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CHAPTER 2

INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
Prepared by: Nur Ain Bt Mohd Zainuddin
Course Learning Outcome

At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:


Explain in detail for section 25 and 29
in EQA 1974

Clearly explain Regulation related to


IETS in IER 2009.

Explain IECS procedure.

Define Standard A and B

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.1 Legal Requirement For
Wastewater Pollution Control.
Environmental Quality Act 1974 (EQA 1974).
Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009.
Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent) Regulation
2009.
Section 25 of EQA 1974 provides a general provision
for the control of pollution of inlands water while
Section 29 focuses on the control of pollution of
Malaysian Waters.
Inland water refer to reservoirs, lakes, rivers, streams
etc. and subsurface water.
Malaysian waters refers to the territorial waters of
Malaysia which is practically understood that extend 12
Nautical miles from the shore. 3
Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.1.1 Section 25: Restriction on Pollution of
Inland Waters.
Section 25: Restriction on Pollution of Inland
Waters.
1) No person shall, unless licensed, emit, discharge or
deposit any environmentally hazardous substances,
pollutants or wastes into any inland waters in
contravention of the acceptable conditions specified
under section 21.
2) Without limiting the generality of subsection (1), a
person shall be deemed to emit, discharge or
deposit wastes into inland waters if-
a) he places any wastes in or on any waters or in a
place where it may gain access to any waters;
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.1.1 Section 25: Restriction on Pollution of
Inland Waters.
b) He places any waste in a position where it falls, descends,
drains, evaporates, is washed, is blown or percolates or is
likely to fall, descend, drain, evaporate or be washed, be
blown or percolated into any waters, or knowingly or through
his negligence, whether directly or indirectly, causes or
permits any wastes to be placed in such a position;
c) He causes the temperature of the receiving waters to be
raised or lowered by more than the prescribed limits.
3) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of
an offence and shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one
hundred thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a period not
exceeding five years or to both and to a further fine not
exceeding one thousand ringgit a day for every day that the
offence is continued after a notice by the Director General
requiring him to cease the act specified therein has been
served upon him. 5
Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.1.2 29: Prohibition Of Discharge Of Wastes
Into Malaysian Waters

Section 29: Prohibition Of Discharge Of Wastes


Into Malaysian Waters
1) No person shall, unless licensed, discharge
environmentally hazardous substances, pollutants
or wastes into the Malaysian waters in
contravention of the acceptable conditions specified
under section 21.
2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall
be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine
not exceeding five hundred thousand ringgit or to
imprisonment for not exceeding five years or to
both.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2 Environmental Quality (Industrial
Effluent) Regulation 2009 (IER 2009)

IER 2009 consist of 33 Regulations;


1. Citation.
2. Interpretation
i. "industrial effluent" means any waste in the form of
liquid or wastewater generated from manufacturing
process including the treatment of water for water supply
or any activity occurring at any industrial premises;
ii. "mixed effluent" means any waste in the form of liquid
or wastewater containing both industrial effluent and
sewage;
iii. "sludge" means any deposit of particulate matter
settled from any liquid, including deposit resulting from
physical, chemical, biological or other treatment of water
or industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2 Environmental Quality (Industrial
Effluent) Regulation 2009 (IER 2009)

Consist of 33 Regulations.
1. Citation.
2. Interpretation
i. "industrial effluent" means any waste in the form of
liquid or wastewater generated from manufacturing
process including the treatment of water for water supply
or any activity occurring at any industrial premises;
ii. "mixed effluent" means any waste in the form of liquid
or wastewater containing both industrial effluent and
sewage;
iii. "sludge" means any deposit of particulate matter
settled from any liquid, including deposit resulting from
physical, chemical, biological or other treatment of water
or industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2 Environmental Quality (Industrial
Effluent) Regulation 2009 (IER 2009)
iv. "sewage" means any liquid waste or wastewater
discharge containing human, animal, domestic, or
putrescible matter in suspension or solution, and
includes liquids containing chemicals in solution either in
the raw, treated or partially treated form;
v. "parameter" means chemical oxygen demand or any of
the factors shown in the first column of the Fifth
Schedule or in the Ninth Schedule;
vi. "batch discharge" means any controlled discharge of a
discrete volume of industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
vii. "industrial effluent treatment system" means any
facility including the effluent collection system, designed
and constructed for the purpose of reducing the potential
of the industrial effluent or mixed effluent to cause
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pollution. Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.1 Subject to IER Regulation 2009

3. Regulation 3: Application;
These Regulations shall apply to any premises which
discharge or release industrial effluent or mixed
effluent, onto or into any soil, or into inland waters or
Malaysian waters, other than the premises as
specified in the First Schedule.
Sources which generate raw effluent for the
following are subjected to IER:
i. The BOD load of the effluent of more than 6 kg/d.
ii. The SS load of the effluent more than 6 kg/d.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.1.1 Regulation 3: Application

iii. The sum total of BOD and SS load of the effluent


more than 6 kg/d.
iv.The effluent discharge volume of 60 m3/day or more.
v. An effluent containing contaminant (mostly metals):
mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, arsenic,
cyanide (non metal), lead, trivalent chromium,
copper, manganese, nickel and tin irrespective of
the load of the contaminant discharged.
vi. An effluent containing oil and grease (O&G),
irrespective of the load of O&G discharged.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.1.2 First Schedule (Regulation 3)

LIST OF PREMISES TO WHICH THESE REGULATIONS DO NOT APPLY


1. Processing of oil-palm fruit or oil-palm fresh fruit bunches into crude palm
oil, whether as an intermediate or final product.
2. Processing of natural rubber in technically specified form, latex form
including prevulcanised or the form of modified and special purpose rubber,
conventional sheet, skim, crepe or scrap rubber.
3. Mining activities.
4. Processing, manufacturing, washing or servicing of any other products or
goods that produce industrial effluent or mixed effluent of less than 60 cubic
meters per day.
5. Processing, manufacturing, washing or servicing of any other products or
goods that produce industrial effluent or mixed effluent of which does not
contain oil and grease or those contaminants listed as parameters (v) to (xv)
in the first column of the Fifth Schedule.
6. Processing, manufacturing, washing or servicing of any other products or
goods where the total load of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 at 20C) or
suspended solids or both, shall not exceed 6 kg/day (concentration of 100
mg/L). 12
Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.2 Written Notification
Prior Written Notification to the Director General
(DG) of the Department of Environment (DOE) is
required within 30 days before commencing any
work or construction or IETS upgrading that
would result in new source of effluent discharge or
a change in the quality and quantity of the
effluent from existing source.
IETS upgrading that involves substantial
modification to the IETS such as addition or
abandonment of a unit process or unit operation
requires a written notification because the exercise
will result in changes to information on IETS
furnished earlier in Section D of the Second
Schedule. 13
Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.2 Written Notification
Written Notification is required to be made by using
the form specified in the Second Schedule.
The submission of Third Schedule to declare that
IETS has been designed and constructed according
to the specification of the Guidance Document on
the Design and Operation of IETS also required.
Signature of the owner and the relevant professional
engineers are required for the submission of Third
Schedule.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.2.1 Regulation 4:Obligation to notify the DG

4. Regulation 4: Obligation to notify the Director General (DG)


(1)No person shall, without prior written notification to the DG;
(a) Carry out any work on any premises that may result in a new source of
discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
(b) Construct on any land, building or facility designed or used for a purpose
that may cause the land or building or facility to result in a new source of
discharge of industrial effluent or mixed effluent;
(c) Make or cause or permit to be made any change of, to, or in any plant,
machine, or equipment used or installed at the premises that causes a
material change in the quantity or quality of the discharge or release from an
existing source; or
(d) Carry out upgrading work of an existing industrial effluent treatment
system that may result in a material change in the quantity or quality of the
discharge or release.
(2) The written notification to carry out any work, construction, or upgrading,
or to make any change referred to in subregulation (1) shall be submitted to
the Director General in the form as specified in the Second Schedule within
thirty days before the work or construction or upgrading commences.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.2.2 Second Schedule(Regulation 4)

SECOND SCHEDULE
[Subregulation 4(2)]
NOTIFICATION FOR NEW OR ALTERED SOURCES
OF DISCHARGE OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OR
MIXED EFFLUENT

Note: Refer to the note in ilearn for the detail information


SECOND SCHEDULE-R4-IER2009

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.3 Discharge Monitoring
The monitoring of the discharge of the effluents is
required under regulation 7 of IER.
Required to keep records of the discharge and
also submit monthly discharge monitoring report
to the DOE on monthly basis.
Report can be submitted electronically through the
Online Environmental Report (OER).
By examining the Tenth Schedule it is clear that the
sources are required to conduct weekly sampling
of the final discharge but the compiled report are
submitted on a monthly basis to the DOE within 30
days after the end of the month.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.3.1 Online Environmental report
(OER)

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.3.1 Online Environmental report
(OER)

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.3.1 Online Environmental report
(OER)

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.3.2 Regulation 7: Monitoring of Discharge
of Industrial Effluent or Mixed Effluent

(1) An owner or occupier of a premises that discharges


industrial effluent or mixed effluent onto or into any soil, or
into any inland waters or Malaysian waters shall, at his own
expense:-
(a) monitor the concentration of chemical oxygen demand
(COD) and any parameter as specified in the Fifth
Schedule; and
(b) install flow-meters, sampling, monitoring and recording
equipment.
(2) The owner or occupier of the premises shall maintain a
record of industrial effluent or mixed effluent discharge
monitoring data in the form as specified in the Tenth
Schedule.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.3.2 Regulation 7: Monitoring of Discharge
of Industrial Effluent or Mixed Effluent

(3) The owner or occupier of the premises shall submit the


first record of industrial effluent or mixed effluent discharge
monitoring data to the Director General within thirty days
after the date of coming into operation of these Regulations
and the subsequent records shall be submitted within thirty
days after the end of the calendar month for the report of
the previous month.
(4) The record of industrial effluent or mixed effluent
discharge shall also be made available for inspection by
any authorized officer.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.3.3 Tenth Schedule
TENTH SCHEDULE
[Subregulation 7(2)]
MONTHLY INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OR MIXED EFFLUENT
DISCHARGE MONITORING REPORT
Parameter*** First Week Second Week Third Week Fourth
Week
Date: Date: Date: Date:
Temperature
pH Value
BOD at 20C
COD
Suspended Solids
Etc.
Note: Refer to the note in ilearn for the detail information
TENTH SCHEDULE-R7-IER2009
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.3.4 Parameter to be Monitored
Industries are given the responsibility to decide by
themselves which parameter are relevant and
significant to their manufacturing operation and
hence appropriated to be monitored.
The decision can be arrived at by examining the
information from several sources such as;
i. The Industrial Effluent Characteristic Study (IECS).
ii. The raw material used.
iii. The historical data on raw effluent quality.
iv. The data from similar industries operated at some other
location.
v. The guide on significant parameter is also given in the
Guidance Document on Performance Monitoring of IETS.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.4 Proper Operation of IETS
Industries are required to operate and maintain
their IETS accordance with normal practices as
practices by professionals in IETS.
In day to day operation, to assure practises and
activities to assure each of process in IETS is
occurring in optimal manner.
Maintaining key parameter relevant to the process
within acceptable ranges as establish by sound
engineering practice.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.4.1 Regulation 8: Proper
Operation of IETS
(1) An owner or occupier of a premises shall operate
and maintain industrial effluent treatment system in
accordance with sound engineering practice for the
treatment of the industrial effluent or mixed effluent and
ensure that all components of the industrial effluent
treatment system are in good working condition.
(2) In this regulation, "sound engineering
practice" means the manner by which effluent
treatment system is operated where the operational
characteristics are maintained within the normal range
of values commonly used for the treatment of industrial
effluent or mixed effluent.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.5 Performance Monitoring
Requirement for sources to conduct performance
monitoring of the IETS is provided in Regulation 9.
Performance monitoring is proactive and
preventive approach to the operation of IETS where
key parameters are monitored and maintained within
acceptable ranges.
The industries need to acquire the relevant
equipment to enable their IETS team to perform
performance monitoring.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.5.1 Regulation 9: Performance
Monitoring
(1) An owner or occupier of a premises shall:-
(a) conduct performance monitoring of the components
of the effluent treatment system in the manner as
specified in the Guidance Document on Performance
Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment Systems
issued by Department of Environment; and
(b) equip himself or itself with facilities, relevant
equipment or instruments for the purpose of conducting
performance monitoring referred to in paragraph (a).
(2) In this regulation, "performance monitoring" means the
routine monitoring of certain characteristics to provide an
indication that a treatment process is functional and
capable of treating the industrial effluent or mixed effluent.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.6 Competent Person
Industries are required to employ qualified and
trained personal to supervise the operation of the
IETS.
IETS personal must attend the training program
implemented by EiMAS to obtain the acquired
knowledge and skills to be certified as competent
person to enable them to supervise the IETS
operation and comply with legal requirements as
stipulated in Regulation 10 of IER.
The industries must have sufficient number of
competent persons. The number is determined by
the number of operation per day and IETS operation
(continuous or batch).
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.6 Competent Person
IETS are generally categorized as a biological
process or a physical process.
Certified environmental Professional in IETS
Operation- Biological Process (CePIETSO-BP)
Certified environmental Professional in IETS
Operation- Physical Chemical Process (CePIETSO-
PCP)
If an IETS has several component that can be
categorized as BP and PCP, the IETS staff must
attend both courses. CePIETSO-PCP and
CePIETSO-BP.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.6.1 Regulation 10: Competent Person

(1) The operation of an industrial effluent treatment


system shall be supervised by a competent person.
(2) A competent person shall be any person who has
been certified by the Director General that he is duly
qualified to supervise the operation of an industrial
effluent treatment system.
(3) An owner or occupier of a premises shall ensure
that a competent person is on duty at any time the
industrial effluent treatment system is in operation.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
Question??
What is relationship between regulation 8, regulation
9 and regulation 10?
Regulation 8-proper operation of IETS
Regulation 9-perfomance monitoring
Regulation 10- Competent person

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.7 Effluent Discharged Standards
The main provision dictating the quality of final
effluent is to be complied with is Regulation 11.
Discharged standard for all regulated parameters
except for COD are prescribed in the are prescribed
in the Fifth Schedule.
Regulation 12 stipulates the COD standards which
are prescribed in the Seventh Schedule.
COD standard are set according to the industry
categories.
Standard A: applies to source which discharge point
watercourse is upstream of water abstraction point.
Standard B:applies to source which discharge point
watercourse is downstream of water abstraction
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point. Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.7.1 Regulation 11
Regulation 11: Acceptable conditions for the
discharge of industrial effluent other than
parameter of chemical oxygen demand (COD)
(1) No person shall discharge industrial effluent which
contains any parameter in concentration greater than
the limits of:-
(a) Standard A, as shown in the third column of the
Fifth Schedule, into any inland waters within the
catchment areas as specified in the Sixth Schedule; or
(b) Standard B, as shown in the fourth column of the
Fifth Schedule, into any other inland waters or
Malaysian waters.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.7.1 Regulation 11
(2) Where two or more of the metals specified as
parameters (xii) to (xvi) as specified in the Fifth Schedule,
pursuant to subregulation (1), are present in the industrial
effluent or mixed effluent, the concentration of these metals
shall not be greater than:-
(a) 0.5 mg/L in total, where Standard A is applicable; or
(b) 3.0 mg/L in total, and 1.0 mg/L in total for soluble forms,
where Standard B is applicable.
(3) Where Standard B is applicable and when both phenol
and free chlorine are present in the same industrial effluent,
the concentration of phenol individually, shall not be greater
than 0.2 mg/L and the concentration of free chlorine
individually, shall not be greater than 1 mg/L.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.7.2 Fifth Schedule
FIFTH SCHEDULE
[Paragraph 11(1)(a)]
ACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS FOR DISCHARGE OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT
OR MIXED EFFLUENT OF STANDARDS A AND B
Parameter Unit Standard
A B
(1) (2) (3) (4)
(i) Temperature oC 40 40
(ii) pH Value - 6.0-9.0 5.5-9.0
(iii) BOD at 20oC mg/L 20 50
(iv) Suspended Solids mg/L 50 100
(v) Mercury mg/L 0.005 0.05
(vi) Cadmium mg/L 0.01 0.02
(vii) Chromium, Hexavalent mg/L 0.05 0.05
Cont. etc

Note: Refer to the note in ilearn for the detail information


FIFTH SCHEDULE-R11-IER2009 36
Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.7.3 Regulation 12
12. Acceptable conditions for the discharge of
industrial effluent for parameter of chemical
oxygen demand (COD)
In relation to any trade or industry as specified in the
Seventh Schedule, No person shall discharge industrial
effluent which contains COD in concentration greater
than the limits of:-
(a) Standard A, as shown in the third column of the
Seventh Schedule, into any inland waters within the
catchment areas as specified in the Sixth Schedule; or
(b) Standard B, as shown in the fourth column of the
Seventh Schedule, into any other inland waters or
Malaysian waters.
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.7.4 Seventh Schedule
SEVENTH SCHEDULE
(Regulation 12)
ACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS FOR DISCHARGE OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT
CONTAINING CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) FOR SPECIFIC TRADE OR
INDUSTRY SECTOR
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Trade/Industry Unit Standard Standard
A B
(a) Pulp and paper industry
(i) pulp mill mg/L 80 350
(ii) paper mill (recycled) mg/L 80 250
(iii) pulp and paper mill mg/L 80 300
(b) Textile industry mg/L 80 250
(c) Fermentation and distillery mg/L 400 400
industry
(d) Other industries mg/L 80 200
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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.9 Record Keeping Requirements

Industries are required to maintain records of;


i. Manufacturing processes
ii. Operation, maintenance and performance monitoring of the
IETS.
To comply with the requirements to maintain
records of manufacturing processes, at a minimum
the following must be kept;
i. Update flow chart of the manufacturing process which
show clearly the points of effluent stream generation.
DOE requires premises to keep the relevant record
for a minimum of three years.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.9.1 Regulation 27: Maintenance
of record

27. Maintenance of record


(1) An owner or occupier of a premises equipped with
the industrial effluent treatment system shall maintain
records of the manufacturing processes, operation,
maintenance and performance monitoring of the
industrial effluent treatment system.
(2) The records under subregulation (1) shall be made
available for inspection by the authorized officer.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.10 Personnel Training

Regulation 28 is on personnel training.


All industry personnel who are involved in the
operation of IETS must have the required
knowledge and skills to enable them to perform their
duties satisfactory.
They need to attend technical training course
including environmental regulations.
Their training record must be maintained for
inspection.
Additional to the competence person training
requirement.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.10.1 Regulation 28: Personnel
Training
An owner or occupier of a premises:-
(a) shall ensure that his or its employees attend training
on environmental requirements and the best
management practices in the operation and
maintenance of industrial effluent treatment system
before they begin work;
(b) shall ensure that the training for his or its employees
include retraining on updates for new, revised and
existing requirements and procedures; and
(c) shall maintain records of training which shall include
the training date, name and position of employee,
training provider and a brief description of the training
content. 42
Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.11 Noncompliance and Penalties

Offense under any provision of the IER 2009 can be


charged in court, which carry maximum penalty of
RM100,000 or five years imprisonment or both.
All offense under IER are also compoundable under
Environmental Quality (Compounding Offences)
Rules 1978.
The maximum compound allowable under the rules
is RM 2000.00.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.2.11.1 Regulation 32: Penalty

Regulation 32: Penalty


Any person who contravenes regulations 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29 and 30
shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to
a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand ringgit or to a term
of imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to both
and to a further fine not exceeding one thousand ringgit a day
for every day that the offence is continued after the notice by the
Director General requiring him to cease the act as specified in
the notice has been served upon him.

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal
2.3 Environmental Quality (Sewage)
Regulation 2009 (SR 2009)

SR 2009 consist of 27 Regulations;


Regulation 3: Application
These Regulations shall apply to any premises which
discharge sewage onto or into any soil, or into any
inland waters or Malaysian waters, other than any
housing or commercial development or both having a
population equivalent of less than one hundred and
fifty.
Note: Refer to the note in ilearn for the detail
information
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (SEWAGE) REGULATIONS 2009

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Chapter 2: Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Disposal