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# Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis

for slabs
Dr.-Ing. Girma Z.
Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in
flexure
• Four or more stages:
i. Before cracking the slab acts as an elastic plate, and
for short time loads, the deformations, stresses and
strains can be predicted from an elastic analysis.
ii. After cracking and before yielding of the
reinforcement, the slab no longer has a constant
stiffness, because the cracked regions have a lower
flexural stiffness, EI than the uncracked regions and
the slab is no longer isotropic because the crack
pattern may differ in the two directions.
2
Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in
flexure
– Although these conditions violate the assumptions in
elastic theory, tests indicate that the elastic theory
still predicts the moments adequately. Generally
normal building slabs are partially cracked under
iii. yielding of reinforcement eventually starts in
one or more region of high moment and
spreads through the slab as the moments are
redistributed from yielded regions to areas that
are still elastic. The progression of yielding
through a slab fixed on four edges is illustrated
in Figure (next slide)

3
Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in
flexure

4
Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in
flexure
– With further load, the regions of yielding known as
yield lines, divide the slab into a series of trapezoidal
and triangular elastic plates as shown in Figure (d)
above. The loads corresponding to this stage of
(plastic method analysis)
iv. Although the yield lines divide the slab to form
a mechanism, the hinges jam with increased
deformation, and the slab forms a very flat
compression arch as shown in Figure (next
usually is not considered in design

5
Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in
flexure

6
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Yield line method is a plastic method of
analysis of slabs
• A yield line analysis uses rigid plastic theory to
compute the failure loads corresponding to
given plastic moment resistance in various
parts of the slab
• A yield line method is an upper bound method
whereas the strip method is lower bound
method.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Upper bound theorem: If, for a small
increment of displacement, the internal work
done by the slab, assuming that the moment
at every plastic hinge is equal to the yield
moment and that boundary conditions are
satisfied, is equal to the external work done by
the given load for that same small increment
of displacement, then that load is an upper
bound of true carrying capacity.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Lower bound theorem: If, for a given external
load, it is possible to find a distribution of
moments that satisfies equilibrium
requirements, with the moment not
exceeding the yield moment at any location,
and if the boundary conditions are satisfied,
then the given load is a lower bound of the
true carrying capacity.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• If the lower bound conditions are satisfied,
the slab can certainly carry the given load,
although a higher load may be carried if
internal distributions of moment occur. If the
upper bound conditions are satisfied, a load
greater than the given load will certainly cause
failure, although a lower load may produce
collapse if the selected failure mechanism is
incorrect in any sense.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• The yield line phenomenon involves:
– a slab under increasing loads where cracking and
reinforcement yielding occur in the most highly
stressed zone (i.e. around maximum moment)
– the highly stressed zone normally acts as a plastic
hinge where the subsequent loads are distributed to
other region of the slab
– cracks develop forming patterns of yield lines until a
mechanism is formed,
– collapse is then indicated by increasing deflection
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Deformation of slab with yield lines
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
 Guidelines for establishing axes of rotation and YL
1. YL are straight lines because they represent intersection
of two planes
2. YL represent axes of rotation
3. The supported edges of the slab are axes of rotation. If
the edge is fixed negative YL may form, providing
constant resistance to rotation. If the edge is simply
supported, the axis of rotation provides zero restraint
4. An axis of rotation will pass over any column support.
Its orientation depends on other considerations
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
Guidelines for establishing axes of rotation and YL
outward from the point of application.
6. A YL between two slab segments must pass through
the point of intersection of the axes of rotation of
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Method of yield line analysis
• There are two methods of yield line analysis of slabs:
– the equilibrium method
– the virtual work method
• In either method, a YL pattern is assumed so that a
collapse mechanism is produced. Then for that failure
mechanism, the geometric parameters that define the
exact location and orientation of the yield lines are
determined and also the relation between applied
loads and resisting moments is solved.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• It is necessary to investigate all possible
mechanisms for any slab to confirm that the
correct solution, giving the lowest failure load,
has been found. For example the following
rectangular slab (SNS) may fail by either of the
two mechanisms shown.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs

## Alterative mechanisms for a slab supported on three sides

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Equilibrium method of Analysis
• It makes use of the equilibrium equations for
individual segment to obtain the collapse
• The FBD represented by each collapsing
segment is in equilibrium under
– yield moments and
– reactions or shears along support lines.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• For demonstration purpose consider the one
way slab uniformly loaded and is continuous
as shown in Fig. below.
• Let the slab with span L is reinforced to
provide resistance of m2 kN.m per m through
the span and m1 and m3 kN.m per m at the
two supports.
• Suppose it is desired to determine the
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs

A C B
(a)

wu

(b)

X L-X

wu wu
m2
(c) m1 m3
m2
X L-X
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• For a known yield moments m1, m2, m3, a trial
location of the positive yield line is assumed.
collapse pattern the solution is unique.
However if a different pattern is assumed, this
solution can describe nothing which pattern is
the governing one. Hence, it becomes
essential to use the energy approach in
completed problem for further verification.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• For the problem posed, consider the FBD in
Figure (c);
• From left segment:  M A  0 wu x 2
 m1  m2  0
2
wu ( L  x) 2
• From right segment:  M B  0  m2  m3  2
0
• Solving for wu from the two expressions and
equating, one may obtain a practical solution for x
as:
m  m2  m3  m1 
x 1 L  1  1  
m3  m1  m1  m2 
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• For instance, when L = 3m, m1 = m2 = 7kNm/m
and m3 = 10KN.m/m
x = 1.427m and wu = 13.75 KN/m2

