kaph dqBs la?kVuk ulrs- gkrkr dke feGsy rj dj.ks vU;Fkk dkeklkBh nkjksnkjh HkVdus ;k izdkjP;k dk;Z&dke iz.kkyhl vLFkk;h Jfed dk;Z iz.kkyh Eg.krkr-

ofjy izek.ks vLFkk;h Lo:ikr dke d:u vkiyh miftfodk Hkkxfo.kkÚ;k Jfedkaph ifjfLFkrh Qkjp uktwd vlrs- ;kyk eq[; dkj.k Eg.kts m|kj.k gh jksth feGwu vkfFkZd ykHk gks.kkj gÓkph R;kyk iw.kZ 'kk'orh eqGhp jkgr ukgh- R;keqGs v';k Jfedkauk miklekjhph >G lq/nk lkslkoh ykxrs- dkj.k R;ktoG i;kZ; ulrks- f'k{k.kkus vlk Jfed oxZ gk vf'k{khr vlrks- dkeklkBh HkVd.ks gkp R;kP;k thoukrhy Øe jkgrks- R;keqGs rks vkiY;k eqGkckGkaukgh iw.kZr% LFkk;h f'k{k.k nsow 'kdr ukgh- dkj.k vkt bFks rj m|k vk.k[kh dqBs v'kh R;kph ftou tx.;kph voLFkk jkgkrs- Eg.kwu v';k Jfed oxkZr vf'kf{krrk ps izek.k vf/kd ikgko;kl feGrs-

dkj[kkunkjh txkr losZ e/;s vls vk<Gwu ;srs fd cjsp Jfed vusd o"kkZiklwu ,dkp dkj[kk.;kr dke dfjr vkgs- ljG fjR;k c?khrys rj rs LFkk;h Lo:ikr x.kY;k tk.kkjp i.k rls gksr ukgh- R;k Jfedkyk dkj[kkunkj oxZ Dophrp dke djko;kl cka/khy djrks- o Jfed gk iksVklkBh feGsy R;k voLFksr dk;Z d:u ikfjokfjd miftfodk pkyforks- ;kpeqGs rks vf'kf{kr jkghy- o ;kp dkj.kkeqGs R;kph iq<hy fi<hlq/nk vf'k{khrrsP;k ekxkZoj vk<Grs-

dkj[kkunkj tj R;kyk iDdh Eg.ktsp LFkk;h Lo:ikr :ikarj nsrs rj R;kyk loZ lq[k&lks;h ts fu;ekUo;s Jfed dkj|kuqlkj |kO;k ykxrkr- R;kyk feGo.;kl ik= x.kY;k tkrks- T;kapk HkwnZaM dkj[kkunkjkyk lkslkok ykxrks- Eg.kwu v';k v.kU; Jfedkauk dkj[kkunkj LFkk;h gksÅ nsr ukgh- R;kaP;k dMwu Je gs vLFkk;h Lo:ih JfedkOnkjsp djowu ?ksrkr- v';k fLFkrhr Jfed gh dk;Z ukbZyktkus djrks- dkj.k rks viax vkgs- dke feG.ks fgp R;kph eq[; xjt vlrs- R;kP;k ;k fnuok.kh ifjfLFkrhpk Qk;nkp

 
44
44
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 miftfodk ekxZ lk/kus

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

dkj[kkunkj ?ksr vlrkr-

v';k vLFkk;h Lo:ih dk;Z dj.kkÚ;k JfedkaP;k ifjokjkyk 'kS{kf.kd fLFkjrk ykHkr ukgh- oS|dh; lks;h loyr izkIr feGr ukgh- Hkfo"; fuokZg fu/kh feGr ukgh- d"Vkrwu feGoysY;k vkfFkZd vkod e/kwup vkiyh ifjokjkph miftfodk Hkkxfo.ks o ;s.kkÚ;k leL;k gh lksMfo.ks gsp R;kps fuR;kps dk;Z vlrs-

nqlÚ;k egk;q/nkuarj vkS|ksfxd txkr vla?kfVr Eg.kts vLFkk;h Lo:ih Jfedkar Hkj?kksl ok< >kyh- 1980 e/;s vkiY;k Hkkjrkr R;kaph vuqekuhr la[;k gh 70-04 y{k ,so<h izpaM gksrh-

vla?kVhr Jekps rkRi;Z ,so<sp vlrs fd rs la?kVhr gksÅu dke dj.;kl vleFkZ vlrkr- dkj.k R;kaP;k dkekps Lo:ikl fLFkjrkp eqGkr ykHkr ulrs- R;kaP;koj gks.kkÚ;k vU;k;kpk rs Vkgks gh d: 'kdr ukghr- dkj.k tj m|kyk dke fnys ukgh rj ikfjokjhd [kpZ O;ogkj pkyok;pk dlk\ gkp R;kps leksjhy eksBk iz'u jkgrks-

