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Journal of International Accounting,

Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949

An analysis of international accounting research


in Journal of International Accounting
Auditing & Taxation: 19922001
Ajay Adhikari a,1 , Rasoul H. Tondkar b, , Judith A. Hora c,2
a
Kogod College of Business Administration, The American University,
Washington, DC 20016-8044, USA
b
School of Business, Virginia Commonwealth University,
Richmond, VA 23284-4000, USA
c
School of Business Administration, 5998 Alcala Park, University of San Diego,
San Diego, CA 92110-2492, USA

Abstract
This study analyzes the research published in Journal of International Accounting Auditing & Taxa-
tion (JIAAT) between 1992 and 2001 in terms of topical focus, methodology, and international dimen-
sionality. The results suggest that the research published in the journal spans a broad spectrum of topical
areas, uses several methodological approaches, and covers a wide area of international dimensionality.
Additionally, this study analyzes the published research by author attributes. While the majority of the
authors contributing to the journal have been from the U.S., there has been an increase in co-authorship
between U.S. and non-U.S. authors over time. The results of the study indicate that the journal has served
as an important forum to promote and disseminate international accounting research. 2002 Elsevier
Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Content analysis; Author analysis


Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-804-828-7156.
E-mail addresses: aadhika@american.edu (A. Adhikari), rhtondka@vcu.edu (R.H. Tondkar),
jhora@sandiego.edu (J.A. Hora).
1
Tel.: +1-202-885-1993.
2
Tel.: +1-619-260-4220.

1061-9518/02/$ see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
PII: S 1 0 6 1 - 9 5 1 8 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 5 3 - 8
40 A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949

1. Introduction

Due to increase in international trade and the globalization of capital markets in the last
two decades, both academics and practitioners have faced many new challenges and problems.
Differences in the areas of financial accounting and reporting, auditing, and taxation around
the world have, among other things, presented problems in the interpretation, analysis, and
comparison of the performance and financial condition of companies from different countries.
These problems have provided new research opportunities for academics who are trained to
conduct research in the area of international accounting. In order to make the type of research
undertaken by academics most relevant to the challenges faced by practitioners, there was
a need for a forum that would bridge the gap between academic research and practitioners
needs. As a result, the Journal of International Accounting Auditing & Taxation (JIAAT), was
established as such a forum in 1992. The stated mission of this journal is to bridge the gap
between academic researchers and practitioners by publishing articles that are relevant to both
audiences.
JIAAT is a refereed, scholarly journal published semiannually by Pergamon Press. Since
its establishment, 10 volumes of the journal have been published containing 135 articles, by
239 authors from 22 different countries. The published articles have discussed topics such as:
accounting practices in different countries; measurement and reporting effects of these practices
on business decisions; essays on world affairs which affect accounting practices; and, applied
and empirical research findings that are of interest to both academics and practitioners. The
founding editor of JIAAT was Dr. James A. Schweikart, then at University of Richmond.
JIAAT is currently co-edited by Drs. Kathleen E. Sinning and Hans J. Dykxhoorn at Western
Michigan University. The current editorial review board consists of 38 individuals representing
37 universities from five countries.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the type of international accounting articles published
in JIAAT since its establishment in 1992 in terms of topical focus (e.g., financial accounting
and reporting, tax, audit, managerial, etc.) dimensionality (e.g., country studies, comparative
studies, capital markets studies, studies dealing with specific issues such as segment reporting,
transfer pricing, etc.), and methodology utilized (e.g., descriptive, empirical, survey studies,
etc.). Additionally, the article analyzes the attributes of authors of the published articles in
terms of institutional affiliation (doctoral granting versus non-doctoral granting), single versus
co-authorship, U.S. versus non-U.S. authors, co-authorship between U.S. and non-U.S. authors,
and rank of the authors at the time of publication. Furthermore, for purposes of analyses,
each issue of the journal is categorized into one of two periods. The first 5 years of the
journal (19921996, containing Vols. 15) represents the first period and the second 5 years
(19972001, containing Vols. 610) represents the second period. The types of published
articles as well as the attributes of the authors are analyzed for each period in order to discern
any shift in research focus of the published articles and change in the attributes of authors.
This article is organized as follows. The first section analyzes and discusses the published
articles in JIAAT since its establishment in terms of topics, dimension, and the methodology
utilized. The second section analyzes and discusses the attributes of published articles in terms
of authorship, geographical location, and rank. A summary is provided in the last section of
the paper.
A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949 41

