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Appendix 7

Matrix methods

A7.1 Matrices f) Symmetric matrix, where aji = ajj


A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. A matrix
g) Null matrix, [O], all elements are zero
with rn rows and n columns is said to be of order rn X n
and is written
A7.2 Addition of matrices
4 2 . .. . . . a1, The addition of matrices of the same order is defined as
the addition of corresponding elements, thus
[AI + P I = P I + [AI

a)
am1

Special matrices
Rowmatrix
[ai ~

b) Column matrix
arn2..

2 . .. a,] =
.

1AJ
A7.3
-
-

Multiplication of matrices
(a12 +bl2)

If [C]= [A][B] then the elements of [C]are defined by


...

(arnn + bmn
I
1
(A7.1

[;]
am
= {A}
C,j = U,k b k j

where k equals the number of columns in [A], which


must also equal the number of rows in [B]. This is
illustrated by the following scheme which can be used
when evaluating a product.
c) Square matrix, one for which rn = n
d) Diagonal matrix, a square matrix such that
non-zero elements occur only on the leading diagonal:
0 0 .
a22 0 . ......

e) Unit matrix or identity matrix, where


. ann

fi
c21 c22
.Tr
......
c23 c24 1
a 1 1 = a 2 2 = . . . = ann= 1,
[AI [CI = [AI[Bl

all other elements being zero. (A7.2)


e.g. c13 = a 1 1 b 1 3 + a 1 2 b 2 3 + a 1 3 b 3 3

In general, [A][B] # [B][A]

A7.4 Transpose of a matrix


The transpose of a matrix [A], written [AIT, is a matrix
N.B. [Z][A] = [A][I] = [A] such that its ith row is the ith column of the original
matrix
A7.7 Change of co-ordinate system 261

e.g. k' =

J
T all a21

-
- a22 where for example a l l , a12,and a13 are the components
of the unit vector i' and are therefore the direction
a13 a23 (A7.3) cosines between i ' and the x - , y - , z-axes respectively.
In matrix notation,
A7.5 Inverse of a matrix
The inverse of a matrix [A], written [AI-', is defined by a12

(A7.4) (A7.6)
The inverse can be defined only for a square matrix or @'I = [A]{e}
and even for these matrices there are cases where the
inverse does not exist. In this book we need not be If we assume {V'} = [Q]{V}, where [Q] is some
concerned with the various methods for inverting a transformation matrix, then
matrix. since V = {V'}T{e>' = {V>T{e}
A7.6 Matrix representationof a vector {V>TIQITIAI{e>= {V>T{e>
By the definition of matrix multiplication, the vector and because this is true for any arbitrary { V} it follows
that
V = v,i+vJ+v,k
[QITIAl = VI
may be written as either
or [elT= [A]-' (A7.6)
The magnitude of a vector is a scalar independent of
the co-ordinate system, so

showing that the inverse of [Q] is its transpose. Such


transformations are called orthogonal.
- From equations
Thus, noting that [VI = {V}T, A7.6 and A7.7 we see that
(A7.5)
v = {V}T{e} = {e}T{V} [A]-' = [e]-' or [A] = [Q] (A7.8)

A7.7 Change of co-ordinate system Summarising, we have


A vector may be represented in terms of a set of
{e'> = @]{e> {V'I = [AI{Vl
orthogonal unit vectors i', j ' , and k' which are

[;I
{e} = [AlT(e'} { V } = [AIT{V'}
orientated relative to a set i ,j , and k; thus
From equation A7.6
i ' . i ' = a l 1 2 + a 1 2 2 + a 1 1~ = (A7.9)
V=[vx vy VZI =WT{el
with similar expressions for j ' - j ' and k' .k.
Also, from equations A7.6 and A7.9,
i ' . j ' = alla21+a12a22+a13a23= 0 (A7.10)
= [vx' vy' v,'] with similar expressions for j ' . k ' and k ' . i '

The unit vectors of one set of co-ordinates is


expressible in terms of the unit vectors of another set of
co-ordinates; thus
i' = alli+alj+a13k
j' =~ ~ , i + a ~ j + a ~ ~ k
262 Appendix 7 : Matrix methods

Rotation about the z-axis by multiplication


From Fig. A7.1,it is seen that
bll = u x x - mJ, - d,
x ’ = xcos0+ysin0 b12 = -Uxy + dyy - d,
y ’ = -xsin0+ycos0 b13 +d y z +d z z
= -uxz
z’ z

[51
=
and Jxx’ = 12Jxx+ m2JYy+ n2Jzz
cos0 sin0 0 x -2(Jxylm+ Jxzln+JYzmn) (A7.14)
or {v’}= = [;sin0 Jxy’ = -(I1 ’Jxx+ mm‘Jyy+ nn’J,,)
1 z +
+ (Im‘ ml ’)Ixy (In‘ nl ’)Ixz + +
o][y] + +
(mn’ nm’)Iyz (A7.15)
{V’} = [AI{V} (A7.11)

A7.8 Change of axes for moment of A7.9 Transformation of the components


inertia of a vector
In this section [J]will be used for moment of inertia, to a) Cylindrical to Cartesian co-ordinates:
avoid confusion with the identity matrix [I]. VX cos0 -sin0 0 V,
The kinetic energy of a rigid body rotating about a
fixed point (or relative to its centre of mass) is given by Vy = sin0 cos0 0 v,
equation 11.83 which can be written as vz 0 0 1 V, (A7.16)
t{ [J]{w } = t { o ’1
’ }[J~ { w ‘ } { V > c = [Ale { V > c y ~ .
This is a scalar quantity and therefore independent of
b) Spherical to cylindrical co-ordinates (see Figs 1.5
the choice of axes so and 1.6(a)):
if { w ’ } = [A]{w} VR cos4 0 -sin4 V,
then { [J ’1 { w ‘ } = { W } ~ [ A[J] ~’][A { w ) Ve = 0 1 0 Ve
= {o>*[JI{4
vz sin4 0 cos4 v,
thus [J] = [AIT[J’][A]
{v>cyi. = {Vlsph. (A7.17)
or [J’I = [AI[J][AIT (A7.12)
If the X I - and the y’-axes have direction cosines of I ,
m , n and l ’ , m’, n’ respectively,

Using the following multiplication scheme:


[AIT

E 1,‘ 51
V

[JI
[AI
V
3 [-:
-J,
-Jxy

Jyy
-J,
-Jxz

-Jy]
JZz
I’

.R. .R.
[AI[Jl = PI [J’l
(A7.13)
A7.9 Transformation of the components of a vector 263

c ) Spherical to Cartesian co-ordinates:

{VI, [Ale
V V
cos0 -sin0

I"r 9
[AI+ {v>sph.

cosOcos~#~ -sin6 -cosf?sin+

sin 4 0 cos l#l


I"r
L41w = [Ale[Al+
= [A]O+{V)sph. (A7.18)