Hkkjrkrhy f=i{kh; Je la?kVuk%&

vkarjjk"Vªh; Je la?kVusP;k dk;kZpk Hkkjrkoj Jefo"k;d ckchaP;k lanHkkZr dks.krk ifj.kke ?kMwu vkyk rs oj foLrkjkus Li"V dsysp vkgs- Hkkjrke/;s fofo/k Lrjkaoj fuekZ.k dj.;kr vkysY;k la;qDr fopkjfofue; ;a=usps Lo:ilq/nk vkarjjk"Vªh; Je la?kVusP;k /krhZojp Bjfo.;kr vkys vkgs- la;qDr fopkj fofu;e ;a=.ksps mfí"V ljdkj] lsok;kstd o dkexkjkaP;k izfrfu/khauk ln~Hkkouk o lgdk;kZP;k okrkoj.kkr ,df=r vk.kwu vkS|ksfxd raV;kauk dkj.khHkwr vlysY;k dkj.kkaps fujkdj.k dj.ks gs vlrs-

dkexkjkae/khy vlarks"k ok<w u;s o vkS|ksfxd la?k”kkZdfjrk dkj.khHkwr vlysY;k loZ dkj.kkaps eqGkrp fujkdj.k dj.ks 'kD; Ogkos º;k mís'kkus ,d dk;nk d:u f=i{kh; Je la?kVuk fuekZ.k dj.;kr ;koh] v'kh lqpuk 'kkghJe vk;ksxkus dsyh gksrh- ijarq ljdkjus rsOgk ;k f'kQkj'khph mis{kkp dsyh- cq/n iz;Rukdfjrk ljdkjyk dkexkjkapk lgdk;kZph tsOgk frozrsus xjt Hkklyh rsOgk ljdkjus ;kfn'ksus ifgys ikÅy Eg.kwu 1940 e/;s Hkkjrh; Je ifj"knsps vk;kstu dsys- 1942 iklwu º;k ifj"knse/;s lso;kstd o dkexkjkaP;k izfrfu/khauk fueaf=r dj.;kr ;sÅ ykxys-

Hkkjrh; Je ifj"kn %&

1942 iklwu Hkkjrh; Jeijh"knse/;s lsok;kstd o dkexkj izfruh/khauk fuea=.k dj.;kr ;sow ykxY;keqGs º;k ifj"knsps Lo:i f=i{kh; cuys v'kk fjrhus Hkkjrh; Je ifj"knsph jpuk vkarjjk”Vªh; Jeijh"knslkj[khp vkgs- º;k ifj"knse/;s lsok;kstdkus dkexkj ;kauk leku izfrfu/khRo vlrs- rj dsUnz ljdkj o jkT; ljdkjkaps izfrfu/kh nqIiV la[;sr gktj vlrkr- Hkkjrh; Je ijh"knsph cSBd o"kkZrqu ,dnk cksyfoyh tkrs-

 
45
45
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 dkj[kkunkj ?ksr vlrkr-

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

Hkkjrh; Jeifj"knsps fo"k; i=hdk r;kj dj.;kph tckcnkjh dsanzljdkjP;k Je ea=ky;kph vlrs- lHkklnkuh dsysY;k lwpuk y{kkr ?ksÅu Je ea=ky; fo"k; i=hdk r;kj djrs- dkexkjkapk n`"Vhus ftokG;kP;k iz'ukaoj Hkkjrh; Je ifj"knse/;s eksdG;k okrkoj.kkr ppkZ dsyh tkrs- º;k ppsZe/kqup dsanzljdkjus laer dsysY;k vusd Je dk;|kps varhe Lo:i lkdkj >ky- Hkkjrh; Je ifj"knsus dsanz ljdkjyk fofHk™k Je leL;k gkrkG.;kP;k ckcrhr mi;qDr ekxZn'kZu lq/nk dsys vkgs-

jkT; Je lYykxkj eaMG%&

dsanzkP;k ikrGhoj vLrhRokr vlysY;k f=i{kh; Je la?kVusps Lo:i o Li"V dsys vkgs- v'kkp izdkjph f=i{kh; Je la?kVusph jkT;kP;k ikrGhoj lq/nk fufeZrh dj.;kr vkyh vkgs- jkT;kP;k ikrGhoj fuekZ.k dj.;kr vkysys f=i{kh; Je la?kVusyk jkT; Je lYykxkj eaMG vls Eg.krkr- Hkkjrh; Je ifj"knsizek.ks jkT; Je lYykxkj eaMGkph jpuk vlrs- dsanzkP;k ikrGhoj Hkkjrh; Je ifj"kn ts dk;Z djrs rsp dk;Z jkT;kP;k ikrGhoj gs eaMG dfjr vlrs-

