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AuE 816 Lab 1: Valve Train Geometry and Operation Analysis

Stephen Jones March 8, 2017


The purpose of this lab report is to evaluate and analyze data related to valve behavior on a
four-stroke internal combustion engine. Data was taken in the following areas:

Valve lift for various crank angle degrees (CAD)

Valve to piston clearance for +/- 30 CAD from top-dead-center of gas exchange
Cylinder bore
Piston Stroke

The following sections include discussion based on the test data.

Question 1:

The following values are determined and/or calculated based on data taken on a 5.3L GM lab

A. Total engine displacement [Liters]:

bore 2
= ( ) stroke (bore = 3.766 in. stroke = 3.6135 in.)
3.766 in 2 0.0163871 L
= ( ) (3.6135 in) = 322.01 in3 ( )
4 1 in3
= 5.277 L

B. The intake valve opens at -9 CAD.

C. The intake valve closes 269 CAD.
D. Based on the opening and closing events, the intake valve duration is 278 CAD.
E. The peak intake valve lift is 12.324 mm.
F. The intake valve lift centerline is at 116 CAD.
G. The intake valve clearance from the piston head was measured for +/- 30 CAD from TDC
of gas exchange (0 CAD). The results are plotted below in units of mm and CAD.
Figure 1 - Intake Valve to Piston Clearance

H. The exhaust valve opens at -240 CAD.

I. The exhaust valve closes at 40 CAD.
J. The exhaust valve duration is 280 CAD.
K. The maximum exhaust valve lift is 12.822 mm.
L. The exhaust valve lift centerline is at -112 CAD.
M. Now, the velocities for the intake and exhaust valves are plotted on the same CAD axis.

Figure 2 - Valve Velocities vs. CAD

N. Next, the acceleration for both valves is plotted on the same CAD axis.

Figure 3 - Valve Accelerations vs. CAD

O. Finally, the exhaust valve clearance from the piston head was measured for +/- 30 CAD
from TDC of gas exchange (0 CAD). The results are plotted below in units of mm vs. CAD.

Figure 4 - Exhaust Valve Clearance vs. CAD

Question 2:

Figure 5 - Valve Lift Profiles

Question 3:

In order to calculate valve acceleration at 7000 RPM, I will calculate the relationship between
CAD and time at this speed.

revolutions 360 CAD 1 minute CAD

7000 RPM = 7000 = 42,000 s
minute 1 revolution 60 second

This value (42,000 CAD/s) will be squared then multiplied by the valve acceleration found in
Question 1 Part N (mm/CAD2) giving acceleration in mm/s2. This value is then divided by 1000
to give acceleration in m/s2.

Peak Intake Valve Acceleration: 45,926 m/s2 @ 76 CAD

Peak Exhaust Valve Acceleration: 28,005 m/s2 @ -20 CAD

It is worth noting that the values for peak acceleration may not be particularly accurate since
the original data was quite noisy. When taking the second derivative, noise in the data becomes
even more evident.
Question 4:

The valve overlap observed in this piston is 49 CAD (from -9 to 40 CAD).

Question 5:

The velocity curves, though quite noisy, seems to be a good representation of the valve
velocities over a cycle. If the data in Figure 2 were processed through a low-pass filter, the
resulting plot would look fairly sinusoidal over the operating range.

The acceleration curves seem to be too noisy to accurately represent the valve accelerations
over the operating range. Even if the data plotted in Figure 3 were processed through a low-
pass filter, it would still be difficult to determine accurate values for valve acceleration. The
best method for calculating valve acceleration from this data would be to remove noise (low-
pass filter) from the original valve lift data before taking the derivative twice.

Question 6:

One error source is human error. In order to obtain this data, a lab partner and I manually
adjusted the crank angle through steps of two degrees, measured various values, and then
inputted the measurements into Excel individually. Each of these steps could be prone to error,
despite our efforts to maintain consistent measurement methods through the process.
Another error source is the measurement tools used. The dials on the displacement
measurement tools were prone to erratic behavior whenever we touched the device for any
reason. This behavior caused some uncertainty when reading values from the dial.
Question 7:

Figure 6 - Valve lift profiles and valve to piston clearance

Adding the valve lift and valve clearance at a given crank angle gives the distance from the valve
in its seated position to the piston head at that crank angle. The value of this distance at TDC of
gas exchange is the limiting factor of how far the valve can lift before coming into contact with
the piston head.

valve lift + clearance = distance from piston to seated valve

The minimum distance between the intake valve (at seated position) and the piston head is
0.37592 mm. The minimum distance between the exhaust valve (at resting position) and the
piston head is 1.1684 mm.

If the valve lift is equal to the distance between the valve resting position and the piston head,
there will be no clearance. Based on this principle, the following results are found (with linear

If the cam shaft is retarded by 2.91 CAD, the exhaust valve will collide with the piston
if the cam shaft is advanced by 0.625 CAD, the intake valve will collide with the piston.

Thus, the maximum allowable cam shaft phasing is +0.625 / -2.91 CAD.