Table 1
Frequency of papers published in JIAAT by topic and volume, Vols. 110 (19922001)
Topic Frequency Relative frequency
Vols. 15 Vols. 610 Vols. 15 Vols. 610
(19921996) (19972001) (19921996) (19972001)
Financial 43 35 0.59 0.56
Auditing 16 11 0.22 0.18
Managerial 6 5 0.08 0.08
Tax 5 11 0.07 0.18
Government & not for profit 4 1 0.05 0.02
Education 3 0 0.04 0.00
Other 2 2 0.03 0.03
Total articles publisheda 73 62
a
Some articles covered more than one topical area and are counted in all the topical areas covered. Therefore, the
frequency count columns do not add up to the total number of article published and the relative frequency columns
do not add up to 1.

2. Analysis of published articles by topic, dimension, and methodology

2.1. Topical analysis

A broad spectrum of topics is covered in the papers published in JIAAT. Table 1 reports on the
frequency of papers published in JIAAT by topic and by periodthe first period 19921996
contains Vols. 15 and the second period 19972001 contains Vols. 610. The articles are
classified into accounting topical areas (financial, auditing, managerial, tax, government and
not-for-profit, and education). The other category represents articles falling outside the typical
accounting topical classification and includes articles in areas such as international trade and
real estate. The period classification is helpful in providing an indication of the evolution of
the journal as well as identifying trends.
While financial reporting and practice papers accounted for over half of the total published
papers, the frequency of articles focusing on auditing and tax was also significant, consistent
with the mission of the journal. Published articles on auditing issues accounted for 22% of the
total articles published during the first period versus 18% in the second period. Papers dealing
with tax issues increased from 7% in the first period to 18% in the second period. Although
not directly comparable, Prather and Rueschhoff (1996) report a 10.2% auditing and 3.7%
tax coverage in international accounting research for the 19801993 period. This suggests
that JIAAT is playing a major role in promoting and disseminating international accounting
research on tax and auditing issues that go beyond the traditional financial reporting and practice
areas.
Management accounting topics accounted for 8% of the total published papers in both
periods. This is consistent with the frequencies reported for this area in international accounting
research by Prather and Rueschhoff (1996). The coverage for government and not-for-profit
and education topics is low and declining. In analyzing the change in topical coverage from
period to period, the largest change is evident in tax coverage which jumped from 7 to 18%.
42 A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949

Auditing coverage dropped from 22 to 18% but still is well above the typical coverage observed
in international accounting research.
The above analysis suggests that, besides promoting and contributing to the traditional re-
search stream in international financial reporting and practice, the journal has taken a leadership
role in encouraging international accounting research in the under-researched areas of auditing
and tax.

2.2. International dimensionality

The classification scheme proposed by Prather and Rueschhoff (1996) was adapted to capture
the international dimension of papers published in JIAAT and is reported in Table 2. Country
studies refer to studies that have a country as the unit of analysis and typically highlight and
examine the uniqueness of accounting issues in one country. While the lack of generalizability
is a major shortcoming of country studies, they do add to our knowledge base in several ways:
informing us of accounting issues in countries which may have been under-researched (e.g.,
emerging economies); clarifying our theoretical conjunctures by providing different sites for
testing our hypotheses; and, serving as a first step to comparative and more universal studies
(Wallace and Gernon, 1991).
In the first period, country studies accounted for 29% of the total papers published in JIAAT.
This excludes two special country issues on Canada and Australia. The relative frequency of
country studies dropped to 26% in the second period. Of the total country studies in both
periods, approximately 30% focused on accounting issues in emerging economies. If we in-
clude Hong Kong and Singapore among the emerging economies, this percentage increases to
approximately 50%. The focus on emerging economies is helpful, particularly to practitioners,
because our knowledge base is deficient in this area.
Comparative studies encompass research that compares and contrasts the development of
accounting systems and/or accounting practices across two or more countries. Studies with a
regional focus are also categorized in this classification. Comparative studies seek to identify

Table 2
Frequency of papers published in JIAAT by international dimension and volume, Vols. 110 (19922001)

International dimension Frequency Relative frequency


a
Vols. 15 Vols. 610 Vols. 15a Vols. 610
(19921996) (19972001) (19921996) (19972001)

