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5 visualizações52 páginasstructural design yield line method

Oct 31, 2017

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structural design yield line method

© All Rights Reserved

5 visualizações

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structural design yield line method

© All Rights Reserved

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for slabs

Dr. -Ing. Adil Z.

Dr.-Ing. Girma Z.

Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in

flexure

• Four or more stages:

i. Before cracking the slab acts as an elastic plate, and

for short time loads, the deformations, stresses and

strains can be predicted from an elastic analysis.

ii. After cracking and before yielding of the

reinforcement, the slab no longer has a constant

stiffness, because the cracked regions have a lower

flexural stiffness, EI than the uncracked regions and

the slab is no longer isotropic because the crack

pattern may differ in the two directions.

2

Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in

flexure

– Although these conditions violate the assumptions in

elastic theory, tests indicate that the elastic theory

still predicts the moments adequately. Generally

normal building slabs are partially cracked under

service loads.

iii. yielding of reinforcement eventually starts in

one or more region of high moment and

spreads through the slab as the moments are

redistributed from yielded regions to areas that

are still elastic. The progression of yielding

through a slab fixed on four edges is illustrated

in Figure (next slide)

3

Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in

flexure

4

Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in

flexure

– With further load, the regions of yielding known as

yield lines, divide the slab into a series of trapezoidal

and triangular elastic plates as shown in Figure (d)

above. The loads corresponding to this stage of

loading can be estimated by using yield-line analysis

(plastic method analysis)

iv. Although the yield lines divide the slab to form

a mechanism, the hinges jam with increased

deformation, and the slab forms a very flat

compression arch as shown in Figure (next

slide)(avail stiff support). This stage of loading

usually is not considered in design

5

Behavior of slabs loaded to failure in

flexure

6

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Yield line method is a plastic method of

analysis of slabs

• A yield line analysis uses rigid plastic theory to

compute the failure loads corresponding to

given plastic moment resistance in various

parts of the slab

• A yield line method is an upper bound method

whereas the strip method is lower bound

method.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Upper bound theorem: If, for a small

increment of displacement, the internal work

done by the slab, assuming that the moment

at every plastic hinge is equal to the yield

moment and that boundary conditions are

satisfied, is equal to the external work done by

the given load for that same small increment

of displacement, then that load is an upper

bound of true carrying capacity.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Lower bound theorem: If, for a given external

load, it is possible to find a distribution of

moments that satisfies equilibrium

requirements, with the moment not

exceeding the yield moment at any location,

and if the boundary conditions are satisfied,

then the given load is a lower bound of the

true carrying capacity.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• If the lower bound conditions are satisfied,

the slab can certainly carry the given load,

although a higher load may be carried if

internal distributions of moment occur. If the

upper bound conditions are satisfied, a load

greater than the given load will certainly cause

failure, although a lower load may produce

collapse if the selected failure mechanism is

incorrect in any sense.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• The yield line phenomenon involves:

– a slab under increasing loads where cracking and

reinforcement yielding occur in the most highly

stressed zone (i.e. around maximum moment)

– the highly stressed zone normally acts as a plastic

hinge where the subsequent loads are distributed to

other region of the slab

– cracks develop forming patterns of yield lines until a

mechanism is formed,

– collapse is then indicated by increasing deflection

under constant load

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Deformation of slab with yield lines

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Guidelines for establishing axes of rotation and YL

1. YL are straight lines because they represent intersection

of two planes

2. YL represent axes of rotation

3. The supported edges of the slab are axes of rotation. If

the edge is fixed negative YL may form, providing

constant resistance to rotation. If the edge is simply

supported, the axis of rotation provides zero restraint

4. An axis of rotation will pass over any column support.

Its orientation depends on other considerations

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Guidelines for establishing axes of rotation and YL

5. YL form under concentrated loads, radiating

outward from the point of application.

