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INGLS

PARA AUTOMAO INDUSTRIAL


Sandra Bassani Danilo Carvalho

INGLS
PARA AUTOMAO INDUSTRIAL

So Paulo 2012
Copyright 2012 by Editora Barana SE Ltda

Capa
Alexandre Bobbio
ale_bobbio@hotmail.com

Diagramao
Jonatan Gonalves de Brito

Reviso
Henrique de Souza

Priscila Loiola CIP-BRASIL. CATALOGAO-NA-FONTE


SINDICATO NACIONAL DOS EDITORES DE LIVROS, RJ
_______________________________________________________________
B319i

Bassani, Sandra
Ingls para automao industrial / Sandra Bassani, Danilo Carv-
alho. - So Paulo : Barana, 2011.

Contm glossrio
Inclui bibliografia e ndice
ISBN 978-85-7923-428-6

1. Lngua inglesa - Estudo e ensino. 2. Lngua inglesa - Ingls tc-


nico. 3. Automao industrial - Terminologia. I. Carvalho, Danilo.
II. Ttulo.

11-8311. CDD: 428.24


CDU: 811.111243

08.12.11 19.12.11 032085


_______________________________________________________________

Impresso no Brasil
Printed in Brazil

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DEDICATRIA

A Jomar e Nicole, alegrias da minha vida...


Sandra
AGRADECIMENTOS

Aos professores Ralf Mageski, Leandro Bueno, Erlon


Cavazzana, Adjuto Martins Vasconcelos Jnior, Claudinei
Pereira Gonalves e Edemir Carlos Camargo de Menezes,
do Ifes campus Linhares-ES, por terem contribudo com
seu conhecimento tcnico para a organizao desta obra.
A Leonardo Pegorette, Alexandre Bobbio e Lucas
Nogueira Lorenzoni, por terem feito o test drive dos
exerccios.
SUMRIO

INTRODUO .................................................................... 11
APRESENTAO ................................................................. 13

UNIDADE 1 - ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA


LESSON 1
Identificao de Cognatos ....................................................... 15
Identificao de Pistas Tipogrficas .......................................... 17
Language Spot: Artigos Indefinidos A/An ............................. 19
Artigo Definido The..................................... 19

LESSON 2
Identificao de Estrangeirismos .................................................21
Skimming...................................................................................22
Scanning.....................................................................................23
Language Spot: Falsos Cognatos .............................................. 24

LESSON 3
Prediction (prever o significado) .............................................. 30
Uso do dicionrio .................................................................... 31
Language Spot: Palavras de Duplo Sentido .............................. 37

UNIDADE 2 - O QUE AUTOMAO?


LESSON 1
Industrial Automation ................. 40
Language Spot: Grupos Nominais parte 1 . 44
LESSON 2
Process Automation . 48
Language Spot: Grupos Nominais parte 2 ......... 51

LESSON 3
Condition Monitoring Solutions . 55
Language Spot: Preposies ..... 59
UNIDADE 3 - INSTRUMENTATION
(FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATION)
LESSON 1
Instrumentation Fundamentals and Application ................... 64
Language Spot: Prefixos e Sufixos ............ 68

LESSON 2
The Use of Instruments in Industrial Processes 76
Language Spot: Conjunes .... 81

LESSON 3
Instrumentation Graphical Symbols ........................................ 84
Language Spot: Pronomes Demonstrativos .. 94
Pronomes Relativos ...... 95

UNIDADE 4 - SENSORS (FUNDAMENTALS AND TYPES)


LESSON 1
What is a Sensor? ..... 99
Language Spot: Pronomes Pessoais ..... 103
Pronomes-Sujeito 103
Pronomes-Objeto104

LESSON 2
Types of Sensors parte 1 .... 106
Language Spot: Pronomes e Adjetivos Possessivos ... 110

LESSON 3
Types of Sensors parte 2 .. 114
Language Spot: Verbo ser/estar Presente Simples . 118

UNIDADE 5 - SENSORS (APPLICATIONS)

LESSON 1
Position Sensors parte 1 ... 124
Language Spot: Verbo haver/existir Presente Simples ...... 128

LESSON 2
Position Sensors parte 2 .. 132
Language Spot: Verbo ser/estar Passado Simples ...... 136
Verbo haver/existir Passado Simples ........ 138
LESSON 3
Sound Sensors 141
Language Spot: Presente Simples do Indicativo .. 144

UNIDADE 6 TRANSDUCER AND TRANSMITTER


(FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATION)
LESSON 1
Transducer . 151
Language Spot: Passado Simples parte 1........... 156

LESSON 2
Transmitters .. 162
Language Spot: Passado Simples parte 2 ..... 166

LESSON 3
Types of Transmitters . 169
Language Spot: Usos do ING .... 172
UNIDADE 7 - CONTROL SYSTEMS
(FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATION)
LESSON 1
Introduction to Control . 179
Language Spot: Futuro Simples do Indicativo .... 183

LESSON 2
Control Specifications 187
Language Spot: Nmeros Cardinais e Ordinais .. 191

LESSON 3
System Identification . 196
Language Spot: Voz Passiva .... 199

UNIDADE 8 - PLC (PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL)


LESSON 1
Introduction to PLC ... 205
Language Spot: Plural dos Substantivos .. 209

LESSON 2
Program Work in a PLC . 212
Language Spot: Adjetivos e Advrbios ..... 216
LESSON 3
Ladder Language, Timers and Counters . 220
Language Spot: Graus do Comparativo 223

UNIDADE 9 - SCADA
(SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION)
LESSON 1
Introduction to SCADA . 229
Language Spot: O Superlativo . 231

LESSON 2
Systems Concepts .. 235
Language Spot: O Caso Possessivo ..... 239

LESSON 3
Communication Infrastructure and Methods .. 244
Language Spot: O Imperativo .... 247

UNIDADE 10
PRTICA DE INTERPRETAO DE TEXTOS ............... 252

LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES ................................. 283

GLOSSRIO TCNICO ..................................................... 287

REFERNCIAS .................................................................... 308


INTRODUO

Este livro foi elaborado com o objetivo de colocar


o estudante ou leitor da rea de Automao em contato
com textos e vocabulrio tcnico em lngua inglesa.
Estimativas apontam que quase 90% de todos os
textos impressos e digitais na rea da Automao esto
escritos em ingls, considerando-se tambm os manuais
tcnicos e as normativas internacionais. Reside a a
importncia de se ganhar proficincia na leitura desse
idioma. Saber ingls fundamental para quem quer ser
bem-sucedido nesse campo.
Uma vez que no fcil estudar ingls tcnico ou
com objetivos especficos fora da faculdade ou escola
regular, depois de formados, muitos profissionais tm
dificuldades para aperfeioar seus conhecimentos.
Entretanto, possvel aprender bastante em livros e
manuais voltados para o ensino de ingls tcnico, de
forma autnoma ou com grupos de estudo.
nesse contexto que se insere esta obra. A ideia principal
no que, ao final, o leitor seja capaz de ler e entender apenas
os textos aqui apresentados, mas que ele se aproprie das
estratgias e ferramentas lingusticas e gramaticais para ler
outros textos, principalmente os que devero ser utilizados
pelos profissionais dessa rea no dia a dia.

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Uma vez que este livro est voltado para a
proficincia em leitura, no sero contempladas as funes
comunicativas, mas importante que os interessados em
dominar o idioma ingls busquem aperfeioar-se nas
quatro habilidades bsicas de falar, ouvir, ler e escrever.
Essas habilidades daro suporte para o conhecimento
do ingls tcnico e proporcionaro uma formao mais
completa, necessria aos profissionais, que geralmente
visitam feiras, recebem clientes estrangeiros e participam
de eventos na rea.

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APRESENTAO

Esta obra est dividida em dez captulos sobre um


tema especfico.
Cada captulo se divide em trs lies. As lies
so subdivises do assunto especfico de cada captulo e
contm textos, as estruturas gramaticais mais utilizadas e
exerccios.
Os textos vm acompanhados de vocabulrio tcnico
e exerccios de leitura e interpretao.
As estruturas gramaticais esto apresentadas na seo
denominada Language Spot. O foco no a utilizao
da gramtica para a elaborao de frases e textos em ingls
pelo aprendiz brasileiro, o que exigiria uma abordagem
mais aprofundada do assunto, mas sim a utilizao do
conhecimento da gramtica como forma de facilitar a
leitura.
Aqueles que quiserem aprofundar-se na gramtica
devem consultar um material de referncia prprio,
pois neste espao no se pretendem esgotar todas as
possibilidades de uso das estruturas gramaticais.
Os exerccios desta seo visam ao uso bsico da
gramtica como forma de ganhar familiaridade com a
estrutura do idioma e, assim, adquirir fluncia na leitura.
A primeira unidade traz as Estratgias de Leitura,

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imprescindveis para quem quer se iniciar na interpretao
de textos.
As unidades 2 a 9 trazem temas especficos da
rea de Automao, como Instrumentao, Sensores,
Controle, PLC, entre outros. O captulo 10 traz uma
srie de exerccios para ampliar a prtica com a leitura
e interpretao dos textos e o aperfeioamento dos
conhecimentos gramaticais e do vocabulrio tcnico.
Na parte final, encontram-se uma lista de verbos
irregulares e um glossrio de termos tcnicos.

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UNIDADE 1
ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA

As estratgias de leitura so recursos que podem


ajudar o leitor que no domina um determinado idioma
a compreender pelo menos o assunto e as informaes
relevantes de um texto.
As principais estratgias so: identificao de
cognatos, observao de pistas tipogrficas, identificao
de estrangeirismos, prediction, skimming, scanning e uso
do dicionrio. Veja cada uma em detalhe nas lies a
seguir.

LESSON 1
1 - IDENTIFICAO DE COGNATOS
Cognatos so palavras estrangeiras muito parecidas
com as palavras do portugus. Essa semelhana ocorre
principalmente na escrita, pois a pronncia, na maioria
das vezes, bem diferente da grafia. So tambm
chamados de palavras transparentes, e podem ser:

a) Idnticos, cuja escrita igual, ou com pequenas


diferenas, como a ausncia de acentos. Exemplos: radio,
piano, hospital, hotel, sofa, nuclear, social, total, particular,
chance, camera, inventor etc.

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b) Muito parecidos, que apresentam pequenas
diferenas na escrita, como letras duplicadas, sufixos ou
prefixos semelhantes. Exemplos: bank, inflation, gasoline,
intelligent, population, commercial, attention, different,
product, billion, automatic, television, public, event, model,
impossible, company etc.

Para Treinar
Leia a seguir informaes sobre um curso bsico
de Automao e, em seguida, faa os exerccios (respostas
em portugus para os itens b e c).

Automation Course for 6 days


This course is specially for persons coming from the
industry who need to have the right knowledge of PLC
applications, instructions, programming, interfacing.
The course starts from the Basics as we have different
persons coming from different backgrounds with
varied experiences and we need to start from a
common ground.

(Fonte: http://www.indiastudychannel.com/training/Courses-3168-
Short-Term-Automation-Course.aspx)

a) Retire do texto cinco palavras cognatas e escreva sua


traduo:
1 - _________________________________________
2 - _________________________________________
3 - _________________________________________
4 - _________________________________________
5 - _________________________________________

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b) Para quem, especialmente, o curso foi planejado? ___
___________________________________________
c) Por que o curso comea do nvel bsico? __________
___________________________________________

2 - OBSERVAO DE PISTAS TIPOGRFICAS


As pistas tipogrficas so elementos visuais que
nos auxiliam na compreenso do texto: datas, nmeros,
tabelas, grficos, figuras etc.
Observe no texto a seguir como possvel
entender as informaes principais por meio da tabela
que o acompanha, sem ser necessrio compreender
todas as palavras.

FBI Crime Statistics Inaccurate: Police


Computer Errors
Despite the FBIs preliminary reports finding of
an increase in Midland crime, police said the increase is
because of a glitch in its new computer system and not
actually a rise in crime.
The FBI report showed that Midland had
experienced a 30 percent increase in violent crimes and
a 70 percent increase in aggravated assaults. But police
said the real rate of violent crime actually experienced a
half point drop, and there was only a 5 percent increase
in property crimes.
However, there was a 12 percent increase in
aggravated assaults and a close to 10 percent increase in
forcible rape, according to police statistics.

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Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics for January-June
2009 2010 % Change
Criminal Homicide 2 1 -50%
Forcible Rape 21 23 +9.5%
Robbery 53 34 -35.8%
Assault - Aggravated 139 156 +12.2%
Total Violent Crime 215 214 -0.5%

(Fonte: http://www.mywesttexas.com/top_stories/article_854d8bd8-e3c8-
58dd-8acb-3846c83bea74.html)

Tambm possvel entender grande parte do texto


pela presena de muitas palavras cognatas, nmeros e
referncias a entidade conhecida, como o FBI.

Para Treinar
Analisando o texto anterior, responda corretamente
s perguntas, em portugus.
a) Qual a contradio entre os dados apresentados pelo
FBI e a polcia em relao a crimes violentos e assaltos?
b) O que provocou essa diferena de dados, segundo a
polcia?
c) Apesar da disparidade na maioria dos dados, alguns
deles praticamente coincidem nas informaes passadas
pela polcia e o FBI. Quais so?

LANGUAGE SPOT

Voc conseguir fazer uma boa leitura dos textos se


souber a traduo das principais palavras que compem a
estrutura da lngua inglesa. So pronomes, artigos, conec-

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tivos, preposies, entre outros, e voc os estudar ao longo
das lies. Veja os que geralmente so mais encontrados.

INDEFINITE ARTICLES A/AN


(Artigos Indefinidos um/uma)

So usados para referir-se a algo no conhecido ou


que no tenha sido anteriormente mencionado. A
usado diante de palavras iniciadas com consoante ou som
consonantal, e AN usado diante de palavras iniciadas
por vogal ou som voclico. No variam em gnero
(masculino e feminino).

Exemplos: An engineer can design many good projects.


(um engenheiro pode desenvolver muitos
projetos bons).
A machine is a device that uses energy to
perform its activities. (uma mquina um
dispositivo que usa energia para desempenhar
suas atividades).
Os artigos indefinidos plurais do portugus uns e
umas no possuem artigos correspondentes em ingls, e
so geralmente traduzidos por some.

DEFINITE ARTICLE THE


(Artigos Definidos o/a, os/as)

usado para referir-se a algo conhecido ou que


tenha sido anteriormente mencionado. No varia em
gnero nem em nmero, existindo essa variao somente
na traduo para o portugus.

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Exemplos: The device cannot be identified.
(O dispositivo no pode ser identificado).
The images were not found. (As imagens
no foram encontradas).

EXERCCIOS

1 Complete corretamente os espaos nas


frases com o Artigo Definido (the) ou com os Artigos
Indefinidos (a/an):
a) Many key tasks in _________ manufacture of
products, including inspection, require _________ use
of visual techniques.
b) You can do _________ amazing number of things
with ________ DataHub.
c) ________ American chemical plant uses _______ PC
with ________ Webserver option.
d) _______ microphone is _______ acoustic-to-electric
transducer.

2 Qual das frases a seguir representa a melhor


traduo de The rise of piezoelectric technology is
directly related to a set of advantages?

a) (---) A ascenso da tecnologia piezoeltrica est


diretamente relacionada a um conjunto de vantagens.
b) (---) A ascenso da tecnologia piezoeltrica est
diretamente relacionada ao conjunto de vantagens.
c) (---) Uma ascenso da tecnologia piezoeltrica est
diretamente relacionada ao conjunto de vantagens.

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LESSON 2
3 - IDENTIFICAO DE ESTRANGEIRISMOS
Estrangeirismos so palavras estrangeiras no
cognatas conhecidas pela maioria das pessoas que vivem
em um pas influenciado pela lngua inglesa. Exemplos:
show, drink, software, self-service, marketing, site, diet,
bacon etc. Para essas palavras geralmente no h uma
traduo em uso, e as pessoas as utilizam em suas formas
originais, muitas vezes tambm adaptando sua grafia e
pronncia, mas com o mesmo significado, podendo este
tambm variar de acordo com o contexto.

Para Treinar
Leia o texto a seguir e destaque (sublinhe ou
circule) os estrangeirismos. A seguir, faa uma traduo
literal do texto, tentando encontrar palavras em
portugus que possam substituir as palavras estrangeiras.
Aps, responda: foi possvel traduzir todas as palavras
estrangeiras? Por qu?

Dear Mary,
I am in Paris now. I like this place. There are a lot of
beautiful churches, theaters and museums here. I am
going to buy many gifts for you (a videogame, a new
mouse for your computer, some jeans and drinks). I
am writing this card from a restaurant at the Eiffel
Tower.
Kisses,
Michael.

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4 - SKIMMING

a estratgia de ler um texto superficialmente. No


necessrio ler cada sentena, mas sim passar os olhos
por sobre o texto, lendo algumas frases, procurando
reconhecer certas palavras e expresses que podem servir
como dicas na obteno de informaes.

Para Treinar
Leia o texto a seguir utilizando a estratgia
skimming e responda s seguintes questes:

a) Que tipo de texto esse: informativo, acadmico,


literrio...? ___________________________________
b) Qual o assunto principal do texto? ______________
___________________________________________

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Dolly: 1996-2003
TEARS OF A CLONE: CELEBRITY SHEEP DIED
AT AGE 6
When Dolly was born, human cloning seemed only a
matter of time. But six years passed on and the sheep
got sick and the copying human was still a distant
prospect. Even the scientists who created her were
disappointed. Dolly, the first mammal to be cloned
from adult DNA, was put down by lethal injection on
February 14, 2003. Prior to her death, Dolly had been
suffering from lung cancer and arthritis.
(Fonte: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/
cloning.shtml)

5 - SCANNING

Com esta estratgia, procuram-se detalhes,


ideias objetivas e informaes especficas no texto.
Considerando-se os vrios gneros textuais, dependendo
do texto que se est lendo, possvel usar somente esta
estratgia, buscando diretamente as informaes que
interessam. o caso dos manuais de instrues, por
exemplo. Se o leitor quer saber simplesmente como se
liga corretamente uma mquina, no precisar ler todo
o manual para obter a informao. Mas, importante

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utilizar os conhecimentos de vocabulrio e gramtica
bsica para facilitar a compreenso.

Para Treinar
Analise o texto sobre a ovelha Dolly, utilizando
a estratgia scanning para encontrar as seguintes
informaes:

a) Qual o ano de nascimento e de morte da ovelha? ____


___________________________________________
b) De que doenas ela padecia? ___________________
___________________________________________
c) Como ela morreu? ___________________________
___________________________________________
d) Quais cognatos o ajudaram na compreenso do
assunto principal do texto? ______________________
___________________________________________

LANGUAGE SPOT
FALSOS COGNATOS
Voc j estudou as palavras cognatas, as que so
parecidas com o portugus e tm o significado que
sua semelhana sugere. No entanto, tambm existem
os chamados falsos cognatos, que so palavras com
ortografia semelhante, mas com significados diferentes.
Existem muitos falsos cognatos, mas so em menor
nmero que os cognatos.
importante considerar tambm que as palavras
podem ter vrios significados, dependendo do contexto,
e isso faz com que elas possam ser falsas cognatas em

24
uma frase, e em outra podem no ser. Um exemplo a
palavra plant, que pode significar planta, sendo cognata
de planta, vegetal, em portugus, e tambm fbrica,
sendo, ento, falsa cognata. Veja os exemplos:
a) Im going to fill my garden with colored plants.
(Vou encher meu jardim com plantas coloridas.)
b) Many companies implement plant automation
to increase productivity. (Muitas empresas fazem a
automao da fbrica para melhorar a produtividade).
comum a todas as lnguas a ocorrncia de palavras
com mltiplos significados ou funes gramaticais. Esse
fenmeno, tambm chamado de polissemia (double
sense words), ocorre em qualquer idioma. Mais adiante
sero apresentadas algumas dessas palavras.
Voltando aos falsos cognatos, na lista a seguir voc
encontrar as palavras com mais probabilidade de aparecer
em textos tcnicos da rea de Automao, mas voc deve
conhecer outras, para fazer uma leitura sempre atenta, e
no se deixar enganar pelos falsos cognatos. Considere
tambm que as tradues nesta lista so apenas algumas
possibilidades, entre muitas.

SIGNIFICADO PARECE SER TRADUO


INGLS EM EM PARA O
PORTUGUS PORTUGUS INGLS
Actual Real Atual Present
Nowa-
Actually Na verdade Atualmente days,
today
Advertise Anncio Advertir Warn

25
Assist Ajudar Assistir Attend
Available Disponvel Avaliar Evaluate
Caixa de pa-
Carton Carto Card
pelo
A pair of
Compass Bssola Compasso compas-
ses
Com- Completo, Compreen- Unders-
prehensive total sivo tanding
Dados, infor-
Data Data Date
maes
Projeto, estilo,
Design Design Appoint
criao
Exit Sada xito Success
Expert Perito Esperto Smart
Apurado, refi-
Exquisite Esquisito Weird
nado
Factory,
Fabric Tecido Fbrica
plant
File Arquivo Fila Line
Injury Ferimento Injria Insult
Introduce Apresentar Introduzir Insert
Large Grande Largo Wide
Books-
Library Biblioteca Livraria
tore
Lunch Almoo Lanche Snack
Moisture Umidade Mistura Mixture
Notice Perceber Notcia News
Office Escritrio Oficial Official
Ordinary Comum Ordinrio Vulgar
Ore Minrio Ouro Gold

26
Particular Especfico Particular Private
Poltica, nor-
Policy Polcia Police
ma
Pull Puxar Pular Jump
Push Empurrar Puxar Pull
Remem-
Gravar, regis-
Record Recordar ber, re-
trar
call
Report Relatrio Reprter Reporter
Summa-
Resum Currculo Resumo ry, abs-
tract
Sort Espcie, tipo Sorte Luck
Sustentar, Stand,
Support Suportar
apoiar tolerate
Tax Imposto Taxa Fee
Temperamen- Condi-
Temper Tempero
to ment
Turn Vez, volta Turno Shift

EXERCCIOS

1 Escolha a palavra apropriada para completar os


espaos nas frases a seguir:

a) I was only living with my parents ________________


(eventually/temporarily).
b) The film Titanic was a box-office ________________
(exit/success).

27
c) ________________ (Actually/Nowadays) Im living
with my parents.
d) ________________ (Eventually/Temporarily), we
decided to go on holiday rather than stay at home.
e) My daughter studies in a ________________
(particular/private) school.
f ) This medal is made of __________________ (ore/
gold).

2 Leia a mensagem e depois marque o correto


significado da palavra advertise:

a) (---) Advertir b) (---) Anunciar


c) (---) Divertir d) (---) Avisar

3 Um site chamado fabric.com anuncia produtos


de vrios tipos, como: floral, animal print and decor fabric.
Esse site provavelmente vende:

a) (---) Produtos automotivos


b) (---) Mquinas
c) (---) Tecidos
d) (---) Flores

28
4 Na porta de um banco h um cartaz onde se l:
PUSH. O que o cliente deve fazer para entrar?

a) (---) Empurrar b) (---) Destrancar


c) (---) Puxar d) (---) Tocar

5 Em um site voc encontra o anncio de um


produto com a seguinte observao: Not available. O que
significa? ____________________________________
___________________________________________

6 Traduza corretamente as seguintes frases,


prestando ateno especial s palavras destacadas:

a) There are several types of cartons for different products.


b) Please, send us your resum to apply for this job.
c) Id like to introduce Mr. Gmez, our new marketing
manager.
d) New employees should know or company policy
before start working.
e) A computer can store a lot of data.

29
LESSON 3
6 - PREDICTION (PREVER O SIGNIFICADO)
Consiste em inferir o significado de uma palavra
ou expresso pelo contexto, utilizando o conhecimento
prvio sobre o assunto. Com essa estratgia, fica evidente
que no preciso conhecer de imediato todas as palavras
do texto para que haja uma compreenso satisfatria.
Quanto mais cultura geral tiver o leitor, mais fcil ser
seu entendimento.
Como exemplo, observe que o pequeno texto a
seguir, escrito em portugus, contm algumas palavras
estranhas, que foram inventadas de propsito para
que voc tente adivinhar o significado delas atravs da
previsibilidade fornecida pelo contexto (prediction).

Joozinho e Maria se bronoto desde pequenos e sempre


tatavo na mesma rua. Eles banato na mesma escola e
tutuvo sempre juntos. Todas as tardes, depois de popu
os deveres de casa, Joozinho tadiva casa de Maria.

Para Treinar
Que significados podem ter as palavras destacadas?
Como possvel deduzir isso? ____________________
___________________________________________

Agora teste a mesma estratgia (prediction) em um


texto em ingls, e em seguida responda:

30
Atoms can be divided into smaller particles called
neutrons and electrons. The proton has a positive
charge of electricity and the electron has a negative
charge. An atom containing an equal number of
protons and electrons is electrically neutral.

a) Qual o provvel significado das palavras em


destaque? ____________________________________
b) Como possvel deduzir isso? __________________
___________________________________________

7 - USO DO DICIONRIO

O dicionrio fonte de muitos tipos de informaes


sobre palavras. No entanto, h muitas delas que podem
confundir os leitores no acostumados a utilizar esse
tipo de material de referncia, pois tambm h muitas
abreviaturas e smbolos que indicam a classificao
sinttica e morfolgica dos vocbulos, alm de smbolos
fonticos, entre outras informaes.
Algumas das abreviaturas mais comuns so:
f. = feminino
m. = masculino
pl. = plural
s. = substantivo
v. = verbo
adj. = adjetivo
pop. = popular
pref. = prefixo
prep. = preposio
sm. = substantivo masculino
sf. = substantivo feminino
pron. = pronome

31
preciso observar que existem muitas outras
abreviaes, dependendo do dicionrio que se consulta,
que pode ser menos ou mais detalhista. Assim, tambm
existem abreviaturas para formas verbais (pret., pp., vt.);
indicaes de variantes lingusticas (americana, britnica
etc.), alm de notas gramaticais, entre outras.

Os smbolos mais comuns so:


Indica a forma de pronncia da
/ palavra, sua representao fontica

~ Indica separao da
morfolgica (sufixo, prefixo)
categoria

Substitui a palavra de entrada (ou


seja, a palavra que se est consultando);
geralmente uma expresso.

Para Treinar
Considerando todas essas informaes, observe
como a palavra need aparece em um determinado
dicionrio e depois responda s perguntas, em portugus.

need /ni:d/
sf. falta, carncia, necessidade // v. necessitar; precisar
de
1. I ~ to do it = preciso fazer isso
2. you don't ~ to go = voc no precisa ir
3. in case of ~ = em caso de necessidade

(Fonte: http://dictionary.reverso.net/english-portuguese - adaptado)

32
a) Qual a representao fontica da palavra? ________
___________________________________________
b) Quantos significados ela pode ter como substantivo?
___________________________________________
c) Quantos significados ela pode ter como verbo?
___________________________________________
d) Escreva de forma completa, em ingls, a primeira
expresso mencionada. _________________________
___________________________________________

Ainda com relao ao uso do dicionrio, preciso


considerar que o significado das palavras varia de
acordo com o contexto. Ele muito importante para a
interpretao adequada dos vocbulos. Voc precisa ter
em mente que, na leitura de textos tcnicos, encontrar
vrias palavras em ingls que talvez j faam parte de
seu vocabulrio, mas que nesse contexto iro adquirir
novos significados. Observe os seguintes exemplos em
portugus e ingls.

a) A noiva apagou as velas.


b) O mecnico vai limpar as velas do carro.
c) O marinheiro levantou as velas do barco.
d) Eu no vou sair com eles porque no quero segurar vela.

a) The waiter fills their glasses with wine. (O garom


encheu o copo deles com vinho.)
b) She bought a new pair of glasses. (Ela comprou culos
novos.)
c) This window is made of glass. (Aquela janela de vidro).

33
Para Treinar
Considerando as informaes anteriores, d a
traduo mais adequada para os vocbulos em destaque,
levando em conta o contexto no qual esto inseridos:

a) I will substitute my computer by a notebook.


___________________________________________

b) I bought a new notebook for my English classes.


___________________________________________
c) I need the key to open the door. ________________
___________________________________________
d) To enter the program, press any key. _____________
___________________________________________
e) I have to save money to buy a new apartment.
___________________________________________
f ) Dont forget to save the file before turning off the
computer.____________________________________

Analise a seguir as vrias possibilidades de traduo da


palavra work, encontradas em um dicionrio eletrnico,
e depois responda corretamente s perguntas:
Work / w3:rk /
s. trabalho, emprego, obra
v. trabalhar, funcionar
to go to work - ir trabalhar
to set to work, to start work - comear a trabalhar
to be at work (on sth) - estar trabalhando (em algo)
to be out of work - estar desempregado
to work hard - trabalhar muito
(Fonte: http://dictionary.reverso.net/english-portuguese - adaptado)

34
a) Qual a representao fontica da palavra?
___________________________________________
b) Quantos significados ela pode ter como substantivo? ____
___________________________________________
c) Quantos significados ela pode ter como verbo?
___________________________________________
d) Qual a primeira expresso mencionada?
___________________________________________
e) Se adicionarmos o sufixo er a esta palavra, teremos a
palavra worker. O que ela significa? ________________
___________________________________________

Outra informao importante que, quando se


procura um verbo no dicionrio, geralmente se encontra
a base dele, por exemplo, work, teach, think etc. No
entanto, nos textos os verbos podem aparecer com
diferentes formas: working (gerndio), worked (passado/
particpio passado), works (desinncia de 3 pessoa
do singular no Simple Present) etc. Quando o verbo
irregular, como teach e think, eles podem aparecer
conjugados no passado ou particpio passado nas formas
taught e thought, respectivamente, e em quase todos os
dicionrios no se consegue encontr-los nessas formas,
devendo ser buscados em suas formas originais, de
infinitivo. Alguns dicionrios trazem algumas explicaes
sobre isso. Exemplo: teach (pret. pp taught).
Assim, para obter a traduo correta da palavra
necessrio descobrir seu significado primitivo e ter
conhecimento de conjugao e tempos verbais, sempre
considerando o contexto.

35
Os tradutores eletrnicos tambm podem ser muito
teis para a traduo de textos e podem ser utilizados
gratuitamente via Internet, como o Tradutor Google,
que faz tradues geralmente muito boas. No entanto,
preciso sempre verificar se a traduo feita por essa
ferramenta tem sentido dentro do contexto, pois as
palavras so escolhidas e combinadas pelo tradutor
automtico tendo como principal referncia a quantidade
de ocorrncias e combinaes, e isso pode acarretar erros
de uso, termos inexistentes ou frases sem sentido.
Alm disso, em provas de concursos, ENEM,
vestibular e testes para ingresso em empresas, voc
no poder utilizar tradutores eletrnicos. O melhor,
ento, sempre ampliar seu vocabulrio, aprender as
regras gramaticais bsicas e treinar bastante a leitura e a
interpretao de textos.

Fechando o assunto...

Alm das estratgias de leitura, alguns procedimentos


podem ajudar na hora da leitura:

1. Tenha sempre uma atitude positiva diante do


texto. No desamine logo no incio, pensando que no
vai conseguir entender.
2. Antes de ler o texto especificamente, tente extrair
o assunto geral.
3. Marque as palavras que conhece no texto,
colocando sua ateno nelas, e no nas que voc no
conhece. Assim, se olh-las em conjunto, poder ter
uma viso geral do assunto e at entender as partes

36
mais importantes, sem ficar paralisado pelas palavras
desconhecidas.
4. Visualize bem datas e nmeros, pois so essenciais
para a compreenso do texto.
5. No tente traduzir todas as palavras, pois isso no
necessrio, dependendo do seu objetivo e do tipo de
texto.
6. Tente entender as palavras no contexto.
7. S use o dicionrio como ltimo recurso.
8. Utilize seu conhecimento de gramtica para
auxili-lo na compreenso do texto.

LANGUAGE SPOT
DOUBLE SENSE WORDS (Palavras de Duplo Sentido)
Assim como em portugus, no ingls h inmeras
palavras de mltiplo significado. Portanto, sempre que
diferentes ideias representadas pela mesma palavra em
portugus corresponderem a diferentes palavras em
ingls, haver dificuldades para uma pessoa expressar-
se corretamente. Entretanto, o uso de sinnimos pode
ajudar a neutralizar esse contraste nos dois idiomas. E no
devemos nos esquecer de que a variedade de significados
pode transformar uma palavra cognata em falsa cognata.
Veja a seguir alguns exemplos.

INGLS SIGNIFICADO 1 SIGNIFICADO 2


Application Aplicao Requerimento
Apply Aplicar Inscrever-se
Arm Arma Brao
Balance Balana Equilbrio

37
Bar Bar Barra
Cancel Cancelar Carimbar
Case Caso Estojo
Cell Clula Cela
Class Classe Aula
Classified Classificado Confidencial
Content Contente Contedo
Date Data Encontro
Directory Diretoria Lista telefnica
Easy Fcil Em paz/confortvel
Effective Efetivo Verdadeiro
Figure Figura Nmero
Fix Fixar Consertar
General General Geral
Interest Interesse Juros
Letter Letra Carta
Mark Marca Nota escolar
Match Ligar (Relacionar) Partida (Jogo)
Matter Matria Assunto
Medicine Medicina Remdio
Move Mover Mudar
Oil leo Petrleo
Operator Operador Telefonista
Order Ordem Pedido
Park Parque Estacionar
Plant Planta Fbrica
Play Jogar/brincar Tocar/imitar
Record Recorde Gravar
Save Salvar Economizar

38
Scale Escala Balana
Subject Sujeito Assunto

EXERCCIOS
1 Assinale o significado correto das palavras em
destaque nas sentenas:
a) I need to cancel your documents before you travel.

(---) cancelar (---) carimbar


b) His mark in Maths was terrible.

(---) marca (---) nota


c) We are lost. We need a compass now.

(---) bssola (---) compasso


d) Im going to leave my car in a park. Its more safe.

(---) parque (---) estacionamento

2 Traduza corretamente as seguintes frases,


prestando ateno especial s palavras destacadas:
a) Id like to apply for the job advertised on newspaper.
b) This multi-purpose scale has a 3000g capacity.
c) I dont know anything about this subject.
d) Match the words with their correct meanings.
e) In a grammar sentence, every verb must have a subject.
f ) This company owns many oil refineries.
g) Tomorrow we are going to a Manchester United match.

39
UNIDADE 2
O QUE AUTOMAO?

LESSON 1
INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION
Automao (do ingls Automation) um sistema
automtico de controle pelo qual os mecanismos
verificam seu prprio funcionamento, efetuando
medies e introduzindo correes, sem a necessidade da
interferncia humana. tambm a aplicao de tcnicas
computadorizadas ou mecnicas para diminuir o uso de
mo de obra em qualquer processo, especialmente o uso
de robs nas linhas de produo. A automao diminui
os custos e aumenta a velocidade da produo.
Automao Industrial o uso de computadores ou
outros dispositivos lgicos (como controladores lgicos
programveis) para controlar mquinas e processos,
substituindo algumas tarefas da mo de obra humana.
um passo alm da mecanizao, em que operadores
humanos so providos de maquinaria para auxili-los em
seus trabalhos, e largamente aplicado nas mais variadas
reas de produo industrial. A parte mais visvel da
automao, atualmente, est ligada robtica. Ela visa
principalmente produtividade, qualidade e segurana
em um processo. (Wikipedia - adaptado).

40
A seguir, voc ler um pouco mais sobre este assunto
em um texto em ingls. Utilize as estratgias de leitura
que voc j conhece: prediction, skimming e scanning,
entre outras, para tentar compreender o mximo possvel
do texto. Em seguida, resolva os exerccios propostos.

Automation, robotization, industrial automation or


numerical control is the use of control systems such
as computers to control industrial machinery and
processes, reducing the need for human intervention.
In the scope of industrialization, automation is a
step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization
provided human operators with machinery to
assist them with the physical requirements of work,
automation greatly reduces the need for human
sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes
and systems can also be automated.
Automation plays an increasingly important role
in the global economy and in daily experience.
Engineers strive to combine automated devices with
mathematical and organizational tools to create
complex systems for a rapidly expanding range of
applications and human activities.
However, many roles for humans in industrial processes
presently lie beyond the scope of automation. Human-
level pattern recognition, language recognition, and
language production ability are well beyond the
capabilities of modern mechanical and computer
systems. Tasks requiring subjective assessment or
synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scents and
sounds, as well as high-level tasks such as strategic
planning, currently require human expertise. In many
cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than
mechanical approaches even where automation of
industrial tasks is possible.
(Fonte: Wikipedia)

41
Vocabulary
such as: tal/tais como
in the scope of: no mbito de(a)
step: passo
whereas: enquanto
provided: muniu, proveu, forneceu
also: tambm
increasingly: cada vez mais, crescentemente
strive: se empenham, esforam
devices: dispositivos
tools: ferramentas
lie beyond: esto alm
tasks: tarefas
even: mesmo, at mesmo
as well as: bem como, assim como
scents: aromas

EXERCCIOS
1 Retire cognatos do texto para preencher o
quadro a seguir:

IDNTICOS MUITO PARECIDOS

42
2 Responda, em portugus, segundo o texto:

a) O que Automao Industrial?

b) O que a automao reduz?

c) Como os engenheiros conseguem criar sistemas


complexos?

d) Qual a diferena entre automao e mecanizao?

e) Todas as capacidades e habilidades humanas podem


ser substitudas pelo processo de automao? Explique e
exemplifique.

3 Relacione as palavras com seus significados. Tente


fazer isso, de preferncia, sem consultar imediatamente o
vocabulrio do texto. uma forma de fixar as palavras
novas.
a) Step (---) ferramentas
b) Also (---) mesmo, at mesmo
c) Devices (---) tarefas
d) Tools (---) tal/tais como
e) Range (---) passo
f ) Tasks (---) tambm
g) Such as (---) dispositivos
h) Even (---) gama, alcance

4 Traduza as seguintes frases, retiradas ou adaptadas


do texto:

a) In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step


beyond mechanization.

43
b) Processes and systems can also be automated.

c) Automation plays an important role in the global


economy.

LANGUAGE SPOT
GRUPOS NOMINAIS PARTE 1

Voc notou que no texto anterior h termos e


expresses que parecem estar invertidos? Por exemplo:
industrial automation or numerical control is the
use of control systems.... Se traduzirmos as palavras
na ordem em que aparecem nessa frase, a traduo
ficaria estranha (industrial automao ou numrico
controle o uso de controle de sistemas...). Isso acontece
por causa dos chamados Grupos Nominais, que so
conjuntos de palavras que mantm uma relao de
significados entre si, em que uma dessas a principal,
geralmente um substantivo (S), e as outras so as que
o caracterizam. No grupo nominal, o substantivo o
ncleo, tambm chamado de headword (H), e as palavras
que o caracterizam so chamadas de modifiers (M)
(modificadores, geralmente adjetivos (A)).

A ltima palavra do grupo nominal a palavra


principal ela diz o que a coisa , e as demais apenas
descrevem o item. Por esse motivo, para entender seu
significado preciso ler as palavras de trs para frente.

Os grupos nominais esto presentes em praticamente


todos os textos em ingls, e como tm uma estrutura
peculiar, muitas vezes, sua traduo correta no to

44
simples, pois preciso inverter a posio das palavras para
obter um significado adequado. A interpretao correta
dos grupos nominais relevante para que seja possvel
entender bem um texto.

Exemplos:
Electric energy = Energia eltrica
Human intervention = Interveno humana
Global economy = Economia global
Automated devices = Dispositivos automatizados

Os grupos nominais tambm podem ter mais de


um modificador que, s vezes, composto por dois
substantivos, um principal e outro que faz o papel de
modificador.

Observe:
Red Cross Emblem = Emblema da Cruz Vermelha
(S) (S) (A)

Nesse exemplo, tanto a palavra emblema quanto


cruz so substantivos, porm emblema a palavra
principal, ela o ncleo, estando cruz na funo de
modificador, a que d a caracterstica ao ncleo.

Veja outro exemplo:


Automatic Amplitude Control = Controle de
(A) (S) (S)
amplitude automtico

Observe tambm que, s vezes, preciso incluir


uma preposio (com, para, de, em etc.) na traduo

45
para que o sentido fique bem compreensvel. O termo
anterior tambm poderia ser traduzido como controle
automtico de amplitude, por uma questo de uso, sem
nenhum prejuzo para o sentido, segundo a formao do
grupo nominal.

EXERCCIOS

1 Traduza corretamente os grupos nominais:

a) Human activities: ___________________________


___________________________________________

b) Basic programming: _________________________


___________________________________________

c) Automatic control: __________________________


___________________________________________

d) Central processing unit: ______________________


___________________________________________

e) Auxiliary storage devices: ______________________


___________________________________________

f ) Temporary storage locations: ___________________


___________________________________________

g) Automatic volume control: ____________________


___________________________________________

46
2 Use as palavras do quadro para completar a
traduo dos grupos nominais:

organization location accommodation tasks


language instructions data parts provider

a) Specific ___________________ = tarefas especficas


b) Programming ______________ = linguagem de
programao
c) National __________________ = organizao
nacional
d) Hotel ____________________ = acomodao de
hotel
e) Numerical _________________ = dados numricos
f ) Program __________________ = instrues de(o)
programa
g) Access ____________________ = provedor de
acesso
h) Electronic _________________ = partes eletrnicas
i) The ideal __________________ = local/localizao
ideal

3 Em relao ao exerccio 2, assinale a alternativa


correta em cada item a seguir:

a) As palavras do quadro que completam as frases so:


( ) Modifiers (modificadores/adjetivos)
( ) Headword (ncleo)

47
b) Em ingls, os adjetivos ________ plural.
( ) Tm ( ) No tm

c) Em portugus, os adjetivos ____________ em nmero


com o substantivo.
(---) Concordam (---) No concordam

LESSON 2
PROCESS AUTOMATION

A automao dos processos industriais vista


por economistas, por dirigentes de empresas e pela
sociedade como meio importante para a construo e a
consolidao do processo de modernizao do parque
industrial brasileiro. A seguir, voc ler um pouco mais
sobre este assunto. Utilize as estratgias de leitura que
voc j conhece: prediction, skimming e scanning, para
tentar compreender o mximo possvel do texto. Em
seguida, resolva os exerccios propostos.

The industrys process automation is an inexorable


reality to any company which wants to produce in
large-scale keeping quality, efficiency, standardization
and suitable costs. Even being a popular concept for
years, for many directors and production managers
the subject still obscure. Not about the application
possibilities of this important tool, but at which
process parts it must be applied to have a faster return
of the investment.
When it comes to the idea of automating a plant, we
need to have in mind that automation may represent

48
from a simple switch on/off of any given equipment
up to a complex production and consumption control.
The secret of automation is in the word control. To
have the automatic control of an industry process
makes it possible the traceability through the efficient
data acquisition, transforming diffused data into
information useful to decision taken and relevant to
future improvements in the process as a whole.
To avoid duplicated work and human mistakes,
many industries integrate their automation system
of machines and instruments to several kinds of
databases to supply to the costumer a complete
record of the equipments work and wearing. The
data may be stored in a costumer existent database
to make this information available in the companys
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) or a stand alone
database with customizable reports may be provided.
An extreme relevant factor to the success of the
automation project is the detailed analysis of the
manufacturing process, adding to the software control
all the expertise of the best operators and production
managers, making possible to any trained person to
guarantee quality standard of the final product.
(Fonte: http://www.pheitec.com/)
Vocabulary
standardization: padronizao
suitable: adequados
traceability: rastreamento, rastreabilidade
as a whole: como um todo

49
EXERCCIOS

1 Sublinhe ou circule as palavras cognatas no texto.

2 Passe os seguintes grupos nominais para o


portugus:

a) Process automation: __________________________


b) Inexorable reality: ___________________________
c) Suitable costs: ______________________________
d) Popular concept: ____________________________
e) Production managers: ________________________
f ) Complex production: ________________________
g) Consumption control: ________________________
h) Automatic control: __________________________

3 Para ampliar seu vocabulrio, procure no


texto o equivalente s palavras a seguir. Tente deduzir
pelo contexto.

a) Anos: _____________________________________
b) Qualquer: _________________________________
c) Pela, atravs: _______________________________
d) Erros, enganos: _____________________________
e) Fornecer: __________________________________
f ) Adicionando: _______________________________
g) Ferramenta: ________________________________
h) Atualizaes (melhorias): ______________________
i) Padronizao: _______________________________
j) Dados: ____________________________________

50
4 Segundo informaes do texto, assinale com (V)
as afirmativas verdadeiras e com (F) as falsas:
a) (---) Como o conceito de automao existe h muito
tempo, diretores e gerentes de empresas no tm dvidas
sobre o assunto.
b) (---) O mais difcil no campo da automao saber
quais processos devem ser automatizados.
c) (---) Automatizar uma fbrica instalar equipamen-
tos fceis de ligar e desligar.
d) (---) Uma vez que um processo foi automatizado, no
mais necessrio exercer nenhum controle sobre ele.

5 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:

a) O que muitas indstrias tm feito para evitar trabalho


duplicado?
b) Cite um fator importante para o sucesso de um projeto
de automao.
c) Explique por que o controle tem um papel fundamental
no processo de automao.

LANGUAGE SPOT
GRUPOS NOMINAIS PARTE 2
Tambm possvel que trs ou mais palavras que
compem um grupo nominal sejam substantivos, mas,
ocorre que uma ser o ncleo e as outras seus modificadores.

Exemplo:
Disk Transfer Area = rea de transferncia do disco
(S) (S) (S)

51
possvel tambm que alguns substantivos estejam
unidos pela conjuno and (e). Neste caso, os substantivos
podem ser agrupados, considerando-se os dois como
ncleos e a outra palavra como adjetivo, o modificador.

Exemplo:
Industrial machinery and processes =
(A) (S) (S)
Mquinas e processos industriais
(S) (S) (A)

Assim, so industriais tanto os processos quanto as


mquinas. Mas, possvel, ainda que menos comum,
considerar apenas um dos substantivos como ncleo,
separando os termos e, automaticamente, mudando
o significado. Por exemplo, maquinrios industriais
e processos. Nesse caso, os processos podem ser de
outra natureza, e o contexto que vai determinar se essa
traduo est adequada ou no.
Muitas vezes, essa forma de traduzir denota a
dificuldade de delimitar num texto onde comea e
termina um grupo nominal. Se fizermos um recorte
impreciso dele, podemos traduzir palavras adjacentes que
no fazem parte do grupo como se o fizessem, o que pode
comprometer a compreenso.
Tambm importante observar que, mesmo tendo a
mesma grafia, a ordem em que as palavras so colocadas
no grupo nominal pode trazer significados diferentes.

52
Exemplos:
1 - Industrial machinery processes = Processos de
mquinas industriais

2 - Industrial processes machinery = Mquinas de


processos industriais

Na frase 1, o ncleo, a referncia, a palavra processes;


de processos que se est falando. Na frase 2, o ncleo
a palavra machinery; so s mquinas que se refere o
assunto.
Tambm pode haver sentenas que combinam seus
elementos, unidos por conectores, como preposio ou
conjuno, com sentido de grupo nominal.

Exemplos:
1 - The performance of the program = O desempenho
do programa
2 - The price of the personal computers = O preo
dos computadores pessoais
3 - An essential part of a printer = Uma parte
essencial de uma impressora

Os exemplos anteriores tambm poderiam ser


estruturados em forma de grupo nominal, ficando com
o mesmo sentido.

1 - The program performance


2 - The personal computers price
3 - A printer essential part

53
Os principais conectores que podem aparecer com
grupos nominais so:

And = e
In = em
Or = ou
In the = no, na, em
In a = em um(a)
Of = de, da, do
For = para

Como possivel perceber, os grupos nominais no


so simples de lidar. S a prtica de traduzi-los pode
aperfeioar sua compreenso.

E por falar em prtica, vamos treinar a traduo de


alguns deles?

EXERCCIOS

1 Traduza corretamente os seguintes grupos


nominais:

a) Arithmetic and logic operations:


___________________________________________
b) Computer application and industrial automation:
___________________________________________
c) Computers and programmable logic controllers:
___________________________________________
d) An important group of personal files:
___________________________________________
e) Different languages of the same family:
___________________________________________

54
f ) A faster return of the investment:
___________________________________________

2 Vrias siglas e acrnimos so iniciais de grupos


nominais. Traduza-os:

VIP = Very Important Person:


___________________________________________
WHO = World Health Organization:
___________________________________________
NASA = National Air and Space Administration:
___________________________________________
USAF = United States Air Force:
___________________________________________
USA = (the) United States of America:
___________________________________________
FBI = Federal Bureau of Investigation:
___________________________________________
IMF = International Monetary Fund:
___________________________________________
EEC = European Economic Community:
___________________________________________
UNO = United Nations Organization:
___________________________________________

LESSON 3
CONDITION MONITORING SOLUTIONS
Atualmente, devido globalizao das empresas e de
seus produtos, tem surgido uma competio acirrada no
mercado mundial entre as organizaes. Buscam-se cada
vez mais a otimizao do gerenciamento planejado da

55
linha de produo, mquinas mais eficientes e processos
de fabricao bem estruturados. As indstrias, mesmo
as de pequeno porte, tm necessidade de informaes
confiveis sobre o desempenho de sua produo. Tal grau
de especializao exige a implementao de sistemas de
monitoramento e de controle do processo. Saiba mais
sobre este assunto lendo o texto a seguir.

Condition monitoring systems or programs help keep


your plant floor running productively by detecting
potential equipment failures. Previously, a problem
was recognized by:
Noise identified by maintenance people;
Visual identification by operators;
Control system indicators such as temperature
or pressure;
Electrical equipment issues such as high current;
Product quality reports.
Today, Condition Monitoring Systems use early
warning data, collected manually or via automation
systems, to continually assess the condition of plant floor
equipment and preventing problems before they occur.
It can help provide solutions for predictive maintenance,
machine protection, and increased machine performance.
Condition Monitoring is an effective method for
maximizing Return on Net Assets (RONA) and
improving Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).
Type of return condition monitoring can offer:

(Fonte: http://www.rockwellautomation.com/solutions/
conditionmonitoring/)

56
Vocabulary
plant revenue: rendimento da fbrica
net assets: ativos lquidos
overall equipment effectiveness: eficincia global dos
equipamentos
availability: disponibilidade
damage: dano, prejuzo
spare parts: pea de reposio
fine-tune production: produo em estreita sintonia

EXERCCIOS
1 Sublinhe ou circule as palavras cognatas do texto.

2 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:


a) Para que servem os sistemas de monitoramento de
condies?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
b) Como os problemas com os equipamentos eram
detectados antigamente?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
c) Atualmente, como os sistemas de monitoramento de
condies ajudam na preveno de problemas?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

EXERCCIOS COMPLEMENTARES

3 Leia os textos seguintes e responda s questes


sobre eles, em portugus:

57
RoboTask - The Automation Software
Automate any series of tasks on your computer!
RoboTask enables you to automate any combination
of tasks on your computer, ranging from simply
launching applications, to checking email, moving
or backing up files to uploading or downloading,
sending email and much more. The program allows
to easily create simple task, as well as highly complex
automations.
(Fonte: http://www.robotask.com/?gclid=COWHxq-
blZ4CFQZinAodlVTSqA)

a) Cite a principal funo do RoboTask: ___________


_______________________________________
b) Cite quatro tarefas que o RoboTask permite fazer:
______________________________________

Automated manufacturing refers to the application


of automation to produce things in the factory
way. The main advantages of the automated
manufacturing are: higher consistency and quality,
reduce the lead times, simplification of production,
reduce handling, improve work flow and increase
the morale of workers when a good implementation
of the automation is made.

a) A que se refere a Automao Industrial? ___________


___________________________________________

58
b) Cite pelo menos quatro principais vantagens da
Automao Industrial:
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

4 A seguir, h vrias definies de Automao.


Traduza-as corretamente:

a) Automation replaces human workers by machines.


b) Automation is the act of implementing the control of
equipment with advanced technology.
c) Automation is the control of processes by computer.
d) Automation is used to achieve automatic control or
operation.
e) Information technology is the branch of engineering that
deals with the use of computers and telecommunications.
f ) Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard
physical work is an advantage of the automation.
g) Automation can replace humans in tasks that should
be done in dangerous environments.
h) Automation is the act of implementing the control of
equipment with advanced technology.

LANGUAGE SPOT

Continuando nosso estudo sobre a estrutura


gramatical da lngua inglesa, a seguir voc encontrar
as principais preposies que aparecem com maior
frequncia nos textos.

59
PREPOSITIONS (Preposies)

Estabelecem uma relao entre dois ou mais termos


da orao. Essa relao do tipo subordinativo, quer
dizer, o sentido da expresso dependente da unio de
todos os elementos que a preposio vincula. H muitos
tipos de preposio. Conhea algumas:

IN = em, dentro
- The engine is in the box. (O motor est dentro da
caixa.)
INTO = em, para dentro
- He went into the office, took his laptop and went
out. (Ele entrou no escritrio, pegou seu laptop e saiu.)
ON = sobre, em cima de, em, a respeito de
- Technical articles on industrial automation.
(Artigos tcnicos sobre automao industrial.)
TO = para
- A computer is used to make available several
banks of information. (Um computador usado para
disponibilizar vrios bancos de informao.)
OF = de, do, da (relativo a posse)
- The car of the company. (O carro da empresa.)
AT = em, no, na
- John works at a bank. (John trabalha em um
banco.)
ABOUT = sobre, a respeito de
- Learn here all about the Internet. (Aprenda aqui
tudo sobre a Internet).
FROM = de (procedncia, origem)
- Im from So Paulo (Sou de So Paulo)
BY = pelo, pela, por

60
- The abacus was developed by Blaise Pascal. (O
baco foi desenvolvido por Blaise Pascal).
IN FRONT OF = em frente (de)
- The boxes are in front of the store. (As caixas esto
em frente loja.)
BEHIND = atrs (de)
- I left the boxes behind the door. (Deixei as caixas
atrs da porta.)
UNDER = embaixo de, sob
- The equipment is under the table. (O equipamento
est embaixo da mesa.)
BEYOND = alm (de)
- Automation is a step beyond mechanization. (A
automao est um passo alm da mecanizao.)
WITH = com
- Mechanization provides human operators with
machinery. (A mecanizao provisiona os operadores
humanos com mquinas.)
WITHOUT = sem
- Become an automation technician without
spending a lot of money. (Torne-se um tcnico em
automao sem gastar muito dinheiro.)
BESIDE = ao lado (de)
- The telephone is beside the computer. (O telefone
est ao lado do computador.)
AMONG = entre (vrios elementos)
- Among books and magazines, this bookstore has
thousands copies. (Entre livros e revistas, esta livraria
tem milhares de ttulos.)
BETWEEN = entre (dois elementos)
- The price will be between US$ 3,00 and US$
5,00. (O preo estar entre US$ 3,00 e US$ 5,00.)

61
EXERCCIOS
1 Escolha a preposio ou conjuno que completa
corretamente cada frase:
a) Many tasks __________ (about/in) the manufacture
___________ (on/of ) products require the use
__________ (in/of ) visual techniques.
b) ____________ (Among/Between) the topics covered
in this course are: the history of valves; identification of
major valve types; industries in which valves are used and
others.
c) This sensor is available ____________ (under /with)
analog discrete outputs.
2 Traduza as frases seguintes, prestando ateno
especial s preposies:

a) Mr. Anderson is that man in front of the printer.


b) This magazine in on programming language.
c) Among all the candidates, only one will be selected.
d) The operators are dealing with numbers.

62
3 Complete o fragmento de texto a seguir com as
preposies in, for, of. Elas sero usadas mais de uma vez.

Quigg International is a manufacturer/supplier


_________ advanced technology products/services
used __________ industrial automation and electronic
control. Our client base includes many multinational
corporations ________ Canada, the United States
and Mexico. Our mission is _________ provide
automated manufacturing solutions __________ a
timely fashion that meet and exceed the expectations
__________ our customers.

(Fonte: http://www.quiggintl.com/english/automation.
html#robot)

63
UNIDADE 3
INSTRUMENTATION
(FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATION)1

LESSON 1
INSTRUMENTATION FUNDAMENTALS
AND APPLICATION
A Instrumentao parte integrante de um processo
de automao, uma vez que fornece tcnicas, dispositivos,
medies, registros e controles de procedimentos e tarefas.
Voc vai ler mais sobre este assunto nos textos a seguir.
Para melhor compreend-los, utilize os conhecimentos
gramaticais e as estratgias de leitura, buscando sempre
ampliar seu vocabulrio tcnico.

Instrumentation is the science that applies and


develops techniques of measurement, indication,
register and control of manufacturing processes. It is
defined as the art and science of the measurement
and its control.

1 Os textos desta unidade tm como referncia:


- The Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society (ISA).
- ISA, Process Instrumentation Terminology, ANSI/ISA S51.1-
1979.
- ISA, Standards and Practices for Instrumentation and Control;
11th Edition, The Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle
Park, 1992.

64
An instrument is a device that measures and/or
regulates process variables such as flow, temperature,
level, or pressure. They can be as simple as valves and
transmitters, and as complex as analyzers. Instruments
often comprise control systems of varied processes
such as refineries, factories, and vehicles.
The measured variable is practically all the related
measurable variable with physical sciences. For norm
this set of variable includes:
Pressure
Outflow
Temperature
Level
Electric Current
Electric Power
In addition to measuring field parameters,
instrumentation is also responsible for providing

Device Field Parameter(s)


Valve Flow (fluxo), Pressure
Relay Voltage, Current
Solenoid (solenoide) Physical Location, Level
Circuit breaker Voltage, Current

The use of instruments in industrial processes aims


beyond the optimization in the efficiency of these
processes, the attainment of a product of better quality
with reduced cost and time.

65
Vocabulary
applies: aplica
measurement: medio
manufacturing: fabricao
(to) deal with: lidar com
devices: dispositivos, elementos
(to) measure: medir
largeness: grandeza
outflow: escoamento, fluxo de sada, descarga, efuso,
jorro
attainment = obteno, elaborao, realizao

EXERCCIOS

1 Responda corretamente s perguntas, em


portugus, de acordo com o texto:

a) O que Instrumentao?
b) Qual o objetivo do uso de instrumentos nos processos
industriais?
c) O que um instrumento?
d) A Instrumentao definida como o qu?

2 Para relembrar o significado de termos


importantes, complete as frases seguintes com palavras
retiradas do vocabulrio do texto:

a) ________________ is the process or the result of


determining the magnitude of a quantity.

66
b) ________________ is the act or process of producing
something.
c) ________________ is the quality or state of being
large in amount, extent, or importance.
d) In computers, storage ______________ hold
information.

3 O uso de instrumentos na indstria pode


aumentar ou diminuir certos elementos ligados a essa
rea. Marque com (+) os elementos que aumentam e com
(-) os que diminuem com o uso de instrumentos:

a) ( ) Preo
b) ( ) Eficincia
c) ( ) Custos
d) ( ) Qualidade
4 Complete o diagrama com a traduo das
palavras referentes s variveis mensurveis:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

1. Nvel
2. Fluxo de sada
3. Temperatura
4. Presso
5. Corrente (eltrica)
6. Energia (eltrica)

67
LANGUAGE SPOT
PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES (Prefixos e Sufixos)
Voc deve ter notado que algumas palavras do
texto anterior so parecidas tanto na grafia quanto
no significado. Exemplo: to measure e measurement;
instrument, instrumentation e instrumentals. Essa variao
ocorre porque muitas palavras so derivadas de outras.
Essa derivao pode ocorrer comumente por meio de
sufixos e prefixos.
O prefixo muda o significado da palavra primitiva,
mas no muda a classe gramatical. Exemplo: escrever
(verbo) reescrever (verbo).
O sufixo geralmente altera a classe gramatical ou
significado da palavra qual se agregou e com ele
possvel formar diversas classes de palavras, com os mais
diversos significados.
Exemplo: medir (verbo) medio (substantivo).
Pelo fato de a maioria desses sufixos e prefixos ser
derivada do latim, alguns so os mesmos em portugus
e ingls e tm o mesmo significado nos dois idiomas, o
que pode ajudar a inferir o significado de uma palavra
composta por eles.

Veja quais so os prefixos mais usados:

PREFIXOS QUE INDICAM NEGAO


Palavra-base Palavra derivada Significado
A Political apolitical apoltico
ANTI Nuclear antinuclear antinuclear
DIS Honest dishonest desonesto

68
ilegal,
I Legal, regular illegal, irregular *
irregular
IM Perfect imperfect imperfeito
IN Complete incomplete incompleto
NON Sense nonsense sem sentido
UN Common uncommon incomum

* Neste caso, a primeira letra da palavra dobrada.

Observe que h algumas variaes de uso dos


prefixos entre portugus e ingls: enquanto a palavra
incomum em portugus composta pelo prefixo in,
em ingls composta pelo sufixo un, mas ambas tm o
mesmo significado.

OUTROS PREFIXOS
Palavra- Palavra de-
Tem sentido de Significado
-base rivada
dose exces-
OVER (excesso) dose overdose
siva
PRE (antes) history prehistory pr-histria
com- minicom- minicom-
MINI (pequeno)
puter puter putador
MICRO (bem com- micro- microcom-
pequeno) puter computer putador
MACRO, MEGA eco- macroeco- macroeco-
(grande, enorme) nomy nomy nomia
INTER (entre) active interactive interativo
RE (fazer novamente) read reread reler

69
Como foi visto, os sufixos alteram as classes
gramaticais das palavras. As principais esto relacionadas
no quadro a seguir:

SUFIXOS
Transforma adjetivo em verbo
Palavra deri-
Palavra-base Significado
vada
- EN bright (claro) (to) brighten clarear
simple (sim-
- IFY (to) simplify simplificar
ples)
central (cen-
- IZE (to) centralize centralizar
tral)
Transforma adjetivo em substantivo
proper proprie-
- TY property
(prprio) dade
complex (com- complexi-
- ITY complexity
plexo) dade
- NESS good (bom) goodness bondade
Transforma verbo em adjetivo
(to) program
- ABLE programmable programvel
(programar)
(to) access
- IBLE accessible acessvel
(acessar)
(to) attract
- IVE attractive atrativo
(atrair)
Transforma adjetivo em advrbio de modo
- LY slow (lento) slowly lentamente
Transforma substantivo em adjetivo
- FUL care (cuidado) careful cuidadoso
- LESS pain (dor) painless sem dor
-Y rain (chuva) rainy chuvoso

70
danger
- OUS dangerous perigoso
(perigo)
Transforma verbo em sujeito
(to) teach
- ER teacher professor(a)
(ensinar)
(to) visit (vi-
- OR visitor visitante
sitar)
Transforma substantivo concreto em substantivo abstrato
instrument instrumenta- instrumen-
- ATION
(instrumento) tion tao
- HOOD father (pai) fatherhood paternidade
citizen (cida-
- SHIP citizenship cidadania
do)
Transforma verbo em substantivo abstrato
- SION (to) transmit
transmission transmisso
(transmitir)

H muitos outros sufixos e prefixos que compem


as palavras inglesas, e as palavras mostradas no quadro so
apenas um exemplo de uso e significado de muitos deles.

Tambm preciso observar que:


a) H sufixos gramaticais que no tm significado em
portugus, como o -S, -ES ou -IES em verbos conjugados
na 3 pessoa do singular no Presente Simples.
Exemplos: we work he works = ns trabalhamos/
ele trabalha
I wash she washes = eu lavo/ela lava
They study he studies = eles estudam/
ele estuda.

71
b) Muitas palavras passam por certas transformaes
para receber o sufixo (perdem, ganham ou trocam letras
ou slabas).
Exemplos: basic (bsico) basically (basicamente)
supply (fornecer) supplier (fornecedor)

c) Nem todas as palavras que comeam com a, re


e outras letras ou slabas so prefixadas e derivadas de
palavras-base.
Exemplos: reduction (reduo)
ability (habilidade)

d) H sufixos gramaticais de passado e particpio


passado (-ED, -IED), que influenciam o significado da
palavra-base, pois variam o tempo e a forma verbal.
Exemplo: (to) process (processar) processed
(processado, processou etc.)

EXERCCIOS

1 Encontre no texto anterior palavras que sejam


derivadas por sufixos ou prefixos para completar o quadro
a seguir, a partir da palavra-base:

72
PALAVRA- PALAVRA
CLASSE CLASSE SIGNIFICADO
BASE DERIVADA
instrument substantivo
(to) measure
(to) indicate
(to) optimize
efficient
(to) attain
(to) produce
practical

2 Traduza o texto anterior, levando em conta tudo


o que voc aprendeu sobre as estratgias de leitura, grupos
nominais, alm de utilizar seus conhecimentos bsicos de
gramtica e vocabulrio.

3 Nas frases a seguir, escolha a forma (advrbio ou


adjetivo) que complete adequadamente os espaos:

a) ________________ resources are becoming more


accessible in the Arctic (natural/naturally).
b) The ____________ result of the race of the Arctic is
bad for the world (probably/probable).
c) New routes through the Arctic are now becoming
_________________ (possibly/possible).
d) The Arctic region is now more __________
____________________ (access/accessible).

73
4 Das palavras a seguir, retiradas do texto, marque
a nica que no tem sufixo, por ser uma palavra primitiva:

a) Flexibility
b) Quality
c) Rapidly
d) Being

5 Leia as frases seguintes e traduza as palavras


destacadas:

a) When personal computers came out in the 1980s,


there was really only one way to get information into
them. ______________________________________
___________________________________________
b) Some computers - for example tablet computers, have
screens you can write on directly. __________________
___________________________________________
c) It took almost a decade before computers became
powerful enough to accept voice commands. _________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
d) We can also talk to other computer users. _________
___________________________________________
e) Today, a wireless network or Bluetooth will let you
communicate with your computer with almost any
electronic device. ______________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

74
6 Relacione as palavras com os significados de seus
prefixos:
a) Anti-social, antibiotic (---) small (pequeno)

b) Autobiography, autopilot (---) under (sob,


embaixo)
c) Bicycle, bilingual (---) against (contra)

d) Microcomputer, microscopic (---) two, twice (dois,


duas vezes)
e) Monologue, monogamous (---) again
(novamente)
f ) Multinational, multiracial (---) of or by oneself
(por si s)
g) Oversleep, overheat (---) too much (em
excesso)
h) Retype, reread (---) one, single
(nico, um)
i) Submarine, subway (---) many (vrios)

7 Qual alternativa completa corretamente a frase


a seguir?

I didnt like the new decoration of their house. Its


too ________ (colorida).

a) Color
b) Colorful
c) Colors
d) Coloring

75
LESSON 2
THE USE OF INSTRUMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL
PROCESSES
Voc vai ler mais sobre fundamentos e aplicaes
da Instrumentao nos tpicos seguintes. Tente primeiro
entender as informaes, fazendo uma leitura atenta
e silenciosa. Depois, traduza os textos por escrito,
como forma de conhecer melhor a estrutura das frases,
tomar conscincia de como essa estrutura funciona e
como proporciona o significado. H um vocabulrio
no final dos textos para auxili-lo e para aumentar seu
conhecimento de termos tcnicos.

The use of instruments in industrial processes aims


beyond the optimization in the efficiency of these
processes, the attainment of a product of better quality
with lesser cost, minor time. The use of instruments
allows:
a) To develop and to control the product quality;
b) To increase the production.
The instruments can be grouped in agreement the
type of transmitted signal or the supplement. The
types of signals more used are: a) pneumatic signal:
a compressed gas is used, whose pressure is modified
in agreement the value that it desires to represent; b)
hydraulical signal: it is used on the variation of pressure
exerted in hydraulical oils for signal transmission; c)
electric signal: its feeding is the electric tension and the
signal transmission standard is the chain (4-20mA)

76
or the tension (1-5Vcc). This type of transmission
is made using electric current signals or tension; d)
digital signal: in this type, packages of information
on the measured variable are sent for a receiving
station, through modulated and standardized digital
signals.
So that the communication between the transmitting
element and the receiver is carried through with success
is used a "language" standard called communication
protocol; e) by radio: the signal or a package of
measured signals is sent to its receiving station by
waves of radio in a band of specific frequency; f )
by modem: the transmission of the signals is made
through use of telephonic lines for the modulation of
the signal in frequency, phase or amplitude.

The relation of the instrumentation and devices and


its functions is presented on the table below.

Instrument Function
Feels the process variable and transform it
Sensor into a physical or electric largeness. The
element sensing element can be or not integrant part
of the transmitter.
Measures a physical variable and sends it
Transmitter at a distance for a receiving instrument,
normally located in the panel.
Supplies a visual indication to the variables
Indicator in the process. An indicator can be in
analogical or digital form.

77
Registers the variable through the continuous
Recorder
trace registers, points in a graph etc.
Receives information in a signal form
modifies the form of the information and
Converter
emits it as a signal of proportional exit to
the entrance.
Has an exit signal that can be varied to
keep the variable of the process (pressure,
Controller
temperature, outflow, level etc.) inside of
desired value SET-POINT.
Carries through operations in the signals of
the values of entrance in accordance with
Calculator
one determined expression and supplies a
resultant exit of the operation.
Controls some variable of process. This
means that, with only one controller we can
Multi-loop
control, simultaneously, a mesh of pressure,
a mesh of temperature, a mesh of level etc....
Its a programmable logical controller that
PLC executes logic functions and control of a
process plant.
They are devices for Supervision and
Control used to indicate, register and
control a process plant informing for the
operators in the control room the events
ESC/ECOS
that are occurring in the Plant of process.
These stations are computers endowed with
video monitors, keyboard, through which
the monitorial operator all the information.
Final control Directly modifies the value of the
element manipulated variable of a control mesh.

78
Vocabulary

in agreement: de acordo com


chain: corrente, srie, cadeia
feeding: alimentao
aims (to aim): visar a
beyond: alm
attainment: obteno, realizao
mesh = malha
continuous trace registers = registradores de trao
contnuo
desired = desejado
endowed with = dotadas de
carries through = realiza, executa
largeness = grandeza
packages: pacotes
through: atravs

EXERCCIOS

1 Responda em portugus:
a) Qual o objetivo do uso de instrumentos nos processos
industriais?
___________________________________________
b) O que o uso de instrumentos permite fazer?
___________________________________________

79
2 Com base nas informaes do texto, relacione
corretamente os tipos de sinais e suas caractersticas:

a) Pneumtico (---) a transmisso feita


por linha telefnica.
b) Hidrulico (---) o sinal enviado sua
estao receptora por meio
de ondas.
c) Eltrico (---) sua alimentao a
tenso eltrica.
d) Digital (---) usa gs comprimido.
e) Por rdio (---) informaes so
enviadas a uma estao
atravs de sinais digitais.
f ) Por modem (---) usado na variao da
presso exercida em leos
hidrulicos.

3 Informe o instrumento ou dispositivo que tem


a funo de:
a) Executar funes lgicas e controlar processos na
fbrica. _____________________________________
b) Manter as variveis do processo, como presso,
temperatura e vazo, dentro do nvel desejado.
___________________________________________
c) Medir uma varivel fsica e envi-la a um receptor.
___________________________________________
d) Registrar uma varivel por meio de registro grfico.
___________________________________________

80
e)_Sentir a variao do processo e transform-la em uma
grandeza fsica ou eltrica. _______________________

4 Com base no texto, assinale o significado correto


das palavras seguintes:

a) Chain (---) corrente (---) chave


b) Mesh (---) mescla (---) malha
c) Feeding (---) alimentao (---) retrocesso
d) Carries through (---) realiza, executa (---) carrega
e) Largeness (---) largura (---) grandeza
f ) Packages (---) passagens (---) pacotes

LANGUAGE SPOT
CONJUNCTIONS (Conjunes)
A seguir, voc estudar mais um elemento importante
da estrutura da lngua inglesa. So as conjunes, que
unem palavras, frases ou oraes, estabelecendo um
vnculo de sentido entre elas.
Existem muitas conjunes, de vrios tipos. Conhea
algumas:
AS = como
- This system can be used to monitor associated
process parameters such as temperature. (Este sistema
pode ser usado para associar parmetros de processo, tal
como a temperatura.)

FOR = por, para


- Engineers create complex systems for an expanding
range of applications. (Os engenheiros criam sistemas
complexos para uma crescente gama de aplicaes.)

81
AND = e
- Processes and systems can be automated. (Processos
e sistemas podem ser automatizados).

OR = ou
- Condition monitoring systems or programs help
keep your plant floor running productively. (Sistemas
ou programas de monitoramento de condies ajudam a
manter sua fbrica produtivamente funcionando.)

BUT = mas, exceto


- This program is able to close but not end the
process. (Este programa capaz de fechar, mas no de
encerrar um processo.)

IF = se
- Find out here if your computer is running well.
(Descubra aqui se seu computador est funcionando bem).

EXERCCIOS
1 Complete as frases com a conjuno adequada:

a) These sensors are ideal ___________ (and/for)


applications such ___________________ (as/or)
detecting hot parts.
b) This course is the perfect learning vehicle
___________________ (for/and) new employees.
c) Inside the memory the information is held
___________________ (as/for) minute charges of
electricity.
d) The computer memory can store numbers
___________________ (but/and) characters.

82
2 Traduza as frases seguintes, prestando especial
ateno s conjunes, que esto em destaque:
a) Pressure means the force required to stop a gas or fluid
from expanding.
b) This sensor can be used in systems to measure other
variables such as fluid, gas flow, speed and water level.
c) These programs offer the solutions to entry like
user scripting, but also bring a level of portability and
repeatability.

3 Na frase a seguir, h preposies e conjunes


destacadas. Classifique-as e traduza-as corretamente:

It collects information about temperature from a


source and converts it into a form that is understandable
by other devices or person.

PREPOSIO CONJUNO TRADUO

83
LESSON 3
INSTRUMENTATION GRAPHICAL SYMBOLS
A seguir, voc conhecer vrios smbolos utilizados
na Instrumentao. Eles so muito importantes, pois
muitos representam comandos e aes necessrios ao
funcionamento e operaes de mquinas e equipamentos,
e geralmente vm escritos em ingls.

For the graphical representation of the instruments


it is necessary to know where the instrument is mounted,
where its function is executed and which the type of
transmission signals is. Below are some examples:

1 - Instrumentation symbols:

Diaphragm valve Motorized valve

84
Type
Symbols

Electronic symbol

Vacuum pressure signal

Oil pressure signal

Tubing

Orifice

Venturi tube

Nozzle

Variable area flow meter

Turbine flow meter

Positive displacement flow meter

Electromagnetic flow meter

85
Type
Symbols

Bulb (general)

Angle valve

Three-way valve

Butterfly valve, damper or louver

Ball valve

Diaphragm type

Diaphragm type (pressure balance type)

Motorized type

Electromagnetic type

Piston type

86
Type
Symbols

Transmitter

General, when not necessary to differentiate


location or monitoring and operation

When necessary to differentiate location of


monitoring and operation
Location

Control room

Installed behind panel

Local panel

Switch

87
2 - Graphical representations of the signals of
interconnection of the instruments:

3 - Symbols for applications:

88
4 - Division of the instruments in accordance with
their functions:

89
90
5 - Industrial valves:

Valve with diaphragm pneumatic


actuator

Valve with electric actuator (motor or


solenoid)

Valve with Hydraulic or pneumatic


actuator type stick

Manual valve

Valve with diaphragm self-operated

91
92
EXERCCIOS
1 Observando os smbolos no grfico 1, associe o
nome traduo deles:

a) Nozzle ( ) lmpada
b) Tubing ( ) interruptor,
comutador,
disjuntor
c) Displacement flow ( ) vlvula angular
meter
d) Angle valve () claraboia (abertura)
e) Bulb () bocal
f ) Damper () amortecedor
g) Louver () tubulao
h) Ball valve () medidor de fluxo de
deslocamento
i) Switch ( ) vlvula de esfera
2 Observando os smbolos no grfico 4, associe o
nome traduo deles.

a) Add ( ) inteiro
b) Average ( ) limite inferior
c) Integer ( ) juntar
d) Derivative ( ) limite superior
e) Upper limit ( ) mdia
f ) Down limit ( ) derivados

3 Traduza corretamente os termos que seguem,


referentes ao grfico 5:

a) Valve with hydraulic or pneumatic actuator type stick.


b) Valve with diaphragm self-operated.

93
c) Outflow transmitter.
d) Valve with diaphragm pneumatic actuator.

LANGUAGE SPOT

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
(Pronomes Demonstrativos)

Como o prprio nome sugere, esses pronomes so


utilizados para demonstrar algo, apontar, mostrar. No
variam quanto ao gnero.
Quando se quer demonstrar algo que est perto de
quem fala, usam-se os seguintes pronomes:

THIS = Este(a)/Esse(a)
THESE = Estes(as)/Esses(as)

Exemplos: This system can call several telephone


numbers. (Este/Esse sistema pode acio-
nar vrios nmeros de telefone).
These interior areas can be controlled
via internet. (Estas/Essas reas internas
podem ser controladas via Internet.)
Quando se quer demonstrar algo que est longe
de quem fala e de quem ouve, usam-se os seguintes
pronomes:

THAT = Aquele(a)/Aquilo
THOSE = Aqueles(as)

94
Exemplos: That irrigation system depends on the
water distribution. (Aquele sistema de
irrigao depende da distribuio de gua).
Those domestic appliances can
easily be switch on/off. (Aqueles
eletrodomsticos podem ser facilmente
ligados/desligados.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS (Pronomes Relativos)

Referem-se a termos j citados e devem ser usados


para introduzir uma orao subordinada a uma orao
principal. Sua funo diferenciada da seguinte maneira:

WHO/WHOM relativo a pessoas. Pode ser


traduzido por quem ou que, dependendo do contexto.

Exemplos: To whom did you give the money? (Para


quem voc deu o dinheiro?)
Who are they? (Quem so eles?)
The man who operates the machine is here. (O
homem que opera a mquina est aqui.)

THAT relativo a pessoas, animais e coisas, e


significa que.

Exemplos: He is the man that developed the new


system. (Ele o homem que desenvolveu
o novo sistema.)
This is the beetle that damaged the
machine. (Este o besouro que danificou
a mquina.)

95
This is the TV that is on sale. (Esta a
televiso que est em promoo.)

WHICH relativo a coisas e animais. Significa que,


o qual, os quais, a qual, as quais.

Exemplos: A passive infrared sensor is an electronic


device which measures infrared light
radiating. (Um sensor infravermelho
passivo um dispositivo eletrnico que
mede a radiao da luz infravermelha.)

The dog which entered the room is not mine. (O


co que entrou na sala no meu.)

WHOSE relativo a posse, usado para pessoas e


animais. Significa cujo, cuja, cujos, cujas.

Exemplos: This is the telephone whose battery is


dead. (Este o telefone cuja bateria est
esgotada.)
Whose book is this? (De quem este
livro?)

EXERCCIOS

1 Complete as frases com o pronome demonstrativo


indicado. Aps, traduza-as:

a) _____________ sensors can be set directly on the


machine. (Estes)

b) _____________ fiber optic sensors are ideal for harsh


conditions. (Aqueles)

96
c) _____________ machine is out of work. (Aquela)

d) _____________ photoelectric sensor is for mounting


in confined spaces. (Este)

2 Elabore frases sobre os objetos a seguir, usando


os pronomes demonstrativos this, these, that, those,
orientando-se pela distncia apontada pelas setas:

a) _________________________

b) _________________________

c) _________________________

d) _________________________

97
3 Circule ou sublinhe a alternativa correta em
relao aos pronomes demonstrativos:

a) (That/Those) are the books I want.


b) Im tired of (this/these) job.
c) Mother, (this/those) is my friend Cindy.
d) (That/These) chairs are very comfortable.

4 Qual pronome relativo completa corretamente


a frase?

The laptop _____________ is on the table is mine.

a) Who
b) Which
c) Whose
d) Whom

5 Reescreva as frases usando um pronome relativo


para uni-las. Veja o exemplo:

The salesman is here. Hes very young. The


salesman who is here is very young.

a) The engineer repairs the equipment. He works a lot.


b) We hired a new analyst. Shes very efficient.
c) That computer is yours. Its very fast.
d) That machine is new. Its sophisticated.
e) The saleswoman is here. Her products are on sale.

98
UNIDADE 4
SENSORS (FUNDAMENTALS
AND TYPES)2

LESSON 1
WHAT IS A SENSOR?
A sensor is a type of transducer3 which uses one
type of energy, a signal of some sort, and converts it
into a reading for the purpose of information transfer.
A mercury thermometer is an example of a sensor that
converts the expansion and contraction of a volume
of mercury in response to change in temperature
(the signal), to a reading on a calibrated glass tube
giving information about ambient temperature. Other
sensors, such as a thermocouple, produce an output
voltage or other electrical output which may be
attached to a meter for reading a change or interpreted
by another device (such as a computer). For accuracy
in the application a calibration of the sensor and its
output information is necessary.

2 Os textos desta unidade e da unidade 5 tm como referncias:


- Ko, W. H. Sensors & Actuators, Lausanne, A49, p. 51-55, 1995.
- Wilson, J.S. Sensor technology Handbook. Elsevier, 2004.
- Wikipedia.
3 A transducer is a device, usually electrical, electronic, electro-
mechanical, electromagnetic, photonic, or photovoltaic that converts
one type of energy to another for various purposes including measure-
ment or information transfer (for example, pressure sensors).

99
During the past two decades, there has been an
unprecedented growth in the number of products and
services, which utilize information gained by monitoring
and measuring using different types of sensors. The
development of sensors to meet the need is referred
to as sensor technology and is applicable in a very
broad domain including the environment, medicine,
commerce and industry. Governments and policy makers
throughout the world are realizing the potential benefits
of encouraging the growth in sensor technology not only
as a result of new technological trends, and hence new
products, for the indigenous industry to effect improved
product quality and efficiency by broadening the level
of control over their processes, but also in support of
the implementation and enforcement of government
legislation on environmental and safety issues.4
To choose a good sensor, some features should be
considered as the accuracy, which varies according to
type, purpose and manufacturer, and its the precision
of the measurement property; environmental condition,
which generally has limits for temperature or humidity;
the range, which express the measurement limit of the
sensor; the calibration, for some measuring devices;
the resolution, a suitable way for telling whether a
propositional formula is satisfying or not; the cost and the
repeatability, that is, the reading that varies is repeatedly
measured under the same environment.

4 Extracted from: http://www.dcu.ie/~best/st.htm

100
Vocabulary
transducer: transdutor
thermocouple: termopar, par termoeltrico
accuracy: exatido, preciso
growth: crescimento, aumento
broad: amplo
throughout the world: em todo o mundo
trends: tendncias
hence: portanto
by broadening: ao ampliar
issues: questes
development: desenvolvimento
sort: tipo
change: mudana, transformao
features: caractersticas

EXERCCIOS
1 Verifique se voc est compreendendo bem o
texto, respondendo, em portugus, s perguntas a seguir:

a) O que um sensor?
b) O que um transdutor?
c) Quais os dois tipos de sensores mencionados no texto?
Como funciona cada um deles?
d) Quais so as caractersticas que devem ser consideradas
em um bom sensor?

2 O que necessrio para obter a preciso de um


sensor tipo termopar ou par termoeltrico?

a) Leitura b) Calibrao
c) Tenso d) Outro dispositivo

101
3 A seguir esto vrios grupos nominais retirados
do texto anterior. Traduza-os corretamente:

a) Different types of sensors: _____________________


___________________________________________
b) Sensor technology: __________________________
___________________________________________
c) Broad domain: _____________________________
___________________________________________
d) New technology trends:_______________________
___________________________________________
e) Indigenous industry: _________________________
___________________________________________
f ) Product quality and efficiency: _________________
___________________________________________
g) Government legislation: ______________________
___________________________________________
h) Environmental and safety issues: ________________
___________________________________________

102
LANGUAGE SPOT
PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Pronomes Pessoais)
SUBJECT PRONOUNS (Pronomes-Sujeito)
So usados no lugar dos nomes (substantivos),
funcionando como sujeitos nas frases. Tambm substituem
os sujeitos em frases em que estes j foram mencionados,
para evitar a repetio. Aparecem na frase antes do verbo.

SINGULAR PLURAL
I (eu) We (ns)
You (voc) You (vocs)
He (ele) They (eles/elas para
She (ela) pessoas, coisas e animais)
It (ele/ela coisas e
animais)

Exemplo: Mary is my friend. Mary studies with


me She studies with me.

Em textos tcnicos, geralmente os pronomes


pessoais mais usados so it e they, porque se referem a
coisas e objetos, muito mencionados nesse tipo de texto.

Exemplos: A computer is a useful machine. It


is capable of performs thousand of
operations. (Um computador uma
mquina til. Ele capaz de executar
milhares de operaes.)
Software packages include a special-
purpose computer program. They
are widely available for sale. (Pacotes

103
de software incluem um programa
de computador especial. Eles esto
amplamente disponveis para venda.)

OBJECT PRONOUNS (Pronomes-Objeto)


So usados como objeto direto ou indireto.
Aparecem na frase depois de verbos ou de preposies.

SINGULAR PLURAL
Me (eu) Us (ns)
You (voc) You (vocs)
Him (ele) Them (eles/elas
Her (ela) para coisas, animais e
It (ele/ela coisas e animais) pessoas)

Exemplos: He loves her. (Ele a ama.)


Quem ama? Ele (sujeito, executa a ao).
Ama quem? Ela (objeto, sofre a ao do sujeito).

A traduo desses pronomes seguir as regras


gramaticais da lngua portuguesa. Por exemplo, na frase
He loves her, se fosse feita uma traduo literal, a frase
em portugus seria: Ele ama ela. Sabe-se que essa forma
no faz parte da norma culta do idioma, ainda que seja
usada como forma popular. Por isso, mais que memorizar
o significado dos pronomes, necessrio entender quais
significados eles tm em uma frase.
Na rea tcnica, os pronomes-objeto que mais
aparecem nos textos so it e them, por referirem-se a
coisas, dispositivos, instrumentos etc.

104
Exemplos: The manuals are on the desk. Read
them before set the machine.
(Os manuais esto sobre a mesa. Leia-os (eles) antes
de configurar a mquina.)

EXERCCIOS

1 Substitua os sujeitos por pronomes pessoais


(subject):

a) Peter is an engineer. ________ is an engineer.


b) That girl is American. ________ is American.
c) The technicians are in the office. ________ are in the
office.
d) My sister and I are accountants. ________ are
accountants.
e) This clock is out of work. __________ is out of work.
f ) The horse is in the field. ___________ is in the field.
g) The programs run perfectly. ________ run perfectly.

2 Complete as frases com pronomes pessoais


(subject or object):
a) These are my papers. _________ belong to
_________.
b) Henry and I are here. You can talk to _________
now.
c) This magazine is new. Read __________.
d) The reports are on the table. _________ are on
________.

105
e) The analyst is talking to the operator. _________ is
talking to ___________.

3 Na frase A sensor is a type of transducer which


uses one type of energy, a signal of some sort, and converts
it into a reading for the purpose of information transfer,
o pronome pessoal destacado refere-se a:

a) Sensor
b) Energia
c) Sinal
d) Informao

LESSON 2
TYPES OF SENSORS PARTE 1
A seguir, voc vai ler sobre vrios tipos de sensores.
Os nomes deles so palavras cognatas com o portugus,
salvo raras excees, por isso possvel deduzir sua
traduo. Exemplo: thermometers = termmetro;
barometer = barmetro.

In general, sensors can be classified into many


categories. The most used are those based on property
and on application. But, as sensors are a type of
transducer, they change one form of energy into another,
and for this reason, they can be classified according to
the type of energy they transfer too. The most important
types based on property and on energy are:

106
Temperature: It collects information about
temperature from a source and converts it into a form
that is understandable by other devices or person. They
measure temperature in two different perspectives
according to how they work: contact and noncontact.
The first one measures their own temperature, checking
if the temperature of the object to which the sensor is
in contact is in thermal equilibrium. The second one
usually verify the thermal radiant power of the Infrared
or Optical radiation that they receive from a known
or calculated area on its surface. Some examples are
thermometers, thermocouples, temperature sensitive
resistors, bimetal thermometers, thermostats and others.
Flow: It senses the rate of fluid flow and its the
sensing element used in a flow meter to record the flow
of fluids. The accuracy of the measurement requires
calibration. Examples: mass flow meters, magnetic
flow meters etc.
Level: It detects the level of substances that flow,
such liquids, granular materials, and powders. Examples
of this kind of sensor are ultrasonic radio frequency,
radar, thermal displacement, and others, depending if
the level measurement will be continuous (the sensor
measures level within a specified range and determine
the exact amount of substance in a certain place) or
point values (the sensor only indicates whether the
substance is above or below the sensing point).
Proximity and displacement: A proximity sensor
detects the presence of objects that are nearly placed

107
without any point of contact. Examples: photoelectric,
capacitive, magnetic, ultrasonic sensors.
Gas and chemical: It is used for detection
concentration levels of chemicals and gases. This kind
of sensor is very used for safety considerations in many
industrial applications. Examples: semiconductor,
infrared, conductance, electrochemical.
Mechanical: It is used to measure physical
quantities such as velocity or acceleration, employing
electromechanical balancing systems. The main types
are: a) pressure sensors: altimeter, barometer, barograph,
pressure gauge, airspeed indicator, variometer; b) gas
and liquid flow sensors: flow sensor, anemometer,
flow meter, gas meter, water meter, mass flow sensor;
c) gas and liquid viscosity and density: viscometer,
hydrometer, oscillating U-tube; d) mechanical sensors:
acceleration sensor, position sensor, strain gauge; e)
humidity sensors: hygrometer.

Vocabulary
power: energia
known: conhecido(a)
surface: superfcie
flow: fluxo
rate: taxa
to record: gravar, registrar
powders: poeira, plvora, ps
safety: segurana
nearly: quase

108
EXERCCIOS

1 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:


a) Os sensores de temperatura fazem a medio sob duas
perspectivas. Quais?
b) O que o sensor de nvel pode detectar?
c) Para que um sensor mecnico usado?
d) Cite um sensor que precisa de calibrao.
e) Qual a diferena entre o nvel de medio contnuo e
de um ponto especfico?

2 Com base no texto, complete a traduo das


frases:
a) O sensor de temperatura coleta ___________ sobre
____________ de uma ___________ e a converte
em uma maneira _______________ por outros
____________ ou ______________.
b) O sensor de presso mede a presso de _____________
ou _______________.
c) O sensor de fluxo detecta a __________ de ________
de fluido e o ________ usado em um __________ de
fluxo para ____________ o fluxo de ________.
c) Um sensor de _____________ detecta a presena
de _____________ que esto perto sem nenhum
__________________.

3 Traduza o texto, levando em conta tudo o que


voc aprendeu sobre as estratgias de leitura, grupos
nominais, alm de utilizar seus conhecimentos bsicos de
gramtica e vocabulrio.

109
4 Procure em livros ou na Internet imagens ou
gravuras referentes aos tipos de sensores mencionados. Isso
vai ajud-lo a se familiarizar com eles e com suas funes.

LANGUAGE SPOT

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS


(Pronomes e Adjetivos Possessivos)

Os possessivos em ingls existem de duas formas:


os que tm a funo de adjetivo (possessive adjectives) e
os que tm a funo de pronome (possessive pronouns).
Cada um deles tem uma forma prpria. Em portugus, os
possessivos tm as mesmas funes, porm so os mesmos,
so usadas as mesmas palavras tanto para um quanto para
o outro, o que pode dificultar o entendimento deles.
O quadro a seguir apresenta os dois tipos de
possessivos, seus usos e caractersticas.

110
POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS

My Mine
Your Yours
His His
Her Hers
Its Its
Our Ours
Your Yours
Their Theirs
Vm antes do So usados no lugar do
substantivo. substantivo, para evitar sua
Exemplo: This is my repetio na frase.
bag. (Esta minha Exemplo: This bag is mine.
bolsa.) (Esta bolsa minha.)

Caractersticas:

a) Tanto os adjetivos quanto os pronomes concordam


com o possuidor e no com o elemento possudo.
Exemplo:
I bring my book, you can bring yours. (Eu
trouxe meu livro, voc pode trazer o seu).

b) Quando o possuidor for um pronome indefinido, o


possessivo ser masculino singular.

Exemplo: Everyone must bring his book. (Todo


mundo deve trazer seu livro).

111
c) A estrutura of + pronome possessivo significa um
dos, uma das.

Exemplo: He is a friend of mine. (He is one of my


friends). (Ele um dos meus amigos.)

d) No h variao de gnero nem de nmero.

Exemplos: That is my car. (Aquele meu carro.)


That is my wallet. (Aquela minha
carteira.)
Those magazines are hers. (Aquelas
revistas so dela.)

EXERCCIOS

1 Complete com o possessivo correto, observando


o sujeito da orao. Depois, traduza corretamente as frases:

a) I do ___________ things, you do ____________.


b) She can do ____________ homework alone. He cant
do ________.
c) We must wash ______ hands before lunch.
d) The boys arent going to clean ________ rooms today.
e) Dr. Smith washes _________ car every morning.

2 Complete os espaos com possessive adjectives,


de acordo com o sujeito mencionado na primeira frase:

a) Theyre married. _____________ childrens names are


Lauren and Daniel.
b) Shes eight. ______________ brothers nine.
c) Hes from Spain. ___________ names Alberto.

112
d) Im Brazilian. _____________ names Peter.
e) Were brothers. ____________ parents are French.

3 Complete as frases com os possessive adjectives


indicados nos parnteses (em ingls):

a) Where is __________ book? (meu)


b) Here is _________ teacher. (nossa)
c) She goes to school with ________ brother.(dela)
d) ___________ father is a professor. (deles)
e) _____________ notebook is new. (seu, de voc)
f ) ______________ favorite hobby is tennis. (dele)
g) ______________ mother is from Paris. (minha)
h) This is __________ friend John. (nosso)

4 Quais pronomes possessivos completam


corretamente esta frase?

All of _______ (nossos) product courses place


special emphasis on practical sessions, simulating as
closely as possible the plant hardware environment.
We will always endeavor to tailor ________ (nosso)
PLC product courses to be as close as possible towards
________ (seu) own plant hardware.

a) ours/our/your
b) your / your/our
c) our/our/your
d) ours/our/yours

113
LESSON 3
TYPES OF SENSORS PARTE 2
Electromagnetic: It is related to various magnetic
detection techniques and can be applied when object
position and motion must be detected. It is widely useful
in moisture and viscosity detection and crystallization
process monitoring. The most important types are: a)
electrical resistance sensors: ohmmeter, multimeter; b)
electrical current sensors: galvanometer, ammeter; c)
electrical voltage sensors: leaf electroscope, voltmeter;
d) electrical power sensors: watt-hour meters; f )
magnetic sensors: magnetic compass, fluxgate compass,
magnetometer, hall effect device; g) metal detectors; h)
radar; others.
Fiber optic sensor: It consists of a fiber-optic cable
connected to a remote sensor, or amplifier. The
sensor emits, receives, and converts the light energy
into an electrical signal. The cable is the mechanical
component that transports the light into and out of
areas that are either too space constrained or too
hostile back to the sensor. Fiber-optic cable consists of
a plastic or glass core surrounded by a layer of cladding
material. The difference in densities between these two
components enables the cables to act in accordance
with the principle of total internal reflection, which
will be discussed later.
(Fonte: http://www.sensorsmag.com/sensors/machine-vision/an-introduction-
fiber-optic-sensors-1075)

114
They are ideal for harsh conditions: high vibration,
extreme heat, and wet, explosive, or corrosive
environments. In confined areas, the flexible fibers can be
positioned precisely.
Acoustic: It uses ultrasound time-of-flight echo return
and acts as bandpass filters in both the radio frequency
and intermediate frequency sections of the transceiver
electronics. Several of the emerging applications for
acoustic wave devices as sensors may eventually equal
the demand of the telecommunications market. These
include automotive applications (torque and tire pressure
sensors), medical applications (chemical sensors),
and industrial and commercial applications (vapor,
humidity, temperature, and mass sensors). Acoustic wave
sensors are competitively priced, inherently rugged, very
sensitive, and intrinsically reliable.
(Fonte parcial: http://www.sensorsmag.com/sensors/acoustic-ultrasound)

Ionizing radiation: consists of particles or


electromagnetic waves that are energetic enough
to detach electrons from atoms or molecules, thus
ionizing them. Direct ionization from the effects of
single particles or single photons produces free radicals,
which are atoms or molecules containing unpaired
electrons, that tend to be especially chemically reactive
due to their electronic structure. Many types of ionizing
radiation may be produced by radioactive decay, nuclear
fission and nuclear fusion, and by particle accelerators
and naturally occurring cosmic rays.

115
Vocabulary
motion: movimento
must: deve
widely: amplamente
moisture: umidade
surrounded: rodeado
layer: camada
cladding: revestimento
harsh conditions: condies adversas
wave: onda
inherently rugged: inerentemente resistente
tire: pneu
reliable: confivel
enough: suficiente
to detach: retirar
due to: devido a
radioactive decay: decaimento radioativo
wet: mido

EXERCCIOS

1 Responda corretamente, em portugus:


1.a. Sobre sensores eletromagnticos:
a) Com o que esses sensores esto relacionados?
b) Para que esses sensores so usados?

1.b. Sobre sensores de fibra tica:


c) De que consistem esses sensores?
d) O que fazem esses sensores?
e) Defina cabo do sensor.
f ) De que material feito o cabo desse sensor?

116
g) Para quais condies o uso desses sensores
recomendado? Cite exemplos.

1.c. Sobre sensores acsticos:


h) Quais so as aplicaes mais usadas?

1.d. Sobre sensores de radiao ionizante:


i) De que consistem esses sensores?
j) O que so radicais livres?
k) O que produz os radicais livres?
l) O que pode produzir os vrios tipos de radiao
ionizante?

2 Encontre no quadro a seguir os principais tipos


de sensores, classificando-os segundo cada categoria.
Aps, traduza-os corretamente:

K T M O R Q N P Y K X Z T U V W H X R
B I E B C M U L T I M E T E O E J A A
J T U J K T Z E H Y I A F R L I D S D
G A L V A N O M E T E R L W T S B E A
Y A I S Q G U I N N O L C M M G H K R
G G N A P T G V H G U T E N E F B B I
F L U X G A T E C O M P A S S I M J W
W E Y H D R C R S U U E R M E R P A T
W A T T H O U R M E T E R A R I X W O
U N C P R S T E M D F L M E X Z T X Q

a) Sensor de corrente eltrica: ______________________


b) Sensor de resistncia eltrica: _____________________
c) Sensor de tenso eltrica: ________________________
d) Sensor de potncia eltrica: ______________________
e) Sensor magntico: ____________________________
f ) Detector de metal: ____________________________

117
3 Para fixar o vocabulrio tcnico, faa a correlao
correta dos termos e seus significados. Tente fazer
primeiro sem olhar no vocabulrio do texto:

a) Harsh conditions ( ) camada


b) Cladding ( ) onda
c) Enough ( ) amplamente
d) Motion ( ) confivel
e) Moisture ( ) suficiente
f ) Reliable ( ) resistente
g) Layer ( ) vidro
h) Glass ( ) retirar
i) To detach ( ) pneu
j) Wave ( ) mido
k) Rugged ( ) condies adversas
l) Widely ( ) umidade
m) Tire ( ) revestimento
n) Wet ( ) movimento

LANGUAGE SPOT
TO BE VERB SIMPLE PRESENT
(Verbo ser/estar Presente Simples)
Agora voc vai estudar verbos. Eles so muito
importantes, pois trazem significado s frases. O primeiro
ser o verbo to be, um dos mais usados na lngua inglesa.
Os quadros seguintes apresentam sua forma afirmativa.

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FORMA FORMA
AFIRMATIVA ABREVIADA
I am Im
You are Youre
He is Hes
She is Shes
It is Its
We are Were
You are Youre
They are Theyre
Sujeito + verbo

Resumindo: I AM
He, she, it IS
You, we, they ARE

importante considerar que o verbo to be, na sua


forma mais simples, significa tanto ser como estar
(sem considerar a variao de significados em expresses
e frases coloquiais). O que vai determinar seu significado
o contexto. Observe:

- I am a student eu sou estudante.


- I am here. eu estou aqui.
Para o pronome you ser sempre usada a forma are,
tanto para o singular como para o plural. Outros elementos
na frase, como o substantivo, podem determinar se a frase
ser lida no plural ou no singular.

Exemplos: You are my friend. Voc meu amigo.


You are my friends. Vocs so meus
amigos.

119
Em portugus, para transformar uma frase afirmativa
em interrogativa, basta mudar a entonao na fala ou
acrescentar o ponto de interrogao na forma escrita.

Exemplo: Voc meu amigo. (afirmativa) Voc


meu amigo? (interrogativa)
Em ingls, no entanto, necessrio fazer algo mais:
inverter a posio entre sujeito e verbo. Assim,
- You are my friend (afirmativa) Are you my
friend? (interrogativa)
Isso ocorre com todos os sujeitos nas frases. Veja a
exemplificao no quadro a seguir
FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
Am I?
Are you?
Is he?
Is she?
Is It?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they?
Verbo + sujeito
Devemos considerar que essa estrutura invertida
no deve influenciar a traduo. No seria adequado
traduzir Are you my friend? como voc meu amigo?,
e sim Voc meu amigo?. Observe outros exemplos:
- Is this the computer you bought yesterday?
Este o computador que voc comprou ontem?
- Are the new machines already on the plant?
As novas mquinas j esto na fbrica?

120
- Are these programs used in many applications?
Estes programas so usados em muitas aplicaes?

As frases negativas so feitas acrescentando-se not


na estrutura da afirmativa, aps o verbo. Exemplo:
- You are my friend. (afirmativa) You are not my
friend. (negativa)

Deve-se observar que a traduo, tambm neste caso,


no deve ser feita literalmente, com base na estrutura.
Veja:

- You are not my friend Voc no meu amigo.


(inadequado)
Voc no meu amigo.
(adequado)

As frases negativas tambm podem ter suas formas


abreviadas de duas maneiras. Observe o quadro:

121
FORMA FORMA ABREVIADA
FORMA
ABREVIADA + SUJEITO + VERBO
COMPLETA
VERBO + NOT + NOT

I am not - Im not
You are not You arent Youre not
He is not He isnt Hes not
She is not She isnt Shes not
It is not It isnt Its not
We are not We arent Were not
You are not You arent Youre not
They are not They arent Theyre not
Sujeito + verbo + not

Essas vrias formas, no entanto, no influenciam a


traduo. Veja:
- You are not my friend / You arent my friend /
Youre not my friend. Voc no meu amigo.
Obs.: my friend tanto pode ser meu amigo quanto
minha amiga.

EXERCCIOS
1 Complete com as formas corretas do verbo to be
no Simple Present:
a) That girl ________ French.
b) You and your brother __________ welcome.
c) She _________ in the office.
d) They __________ complex process.
e) He _________ at the bank now.
f ) My house ___________ brown.
g) I ______ an engineer.

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2 Passe as frases do exerccio 1 para as formas
interrogativa e negativa.

3 Traduza corretamente as frases a seguir, levando


em considerao o contexto em que o verbo to be est
inserido:

a) Seismometers are instruments that measure motions


of the ground.
b) Sonar is a technique that uses sound propagation to
navigate, to communicate or to detect other vessels.
c) The frequency is usually in the range 1 to 10 kHz.
d) I am in the office now.
e) These accelerometers are designed for use in a broad
range of applications.
f ) The computer programs are not running well.

4 Buscando informaes no texto, passe as frases


seguintes para o ingls, prestando ateno s formas do
verbo to be que sero usadas:

a) Os sensores de fibra tica so ideais para uso em


condies adversas.

b) Sensores eletromagnticos esto relacionados a


tcnicas de deteco magntica.

c) No sensor de fibra tica, o cabo um componente


mecnico que transporta luz.

d) Sensores de ondas acsticas so confiveis.


e) Os radicais livres so tomos que contm eltrons.

123
UNIDADE 5
SENSORS (APPLICATIONS)

LESSON 1
POSITION SENSORS PARTE 1
A position sensor enables position measurement,
and it can be an absolute position sensor or a relative
one, a displacement sensor. See some of them below:
Inductive noncontact position sensor: It is an
electronic proximity sensor, which detects metallic objects
without touching them. The sensor consists of an induction
loop. Electric current generates a magnetic field, which
collapses generating a current that falls asymptotically
toward zero from its initial level when the input electricity
ceases. The inductance of the loop changes according to
the material inside it and since metals are much more
effective inductors than other materials; the presence of
metal increases the current flowing through the loop. This
change can be detected by sensing circuitry, which can
signal to some other device whenever metal is detected.
Common applications of inductive sensors include metal
detectors, traffic lights, car washes, and a host of automated
industrial processes. Because the sensor does not require
physical contact it is particularly useful for applications
where access presents challenges or where dirt is prevalent.

124
Hall effect sensor: It is a transducer that varies
its output voltage in response to changes in magnetic
field. It is used for speed detection, current sensing
applications, and others. This sensor can operate alone
as an analogue transducer, directly returning a voltage,
or in a group of sensors. It is used to measure the current
without interrupting the circuit. Generally, this sensor
is integrated with permanent magnet that surrounds
the conductor to be measured, and it is combined with
circuitry that allows the device to act in a digital (on/
off ) mode, and in this configuration it may be called a
switch. In industrial applications such as the pictured
pneumatic cylinder, it is used in consumer equipment;
for example, some computer printers use it to detect
missing paper or open covers.

Clutch with Hall Effect sensor

Capacitance sensors: Use capacitance to measure


the dielectric permittivity of the surrounding medium.
The volume of water in the total volume of soil
most heavily influences the dielectric permittivity of
the soil because the dielectric of water (80) is much
greater than the other constituents of the soil (mineral
soil: 4, organic matter: 4, air: 1). Thus, when the

125
amount of water changes in the soil, the probe will
measure a change in capacitance (from the change in
dielectric permittivity) that can be directly correlated
with a change in water content. