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International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences


Volume 2015, Article ID 370267, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/370267

Research Article
Introduction to Neutrosophic BCI/BCK-Algebras

A. A. A. Agboola1 and B. Davvaz2


1
Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
2
Department of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

Correspondence should be addressed to A. A. A. Agboola; aaaola2003@yahoo.com

Received 4 February 2015; Accepted 23 February 2015

Academic Editor: Sergejs Solovjovs

Copyright 2015 A. A. A. Agboola and B. Davvaz. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.

We introduce the concept of neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebras. Elementary properties of neutrosophic BCI/BCK algebras are
presented.

1. Introduction We can define a partial ordering by if and only if


= 0.
Logic algebras are the algebraic foundation of reasoning If a BCI-algebra satisfies 0 = 0 for all , then
mechanism in many fields such as computer sciences, infor- we say that is a BCK-algebra. Any BCK-algebra satisfies
mation sciences, cybernetics, and artificial intelligence. In the following axioms for all , , :
1966, Imai and Iseki [1, 2] introduced the notions, called
BCK-algebras and BCI-algebras. These notions are originated (1) ( ) = ( ) ,
from two different ways: one of them is based on set theory; (2) (( ) ( )) ( ) = 0,
another is from classical and nonclassical propositional cal-
culi. As is well known, there is a close relationship between the (3) 0 = ,
notions of the set difference in set theory and the implication (4) = 0 ( ) ( ) = 0, ( ) ( ) = 0.
functor in logical systems. Since then many researchers
worked in this area and lots of literatures had been produced Let (, , 0) be a BCK-algebra. Consider the following:
about the theory of BCK/BCI-algebra. On the theory of (1) is said to be commutative if for all , we have
BCK/BCI-algebras, for example, see [26]. It is known that ( ) = ( );
the class of BCK-algebras is a proper subclass of the class
of BCI-algebras. MV-algebras were introduced by Chang in (2) is said to be implicative if for all , , we have
[7], in order to show that Lukasiewicz logic is complete with = ( ).
respect to evaluations of propositional variables in the real In 1995, Smarandache introduced the concept of neutro-
unit interval [0, 1]. It is well known that the class of MV- sophic logic as an extension of fuzzy logic; see [810]. In
algebras is a proper subclass of the class of BCK- algebras. 2006, Kandasamy and Smarandache introduced the concept
By a BCI-algebra we mean an algebra (, , 0) of type of neutrosophic algebraic structures; see [11, 12]. Since then,
(2, 0) satisfying the following axioms, for all , , : several researchers have studied the concepts and a great deal
of literature has been produced. Agboola et al. in [1317]
(1) (( ) ( )) ( ) = 0,
continued the study of some types of neutrosophic algebraic
(2) ( ( )) = 0, structures.
Let be a nonempty set. A set () = , generated
(3) = 0,
by and is called a neutrosophic set. The elements of ()
(4) = 0 and = 0 imply = . are of the form (, ), where and are elements of .
2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

In the present paper, we introduce the concept of where


neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebras. Elementary properties of
(, ) = ( , ( ) )
neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebras are presented.
= ( , ( ) ) ,
2. Main Results (, ) = ( , ( ) )
Definition 1. Let (, , 0) be any BCI/BCK-algebra and let (6)
= ( , ( ) ) ,
() = , be a set generated by and . The triple
((), , (0, 0)) is called a neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebra. If (, V) = ( , ( ) )
(, ) and (, ) are any two elements of () with , , ,
, we define = ( , ( ) ) .
Hence,
(, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) ) . (1)
(, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) )
An element is represented by (, 0) () and (0, 0)
represents the constant element in (). For all (, 0), (, 0) = ( , ( ) )
, we define (, ) ,
(7)
(, 0) (, 0) = ( , 0) = ( , 0) , (2) (, ) (, V) = ( , ( V V) )
= ( , ( V ) )
where is the negation of in .
(, ) .
Example 2. Let ((), +) be any commutative neutrosophic
group. For all (, ), (, ) () define Now, we obtain
= =
(, ) (, ) = (, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) ) . (8)
(3) = ( ) ( ) = 0.
Also, we have
Then ((), , (0, 0)) is a neutrosophic BCI-algebra.
= V
Example 3. Let () be a neutrosophic set and let () and
() be any two nonempty subsets of (). Define = V
= V
() () = () () = () () . (4) (9)
= ( ) ( ) V
Then ((), , 0) is a neutrosophic BCK-algebra.
= ( ) V
Theorem 4. Every neutrosophic BCK-algebra ((), , (0, 0)) = 0.
is a neutrosophic BCI-algebra.
This shows that (, ) = (0, 0) and, consequently, (( )
Proof. It is straightforward. ( )) ( ) = 0.
Theorem 5. Every neutrosophic BCK-algebra ((), , (0, 0)) (2) We have
is a BCK-algebra and not the converse. ( ( ))
Proof. Suppose that ((), , (0, 0)) is a neutrosophic BCK- = ((, ) ((, ) (, ))) (, )
algebra. Let = (, ), = (, ), and = (, ) be
arbitrary elements of (). Then we have the following. = ((, ) ( , ( ) )) (, )