6. A YL between two slab segments must pass through

the point of intersection of the axes of rotation of

the adjacent slab segments.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Method of yield line analysis

• There are two methods of yield line analysis of slabs:

– the equilibrium method

– the virtual work method

• In either method, a YL pattern is assumed so that a

collapse mechanism is produced. Then for that failure

mechanism, the geometric parameters that define the

exact location and orientation of the yield lines are

determined and also the relation between applied

loads and resisting moments is solved.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• It is necessary to investigate all possible

mechanisms for any slab to confirm that the

correct solution, giving the lowest failure load,

has been found. For example the following

rectangular slab (SNS) may fail by either of the

two mechanisms shown.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Equilibrium method of Analysis

• It makes use of the equilibrium equations for

individual segment to obtain the collapse

load.

• The FBD represented by each collapsing

segment is in equilibrium under

– applied loads,

– yield moments and

– reactions or shears along support lines.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• For demonstration purpose consider the one

way slab uniformly loaded and is continuous

as shown in Fig. below.

• Let the slab with span L is reinforced to

provide resistance of m2 kN.m per m through

the span and m1 and m3 kN.m per m at the

two supports.

• Suppose it is desired to determine the

collapse load wu.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

A C B

(a)

wu

(b)

X L-X

wu wu

m2

(c) m1 m3

m2

X L-X

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• For a known yield moments m1, m2, m3, a trial

location of the positive yield line is assumed.

• Normally for a given loading and correct

collapse pattern the solution is unique.

However if a different pattern is assumed, this

solution can describe nothing which pattern is

the governing one. Hence, it becomes

essential to use the energy approach in

completed problem for further verification.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• For the problem posed, consider the FBD in

Figure (c);

• From left segment: M A 0 wu x 2

m1 m2 0

2

wu ( L x) 2

• From right segment: M B 0 m2 m3 2

0

• Solving for wu from the two expressions and

equating, one may obtain a practical solution for x

as:

m m2 m3 m1

x 1 L 1 1

m3 m1 m1 m2

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• For instance, when L = 3m, m1 = m2 = 7kNm/m

and m3 = 10KN.m/m

x = 1.427m and wu = 13.75 KN/m2

L = 3m

x = 1.5m and wu = 15.11 KN/m2

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• With the equilibrium method considerable care

must be taken to show all forces acting on each

element, including twisting moments, especially

when several YLs intersect or when YLs intersect

free edges.

• At such locations, off-setting vertical nodal forces

are required at the intersection of YLS.

• Because of the possibility of that the nodal forces

will be given the wrong sign or location, some

building codes don’t recommend the methods.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Virtual work method of Analysis

• Based on principle that work done by external

forces in undergoing a small virtual

displacements is equal to the internal virtual

work done in rotations along yield lines, the

ultimate load which the slab can sustain is

determined.

WE = WI

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• To develop suitable expression for each work,

let wu be the uniform distributed load,

• W w dxdy

E u W

xy u

• where:

– xy = virtual displacement at load point considered

– Wu = resultant of the load on each segment

– ∆ = the corresponding displacement at centroid of

the load in each segment

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Since the relative rotation of the surface takes

place about yield line, one may obtain

WI mun n Ly

• Where:

– mun = the ultimate moment across any yield line.

– Ly = length of yield line

– θn = relative rotation of the two adjacent plates

perpendicular to the yield line

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• For demonstration purpose, consider the one-

way slab of the previous example.

wu

1 2

X L-X

wu wu

m2

m1 m3

m2

X L-X

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• The slab is reinforced at left and right

supports, and in span in such a way that the

capacities of the respective sections are m1,

m3 and m2.

