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Article

Buhay Frat: The Lived Experiences of the


Fraternity Hazing Initiators in
Palawan, Philippines

Jeremy Alcedo, Almira Loren Cabacang


Charmae Empig and Johanei Mae Peralta
Adviser: Restie Allan A. Puno

Abstract
Hazing, one form of initiation rites within fraternities, steals public attention sporadically. Despite
the implementation of Republic Act No.8049 or the Anti-Hazing Law a law that prohibits any
form of hazing in the Philippines, it is still secretly practiced by fraternities. The continued practice
of this activity prompted the researchers to discover the phenomenology behind hazing as
experienced by the hazing initiators in Palawan. This study employed the descriptive analytic
approach to give a holistic perspective of the participants using the three main themes - (a) the
fraternity characteristics, (b) the social environment of the participants, and (c) the psyche of the
participants. The researchers looked into the twophase trail of fraternity involvement which begins
with the neophyte phase and the membership phase.

Keywords
Filipino fraternities, hazing tradition paddling initiation, neophyte, fraternity hazing initiators,

qualitative study

Fraternities have long been existing Manifestation of Evolved Psychology by


worldwide since ancient Greece. The term Aldo Cimino are one of the examples of
frat is derived from the Latin word western researches. These become less
frater which means brother. It is reliable as an application to Filipino culture
basically a term used to define a body of due to cultural differences; thus, research in
people associated for a common purpose or such context would be required to close the
interest (Lapham, 2013). Despite the said gaps in knowledge. Additionally, the
longrunning existence of fraternities, the phenomenology of fraternity initiators has
average man still cannot completely grasp not been duly explored as much as that of
the concept, and often generalizes it as fraternity neophytes, making it a frontier for
organizations that revel only on hazing. new research.
Hazing has been a commonly occurring This study explains hazing
phenomenon in many fraternities all around phenomenon from another perspective -
the Philippines, and is still present even after from the hazing initiators point-of-views.
the signing of the R.A. 8049, or the Anti- These hazing initiators are from Palawan,
Hazing Law (appendix E). Hazing-related Philippines. The researchers sought answers
death incidents have been reported to the following questions: What were the
numerous times, and one of the very recent hazing initiators experiences and social
incidents involved the case of DeLaSalle environment? What is the psyche of the
University St. Benilde student Guillo Cesar initiators who have gone through hazing as
Servando in 2014, (Diola, Philstar.com, (a) neophytes, and as (b) initiators?
2014). There have been many previous This study proves itself useful for it
researches on hazing, but most are often provides additional perspectives and/or
based on Western cultural context. The approaches about hazing. Future researchers
Evolution of Hazing and Hazing as a and psychology students may find this

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2 Palawan State University

research useful in deepening their Based on the gathered related


understanding of social psychology and its literatures, the contributing factor that
dynamics within organized coalitions, caused hazing initiators to physically haze
including group aggression, under a Filipino their organizations applicants is the
cultural context. Furthermore, researchers humans innate characteristic of being
may also use this material as reference for aggressive-- the product of the evolutionary
new studies and can be an aid to broaden the circumstance of survival of the fittest
scope of published papers regarding hazing which explains why some groups set certain
in the Philippines. conditions in selecting new members using
This study is limited to fraternities evolutionary perspective as cited by (Lim,
only; sororities are excluded. Eight (8) male 2014). Considering this statement, majority
fraternity members who served as of the hazing initiatiors keep their
participants that went through experiences aggression within themselves.
as fraternity neophytes and as hazing The researchers looked into the
initiators were selected all are in their chronological development of fraternity
tertiary levels and residents of Palawan membership which starts from being an
(from different municipalities). The applicant who has undergone fledging,
researchers did not reveal specific initiation until being a bona fide fraternity
information regarding the participants member who subjects neophytes to hazing.
identities, names of their fraternities, or any Using the researchers pre-conceived
specific details regarding the execution of themes, they identified the causes and
initiation rites because disclosing of influences or the triggering factors which
information is not allowed by fraternities. induce aggression towards neophytes once
Hence, other related subjects regarding the applicants survive the fledging program
fraternity dynamics such as group cohesion, and the paddling initiation. The three themes
wars and conflicts, fraternity principles, and are: (1) organization characteristic
activities other than hazing initiation rites (experience), (2) social environment, and (3)
were not covered by this research. This internal processes (psyche) of participants
research did not include other forms of as their membership status progresses.
hazing, only inflicting of physical pain
through paddling. Fraternity Characteristics
Hazing in the form of paddling has It is the perceived qualities of a fraternity
been considered as controversial activity which is responsible in molding its group
done by fraternities in the Philippines and is dynamics and traditions that directly
questioned for the danger it poses. Youth influence the behaviors of its members and
patronage still continues despite the determines the formation of its group setting
implementation of R.A. 8049 an act and forms of hazing.
criminalizing hazing activity of any Aggression to shape better members
organization. Philippine research study Initiations may include activities perceived
suggests that hazing can serve as a best to be fun and rewarding, physically and
mechanism practice in order to ascertain emotionally demanding, embarrassing,
the most worthy individuals who can be socially deviant, degrading, painful, and
counted and accepted as members of their sometimes dangerous or brutal. The
organization (Gener, 2013). Hazing is the activities designed for newcomers typically
abuse of new or prospective members adhere to highly prescribed protocols
(Cimino, 2011). What motivates initiators to defined by group traditions (Keating, 2005).
do hazing though it induces severe physical In the Philippines, secretive group like the
pain? Why do the applicants still continue KKK imposed strict rules and guidelines for
joining fraternities despite the risk they put accepting new members. The organization
themselves into? Why is hazing still adapted details of its initiation rites from the
accepted and practiced by fraternities?
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 3

American fraternity Freemason Lodge. It If hazing was a straightforward


may be reflected on many fraternities in the dominance display, one might expect them
country that is also secretive in nature to to say something akin to, when I haze you,
impose strict policies such as series of test of you should never forget it. To be clear,
loyalty in accepting new members. Hazing alpha members often attempt to be scary
practices are undeniably entwined to and intimidating to prospective members, all
fraternal organization. This, with the the while trying to exercise hazing in ways
evolutionary approach, allows the selection that delineates it from everyday life. While
of members with high levels of intrinsic Alpha men are pulled together to form one
valuation. (Cimino, 2011) group, hazer-hazee relationships in other
Prospective members are punished groups appear to contain implicit mutual
harshly if they fail to carry out the assigned knowledge that their interactions do not
labor that is part of their induction. reflect the normal social order That is, it is
Punishment is manifested through hazing understood that hazers can order hazees
ordeals, which become a temporary set of around, make ridiculous demands and inflict
powerful, negative incentives for doing high costs, but at a certain point, they must
anything that existing group members find cease doing so.
the slightest bit objectionable. (Cimino, The idea that hazers are seeking to
2013) establish or reaffirm a dominant position
Hazing is characterized as an anomaly in the with respect to hazees is very common.
light of Aldo Ciminos Macro-Theory Consider a few examples: Group members
(2013). He came up with Automatic Accrual haze newcomers to make them understand
Theory for explaining hazing phenomenon. how superior [they feel], Athletic hazing
He suggested the newcomer concept that allows veterans to have their dominant
prompts a set of adaptive responses in position, consolidated argues that hazing
members toward new coalition members; in male adolescent initiations is used to
among them being anti-exploitation suppress, open and violent revolt,
responses to prevent their group from being Veterans of a hazing discussion group is to
exploited by said newcomers. Two maintain their power, athletic
instances are given: newcomers might join a hazerscelebrating their power over
coalition and (1) contribute nothing, rookies. (Cimino, 2011)
accruing automatic benefits until
successfully excluded, or (2) increase free Social Environment
riding behaviors around the time of group It is the atmosphere within the organization
entry, but reduce or cease this strategy as wherein group dynamics, initiator-applicant
their tenure increases. interaction, and other phenomena take place.
Establishment of a dominant position Attachment formation
A high-cost induction will presumably Hazing occurs because it is defined by
discourage those who desire only short-term students as necessary and desirable part of
association (and, thus, short-term benefits). entry into an organization. The idea of
This would be explained further through the sense of belongingness and feeling
Commitment Macro-Theory. According to accepted amongst ones peers may triumph
the theory, another function of hazing is to over any fears that new fledges may initially
show dominance, as initiators demand the face. While some may see the initiation
applicants submission while being subject process as harmful and negative, others may
to hazing, possibly leaving lasting be pushing aside this fear in order to actually
impressions on the newcomers. (Cimino, raise their self-esteem and confidence
2011) amongst their peers. (Mercuro, et al 2014)
4 Palawan State University