## • When m1 = m3 = 10kN.m/m and m2 = 7kNm/m,

L = 3m
x = 1.5m and wu = 15.11 KN/m2
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• With the equilibrium method considerable care
must be taken to show all forces acting on each
element, including twisting moments, especially
when several YLs intersect or when YLs intersect
free edges.
• At such locations, off-setting vertical nodal forces
are required at the intersection of YLS.
• Because of the possibility of that the nodal forces
will be given the wrong sign or location, some
building codes don’t recommend the methods.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Virtual work method of Analysis
• Based on principle that work done by external
forces in undergoing a small virtual
displacements is equal to the internal virtual
work done in rotations along yield lines, the
ultimate load which the slab can sustain is
determined.
WE = WI
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• To develop suitable expression for each work,
let wu be the uniform distributed load,
• W   w dxdy
E u  W 
xy u

• where:
– xy = virtual displacement at load point considered
– Wu = resultant of the load on each segment
– ∆ = the corresponding displacement at centroid of
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Since the relative rotation of the surface takes
place about yield line, one may obtain
WI   mun n Ly
• Where:
– mun = the ultimate moment across any yield line.
– Ly = length of yield line
– θn = relative rotation of the two adjacent plates
perpendicular to the yield line
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• For demonstration purpose, consider the one-
way slab of the previous example.
wu

1 2

X L-X

wu wu
m2
m1 m3
m2
X L-X
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• The slab is reinforced at left and right
supports, and in span in such a way that the
capacities of the respective sections are m1,
m3 and m2.
• Let ∆ be the plastic deflection at x-distance
from left hand support to positive yield line
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• External work
wx w( L  x) 1
WE    wu L per m strip
2 2 2
• Internal work
WI   mLy  (m1  m2 )1  (m2  m3 ) 2 per m strip
 
• For small deflection 1  and  2 
x Lx
 
WI  (m1  m2 )  (m2  m3 )
x Lx
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• By principle of virtual work; WE =WI which
simplifies to give:
2L(m1  m2 )  x(m1  m3 )
wu 
xL( L  x)
dwu
• To obtain the minimum collapse load 0
dx

##   (m1  m3 ) xL( L  x)  L(m1  m2 )  x(m1  m3 )( L2  2 xL)  0

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• This gives the practical values of x such that:

m1  m2  m3  m1 
x L  1  1  
m3  m1  m1  m2 

## • Thus, identical solution to the equilibrium

methods is obtained
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Moments along Skewed yield lines
Consider a two way
slab orthogonally
reinforced where
the yield lines are
inclined at an angle
α with one of the
principal axes.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• The Fig. shows an orthogonal gird of reinforcement
having moment resistance my and mx per unit length
about the y axis and x axis, respectively.
• the resisting moment per unit length along the α axis
provided by the y direction bars is:
mxu cos
my   mx cos2 
u cos
• the resisting moment per unit length perpendicular
to α axis provided by the y direction bars is:
mxu sin 
my   mx cos sin 
u cos
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• the resisting moment per unit length along the α axis
provided by the x direction bars is:
my v sin 
mx   my sin2 
v sin 
• the resisting moment per unit length perpendicular
to α axis provided by the x direction bars is:
my v cos
mx   my cos sin 
v sin 
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Thus for the combined set of bars:
• the resisting normal moment per unit length
measured along the α axis is:
m  mx cos2   my sin2  …(1)
• the resisting torsional moment per unit length
measured along the α axis is:
m  mx cos sin  my cos sin …(2)
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• An isotropically reinforced slab is one in which
the ultimate moment per unit length of the
slab is the same in two orthogonal directions
– If a slab is isothropically reinforced with mx = my =
m, equations (1) and (2) become:
m  m and m  0
– Therefore the ultimate moment resistance in an
isotropically reinforced slabs in any direction is the
same.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• An orthotropically reinforced slab is one in
which the ultimate moment per unit length of
the slab is different in the two orthogonal
directions
– If a slab is orthothropically reinforced with mx = m
and my = μm, equations (1) and (2) become:
m  m(cos2    sin2  )
m  m(1   ) sin  cos
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Effects of restrained corners
• Corner lever is the effect of forking of the yield
line before reaching the corner. To this effect
the following schematic sketches the resulting
yield pattern at the corners.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
Hogging yield line

Uplift when the corners are not Corners held down but not well
held or fastened reinforced for negative moment
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs

## Development of corner levers in a simply supported slab

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
m’=0 slabs
m’= m/4

m’= m/2

m’= m
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• The triangular segment fails to form when the
negative reinforcement is large and hence, the
simple diagonal yield line in to the corner is
correct with out modification.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• Slabs with more than one variable
• So far the slabs consider have only one
variable dimension which defines the yield
line mechanism. When the slab has more than
one variable, the work equation, together
with equations obtained by differentiating
with respect to each unknown, give the
necessary expressions to obtain solution. This
can be illustrated using the following example.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
L

(1- 1)L

L

 1L

 2L (1-2  2)L  2L
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• In this case first develop suitable expression
from the work relation for wu in terms of 1 &
2. Then

wu wu
• 0 and 0
1 2

## • Will provide two additional equations to make

the problem solvable.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
• It is a powerful analytical tool.
• It can be used for slabs of any shape,
supported in a variety of ways.
• Concentrated, UD and partially distributed
• The effects of holes of any size can be
included.
Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for
slabs
Limitations of yield line theory
• If the selected failure mechanism is not the
controlling one or the location of the YL are not
exactly correct, it may predict a collapse load greater
than the true collapse load. Unsafe !!
• The slab section has to be checked for the