(1) We have = ((, ) (, )) (, ) ,


(10)
(( ) ( )) ( )
where
= (((, ) (, )) ((, ) (, ))) (, ) = (, ) (, )
(5)
((, ) (, )) = ( , ( ) ) (11)
[(, ) (, )] (, V) , = ( , ( ) ) .
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

Then, Lemma 7. Let ((), , (0, 0)) be a neutrosophic BCI-algebra.


Then for all (, ), (, ) (),
(, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) )
(1) (0, 0) ((, ) (, )) = ((0, 0) (, )) ((0, 0)
= ( , ( ) ) (12) (, ));
(, V) . (2) (0, 0) ((0, 0) ((, ) (, ))) = (0, 0) ((, )
(, )).
Therefore, we obtain
Theorem 8. Let ((), , (0, 0)) be a neutrosophic BCK-
(, V) (, ) = ( , ( V V ) ) algebra. Then for all (, ), (, ), (, ) (),

= ( , V ) (13) (1) (, ) (, ) = (0, 0) implies that ((, ) (, ))


((, ) (, )) = (0, 0) and ((, ) (, ))
(, ) , ((, ) (, )) = (0, 0);
(2) ((, ) (, )) (, ) = ((, ) (, )) (, );
where
(3) ((, )(, ))((, )(, ))((, )(, )) =
= = (0, 0).
= ( ) = = 0, Proof. (1) Suppose that (, ) (, ) = (0, 0). Then (
, ( )) = (0, 0) from which we obtain
= V = V (14)
= ( ) V = 0, = 0. (17)

= V = 0. Now,

Since (, ) = (0, 0), it follows that ( ( )) = 0. (, ) = (, ) (, )

(3) We have = ( , ( ) ) ,
(18)
= (, ) (, ) (, ) = (, ) (, )

= ( , ( ) ) = ( , ( ) ) .
(15)
= ( , ( ) ) Hence,

= (0, 0) . (, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) )
(19)
(, V) ,
(4) Suppose that = 0 and = 0. Then (, )
(, ) = (0, 0) and (, )(, ) = (0, 0) from which where
we obtain ( , ( )) = (0, 0) and
( , ( )) = (0, 0). These imply that = = ( )
( , ( )) = (0, 0) and ( , ( = = 0,
)) = (0, 0) and therefore, = 0, =
0, = 0, and = 0 from which we V =
obtain = and = . Hence, (, ) = (, ); that
is, = . = ( )
(5) We have = ( )
0 = (0, 0) (, ) = (0 , (0 0 ) ) = ( ) ( )
(16)
= (0, (0 0) ) = (0, 0) . = 0 0 = 0.
(20)
Items (1)(5) show that ((), , (0, 0)) is a BCK-algebra.
This shows that (, V) = (0, 0) and so ((, ) (, ))
Lemma 6. Let ((), , (0, 0)) be a neutrosophic BCK- ((, ) (, )) = (0, 0). Similar computations show that
algebra. Then (, ) (0, 0) = (, ), if and only if = . ((, ) (, )) ((, ) (, )) = (0, 0).
(2) Put
Proof. Suppose that (, ) (0, 0) = (, ). Then ( 0, (
0 0)) = (, ) which implies that (, ( )) = (, ) LHS = ((, ) (, )) (, ) = (, ) (, ) ,
from which we obtain = . The converse is obvious. (21)
4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

where where

(, ) = (, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) ) . =
(22)
= ( )
Therefore, = ( ) ( )

(, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) ) = ( )
(23)
(, V) . = 0 0 = 0,
(31)
= V
Now, we have
= V ( )
= = ,
= ( ) ( ) V
V = = (24)
= ( ) V
= .
= (0 0) V = 0.
Thus,
Since (, ) = (0, 0), it follows that LHS = (0, 0). Hence this
completes the proof.
LHS = ( , ( ) ) .
(25) Theorem 9. Let ((), , (0, 0)) be a neutrosophic BCI/BCK-
algebra. Then
Similarly, it can be shown that
(1) () is not commutative even if is commutative;
RHS = ((, ) (, )) (, )
(2) () is not implicative even if is implicative.
= ( , ( ) ) .
(26) Proof. (1) Suppose that is commutative. Let (, ), (, )
(). Then
(3) Put
(, ) ((, ) (, ))
LHS = ((, ) (, )) = (, ) ( , ( ) )
((, ) (, )) ((, ) (, )) (27) = ( ( ) , ( ( ) ( )
((, ) (, )) (, V) , ( )) )

where (, V) ,
(32)
(, ) = (, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) ) ,
where
(, ) = (, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) ) ,
= ( ) = ( ) ,
(, V) = (, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) ) .
(28) V = ( ) ( )
( )
Thus, we have
= ( ) ( ) ( )
(, ) (, ) = ( , ( ) )
(29) ( ) ( ) (33)
(, ) .
( ) ( )
Now, = ( ) ( ) ( )
(, ) (, V) = ( , ( V ) ) ( ) ( )
(30)
(, ) , ( ) ( ) .
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

Also, (2) (, ) (, ) () for all (, ), (, ) ();


(, ) ((, ) (, )) (3) () contains a proper subset which is a BCI/BCK-
algebra.
= (, ) ( , ( ) )
If () does not contain a proper subset which is a BCI/BCK-
= ( ( ) , ( ( ) ( ) algebra, then () is called a pseudo neutrosophic subalgebra
of ().
( )) )
Example 11. Any neutrosophic subgroup of the commutative
(, ) , neutrosophic group ((), +) of Example 2 is a neutrosophic
(34) BCI-subalgebra.
where Theorem 12. Let ((), , (0, 0)) be a neutrosophic BCK-
= ( ) = , algebra and for = 0 let (,) () be a subset of () defined
by
= ( ) ( )
(,) () = {(, ) () : (, ) (, ) = (0, 0)} .
( ) (38)
= ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Then,
( ) ( ) ( )
(1) (,) () is a neutrosophic subalgebra of ();
= V. (2) (,) () (0,0) ().
(35)
Proof. (1) Obviously, (0, 0) (,) () and (,) () contains
This shows that (, ) ((, ) (, )) = (, ) ((, ) a proper subset which is a BCK-algebra. Let (, ), (, )
(, )) and therefore () is not commutative. (,) (). Then (, ) (, ) = (0, 0) and (, ) (, ) =
(2) Suppose that is implicative. Let (, ), (, ) (0, 0) from which we obtain = 0, = 0, = 0,
(). Then and = 0. Since = 0, we have = = = = .
(, ) ((, ) (, )) Now,

= (, ) ( , ( ) ) ((, ) (, )) (, )

= ( ( ) , ( ( ) ( ) = (( ) , ( ) ) (, )

( )) ) = (( ) , ((( ) ) (

(, V) , ) ) ) (39)
(36)
= (( ) , (( ) ) )
where
= (0 , (0 ) )
= ( ) = ,
= (0, 0) .
V = ( ) ( )
This shows that (, ) (, ) (,) () and the required
( ) result follows.
(2) Follows.
= ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) Definition 13. Let ((), , (0, 0)) and ( (), , (0 , 0 )) be
two neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebras. A mapping :
= . () () is called a neutrosophic homomorphism if
(37) the following conditions hold:

Hence, (, ) = (, ) ((, ) (, )) and so () is not (1) ((, ) (, )) = ((, )) ((, )), (, ),


implicative. (, ) ();
(2) ((0, )) = (0, ).
Definition 10. Let ((), , (0, 0)) be a neutrosophic BCI/
BCK-algebra. A nonempty subset () is called a neutro- In addition,
sophic subalgebra of () if the following conditions hold:
(3) if is injective, then is called a neutrosophic
(1) (0, 0) (); monomorphism;
6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

(4) if is surjective, then is called a neutrosophic (2) Im = 1 (Im );


epimorphism; (3) is a neutrosophic monomorphism if and only if is a
(5) if is a bijection, then is called a neutrosophic neutrosophic monomorphism;
isomorphism. A bijective neutrosophic homomor- (4) is a neutrosophic epimorphism if and only if Im =
phism from () onto () is called a neutrosophic Im .
automorphism.
Proof. The proof is similar to the classical case and so is
Definition 14. Let : () () be a neutrosophic homo- omitted.
morphism of neutrosophic BCK/BCI-algebras. Consider the
following:
Conflict of Interests
(1) Ker = {(, ) () : ((, )) = (0, 0)};
(2) Im = {((, )) () : (, ) ()}. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
Example 15. Let ((), , (0, 0)) be a neutrosophic BCI/BCK-
algebra and let : () () be a mapping defined by References
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XIV, Proceedings of the Japan Academy, vol. 42, pp. 1922, 1966.
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Proceedings of the Japan Academy, vol. 42, pp. 2629, 1966.
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homomorphism from a neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebra ()
[4] K. Iseki, On BCI-algebras, Kobe University. Mathematics
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(0 , 0 ).
[5] K. Iseki and S. Tanaka, An introduction to the theory of BCK-
algebras, Mathematica Japonica, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 126, 1978.
Proof. It is straightforward.
[6] J. M. Jie and Y. B. Jun, BCK-Algebras, Kyung Moon Sa Co., Seoul,
Theorem 17. Let : () () be a neutrosophic Republic of Korea, 1994.
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a neutrosophic monomorphism if and only if Ker = {(0, 0)}. actions of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 88, no. 2, pp.
467490, 1958.
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ican Research Press, Rehoboth, NM, USA, 2003.
Theorem 18. Let (), (), and () be neutrosophic [9] F. Smarandache, Introduction to Neutrosophic Statistics, Sitech
BCI/BCK-algebras. Let : () () be a neutrosophic and Education Publishing, Craiova, Romania, 2014.
epimorphism and let : () () be a neutrosophic [10] F. Smarandache, Neutrosophy/Neutrosophic Probability, Set, and
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Hexis, Phoenix, Ariz, USA, 2006.
(1) Ker ] = (Ker ); [12] W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy and F. Smarandache, Neutrosophic
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[13] A. A. A. Agboola, A. D. Akinola, and O. Y. Oyebola, Neutro-
(3) ] is a neutrosophic monomorphism if and only if
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neutrosophic epimorphism. sophic rings II, International Journal of Mathematical Combi-
natorics, vol. 2, pp. 18, 2012.
Proof. The proof is similar to the classical case and so is [15] A. A. A. Agboola, A. O. Akwu, and Y. T. Oyebo, Neutrosophic
omitted. groups and neutrosopic subgroups, International Journal of
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Theorem 19. Let (), (), () be neutrosophic BCI/BCK- [16] A. A. Agboola and B. Davvaz, Introduction to neutrosophic
algebras. Let : () () be a neutrosophic hypergroups, ROMAI Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 110, 2013.
homomorphism and let : () () be a neutrosophic [17] A. A. A. Agboola and B. Davvaz, On neutrosophic canonical
monomorphism such that Im Im . Then there exists a hypergroups and neutrosophic hyperrings, Neutrosophic Sets
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that = . Also,
(1) Ker = Ker ;
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