The implications of maltreatment one who interacts with other fraternity


effects for human attachments to groups are members and also given a chance to initiate
important. Individuals who undergo mental hazing among neophytes. At some point of
and physical duress can become dependent their membership, phenomenal events
on and even attached to those inflicting the develop such as de-individuation as one of
treatment, especially when a clear power the characteristic of group dynamics, it is a
differential is present and alternative social psychological state characterized by lowered
options are unavailable. (Keating, et. al. self-evaluation and decreased concerns to
2005) evaluation of others. It was proposed by
Zimbardo as a result of his Stanford Prison
Search for Personality Integration Experiment. According to his theory, the
said psychological state is aroused when an
Another factor why youth are motivated to individual joins crowds and large groups.
join fraternity is due to the need of This social phenomenon diminishes
belongingness every person seeks, as it awareness of ones own individuality for
brings security and sense of being. each of them when trying to identify with
According to Erich Fromms theory of majority of the group which consists of
Humanistic Psychoanalysis Personality, people who are perceived as faceless and
humans are rational beings who act to fulfill anonymous. (Jarvis & Russell, 2009) Being
their unique human needs to develop their exposed to this kind of environment,
personality. Those are to search for fraternities which consist majorly of
relatedness, rootedness, transcendence, and members with high valuation to hazing
sense of identity that makes their frame of practices can uplift others behaviors such as
orientation as they try to create connections innate aggression of individuals who are
to the world by assimilation of things and by new members of the fraternity and gradually
socialization to others and relate it to their can become accustomed with it. More
selves. With freedom vested on them, they specifically speaking, new fraternity
chose to act in either productive or non- members learn to conform to the group and
productive orientation in solving human may desire to be the new organizations
dilemmas (Jess Feist, 2009). A person who initiator who hazes their new applicants,
desires to integrate his personality to fulfill choose to be a bystander, or do what the
the missing aspect of his existence joins a majority of fraternity member does.
chosen group to identify with people they For those who choose to do hazing
would look up to. Joining a fraternity, they initiation, it is the environment that
are given a chance to develop the sense of establishes powerful impetus for the hazing
being connected to others and are motivated initiators actions by influencing their
to transcend in the organization and may personality and molding their behavioral
accept the consequence of joining the said patterns that lead them to become initiators.
fraternity, including the hazing hell Albert Banduras Social learning theory
experience in order to be a bona fide suggests that a person learns by observing
fraternity member. others, including aggression, within an
environment, even as early as in childhood.
Circumstances Present He also suggests that a child can learn by
In the occurring process of the in-group- just observing role models with whom they
out-group, bias people consider themselves identify. Through vicariously learning the
as ingroup labeled as us and the outgroup consequences of aggressive behavior to
people labeled as them (McLeod, 2008). those who use it, they assess a behavior
Applicants must pass all the prerequisite whether or not such behaviors are worth
requirements from being an outgroup to adapting. Reinforced behaviors are most
being an ingroup of fraternity and as the likely to be repeated by a child in the future
with similar situations; children who are
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 5

rewarded for performing violent behavior commonly understood to be aggressive and


will, therefore, come to considerably value it physically stronger so being perceived
as they grow up. (Jarvis & Russell, 2009) manly is taken as a compliment. According
Environment also determines a state of to Bem, (1981) as cited in a book section
evaluation for the course of action or authored by (Eagly, 2009), a person adjusts
practices of a person within the group. The his behavior to fit in with the gender norms
Bystander effect describes the diffusion of and is enforced to fulfill the expectations on
responsibility which contributes to the his gender category bound for their culture.
continued practice of this harsh initiation. If This physiological triggering factor can
hazing initiation stays acceptable within the influence a bona fide fraternity member to
group, fraternity members tend to take their engage in physical hazing to express his
hands off and let the hazing practice aggression. This may be responsible for the
continue. fraternity initiators harsh treatment to
neophytes which every applicant might
Psyche (Personal Processes of experience as they view the act as proving
Individuals) ones manliness. Forms of self-justification
It is the psychological, cognitive, emotional, The attraction of hazing probably
and personality aspect of an individual that extends beyond the dictates of tradition,
contributes to the subjects behaviors forging bonds through shared, secretive
throughout the membership process. experiences. (The) rituals are thought to
strengthen the group by proving the
Identity formation devotion of newcomers but also by helping
to create a sense of loyalty (Mercuro, et. al
To be identified as a member of a group 2014). It is the reason many victims
gives people reason to be proud of as an continue to support an abuser after the
accomplishment in joining organizations. relationship is over. Its also the reason they
According to Henri Tajfels theory of Social continue to see the good side of an
Identity, the group to which a person abusive individual and appear sympathetic
belongs, brings pride and self-esteem to the to someone who has mentally and
person. As a person follows a sequence of sometimes physically abused them which
social identity formation which starts at can occur to a newly initiate applicant that
social categorization followed by social becomes a member.
identification and finally social comparison, The greater number of fraternity
along the process, discrimination takes place members belonging to a majority group and
as a common result (McLeod, 2008). From their actions can affect the perception of a
this aspect, at any rate, hazing can occur new member perception about himself and
from the course of discrimination. A male about what the organization does. According
who agrees to undergo training was to social psychologist Leon Festingers
susceptible to be subjected as them as they theory of Cognitive Dissonance Theory as
are still in the process of being a genuine cited by (Lim, 2014), humans as rational
fraternity member. At this state, any form of beings are sensitive to inconsistencies
hazing may arise aside from physical hazing between actions and beliefs. Recognition of
and hazing may be not in the form of this inconsistency will cause dissonance, and
initiation but depends on the fraternity will motivate an individual to resolve the
member desire to do so which most likely to dissonance. Dissonance will be resolved in
happen during the fledgeship between the one of three basic ways; it is (1) changing
interaction of a fraternity member figure as ones belief or (2) action or (3) perception of
ingroup and applicant figure as an action.
outgroup run into. Although according to the Effort
Within the community, males and Justification theory of Aronson and Mills as
female are distinctly perceived. Males are cited by (Lim, 2014), it was argued that
6 Palawan State University

cognitive dissonance led to self-justification up new ideas. The researchers also