Country studiesb 16 16 0.29 0.26


Comparative studies 12 16 0.21 0.26
International business 19 21 0.34 0.34
Universal 9 9 0.16 0.14
Total 56 62 1.00 1.00
a
Vols. 15 excludes two special issues on Canada and Australia.
b
Vols. 15 (Canada (2), U.K. (2), Hong Kong (2), Japan (2), Germany, Singapore, Australia, Korea, Malaysia,
Tanzania, China, and Jordan). Vols. 610 (Canada (3), U.K. (3), China (3), Australia (2), Hong Kong (2), Singapore,
India, and Israel).
A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949 43

patterns of similarities and differences among countries and explain why these patterns exist.
These studies add to our understanding of accounting diversity and contribute to the develop-
ment of a meta theory of international accounting research. These studies are also important in
understanding the issues and challenges encountered in harmonization of accounting standards
regionally and globally.
The relative frequency of comparative studies published in JIAAT in the first period was 21%
and increased to 26% in the second period. Taken together with the decrease in country studies,
this trend is encouraging because it signals an evolution from country studies to comparative
studies reflecting the maturing of international accounting research.
Studies relating to accounting issues for multinational operations are categorized under
the international business classification. This category includes studies dealing with foreign
currency translation and transaction, international transfer pricing, segmental information dis-
closure, international tax, and cross-listing issues. International business studies represent 34%
of all papers published in JIAAT and account for the highest frequency of published papers. The
relative frequency of these studies has been stationary over the two periods. The importance
of this category reflects the remarkable expansion of international trade and business that has
accompanied the internationalization of capital markets and the breaking down of national
barriers in recent times.
Universal studies focus on themes and concepts that have application across all countries.
Studies that develop or test universal integrative theory and studies that focus on universal issues
such as international harmonization are examples that fall in this category. Approximately 15%
of the studies published in JIAAT were universal studies. The overwhelming majority of the
studies in this category addressed international harmonization issues, and it was rare that a
study focused only on international accounting theory building. This is fairly representative
of international accounting research in general, where only a few attempts have been made to
develop integrative universal theories of accounting.
The above analysis suggests that papers published in JIAAT have spanned a broad spectrum
in terms of international dimensionality. The relative frequencies of international business
and universal studies have remained stationary over the two periods, however, country studies
have declined in relative frequency while there has been an offsetting upswing in the rela-
tive frequency of comparative studies. The trend reflects the maturing of the journal and of
international accounting research in general.

2.3. Methodological analysis

Table 3 classifies papers published in JIAAT by research method. The descriptive/review


classification includes non-quantitative articles in the nature of discussion, review, and his-
torical papers. Articles employing a questionnaire or using interviews to elicit opinions and
perceptions are classified under survey articles. Papers that use a scientific research design
to test hypotheses through observations are categorized under empirical studies. Quantitative
archival and field studies are examples of research that fall in this category. Analytical studies
use mathematical modeling or simulation to develop and test theories.
Studies utilizing an empirical methodology constituted the largest number of studies
published in JIAAT, accounting for 56% of all published articles in the journal. The
44 A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949

Table 3
Frequency of papers published in JIAAT by methodology and volume, Vols. 110 (19922001)
Methodology Frequency Relative frequency
Vols. 15 Vols. 610 Vols. 15 Vols. 610
(19921996) (19972001) (19921996) (19972001)
Descriptive/review 22 12 0.30 0.19
Survey 16 6 0.22 0.10
Empirical 33 43 0.45 0.69
Analytical 2 1 0.03 0.02
Total 73 62 1.00 1.00

descriptive/review studies and studies using a survey methodology follow in terms of rela-
tive frequencies while analytical studies have been few, accounting for only 23% of total
papers published.
The most significant trend, however, has been a fairly sharp decline in descriptive/review
(from 30 to 19%) and survey studies (from 22 to 10%) and a concomitant increase in empirical
studies (from 45 to 69%) published in the journal. The move to empirical studies is indicative
of a general trend in international accounting research facilitated by the greater availability
of international data sets (e.g., Global Vantage, Datastream, I/B/E/S International, etc.) and
the increasing emphasis on scientific research designs. Analytical studies, more associated
with theory building and development, are still rare, reflecting the lack of rigorous theoretical
frameworks in international accounting research.

3. Analysis of published articles by author attributes

The authors of international accounting articles published by JIAAT in its first decade are
analyzed on several different dimensions. First, authors are analyzed and discussed by country.
Types of authorships and geographic location of authors are presented in Table 4 while Table 5
reports information on the ranks of authors. Finally, Table 6 shows data on the institutional
affiliation of authors.
The research published in JIAAT represents contributions by a total of 239 authors from
institutions in 22 different countries: 135 (57%) U.S. authors, 27 (11%) Canadian authors, 19
(8%) Australian authors, 16 (7%) Hong Kong authors, and 16 (7%) U.K. authors. The remaining
26 authors (10%) represent institutions in 17 other countries. The percentages presented above
reflect the influence of two special country issues on Canada and Australia. The diversity of
countries from which researchers contribute to the journal indicates that JIAAT has a broad
appeal to authors and, conversely, encourages submissions from all interested scholars.
Of the 135 articles contained in Vols. 110 of JIAAT, 31 articles (23%) have single authors,
67 articles (50%) have two authors, and 37 articles (27%) have three or more authors. The
135 articles listed a total of 278 authors. It should be noted, however, that some researchers
authored more than one article in the journal. Therefore, the total listed authors on published
articles (278) exceeds the total of individual authors (239).
A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949 45
46 A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949

Table 5
Frequency of authors in JIAAT by rank/status and volume, Vols. 110 (19922001)
Rank/status Frequency Relative frequency
Vols. 15 Vols. 610 Vols. 15 Vols. 610
(19921996) (19972001) (19921996) (19972001)
Full professor 40 39 0.29 0.30
Associate professor 37 44 0.26 0.34
Assistant professor 49 36 0.35 0.28
Student 9 7 0.06 0.05
Non-academic professional 5 3 0.04 0.02
Total authorsa 140 129 1.00 1.00
a
The ranks of six authors could not be determined.

Using the two time periods (19921996 and 19972001), the attributes of the authors are
analyzed to discern trends on author dimensions. Table 4 shows the frequency of papers pub-
lished in JIAAT by year, authorship, and geographic location of author (non-U.S. or U.S.). Only
23% of the articles are single authored, 5% by non-U.S. authors and 18% by U.S. authors. Al-
though not directly comparable, Prather and Rueschhoff (1996) report 54% of all international
accounting research between 1980 and 1993 was single authored, but with a definite trend
toward more co-authorships.
Co-authored articles comprise 77% of the published articles in JIAAT. Non-U.S. co-authorship
decreased from 32% in the first period to 21% in the second period while U.S. co-authorships
remained steady at 32%. The decrease in non-U.S. co-authorship is partly attributable to the
publication in the first period of two special issues on Australia and Canada. The most signif-
icant trend is a sharp increase (from 14 to 24%) in articles published by non-U.S. and U.S.
co-authors. This increase is encouraging and suggests a trend toward a more multi-country
perspective in accounting research. Prather and Rueschhoff (1996) propose that authors collab-
orating from different countries with diversity in education, research, and personal experiences
should produce more quality research than co-authors from a single country. Improved com-
munication technologies, greater access to international data bases, and an increased interest
in international accounting research facilitate the increase in joint efforts between non-U.S.
and U.S. researchers.

Table 6
Frequency of authors in JIAAT by PhD granting status and volume, Vols. 110 (19922001)

Institution affiliation status Frequency Relative frequency


Vols. 15 Vols. 610 Vols. 15 Vols. 610
(19921996) (19972001) (19921996) (19972001)

PhD granting institution 79 67 0.54 0.51


Non-PhD granting institution 62 60 0.42 0.45
Non-applicable 5 5 0.03 0.04
Total authors 146 132 1.00 1.00
A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949 47