vkarjjk"Vªh; Je la?kVusph LFkkiuk%&

1914 e/;s ,dk 'kqYyd dkj.kko:u iMysY;k fB.kxho:u ;q/nkpk ouok isVyk o ;q/nkps :ikarj tkxfrd egk;q/nkr ?kMwu vkys- OglkZP;k rgkus egk;q/n laiq"Vkr vkys- o 'kkarrk izLFkkfir >kyh- ;q/nkps [kjs dkj.k lkekftd vfLFkjrk vlrs- gh lkekftd vfLFkjrk usgeh vkfFkZd vkf.k lkekftd fo"kerse/kwu fuekZ.k gksr vlrs- vkfFkZd vkf.k lkekftd fo"kersph njh deh dj.;klkBh iz;Ru dj.kkjs o dkexkjkoj gks.kkÚ;k vU;k;kyk ik;kcan ?kky.;kdfjrk ?kV.kkjh ,[kknh dk;e Lo:ikph la?kVuk vlY;kps lektkr LFkSj o 'kkarrk ukanw 'kdr ukgh gk fopkj txkrhy vusd fopkjoarkuk o iq<kjkauk iVyk gksrk- OglkZP;k rgkph nqljh egRokph fu”iRrh Eg.kts oj ueqn dsysY;k fopkjkyk lkdkj dj.;kP;k mfí”Vkus dj.;kr vkysyh vkarjjk"Vªh; Je la?kVusph LFkkiuk gh gks;- 1919 lkyh vkarjjk"Vªh; Je la?kVusph LFkkiuk dj.;kr vkyh-

OglkZP;k rgkoj Hkkjrkph Lok{kjh gksrh- Hkkjr gk jk"Vªla?kkpkgh lHkkln gksrk- º;k nksUgh dkj.kkaeqGs vkarjjk"Vªh; Jeukr la?kVusP;k LFkkiusiklwup Hkkjr º;k la?kVuspk lHkkln vkgs- izkjHkhpk nksu o"khZ Hkkjr vkarjjk"Vªh; Je la?kVusP;k fu;ked eaMGkP;k lkekU; lHkkln gksrk- frlÚ;k o"khZ iklwu Hkkjrkps vkS|ksfxd egRo y{kkr ?ksÅu vkarjjk"Vªh; Je la?kVusP;k fu;ked eaMGkoj Hkkjrkyk dk;e Lo:ikps LFkku ns.;kr

vkys-

yksd'kkgh jkT;O;oLFksr Jfedkyk izkIr gDd %

HkkjrkP;k yksd'kkgh jkT; O;oLFksr Jfedkauk la?kfVr gksÅu la?kVuk ekQZr vkiY;k ;s.kkÚ;k vfMvMp.kh ifjfLFkrhr lq/kkj.kk ?kMowu vk.k.;kps gDd iznku dj.;kr vkysys vkgsr vkf.k gsp vkiY;k Jfed cka/kokuk R;kaP;k vlysY;k dk;Zfugk; la?kVuk izkeq[;kus f'kdfor vlrkr- gs loZ yksd'kkgh

 
46
46
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 Hkkjrh; Jeifj"knsps fo"k;

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

iz.kkyheqGsp 'kD; >kysys vkgs- dkj.k ;kaP;k dk;Ziz.kkyhr 'kklukphgh <oGk<oG ulrs- ohlkO;k 'krdkr Øqj dkexkj Jfed la?kVuk vf/kd cGdV >kY;kl 'kS{kf.kd] lkekftd] jktfd;

{ks=kr ns[khy ;kauh x:M>si ?ksryh- ex vLFkk;h Lo:ih JfedkaP;k okVÓkyk nq%[kp dka\gsp xq< dGr

ukgh-

Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoGhps ifj{k.k dsys vlrk vls fun'kZukl ;srs dh] Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoG cÚ;kp izek.kkr etcqr ik;koj mHkh vlwu la?kVhr dkexkj oxz ,dk ufou 'kDrhpk Lo:ikr iq<s ;sr vkgs- fnolsafnol uksan.khÑr dkexkj la?kVukaph la[;k ok<r vkgs- ;kf'kok; uksan.kh u dsysY;k vusd vkS|ksfxd] ljdkjh] fueljdkjh {ks=krhy dkexkj la?kVuk ns'kkr foQy izek.kkr LFkkiu gksr vkgsr- R;kaph fuf'pr vkdMsokjh miyC/k gks.ks 'kD; ukgh- Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoGhaP;k lanHkkZr ikf'pekR; fo}ku Jh jkcVZ ;kauk iz'u fopkjyk vlrk R;kauh Li"V 'kCnkr lkafxrys dh] Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj la?kVuk ftrD;k etcwu dk;kZoj mH;k vl.ks vko';d vkgs- frrD;k R;k etcwr ukghr- Hkkjrkps ekth jk"VªRo dkexkj usrs Jh Ogh-Ogh- fxjh Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoGhP;k lanHkkZr Hkk"; djrkauk Eg.kkys gksrs dh] Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj pGoG vtqugh ckY;koLFksr vkgs- Hkkjrkrhy pGoGhpk bfrgkl dsoG xsY;k rhu dkexkj pGoG Qkjp FkksM;k izek.kkr fodflr >kysyh vkgs- fryk ikfgts rso<;k izek.kkr vtwugh ifjiDork vkysyh ukgh-