for liking the group for which new members conducted a pilot testing of the semi-
were subjected to because of the structured questions prior to the actual
commitment they have in the fraternity. interview to validate its content.
Some have criticized this however, because Since this study focused on the
it is not possible to actually measure the phenomenology of fraternity initiation
amount of dissonance experienced by the committee members, the researchers
participants. There is no way to "prove" that followed the analysis method as described
the individual maintains two contradictory by Kleiman (2004) and cited by Tracy, S. J.
cognitions at the same time, and that in (2012). The collected write-ups, transcripts
order to diminish the dissonance, and notes were read and examined. The data
participants have to justify the situation in were reviewed comprehensively and
order to resolve this conflict. sections identified to have similar focus
Why does a new member decide to were integrated to make compact, efficient
join the group of initiators and conduct summaries of its content. The process
hazing? A person can learn a behavior by consisted of examining, categorizing,
the reinforcement present in the tabulating and recombining of amassed
environment; it may be a positive or a information before progressing to deeper
negative one. (Mcleod, 2014) The new exposition. Findings, including descriptions
member who belongs to the fraternity is of essential meanings, were elaborated and
given reinforcement in order for him to learn related to the collected data to justify the
a new behavior by conditioning him like interpretations presented.
cognitively associating hazing activity with
either a reward or punishment. Also the Results and Discussion
notion of revenge supported by The findings of this phenomenal study
psychodynamic perspective for a defense focused on the trail/phases of the
mechanism of displacement of anxieties can participants membership into their
be a triggering factor that motivates them to respected fraternities and their experiences.
do hazing activity. Admission to fraternities has two
phases/parts (1) being a neophyte and (2)
Method being a fraternity member who has become a
This section includes the research design, fraternity paddling initiator. These two
research participants and research instrument phases point to three supporting themes
used in this study. This research is which covered the participants social
qualitative in nature. The researchers environment, fraternity characteristics and
employed a phenomenological research their psyche as their membership status
design which focused on the perspective of upgrades. The three supporting themes are
college fraternity members who performed generated according to Perfect Storm
hazing initiation to candidates/applicants Theory which pertains to the main
aspiring to be members of the fraternity. The influencing phenomenological aspects of
participants who were qualified and selected hazing practices (Linkins, 2014).
in this study are: (a) residents of Palawan,
(b) enrolled in tertiary education, (c) PHASE I: THE NEOPHYTE PHASE
assigned to initiate applicants into the Researchers looked into the participants
fraternity, (d) initiated candidates into accounts of events what they experienced
membership at least once. before and during their training which is
The researchers utilized a semi- commonly called fledging (Mercuro, et
structured personal interview with guided al., 2014).
questions. The interview used open-ended
questions to allow the participants to bring
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 7

Social Environment as Factor for Neophytes Experiences under the Fraternity:


to Join Fraternity Being Neophytes
Most of participants verbatim accounts According to (Linkins, 2014), the victims
revealed that their admission to fraternities who have undergone fledging are the
started during high school. Media, close neophytes. A unique characteristic of
friends, and immediate family members as fraternity system with regard to membership
well as relatives were their primary sources is fledging which neophytes, being the
of information about those fraternities. Some lowest members in hierarchy, must undergo.
of them reasoned out that they joined This is based on fraternitys underlying
fraternity because their family member or usual principle. A course of training
close friends are already members. program is prepared which includes
Bunso and FB ALE said they started initiation and rituals.
fledging to a certain fraternity because their There are phases such as:
older brothers are members of it; though
their older brothers did not recruit them. Applicant Orientation
They voluntarily joined. On the other hand,
James parents are members of certain Most of the participants attended applicant
fraternity and sorority thus giving him a orientation, which is called the recruitment
label as Royal Blood. According to him, phase through which fraternity members
he chose to fledge for the environment scout potential neophytes into admittance to
which his parents belong. While according their fraternity.
to Hinata, he said that: Fraternity orientation is held so that
Nung hindi pa ako member niyan, anona the applicants could have a clearer picture
ano ko na yan siya, nakita ko na sa tv o on the activities they would do when they
minsan sa radio, naririnig ko. Pero nung di become active members. Usually, it includes
pa ako nakasali dito, bale yung pagkasali ko the pros and cons of joining and an open-
di ko talaga iniaasahan na nakasali ako forum. This is also the time when the non-
dyan kasi nga nung classmate ko, yung members are introduced to the fraternity, its
pinsan niya member na niyan tapos principle, and the kind of fledging program
nirecruit siya, pag recruit sa kanya they are likely to undergo. They give non-
nirecruit din ako. Kaya biglaan lang talaga
members time to decide if they want to
yung ano ko talaga, pagsali.
In Hinatas case, he was aware of pursue or to decline the opportunity to be a
member.
that certain fraternity because he saw it on
According to Jokjok,
TV and heard it on the radio. He was
Oo pagdating sa orient muna tapos kung
recruited by his cousin to fledge in a gusto mo magtuloy kung ayaw, okay lang.
fraternity then. He subjected himself to
fledging simply because he wanted to Bunso added:
accompany his classmate. One of the main Ini-explain, tapos pinagbibigyan kami
reasons why males join a fraternity is for kung anong tanong namin, tapos hindi pa
acceptance (Daley, 2014). This may be true kami agad pinapapasok. Binigyan kami ng 1
and applicable to the participants but this is week.
not the only main reason why the
participants joined their organizations. They While James said:
have deeper reasons than just being Oo naman. Sinasabi, kasi once na nag-
accepted, like Hinata. His reason for joining orient ka, dapat lahat ng gumugulo sa
the fraternity was not because of curiosity isipan mo itanong mo uh, sasabihin nila
nor seeking for acceptance but primarily para malaman mo.
because of his closeness with his friend.
According to the above verbatim
accounts, fraternities oriented their
8 Palawan State University

applicants and were given time to decide if


they really wanted to join the fraternity. From Bado:
They were told about the benefits and the Also may paddling pa din, yun yung
possible consequences of joining the talagangtalagang hindi mawawala na,
fraternity. Orientation is one of the first tradisyon na talaga.
steps in the neophytes decision-making.
Applicants undergo stages of decision- While they were undergoing the
making while they are undergoing training. membership process, their initiators told
Once the non-members (applicants) attended them that paddling is a sign of a warm
the orientation and showed on the first day welcome and it is how the fraternity shows
of the membership process, their attendance their love to their new brothers. Some
served as an unwritten agreement between participants accepted that the initiation
the non-members and the fraternity. An process was really necessary and it could
applicant allows himself to be under the never be removed because it is already part
fraternitys authority by obeying the of the fraternitys tradition. So when they
fraternity members command as long as the became initiators, they told the applicants
command is in line with the program. The the same thing.
initiation rite is also included in this
unwritten agreement because the applicants Experience Point of Quitting
are given hint to fraternitys tradition of
As the participants continued the training,
initiation rite which will enable the applicant
the initiations became more dangerous for
decide if he really wants to commit himself
some who belong to fraternities with one-
with the organization. Besides paddling,
day survival program compared to those
other forms of hazing are also practiced
with longer phases of training program. In
throughout the training program.
one-day survival program, hazees receive a
greater number of paddle strikes. Paddling
Perks from their Fledging Experiences
initiation is another stage when neophytes
The experiences of the applicants during decide if they are ready to be active
their fledging have an impact when they fraternity members. Some of them had
became fraternity members and initiators. thought of backing out during the process.
Their standpoints are due to the experienced Bunso said:
harsh environment, although there were May time na dumarating ako sa time na
ganun. May yung tipong, medyo mahirap na
neophytes who chose to quit, while the
talaga, yung papiliin sa ganito-ganito na
remaining neophytes continued the program hindi mo na, mahirap, mahirap
and survived. As they recalled their fledging magdecide.
experiences, they said, Bunso verbatim shows that they
From Jokjok; were pushed to their limit during the
Ay, uhm, parang salang sala kami initiation rite which made them think of
masyado parang walang parang hindi
backing out. The effort to instil loyalty and
magkwan..parang hindi anong tawag
ditoparapagdating ng initiation di devotion to the organization is pushed too
magbibigay yung katawan sa mga hard sometimes (Mercuro, et al. 2014).
initiators. Quitting during the initiation is considered
as cowardice among the other members.
From Rocksteddy: They use the term quitter to describe a
Kasi tuloy-tuloy sakin, pag service ko person who is weak enough to back out
(form of exercising to a fraternity member), during the fledging process. Men do not
isang araw lang, nagpupush up lang want to be labelled as a quitter because it
Paddle. somehow insults their sense of manhood.
Perhaps one of the largest groups of
victims of masculinity battle is fraternity
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 9

men. Men feel the pressures from men in


other fraternities, men in their own . . .Syempre unang papasok sa isip mo pag
organization, to be the perfect picture of a fraternity, hazing talaga . . . James
fraternity man: smart, athletic, charismatic, pagsinabi kasing frat. . . involve sa gulo
and career-focused. Fraternity men have an FB Ale
Ayun baka, pahirapan ako dun.-
especially vigorous demand placed on them
Rocksteddy
to be the epitome of masculinity (Stratton,
The above-cited accounts show opposing
2015). Participants endured the initiation rite
impressions (positive and negative) about
to show that they were able to stand on their
fraternities. Other participants deemed
ground.
fraternities as helpful to the community and
are composed of great men despite their
Psyche Dynamics of Being a
involvement in hazing practices which
Neophyte
inflict pain; while others experienced
The impressions, emotions, opinions and confusion and began to doubt the
convictions of participants while they were organization and its commitment. This
going through the phases, starting from social psychology phenomenon is called
being a neophyte until being a bona fide dissonance where a person is having
fraternity member were accounted for. In problem to the present inconsistency in his
Jungian psychology it has to be understood behavior and beliefs (Keating, 2005). There
as a purposive system, an arrangement are verbatim accounts stating that they
process of living matter ready for life. (Irene doubted the fraternity to secure their safety.
Gad, 2015) They question their psychological and
A neophytes psyche is his way out physical capacity for them to finish the race.
to be what he wanted for his life and his This may be related why they came to a
only gear to deal with reality inside the point of quitting but didnt do so.
fraternitys world. Human psyche, on the
other hand, is defined differently by schools Motivating factors for joining fraternity
of thoughts which have a unique perspective
and approaches. The researchers eclectically With the given impression, participants
considered those approaches. continued to join fraternities for there are
motivating factors that influenced them such
Prior impression on fraternity as admiration for the fraternitys unique
feature, relatives who are already members,
When participants were asked about their curiosity and blunt decision to pursue it.
impression on fraternities while they were These factors which helped them survive
not yet fraternity members, majority said their training considerably came from
that fraternities build a strong sense of influence of significant people in their lives
brotherhood that helps the community. This and from their intrinsic motivation to cross
account is supported by statements of the threshold, the harsh and violent process
respondents, saying: of membership. Participants reasons are:
yung fraternity parang ang dating sa kin, Nung pagdating ko ng college, nung
ano eh, parang. . . astig. . . . Parang nalaman ko na may ganoong (unique
samahan sila ng matitibay, parang ganon. feature) fraternity so doon na ako kaagad
. . parang makakapatid na wala talagang pumasok. Bado
iwanan-Bado Kasi nagustohan ko talaga, nagustohan
Yung Brotherhood. Kumbaga, siya na para yung ano nila, yung mga ganon, yung mga
makatulong ka sa bayan. Maliban sa service nila.. . Bale, yung pinaka-unang
group na sinalihan mo.-Hinata purpose-- pinaka-gusto ko talagang reason
Other participants have negative impression yung sa idea ng org na pinasukan ko.
on fraternity due to hazing and anarchy. Pangalawa nalang yung, ayaw kong
They accounted: magkahiwalay kami ng org ng kuya ko.
Bunso
10 Palawan State University

Choice . . . Syempre nacucurious din Bale, ano eh, noong unang pasok ko kasi
ako diba? Di ko rin alam kung ano yung eh, kahit-papaano may ano na sakin yung
nandoon. Syempre, di pa ako nakakapasok, mga, yung kuya may sinabi nang ganito-
iniisip ko ano-ano kaya ang ginagawa nila. ganito. Medyo kinakabahan din eh. Na
Uh, parang kakaiba di ba? Napapaisip ka. parang nae-excite. Ganun yung
James pakiramdam. Bunso
Kasi ano, nakapasok ka na. Tuloy-tuloy
na.-Rocksteddy Stand point for not backing out
There was an end goal for the hard training
they went through. It could be form of give Thoughts of backing out during their
and take for aspiring members. It also training were unavoidable but they did not
formed another reason for them to pursue do so because it is shameful. Others said that
the course of membership, a reward in the it was against their principle of sticking to
end to keep them going. Participants learned what they already decided. Being labeled as
about building bond with other respected a quitter from fraternity members hinders
people- professional people skills them because it brings bad impression for
development, and preparedness for actual the members of fraternity. There was no
hardships in life. However, there are some point for stopping for they already started
participants such as Hinata and Jokjok who fledging and they must go on. James
said that there are no benefits for being a specifically said that he is strong so that is
bona fide member but others said; why he did not go for it. On the other hand,
Syempre, sakin naman nakita ko Hinata did not back out because he was
yung sa parents ko sa buhay nila determined to accompany his cousin until
ngayon Syempre, maganda. So sakin, they survived the fledging program. Some of
maganda naitulong ng fraternity na their statements are:
pinasukan nila na pinasukan ko rin kasi dun na ako, aatras pa ba ako?-
ngayon. Kaya yun.. . . Uh kasi nga FBAle
diba, syempre magpupulis.Kailangan ng ...pero para sakin parang ano kasi eh
backer. Jamess npakapangit nang ganon na parang wala
kang napatunayan sa sarili.-Bado
Bale, kung para sa'kin is, maganda eh,
Kasi pag magpatalo ka sa pride mo...
merong, magagamit sa aktwal na ano, Tatawagin kang quitter.Oo.Di ka na
na aktwal na pamumuhay, sa totoong pasasalihin ng ibang member.-Rocksteddy
buhay na. Parang ganun din So uuh..sa amin ah. nasimulan na.. parang
sya.Connection din.-Bunso nasimulan na namin tapos magaayaw pa
kami parang ano na din masyado.
Perception and conviction on hazing Pinanindigan na lang namin.-Jokjok

As the participants started the training under Emotional condition during


their respected fraternities, they were not a paddling/hazing initiation
blank slate from the start. Hazing caused
those mixed feelings of anxiety, fear and Before their initiators started the program,
excitement at the same time. Having the participants felt nervous and frightened
anticiped of what might happen to them, about untoward possibilities that might
they already prepared themselves on how to happen to them would they stay alive or
handle hazing initiation. Some of them not. People might recognize this as
specifically said that: overreacting but as they gave their
syempre pagsinabing fraternity, alam mo statements, it was obvious that hazing or
na, expected mo na yung ibat ibang paraan paddling initiation is an act which can cause
na (voice lowers) masasaktan ka. -Bado a person lose his life. James stated that he
Sabi nila, wala. . . . Kasi, di naman must shout out all the pain he felt while
mawawala yan.-Rocksteddy receiving paddle strikes during their batch
mahirap talaga, masasaktan ka-FB Ale initiation. Hinata said that some of his
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 11

batchmates almost passed out during their hard feelings for their initiators because
initiation. Some of the particpants revealed when they joined the fraternity, they
their emotions: understood its mechanism. Rocksteddy said
syempre nung una pa lang makakaramdam it was all right for him because he will just
ka talaga ng takot. yung unang pumasok sa take revenge with the incoming applicants.
isip ko sana di ako mamatay.-Bado Wala. Kasi pinasok ko e. Hindi ako
Sa training, yun yung isa sa nagpapakaba magkakaroon ng galit kasi ako mismong
din sakin, yung sa training. Di ko alam yung pumasok doon. Hinata,
pwedeng mangyari, basta ako nilakasan ko :Dalawa yung naramdaman ko nun eh, sa totoo lang, nung nag-under
lang yung loob ko. Unang-una, syempre Researcher : Nakaramdam po ba kayo ng
maraming nababalita about sa mga hazing galit sa kanila?
na yan, diba-Bunso
Ayun, sa mismong time talaga nay yun mm-mm.. inis-Jokjok
ano, syempre ano, kabado ka kakabahan
ka di ba? Kung ano gawin sayo pero nung PHASE II: THE FRATERNITY
nalaman ko na ano pala, ganun, ssyempre
MEMBER PHASE
ang inisip ko na lang para sa sarili ko
mabuhay. Kasi nga maraming na ano (died) After the neophytes were subjected to final
doon di ba? Ma-maraming namatay dahil paddling initiation and survived the
sa hazing na yan?-Hinata initiation, they were subjected to induction
Participants handled emotional of new members. Their induction is the end
baggage of severe nervousness and of the neophyte stage and the beginning of
apprehension by increasing their faith within their full membership to fraternity. They
themselves. They exercised through now become bona fide members. Though
pumping and joggingto strengthen their accepted as bona fide member, there is no
bodies and were encouraged by significant written agreement between the newcomer
people before and during the initiation. By and the veteran. Newcomers will be loyal to
being aware of worst-case scenarios, they their fraternity substantially and veterans
boosted their self-efficacy to survive the must treat the new comers as equal to them
training. Also, they received doctrines from to uphold an atmosphere of brotherhood
fraternity members and initiators to ensure among members. Verbatim accounts from
and check their preparedness before the respondents suggest a whole new fraternity
paddling initiations. Paddling as a form of dynamics under the three covered themes.
hazing initiation is considered as the most
life threatening part of fledging program and Social environment as a nest of
usually the last initiation that tests and members bonding
challenges neophytes to become full or bona
fide fraternity members. But at times, There are certain social environmental
paddling causes others to quit. benefits that are earned such as the
brotherhood and equality, a reward for
Formed feelings for the Fraternity surviving the initiation rites.
members who hazed them
Brotherhood and equality
For the neophytes who endured several
paddle strikes from fraternity members who From the verbatim accounts of participants,
survived paddling have developed hard one of the benefits that they got is the sense
feelings for the hazing initiators. Some of brotherhood among them. Even though
participants affirmatively said that they felt they felt fear and anger while they were
anger and disgust over them for what they undergoing the training, they felt the
did, but they also feared them for they are acceptance of the veteran members after
their former Masters/Lords who gave them they survived the training. All their anger
commands. Some stated that they have no towards their initiators faded as the
treatment of equality among brother is
12 Palawan State University

established and being a part of their have completed their hazing process. That
organization is met. According to Bunso: is, once hazing is done, newcomers are no
Well yung sa ogr. kasi na pinasukan namin longer required to perform the ordeals or
eh, pag nagundergo ka pa ng training, di servile labor associated with their status as
mo maisip na ganito, ganun talaga yung hazees. As they become part now of the
mararamdaman mo, takot at saka galit. organization, the equality will be bestowed
Nung sumervive ka na eh yung pag survive
to the new survived member. They no longer
namin pala doon ko naramdaman na yung
pag-welcome nila.. need to be obliged or perform personal
This phenomenon of setting aside favors for veterans. In addition to this, the
the negative thoughts and feelings held by a seniority of the other members will be
person for positive social interaction removed. This was also supported by
corresponds to the study of Mercuro, Jokjok, saying:
Wala naman.. (nagbobosing-bosing or
Merritt, Fiumefreddo (2014).
seniority) hindi ka naman ituturing na ano,
According to them, the idea of hindi ka na ituturing na applicante pag
belonging and feeling accepted amongt nagsurvive ka na at dahil na din sa matagal
ones peers may triumph over any fears. So ka na..
while some may see the initiation process as
harmful and negative, others may be Two kind of members: Pro-hazing and
pushing aside this fear in order to actually anti-hazing members
raise their self-esteem and confidence
amongst their peers. According to the participants, there are
Other verbatim accounts also fraternity members who are pro-hazing and
support that brotherhood is met after they anti-hazing. Bunso said:
survived, for there are different activities Di na maiiwasan yan. Mas ano
and services on the fraternities. Members talaga..yung mas bata..
were obliged and required to attend these Bunsos verbatim refers to the younger and
activities to show their commitment to the new fraternity members who are pro-hazing.
organization. More importantly, joining Although there are members who are against
these activities develop the sense of hazing. According to Jokjok:
brotherhood among the members especially Yung iba ayaw. Marami yung may
to newly survived ones. Those activities ayaw. Yung iba..yung mga edad
have become a medium of interaction of the kelangan may ganon kasi, uhh..
members of the organization. It creates parang.. kondisyon..Sa kanila na
shared experiences and shared common nanggaling yan (pro-hazing) yung
bond among them. Moreover, the matanda
establishment of brotherhood is Younger or older members, veterans
accompanied by respect and guidance of or new, are pro-hazing; both want hazing to
other members. According to Bunso: continue because for them, hazing is a
Pinapaliwanag nila nila sa amin kasi naga condition in order to be admitted to the
undergo kami pa lang ng training. Ganito organization; they have come to value it.
yan, pwede mong iapply sa ganito ganito, Undergoing the initiation process is a part of
may purpose lahat ng ginagawa. Kumbaga the fraternity. In Ciminos (2011) study, he
para na rin sayo maging matibay ka. Pag stated that certain experiences are necessary
survive mo. to be acknowledged as a legitimate
The equality of treatment to all member.
members in the fraternity is met once a
neophyte survives. According to Cimino Experiences as a proof of having
(2011) there is a regularity of hazing that privileges
appears inconsistent with the idea that
hazing is a one-time dominance display: The participants were asked about their
hazees always increase in status once they experiences when they have become
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 13

members of their fraternities. Verbatim perceived by respondents as one of the


accounts of some participants showed that privileges of being a full member.
being fraternity members gave them
opportunity to shake hands with veterans Rendering Services
and enabled them to join activities which
their organizations held such as fellowships Fraternity members are able to join or
and rendering services. They began to handle social activities and events of their
initiate neophytes, which for them, a chance organization as staff and not just helpers. As
to inflict pain to these neophytes through most of the participants fraternities are
paddling. service oriented organizations, they offer
This experience brought different services that help the needy sectors of
impacts to them. Experience can be a source community. They are also involved in
of persons affective health according to school affairs. This was supported by the
Carl Roger; it could be positive or negative statement of Bunso saying,
one that affects the persons sense of self . . .sa pagpakain ng mga bata,
(Feist, 2009). This aspect of initiators nagdodonate kami ng mga dugo. Basta alam
naming na nakakatulong sa mga
phenomenology cannot be overlooked for it
nakakarami
contributes to the development of their Hinata also added,
involvement to fraternity. Yung ano talaga, sa school naming kami
nag-aano ng mga activities kung anong
Fellowship pinapaano ng school, dun kami nag-
aactive. . . . Parang ano, kung intrams
Upon survival from fraternity training ganun, may mga palaro dito, nakiki-ano rin
program as a neophyte, the status of kami tapos nga naga, Uhggg (gesture of
participants raised to being a bona fide thinking something), yun tumutulong kami
member. Consequently, it exposes them to sa mga ibang org.
fraternitys activities and gives them These statements are also similar to
opportunity to interact with other members the results of one qualitative study about
and shake their hands with veterans; as fraternity members conducted by
James stated: (Mathiasen, 2005) Through the community
Una . . . kasi, pagkagraduate ko nun, services, fraternities have positive influence
sakto, anniversary namin. Yun yung unang on members moral development; thus they
sama ko sa alin ng fraternity. Syempre. . . establish good reputation in the society.
andami, di mo kilala kasi bago ka pa lang. These are good points that the fraternity
Pero. . .pagdating naming dun, syempre, members acquired by joining a fraternity.
ipakilala naman kami diba? Yung mga
This kind of influence of fraternity on its
tipong ano ba, mga talagang. . . uh tawag
dito (silence). Yung makilala ka na rin members is usually the reason their
talaga nila kasi nga diba pinakilala, fraternities becomes popular to young
kakamayan mo sila para magpakilala ka. aspirants and the most obvious way of
Kasi ako undergrad.yung iba, alumni. showing their significance to community.
Shake hands are fraternity
members way of recognizing and of Hazing Initiatiors Experiences
building connection to other members.
According to Daniels (2014), shake hands Most of the participants have already been
are a symbol of agreement, often used to members of their respected fraternities for
show goodwill and sincerity by statesmen, over a year. Hinata has been a member of a
diplomats, and politicians and adopted by fraternity for almost five years and James
many fraternities. There are unique ways for for two years. Throughout those years they
each fraternity as it was associated with interact with other members within the
hidden meaning behind gesture. It is also fraternity. This helps them learn more about
called secret handshake of fraternities and their fraternitys rules. Participants as a
14 Palawan State University

newbies of the fraternity stated that they had they experienced subjective emotion to
mixed emotions the first time they sruck the those neophytes. Jokjok was hesitant to do it
paddle. but he had to in order to maintain equality.
When they were assigned to initiate He compensated for inflicting pain to those
the neophytes, they were assisted and given new neophytes by encouraging them to stay
instructions and tips by the experienced strong. It was the least help he could do. As
initiators. They were watched specifically by Jokjok stated that,
their M.I. (Master of Initiation) to determine Ganun lang, patibayin mo lang yung loob
if they would commit foulact which could ng mga kamag-anak, (he initiated some of
result to severe physical injury or critical his relative) mag-kwan ka lang, di naman
condition of an applicant. Foul is a term kasi pwedeng bawasan yung ibibigay sa
kanila, talagang pagtulong na sa salita na
participants use when a member makes
rin, pagtibay na lang ng loob.
mistake in paddling. Hinata described his
Throughout their membership in
first swing of paddle experience as
fraternity, partcipants stated that they have
restricted. Eventhough he wanted to inflict
performed initiations to neophytes multiple
excessive pain, he couldnt do so because he
times until now. Bado said Lima, Bunso
might commit foul. He stated that,
said Malapit na rin sigurong mga ano. . .
First time mo hahawak ng paddle pero
una, iisipin mo bakit mo papaluin ng sobra sa isang taon, aabot ng apat na beses
kung di ka pa naman marunong di ba? Kasi. while Rocksteddy said marami na and
. . pag first handle mo pa lang ng paddle, di James Rodriguez Marami na. Di ko na
ka pa marunong pumalo. May tinatawag na mabilang e. Sobrang dami na e (laughs)As
foul kaya may umaalalay naman samin. Pag they performed the initiation to the
papalo na syempre sasabihin samin neophytes, some neophytes backed out. FB
pagpapaluin na, i-maintain mo lang ALE stated that it was normal in fraternities
muna. Alam ko gigil ka, kasi gusto mo and Bado specifically said,
bumawi, di ba? Pero may ano naman Marami din, Mayroon kaming batch
kami, may . . . MI rin naman kami, may
na mga sila e, 20 (composed of) ang
tagatingin kami kung papano yung proseso
ng pagpalo kung foul ba. naiwan na lang lima.
Mataas o mababa? Sinusukat din naming
kung papano. Yun. Kung gugustuhin man Psyche of fraternity hazing initiators
naming lakasan, hindi rin naming magawa The Researchers included participants
kasi may nagbabantay
opinions and perception ragarding hazing
Mmmm. . . ang hirap gumawa ng ganun
(laughs a little) nagiging kwan mo rin tapos, (as a process of inflicting pain through
pero, kailangan mo pa din pagdaanan, paddling), their opinion on the total
tamang kwan lang amang maramdaman mo abolishment of hazing, their behvaiors while
lang kung ano yung bigat. initiating the neophytes.
Becoming a hazing initiator could
be an open opportunity of avenging against Change in Perception
neophytes. Bunso said that he thought of
doing it many times but chose not to. On Participants impressions regarding
the other hand, Jokjok experienced difficulty fraternity changed specially about the
doing it against the neophytes because they negative ones. Their becoming fraternity
will become his brothers once they survive members have developed them to become
the fledging program. more responsible and more mature. In the
The initiators experienced initiating case of Bunso, he said:
their friends, classmates, acquaintances and Medyo nagbago. Kasi nung una, ang
tingin ko nung di pa ako pumapasok, naga-
relatives. Their fraternity strictly implements
undergo palang ako ng training, akala ko
an equal number of paddle strikes that sobrang ganito na, kapag pumasok ka na,
neophytes should receive. They obeyed the kapag naka-survive ka na, yung tipong
rules even though they were hesitant for masaya, ganito nalang yung pakiramdam
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 15

mo, sobrang kailangan mong magyabang. Although participants felt that


Di pala. Nung mag-survive ako sa org na certain emotion before; still, they continued
pinasukan ko, mahirap parin pala, isang to enter the organization knowing that any
malaking responsibility parin sya. Ganun untoward possibility might happen to them.
yun.
These thoughts were replaced with more
In Bunsos case, he anticipated
positive thoughts as they are exposed to
surviving the initiation process. He thought
deeper core of fraternity through vicarious
of it as the peak of all the difficulties within
learning (Jarvis & Russell, 2009).
fraternity. He considered that surviving this
process would be the greatest
Psyche: the bright and dark side of
accomplishment in joining a fraternity. But
Initiating Neophytes
when Bunso survived, he realized that it is
more than surviving the initiation process. Paddling (hazing) neophytes brought mixed
He viewed overcoming the initiation process feelings of worry, concern, fear to the
as a beginning of his commitment and participants for they, too, experienced the
responsibility to the fraternity. This shows pain of being paddled. According to Hinata:
that surviving initiation may change ones Uhm, kinakabahan din. Kasi biruin mo
perspective about himself. According to may papaluin mo ang isang tao walang
James: kasalanan. Syempre, kinakabahan ka.
Syempre unang papasok sa isip mo pag Malay mo kung ano mangyari doon.
fraternity, hazing talaga.Di ba? Umpisa pa While FB Ale says that:
lang may hazing dun, mahirap. Maraming Sakin, (pause) takot din, parang mas triple
member ito, baka di ko kayanin. Ganun pa yung ikaw mismo ang pinapalo kasi, sa
diba? Pero nung pumasok ako, syempre ikaw ang papalo kasi di mo alam kung ano
mali pala. Mali pala yung iniisip ko na yung mangyayari sa ano.
ganun Both Hinata and FB Ale showed
Fledging and initiation put concern to the hazes fearing that any
participants in a fearsome activity which untoward incident might happen when they
reduces their selfesteem. Nowadays, hazing paddle the neophytes. It can be concluded
in the form of paddling is considered as a that these two participants did not hold any
brutal activity and a running stigma for grudge or had no plan to inflict pains. In
many fraternities. Undergoing such activity Hinatas case, he stated that bakit mo
affects a persons level of self-esteem (how papaluin mo ang isang taong walang
one feels about oneself), but also a persons kasalanan?. This verbatim account shows
self-image (identity), feelings of competence that Hinata sees this act of aggression as a
(or incompetence), and sense of belonging punishment. He viewed aggression as a
(or lack of belonging). According to (June punishment to those people who committed
Price Tangney, 2007) shame causes mistakes or crime, but not the kind of
enormous harm to the entire self-system and aggression that he wanted to commit just
in order to remedy this inconsistency, because of some initiation process.While in
respondents chose to justify their beliefs. FB Ales case, he felt extremely scared
Another one that contributes to because doing that action might pose danger
ones shame is his ego. The society to the person. Causing harm to others makes
nowadays sees men as a tough being who the person accountable to it, so was FB
can endure any kind of pain, not a weak and ALE. He did not want any mishaps to
failure kind of man. Measuring masculinity happen for he would bear the responsibility.
also pertains to a mans ability to endure a For other participants, they did not
kind of pain. This is supported by (Kimmel, show any concern about the neophytes
2008). According to him, masculinity is a (hazees); instead, they focused more on how
constant test always up for grabs, always to execute the paddling process. This was
needing to be proved. supported by Bado, saying that:
16 Palawan State University

Nung una syempre kakabahan ka rin naintindihan di ba? Yung hazing naman,
kasi di mo alam kung sasakto ba o hindi yun yung sobra. Lahat-lahat tatanggapin
eh. mo sa isang semester. Tatanggap ka ng
congratulations, graduation, welcome, yung
While according to James: pangalan ng fraternity.Lahat. Yung balat na
Syempre diba sati naman syempre masaya sinturon dapat maputol sa braso mo. Bago
diba? First time mo hahawak ng paddle ka makasurvive di ba? Yun yung hazing na
pero una, iisipin mo, bakit mo..bakit mo sinasabi.
papaluin ng sobra kung di ka pa naman According to Klerk (2013),
marunong initiation may involve nothing more than the
Bado got nervous because he might pranks or antics of young students. There are
commit mistake on executing the paddling. forms of initiation imposed by the group on
Being observed by other members might be a newcomer that lead to harassment, abuse
the factor why he was tensed on carrying the and humiliation. In Bunsos account, simple
process. Giving or assigning the paddle to verbal humiliation of someone can be
him could be a privilege but still it is a big considered already as hazing. It is explained
responsibility that he should carry. Aside clearly that hazing is not all about paddling.
from being observed by the other members, However in James account, he stated that
he was expected to execute properly the paddling is another form of hazing. Since
paddling. On the other hand, James felt James fraternity is an anti-hazing
happy that he was assigned to paddle a organization, they removed the hazing
neophyte, because he considered it a big processes such as degrading, abusing or
privilege as a member and a proof that he is humiliating the applicants in a long period
trusted. But since that was James first time of time (one semester) but the paddling
to execute a paddling session, he still process must remain. James added that:
couldnt inflict too much pain because he is So ngayon yung paddling naman, yun
not skilled enough in executing it. naman yung pang-welcome na lang.
Kumbaga, acceptance right na lang na
Subjective Opinion on Hazing tinatawag. Kumbaga, para maramdaman
nila na yung pagmamahal namin, yung
Participants opinions about hazing are pagmamahal nila samin.. May ibibigay
silang tatlong palo, yun na yon.
different from one another. Bunso said:
Para sa'kin, yung hazing is, dalawa yan With these statements, the
eh. Verbal at saka non-verbal.Pag sinabi participants justified that the term, hazing is
mong hazing, di kaagad paddle yan eh. Kasi broad. Paddling as form of initiation is
karamihan sa marami akong tinanong sa somehow unique for it has become a
labas na di nakakaintindi ng hazing, ang tradition that does not aim at putting harm to
pagkaalam nila, yung hazing, yung neophytes; thus, it gives them reason to
ginugulpi, pinapalo ng paddle, hindi. Di continue with the practice.
ganun yung hazing. Once kasi na
pinapagsalitaan ka palang eh, yung
Secretly continuing hazing process
minumura, para sa akin, hazing na yun eh.
Pag nag-undergo ka ng training, Hazing is now prohibited in the
napagsasalitaan ka na. Pag sinabing
Philippines because there have been
hazing, masyadong broad yun.
numerous reports of death casualties. But
While according to James:
Kumbaga, may-may-may ano rin siya, this activity is still secretly present among
tawag nito, may paddling din naman talaga fraternities.They cannot easily remove it
siya. Yun naman e. Tradisyon na since it has become a tradition and the
tinatawag. Kumbaga, hindi na siya pwedeng foundation of their organization which
alisin. Simula nabuo yung fraternity na yun, makes them uniform and equal. This is
dun na nag umpisa yung lahat. Kaya ang supported by the results from an exclusive
tinanggal namin is yung tinatawag na study conducted in the country (Gener,
hazing. Yung hazing kasi, hindi nila
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 17

2013). Almost similar to Bados verbal during the fledging period could motivate
account: them to quit. The members will examine
Oo kasing unang-una, yung ano eh..yung how tough the neophytes are, to determine if
ano eh.. ano eh.. sa isang organisasyon ano they are going to stay and continue or they
kumbaga masmas nagiging will quit during the fledging process. It
nagkakaroon ng unity ang isang kapatiran functions as filtering mechanism for the
kung pagkapare-pareho kayo ng
aspiring applicants - who really deserve to
pinagdaanan. Kasi nagkakaroon, sa
ganitong uri ng organisasyon, nagkakaroon be part of their organization and who do not
ng diskriminasyon kung yung iba mga (Cimino, 2011).
nakasurvive na hindi nakatikim ng ganoon.
One of the fraternitys requirements Opinions on Removal of Hazing process
to be a member is to undergo this hazing (paddling)
process (paddling). Bado says it is necessary
to experience this kind of process to have a When asked about removing
sense of unity and equality among the paddling as a form of initiation, participants
members inside the group. Cimino (2011) gave many verbatim accounts. Others said it
stated that hazing rituals help to maintain the needs to be continued while others want it
power structure of the team or the removed. One of the positive factors that
organization. This was supported by the would happen if hazing will be removed is
verbatim of James account below: there would be many males that will join
Kumbaga, yung hazing namin ginagawa their fraternity. Like what Jokjok says:
na lang namin exercise Also, may may Mas maganda..mas madaming
paddling pa din, yung yung talagang..hindi miyembro..... yung ibang applikante gustong
talaga mawawalan na tradisyon na talaga. gustong pumasok kaso takot sa hazing.
Rocksteddy added: Pwede.kung ako tanggalin na kung
Kung tatanggalin natin yun, pangit na rin tanggalin magservice na lang yung mga
sa mga nagsimula. Parang ano na yan, applicante. Kung sa akin tanggalin.
parang ritwal. Kasi ginawa na rin sa'yo eh. Many people do not want to join
Gawin mo rin, para tuloy-tuloy.Parang fraternities since they are scared to undergo
kasanayan. the hazing process, and also because of the
Since hazing has been already a bad reputation of fraternities due to the cases
tradition, it persists, because fraternity of death that happened before. Jokjok
members believe its a responsibility to do prefers to remove the hazing process so
so. It became the organizations power there will be a great number of applicants
structure, so all the members undergo this who would want to join them and he also
process. Members think it is the only suggests that they should just subject them
effective way to prove their commitment to rendering services. But the majority of
and loyalty to their organization.According the respondents supported the continuation
to Bunsos account: of the hazing process due to the perceived
Dun na rin kasi nasusubukan yung sarili positive effects. One of them is Bado:
mo, dyan papasok yung pride. Pag Parang..parang napakahirap eh. Kasi
sinabihan ka ng ganito, pag sinabihan ka ng kumbaga yung mga susunod na magiging
ganyan, once na di mo makaya, nandyan pa miymebro ano na..parang lousy na
rin yung pride mo, ikaw rin mismo yung talaga. Kasi parang di mo yayakapin yung
magki-quit ka. About din naman sa organisasyon niyo kapag hindi ka
paddling, na contact-contact na yan, dyan naghirap.
din masusubukan, dun din, papasok yung Removal of hazing will give reason
pride saka yung loyalty mo. Tapos yung to the incoming members to be lousy and
meron sa punishment din. Matututo ka not to be fully committed to the organization
talaga and there will be no sense of responsibility
Other than proving ones loyalty, as among the new members. They reasoned out
what Bunso stated, keeping their pride that during the time of training for
18 Palawan State University

neophytes, they trained them to trust the People learn about fraternities from their
fraternity by giving them challenges and social environment, most often during
worst-case scenarios to develop the their high school years. Social environment
neophytes loyalty for the organization. becomes one of the means for the
They will not understand the true meaning participants to be aware of fraternities and
of being responsible and committed also one of the motivations to joining the
members of the organization unless they organization. Social environment such as
have experienced it. There is also a participants immediate family members,
possibility that the future members will lose friends, classmates and their community
respect to the brotherhood and its members. become their primary sources of
information. Most of these social
Like what Rocksteddy said: environment influences were encountered
Madaming sasali. Di na nakaktakot. May during high school. Social environment has
mga papasok na mayabang, parang also become their tool to understand more
babastusin yung mga members. Parang about their fraternity. Becoming an official
wala na sanang ganunganun kung pasok member of the fraternity will earn social
lang nang ganun ba. Papasok nalang yung
benefits such as brotherhood and equality,
mga sira-ulo ba.
which is very important in establishing a
Respect for other member is very
strong bond among fraternity members.
important to their organization. Based on
Rocksteddys verbatim, once the paddling Fears and doubts gradually melt away
initiation is removed, respect for the other throughout the experience, and are
members will not be established. Hazing replaced with determination and faith in
ones self. The participants experience as
(paddling) of applicants may impose a
an applicant enables him to learn the
dominant position over them.
dynamics of the fraternity and how
Therefore, hazing is still a very important
important it is to produce a resilient
condition in joining a fraternity. As the
member. During the training process (on
neophytes become fully aware of the
becoming a member), the participants
superiority of the initiators, respect will be
perseverance was tested for they had to
established unto them. Moreover, the
endure all the hardships - the experience of
applicants will manifest good characteristics
being humiliated and the physical pain from
that can contribute to their dedication to the
their initiators. Though they thought of
fraternity.
backing out, but their determination helped
It is clearly noticed that the
them survive these hardships. Their
participants psyche was affected by the
determination proved their capabilities to
experiences and social environment
other members as they continued the
throughout their membership succession.
process. Participants handled their emotional
Their psyches developed and made them
baggage of severe nervousness and
mature, responsible, and committed
apprehension by keeping and strengthening
members who conform to the established
their faith a proof that they could survive
scheme of their fraternities. The
the training without quitting. These
participants training and initiation process
experiences helped them to become eligible
(experienced) contributed to their holistic
members of the fraternity.
perspective of hazing function in their
organization. It molded and polished them to The hardest part of entering a fraternity:
uphold the tradition despite the moral getting paddled. The hardest part of
dilemma that hazing has brought. being a member of a fraternity: paddling
applicants. Being official members of their
fraternity gave them chance to join activities
Conclusion which their organization held such as
Based on the analyses of the gathered data, fellowships and community services. Being
the following conclusions were made. a member helps them to learn more about
Alcedo, Cabacang, Empig, & Peralta 19

their fraternitys dynamics and gave them fraternities changed especially the negative
significant experiences of being the hazing ones. Their experiences inside the
initiators. Proving their commitment to the fraternities have widened their
fraternity would give them privilege to understanding, developed them to become
initiate the neophytes an opportunity to more mature, and responsible. Proving their
inflict pain through paddling. Their commitment to the fraternity gave them the
experience as an initiator was also tested. On privilege to initiate the neophytes. Other
being applicant, enduring the all the training participants showed concerns towards the
process was challenging. On the other hand, well-being of the neophytes whom they
paddling a neophyte was the most paddled. Their stereotype of thinking - that
challenging for them. Participants as new the initiators use paddling as a way of
members of the fraternity had mixed getting back and as a medium of revenge
emotions during their first experience of over what happened to them during the
swinging the paddle for they had to consider training process also changed.
different factors in initiating a neophyte, Hazing creates an equal ground for every
such as the right way of paddling. This member. Regarding the continuation of
aspect of initiators phenomenology cannot hazing, hazing is necessary to experience
be disregarded for it contributes to the this kind of process to develop a sense of
development of their involvement to unity and equality among the fraternity
fraternity. members. It has become the organizations
The social environment and experiences power structure since all the members
contribute significant factors in the psyche undergo this process. The members will
of the participants, on being an applicant and examine how tough the neophytes are, to
being an official member/initiator. determine if they are going to stay and
People join fraternities to learn, adapt, continue or they will quit during the
and prosper. Looking into the participants fledging process. It is the only effective way
psyche as applicants, they formed negative to prove their commitment and loyalty to
and positive impressions on their fraternity. their organization.
Some of them doubted the fraternitys Hazing keeps freeloaders away and puts
capacity to secure their safety due to the irresponsibility at bay. In terms of
hazing process (paddling). The participants removing the hazing process (paddling), its
felt nervous and frightened over the positive effect is that a greater number of
possibilities of what might happen to them applicants will be inclined to join fraternities
will they stay alive or not. These formed if hazing will be removed. Many people do
negative thoughts contributed to the not want to join fraternities because they are
uncertainty of their psychological and scared to undergo hazing process. But the
physical capacity to finish the training removal of hazing will give a lot of negative
process. This may be connected why they effects to the fraternities especially to the
got into the point of quitting. But they were members. The incoming members might be
motivated to continue with the training lousy and might not be truly committed to
process due to the formed positive the organization. They may not have sense
impressions - their basis to achieve their of responsibility as members. There is also a
goal on becoming official members of the possibility that the future members will lose
fraternity. Participants considered the their respect to the brotherhood and their
following benefits of being official fraternity members as well. They reasoned out that
members social acceptance, skills during that time they were training the
development, preparedness for actual neophytes, they trained them to trust the
hardships in life and formation of bond with fraternity through the hardships they
other respectable people. endured. Hazing somehow develops the
On becoming official members of their neophytes loyalty for the organization. The
fraternity, the participants perception about applicants will not understand the true
20 Palawan State University

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