• Let ∆ be the plastic deflection at x-distance

from left hand support to positive yield line

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• External work

wx w( L x) 1

WE wu L per m strip

2 2 2

• Internal work

WI mLy (m1 m2 )1 (m2 m3 ) 2 per m strip

• For small deflection 1 and 2

x Lx

WI (m1 m2 ) (m2 m3 )

x Lx

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• By principle of virtual work; WE =WI which

simplifies to give:

2L(m1 m2 ) x(m1 m3 )

wu

xL( L x)

dwu

• To obtain the minimum collapse load 0

dx

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• This gives the practical values of x such that:

m1 m2 m3 m1

x L 1 1

m3 m1 m1 m2

methods is obtained

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Moments along Skewed yield lines

Consider a two way

slab orthogonally

reinforced where

the yield lines are

inclined at an angle

α with one of the

principal axes.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• The Fig. shows an orthogonal gird of reinforcement

having moment resistance my and mx per unit length

about the y axis and x axis, respectively.

• the resisting moment per unit length along the α axis

provided by the y direction bars is:

mxu cos

my mx cos2

u cos

• the resisting moment per unit length perpendicular

to α axis provided by the y direction bars is:

mxu sin

my mx cos sin

u cos

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• the resisting moment per unit length along the α axis

provided by the x direction bars is:

my v sin

mx my sin2

v sin

• the resisting moment per unit length perpendicular

to α axis provided by the x direction bars is:

my v cos

mx my cos sin

v sin

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Thus for the combined set of bars:

• the resisting normal moment per unit length

measured along the α axis is:

m mx cos2 my sin2 …(1)

• the resisting torsional moment per unit length

measured along the α axis is:

m mx cos sin my cos sin …(2)

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• An isotropically reinforced slab is one in which

the ultimate moment per unit length of the

slab is the same in two orthogonal directions

– If a slab is isothropically reinforced with mx = my =

m, equations (1) and (2) become:

m m and m 0

– Therefore the ultimate moment resistance in an

isotropically reinforced slabs in any direction is the

same.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• An orthotropically reinforced slab is one in

which the ultimate moment per unit length of

the slab is different in the two orthogonal

directions

– If a slab is orthothropically reinforced with mx = m

and my = μm, equations (1) and (2) become:

m m(cos2 sin2 )

m m(1 ) sin cos

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Effects of restrained corners

• Corner lever is the effect of forking of the yield

line before reaching the corner. To this effect

the following schematic sketches the resulting

yield pattern at the corners.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Hogging yield line

Uplift when the corners are not Corners held down but not well

held or fastened reinforced for negative moment

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

m’=0 slabs

m’= m/4

m’= m/2

m’= m

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• The triangular segment fails to form when the

negative reinforcement is large and hence, the

simple diagonal yield line in to the corner is

correct with out modification.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• Slabs with more than one variable

• So far the slabs consider have only one

variable dimension which defines the yield

line mechanism. When the slab has more than

one variable, the work equation, together

with equations obtained by differentiating

with respect to each unknown, give the

necessary expressions to obtain solution. This

can be illustrated using the following example.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

L

(1- 1)L

L

1L

2L (1-2 2)L 2L

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• In this case first develop suitable expression

from the work relation for wu in terms of 1 &

2. Then

wu wu

• 0 and 0

1 2

the problem solvable.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Advantages of yield line theory

• It is a powerful analytical tool.

• It can be used for slabs of any shape,

supported in a variety of ways.

• Concentrated, UD and partially distributed

loads can be considered.

• The effects of holes of any size can be

included.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

Limitations of yield line theory

• If the selected failure mechanism is not the

controlling one or the location of the YL are not

exactly correct, it may predict a collapse load greater

than the true collapse load. Unsafe !!

• The slab section has to be checked for the

adequateness of rotation capacity.

• It is presumed that premature failure will not occur

due to shear or torsion and the cracking and

deflections at service loads will not be excessive.

Chapter 1 – Yield Line Analysis for

slabs

• References

– Nilson, Darwin and Doran, “Design of Concrete

Structures”, 14th Edition, 2010, Chapter 14.

– MacGregor and Wight, “Reinforced Concrete,

Mechanics and Design”, 6th Edition, 2012,

Chapter 14.

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