dkexkj la?kVusps Lo:i%&

dkexkj fgrlaca/k lqjGhr Bsowu R;kaps lao/kZu dj.;klkBh dkexkj la?kVuk vfLrokr vkysY;k vkgsr gs Li"V gksrs- gs fgrlaca/k lqjGhri.ks Bso.;kP;k laca/kh fofo/krk vlrs- ijarq loZlk/kkji.ks dkexkjkaP;k fgrkps laj{k.k o lao/kZu dj.ks gs dkexkj la?kVusps izeq[k dk;Z vkgs-

O;olkf;dkaP;k o ekyd yksdkaP;kgh la?kVuk vlrkr- i.k R;k la?kVukauk dkexkj la?kVuk Eg.kus ;ksX; Bj.kkj ukgh- dkj.k dkexkj la/kVukaph /;s; vkf.k O;olkf;dkapk o ekyd yksdkaP;k la?kVukaph /;s; ijLij fojks/kh ulyh rjh fe= vkgsr- dkexkj la?kVuk o ekyd la/kVuk ;kaP;k izsj.kk o /;s;s ;kr eqyHkwr Hksn vkgs- vkiY;k lnL;kapk uksdjhph voLFkk R;kaph foØ;'kDrh ;kcíy dkexkj la?kVuk eq[;Rosd:u rRij vlrkr- rj ekyd la?kVuk Je'kDrh [kjsnh djrkauk vkiY;kyk vuqdwy v'kk 'krhZcíy mRlqd o tkx:d vlrkr-

dkexkj la?kVuk o O;kolkf;d la?kVukrhy Hksn ;k laanHkkZr y{kkr ?ks.ks vko';d jkghy- O;kolkf;d yksdkpk la?kVuspk la?kVusP;k mís'k lnL;kaP;k dkS'kY; ok<hlkBh ;ksX; ifjfLFkrh fuekZ.k dj.;kP;k vlrks- vFkkZr vktP;k lq/nk lnL;kaP;k izf'k{k.kkoj Hkj nsr vlrkr- i.k R;kr eq[; Hksn gk vkgs dh] O;olkf;d la?kVuk Lor%P;k O;olk;kr Lora=i.ks dke dj.kkjs O;olk;hd o osru feGfo.kkjs dkexkj vlrkr- rj dkexkj la?kVuk gksÅ 'kdr ukgh- ;k lanHkkZr Jh ts- lh- ekFkqj izfriknu djrkr dh Hkkjrkrhy dkexkj la?kVusyk ekuY;k tkrkr-

 
47
47
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 iz.kkyheqGsp 'kD; >kysys

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

lanHkZ xzaFk lwph

 

MkW- cks/kudj] izk- vyksuh] ^lkekftd la'kks/ku i/nrh*] Jh lkbZukFk izdk'ku] Hkxok?kj dkWEiysDl /kjeisB] ukxiwj

ns'keq[k izHkkdj] ^Jekps vFkZ'kkL=*] fo|k izdk'ku] ukxiwj] 1987

izk- esJke lqjs'k] ^ÁkR;f{kd lkekftd la'kks/ku*] Ñ".kpanz ,tUlht] y{eh uxj] ukxiwj&22] 1 yh vko`Rrh] lIVsacj 2000

izk- izfni dqekj] ^la?kVhr dkexkjkalkscr lektdk;Z*] ;'k ifCy'klZ fMLVªhC;qVlZ] egky ukxiwj

izk- fo|ktZu] ^vkS|ksfxd lekt'kkL=*] Jh xtkuu izdk'ku] egky] ukxiwj

df.kZd olar] ^dkexkj la?k vkf.k vkS|ksfxd laca/k*] fo|k izdk'ku :bZdj jksM] ukxiwj

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 lanHkZ xzaFk lwph
48
48
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 lanHkZ xzaFk lwph

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 
 

i;kZoj.k vkf.k ;s.kkÚ;k

çk- MkW- çfo.kk ukxiwjdj

lkekftd leL;k

ejkBh foHkkx]

efgyk egkfo|ky;] uanuou] ukxiwj

vki.k ftFks jgkrks vkgksr rsFkhy vkiY;k lHkksorkyps vkiY;koj ifj.kke dj.kkjh ifjfLFkrh Eg.kts i;kZoj.k gks;- ^ifj* o ^vkoj.k* ifj Eg.kts loZ cktwauh vkf.k vkoj.k Eg.kts os"Vu fdaok os<wu vlysyh xks"V- t'kh gok loZ= O;kiwu] os<wu vlrs R;kyk vki.k okrkokj.k vls lacks/krks- vxnh rlsp vkiY;k pgwcktwauh os<wu vl.kkÚ;k ifjLFkhrhyk i;kZoj.k Eg.krkr- i;kZoj.kkps tru o laj{k.k gk ,d egRokpk ç'u vkgs- ;kph vko';drk tkxfrd Lrjkaoj egRokph ekuyh tkr vkgs- ;kfo"k;h dkgh nqer ukgh-

i;kZoj.kkps çeq[k nksu çdkj iMrkr- ^uSlfxZd i;kZoj.k* vkf.k ^ekuofufeZr* fdaok ^lkaLÑfrd i;kZoj.*- uSlfxZd i;kZoj.k Eg.kts fulxZfufeZr ?kVdkapk lekos'k vlysys vR;ar fØ;k'khy vlrs- dkykuq:i] LFkGkuq:i R;kr cny gksr vlrkr- uSlfxZd i;kZoj.kkrhy ?kVd futhZo vkf.k ltho vls vlrkr- gsp nksu izeq[k Hksn 1½ vtSfod vkf.k 2½ tSfod- ;kdfjrk vtSfod i;kZoj.k (Abiotic Environment) v'khgh laKk okijrkr- ;kr fulxkZrhy gok] ik.kh] tehu] ekrh] [kfuts] m".krk] vkæZrk b- ?kVdkapk lekos'k gksrks- rj tSfod i;kZoj.k ;k laKsvarxZr ouLirh] izk.kh] i{kh] lw{etho] leqæh tho o ekuo b- loZ ltho ?kVdkapk lekos'k gksrks- gh ,d layXu ckc vkgs- tSfod i;kZoj.k gs vtSfod i;kZoj.kkoj folacwu vlrs-

tSfod i;kZoj.kkrhy loZkr egRokpk ?kVd ekuo gks;- ekuo fulxkZpkp Hkkx vlY;keqGs rks Lor% uSlfxZd i;kZoj.kkP;k tSfod izdkjkr eksMrks- rksgh brj ?kVdkaizek.ksp ijLijkoyach o uSlfxZd ,d nqok vkgs- ijarq vkiY;k fulxZnRr cqf)eRrseqGs rks uSlfxZd i;kZoj.kkpk tk.khoiwoZd mi;ksx djrks- Eg.kwup rks fulxkZyk vkiY;k i)rhus fu;af=r d# 'kdrks- i.k R;kph nwljhgh cktw vkgs- rks R;kP;k uSlfxZd laiRrh O;frfjDr T;k vusd xks"Vh fuekZ.k dsY;kr- mnkgj.kkFkZ jLrs] bekjrh] yksdoLrh] nG.koG.k vkf.k fofo/k O;olk; bR;knh- R;kauk ekuofufeZr fdaok lkaLÑfrd i;kZoj.k vls Eg.krkr- gs izkeq[;kus vtSfod Lo#ikpsp vkgs- R;kr dkGkuq#i o LFkGkuq#i cny gksrkr] vkf.k R;kyk dkj.khHkwr ekuop vlrks- [kjsrj uSlfxZd i;kZoj.k ewyHkwr loZO;kih thoukpk vk/kkj vkgs- R;keqGs gh Qkj xaHkhj vkf.k fparuh; ckc vkgs-

i`Fohojhy vU; loZ ?kVdkae/;s ekuo ;kgh egRoiw.kZ ?kVdkps vfLrRo dk;e fVdfo.;klkBh uSlfxZd i;kZoj.kkps j{k.k o lao/kZu djk;yk gos- gh dkgh uohu xks"V ukgh- vkiY;k iwoZlwjhauklq)k vusd lkaLÑfrd pkyhjhrharwu R;kph çfprh feGrs- mnkgj.kkFkZ tls vusd izFkkaP;k varxZr fulxkZrhy fofo/k ?kVdkaps izk.;kaps uOgs iapegkHkwrkaps dks.kR;k uk dks.kR;k Lo#ikr iwtu dj.ks ;krwu fulxZ vkiY;k xjtkaP;k iwrZrslkBh tlk rRij vlrks- R;kpsp dkgh ns.ks vki.k ykxrks gsp ;krwu lwfpr gksr vkgs- lezkV v'kksdkus rj i`Fohojhy loZ izkf.kek=kaps vfLrRo egRokps let.;kpk gqdwep dk<yk gksrk-

thou izokgh vkgs vkf.k dkG xrheku vkgs] r'kkrp vk/kqfud ra=Kkukus o vkS|ksfxdhj.kkus ekuoh

 
49
49
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 i;kZoj.k vkf.k ;s.kkÚ;k

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

thou vkeqykxz cnyowu Vkdys vkgs- R;k cnykP;k dSQkr ek= ekuo dGrudGr uSlfxZd i;kZoj.kkP;k uk'kkyk dkj.khHkwr Bjr xsyk vkgs vkf.k vkgs gh- ekuokP;k LokFkhZ okx.;kik;h R;kus dkgh [kfuts vkf.k brj 'kfDrlk/kukaP;k csyxke okijkus rs lai.;kP;k ekxkZoj vkgsr- dkj.k R;kps iquuZohdj.k gksr ukgh- ekuokP;k vfuc±/k okx.kwdhus izk.;kaph dRry] taxykph dVkbZ gks.ks] R;kpk ifj.kke iqUgk i;kZoj.kkoj pksgkscktwauh gksrks- okLrfod euq";kP;kp uOgs rj loZp lthokaP;k thouko';d xjtk i;kZoj.k iqjfors- i.k gh xjtk iqjfo.kkjh lk/kulaiRrh gh uSlfxZd vlY;keqGs rh e;kZfnr vlrs- gs /;kukr ?ksÅu ekuokus lrr tkx#drsus vkiys orZu djkos- ,drj ok<R;k yksdla[;seqGs lk/kulaiRrhph xjt lrr ok<yh vkgs- R;keqGs ;k lk/kulaiRrhoj vf/kd rk.k ok<rks vkgs- R;keqGs gs Fkkaco.;klkBh yksdla[;k ok<hoj fu;a=.k Bso.ks Qkj xjtsps vkgs mnkgj.kkFkZ tls ^ik.kh* gh ,d vfr'k; vko';d ckc vkgs- R;kP;kgh lkBk gk e;kZfnr vkgs- gs ekfgr vlwugh R;kpk okij gksrkuk fdrh l<G gkrkus gksrks- rlsp ;k ik.;kr dpjk VkGwu fo"kkjh jlk;us] dkj[kkU;karhy ?kk.kik.kh lksMwu gk lkBk fuxZei.ks nwf"kr dsyk tkrks- rlsp dsoG ik.khp uOgs rj gok] ekrh ;k ?kVdkapsgh iznw"k.k ok<r vkgs- vks>ksu ok;wpk laj{kd Lrj ikrG gksr vkgs] gs rj laiw.kZp ekuotkrhlkBh /kksdknk;d vkgs- [kjsrj lokZaukp gs ekfgr vkgs dh] i;kZoj.kkps ?kVd ,desdkaoj voyacwu vlrkr- o rs ,desdka'kh tqGowu ?ksÅu ;kph ,d lqanj lk[kGhp r;kj gksrs- vusd ouLirh] fdVd iztkrh o izk.;kaph olfrLFkkus euq";kaP;k pqdhP;k fØ;kaeqGs uk'k ikor vkgsr-

nqljs vls dh yksdla[;k ok<heqGs vUu/kkU;kph vf.k ik.;kph xjt ok<r vkgs- ik.;kpk vfrfjDr milk gksr xsY;kus HkwtyikrGhr ?kV gksr vkgs- Eg.kwu ik.khVapkbZpk iz'u fuekZ.k >kyk- rlsp ekuokus vf/kd /kkU; fidfo.;klkBh jklk;fud [krs] ok<ho tyflapu o dhVduk'kds okijY;kus ekrh [kjkc gksr vkgs- uSlfxZd ouLirhP;k vHkkokus ekrhph /kwigh ok<rs- ;kf'kok; yksdkadMwu jkstpkp fu?k.kkjk dpjk R;klkBh uhV foYgsokV yko.;kph i)r'khj O;oLFkk u >kY;kus iqUgk gosps] ekrhps] ik.;kps iznw"k.k ok<rs- mnkgj.kkFkZ IyWLVhsdP;k fi'kO;k vkf.k brj IyWLVhdP;k oLrw vkf.k ;k lax.kdh; ;qxkryk bZ&dpjk ;klq)k eksBîkk leL;k gksÅu clY;k vkgsr-

i;kZoj.kkP;k gkuhyk fofo/k izdkjps Eg.kts ok;w iznw"k.k] tyiznw"k.k] e`nk iznw"k.k] /ofuiznw"k.k] lkxjiznw"k.k] vkSf".kd iznw"k.k] vkf.od laiRrh dpjk] ?kudpjk] gh loZ ?kVd Qkj eksBîkk izek.kkr tckcnkj vlrkr- R;keqGs R;k lok±ph ;ksX; rh foYgsokV yko.ks] foYgsokV yko.;kps O;oLFkkiu fu;kstuc) i)rhus dj.ks gs Qkj egRokps vkgs- ;kf'kok; uSlfxZd vkiRrh lq)k i;kZoj.kkoj vk?kkr djhr vlrkr- tls Hkwdai] Tokykeq[kh] pØhoknG] HkwL[kyu v'kkizdkjP;k ;k eksBîkk izek.kkoj loZp izdkjph gkuh iksgkspfo.kkÚ;k uSlfxZd vkiRrh vkgsr-

tsV ;qxkrY;k ekuokus vkiY;k gO;klkiksVh fuekZ.k dsysyk HkLeklwj Eg.kts iznw"k.k gks;- ojhy loZ izdkjP;k iznw"k.kkauh txkrys i;kZoj.k izHkkfor dsys vkgs- i;kZoj.kkpk lerksy ;keqGs <klGyk vkgs-

 
50
50
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 thou vkeqykxz cnyowu

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

NksVîkk'kk pqdhpk gk HkLeklwj d/kh >kyk gsgh y{kkr vkys ukgh- ekuofufeZr iznw"k.k lthokalkBh ?kkrd vkgs- [kjsrj i;kZoj.k gh ,d larqfyr O;ofLFkr Lo;apfyr ;a=.kk vkgs- T;kr vusd fulxZpØs lqjGhr vlrkr- i;kZoj.kkr gks.kkjs dkgh cny fulxZ Lor%p fu;af=r d#u ?ksrks i.k vkS|ksfxdhdj.kkP;k vkf.k 'kgjhdj.kkP;k izokgkr mn;kl vkysY;k iznw"k.kkpk HkLeklwj gk lok±lkBh ?kkrd vkgs- gs osGhp vksG[kwu R;koj fu;kstuc) Ñrhph furkar xjt vkgs-

ojhy leL;k ojoj ikgrk Qkj lkekU; okVrkr] i.k rls ulwu R;k Hkfo";dkGklkBh ;kis{kkgh fcdV ifjfLFkrh fuekZ.k dj.kkÚ;k vlrhy- rsOgk lok±uhp osGhp lko/k gks.;kph furkar xjt vkgs- 'kklugh ;kn`"Vhus iz;Ru'khy vkgsp] vxnh tkxfrd ikrGhoj gk iz'u ,sj.khoj vkgs- o rh loZ jk"Vªs vkarjjk"Vªh; Lrjkoj ,d= ;sÅu R;koj fopkjeaFku lq#p vkgs- ;kfo”k;kps xkafHk;Z y{kkr vkY;kuarj tkxfrd Lrjkoj dke lq# >kys- 5 twu]1972 jksth LVkWdgkse ¼LohMu½ ;sFks ifgyh tkxfrd ifj"kn Hkjyh gksrh- rsOgkiklwup i;kZoj.k pGoGhyk vkarjjk"Vªh; Lrjkoj izkjaHk >kyk- ;krys izeq[k /;s; gksrs i;kZoj.kkps j{k.k vkf.k lao/kZu- rlsp 3&14 twu 1992 e/;s jhvksMh tkus jks ¼czk>hy½ ;sFks ;quksrQsZ olaq/kjk f'k[kj ifj"kn >kyh- ;kr Hkkjrklg 157 ns'kkauh lgHkkx uksanoyk gksrk- R;kr nksu egRokps djkj >kys rs vls 1½ fo'orkiu fØ;sl (Global Warming) dkj.khHkwr Bj.kkÚ;k ok;waps izek.k deh dj.ks o 2½ u"V gksr tk.kkÚ;k lftokaP;k tkrhaps laj{k.k dj.ks-

R;kuarj iqUgk 1997 e/;s tiku ;sFks D;ksVks e/;s 160 ns'kkaph tkxfrd ifj"kn ?ks.;kr vkyh- o izxr ns'kkauh 2008 i;±r o brj ns'kakuh2012 i;±r gfjrx`g ok;waps izek.k 1990 P;k ikrGhis{kk 5 VDds us deh djkos vls Bjfo.;kr vkys- ;kyk ^D;ksVks izksVksdy* vls ukao vkgs- ;kuarj vkfÝdsrhy tksgkUlcxZ ;sFks 2002 lkyh fpjLFkk;h fodklklkBh tkxfrd f'k[kj ifj"kn (World Summit on Sustainable Development) >kyh- ;k ifj"knsrgh vkfFkZd fodklkP;k cjkscjhusp i;kZoj.k lao/kZu j{k.kkpk dk;ZØe Bjfo.;kr vkyk- ,o<sp uOgs rj vusd tkxfrd la?kVuk dk;Zjr vkgsr- dkgh la?kVuk la;qDr jk"Vªla?kk rQsZ (UNO) gs dke djrkr- la;qDr jk"Vª la?kkus 1982 e/;s fulxZ fo"k;koj tkxfrd pkVZj r;kj dsys vkgs- tls ßuSlfxZd ra=kP;k vckf/kr pky.;koj ek.klkps thou voyacwu vkgs- ek.kwl ;k ra=kpk ?kVd vkgs- R;k uSlfxZd ra=keqGs mtkZ vkf.k iks"kd æO;s feGrkr- fulxkZP;k lkfUu/;kr ekuoh laLÑrhph tksikluk >kyh- dyk vkf.k foKku fodflr >kys- fulxkZ'kh ek.klkus lgvfLrRo jk[kY;kl R;kyk [kjk[kqjk fodkl lk/krk ;sbZy- Þ gîkk pkVZjo#u ek.klkyk i;kZoj.k 'kq)] LoPN Bso.;kph furkar xjt y{kkr ;srs-

gs loZ y{kkr ?ksÅu Hkkjrh; lalnsr ;kP;k'kh lacaf/kr dkgh izeq[k dk;ns laer dj.;kr vkys vkgs-

 
51
51
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 NksVîkk'kk pqdhpk gk

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

1-

oU;izk.kh ¼laj{k.k½ dk;nk] 1972 The Wild life (Protection) Act, 1972

2-

ou llaj{k.k dk;nk] 1980 The Forest Conservation Act, 19780

3-

i;kZoj.k ¼laj{k.k½ dk;nk] 1986 The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

4-

ty ¼iznw"k.k cpko o fu;a=.k½ dk;nk] 1974 The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,

1974

5-

ok;w ¼iznw"k.k cpko o fu;a=.k½ dk;nk] 1988 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1988

6-

tSfod fofo/krk dk;nk] 2002, The Biodiversity Act, 2002

7-

jk"Vªh; i;kZoj.kh; fuokMk dk;nk] 1995 The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995

;k loZ dk;|kaO;frfjDr brjgh dk;ns vkgsr rs vls &

1-

unh eaMG dk;nk] 1956 (The River Board Act)

2-

The Merchant Shipping (Amendment) Act, 1970

3-

ty iznw"k.k ¼cpko o fu;a=.k½ dk;nk] 1977 The Water Prevention (Control of Pollution) Act, 1977

4-

The Factories Act, 1948

5-

The Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951

6-

[kk.k vkf.k [kfut ¼fu;a=.k vfk.k fodkl½ la'kksf/kr dk;nk] 1986 The Mines & Minerals (Regulation

& Development) Amendment Act, 1986

7-

The Mineral Concession Rules, 1960

8-

The Atomic Energy Act, 1962

9-

The Insceticides Act, 1968

10-

The Urban Land (Ceiling and Ragulating) Act, 1979

11-

The Ancient Monument &Archeological Sites and Remains Act, 1986

12-

The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954

;klkj[ks vusd dk;ns 'kklukus dsysys vkgsr- ijarq ;k dkyko/fkr dkgh xks”Vh fopkjkr ?ksrk R;koj iqufoZpkjkph xjt fuekZ.k >kyh vkgs- vkiys i;kZoj.k dk;ns fujks/kd (Deterrent) rRokaoj vk/kkfjr vkgsr- mnkgj.kkFkZ ,[kk|kus dk;nkHkax dsY;kl R;kyk R;krwu gks.kkÚ;k vkfFkZd ykHkkP;k ekukus gks.kkjh f'k{kk gh vR;Yi vkgs- rlsp ;kP;k vxnh myV cktw Eg.kts tks dk;|kps fu;fer ikyu djrks R;kph iz'kalk

 
52
52
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 1- oU;izk.kh ¼laj{k.k½

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017

ISSN 2454-2105

 

d#u R;kyk mRrstukFkZ cf{kl ns.;kph fdaok vU; ekxkZus R;kyk R;kpk Qk;nk ns.kkjh lqfo/kk R;kr varHkwZr vlkoh- R;keqGs dk;|kP;k ikyukr uSfrdrslg rRijrkgh fuekZ.k gksbZy- o gh ckc lkekftd LokLF;kP;k n`"Vhus pkaxyh vkgs-

lanHkZ xzaFk %&

MkW- fou; dqekj frokjh] i;kZoj.k v/;;u] fgeky;k ifCyf'kax gkÅl] fxjxkao] eqacbZ MkW- iznhi dqekj] i;kZoj.k iznw"k.k] fMLdojh ifCyf'kax gkÅl] ubZ fnYyh MkW- lqjs[kk iaMhr&ckiV] i;kZoj.k 'kkL=] Jh lkbZukFk izdk'ku] ukxiwj jes'k mekBs] MkW- lkS- js[kk Bkdjs] i;kZoj.k 'kkL=] folk cqDl] ukxiwj

IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 d#u R;kyk mRrstukFkZ
53
53
IMJ International Multi Journal Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 d#u R;kyk mRrstukFkZ
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May

A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May to August 2017 The International Multidisciplinary Journal

A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
A Peer - reviewed Journal A Forum for professional Development Vol IV issue no 2 May
Dr. Neelam Tikkha Chief Editor M.A. (English), MBA (HR), (Soc.), DCE (N.D.), Ph.D. (American Literature), TEFL
Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Chief Editor
M.A. (English), MBA (HR), (Soc.),
DCE (N.D.), Ph.D. (American Literature),
TEFL (Tampa, US)
ISSN - 2454-2105