To examine the rank or status of published authors in JIAAT, the academic rank designations
are converted as closely as possible to the ranks of full professor, associate professor, and assis-
tant professor. This was necessary for comparison purposes since some non-U.S. universities
use different designations for faculty members. The authors were divided into five categories
by academic rank or status: full professor, associate professor, assistant professor, student,
and non-academic professional. This classification scheme is similar to the one reported by
Prather-Kinsey and Rueschhoff (1999).
Table 5 reports the frequency of research contributions by authors with designated rank/status
by period. The contribution by full professors remained stable over the 10-year period at
2930% of the total authors. However, contributions by associate professors increased from
26 to 34% while contributions by assistant professors decreased from 35 to 28%. This result
suggests that all three academic ranks of authors find JIAAT an appropriate publication outlet
for their contributions to international accounting research.
The number of students contributing to the journal has remained stable at 56%. Fifteen
out of the 16 articles with student authors were jointly published with professors, an indi-
cation of the level of interest in international accounting as a research topic. The relative
frequency of non-academic professionals publishing in JIAAT decreased from 4 to 2% over
the two periods. This decrease is disheartening because JIAATs mission includes bridging the
gap between academics and practitioners involved in the international accounting fields. The
necessary interaction between academics and professionals appears to be infrequent. This
may signal a shift in the mission of the journal targeting primarily academic researchers
and readers.
Finally, an examination of the institutional affiliation of authors reports the effect of PhD
granting institutions versus non-PhD granting institutions in Table 6. Over the two periods,
authors affiliated with PhD granting institutions decreased from 54 to 51% while authors affil-
iated with non-PhD granting institutions increased from 42 to 45%. Although the movement
in relative frequency is small, an increased interest and emphasis in international account-
ing research from non-PhD granting institutions is a positive trend. The third category of
institutional affiliations represent organizations that do not grant educational degrees, such as
public accounting firms or governmental agencies. Table 6 indicates that authors from such
organizations remained stationary (34%) over the two periods.

4. Summary

The globalization of capital markets, regional and international co-operation among coun-
tries, and an increase in international trade over the last two decades, have provided new
avenues for companies and investors to pursue business and investment opportunities around
the world. With these opportunities, however, new challenges and problems have emerged. One
of the problems encountered emanates from accounting diversity, i.e., differences in financial
reporting, auditing, and taxation practices among countries. Accounting diversity, among other
things, presents problems in the interpretation, analysis, and comparison of the performance
and financial condition of companies from different countries. These challenges have also pro-
vided new opportunities for researchers in the area of international accounting. As a result,
48 A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949

several international accounting journals have been established over the last two decades. One
such journal is the JIAAT, which was established in 1992. The stated mission of this journal is
to bridge the gap between academic researchers and practitioners by publishing articles that
are relevant to both audiences. Since its establishment, 10 volumes of the journal have been
published containing 135 articles, by 239 authors from 22 different countries.
This study analyzed the type of international accounting articles published in JIAAT since its
establishment in 1992 in terms of topical focus, dimensionality, and methodology utilized. The
study also analyzed the attributes of authors of the published articles in terms of geographical
location, institutional affiliation, and rank. This analysis is conducted for the first 5 years and
the second 5 years of the journal to identify any shift in research focus of the published articles
and the attributes of authors.
With regards to the topic of the published articles, the results indicate that financial reporting
papers accounted for over half of the total published articles in both periods. Papers dealing
with auditing and tax issues were significant, and there was a marked increase in the relative
frequency of published papers dealing with tax issues in the second period over the first period.
This analysis reveals that the journal, besides promoting and contributing to the traditional
research stream in international financial reporting, has taken a leadership role in encouraging
research in the areas of international tax and auditing.
In relation to the dimension of the published papers, the results indicate that papers focusing
on international business studies accounted for the highest frequency of published papers and
remained stable over the two periods. The importance of research in this category reflects the
enormous expansion of international trade and business that has accompanied the internation-
alization of capital markets. A comparison between the two periods revealed that there was a
decrease in the relative frequency of published papers focusing on country studies while papers
dealing with comparative studies increased in the second period.
The findings on the methodology of published papers show that there was a significant
decrease in descriptive/survey type studies and a concomitant increase in empirical studies in
the second period. The marked increase in relative frequency of published empirical studies is
reflective of a general trend in international accounting research facilitated by the availability
of international data sets (e.g., Global Vantage, Data Stream, I/B/E/S International, etc.) and
an increasing emphasis on scientific research designs.
In relation to the attributes of authors, the results indicate that the majority of authors are
from the U.S. followed by Canadian and Australian authors. The results also indicate that there
has been an increase in co-authorship between the U.S. and non-U.S. authors in the second
period compared to the first period. Advances in communication technology have enhanced
collaborative efforts between U.S. and non-U.S. authors, which also points to a trend toward
a more multi-country perspective in international accounting research. In regards to the rank
of authors of published articles, the results reveal that all ranks of academics have contributed
to the journal, while there was an increase in the relative frequency of contribution to the
journal by associate professors in the second period. Finally, a slight decrease in contribution
by authors from PhD granting institutions was offset by a slight increase by authors from
non-PhD granting institutions in the second period. The latter increase is a positive trend,
indicating recognition and emphasis in international accounting research by authors from
non-PhD granting institutions.
A. Adhikari et al. / Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 11 (2002) 3949 49

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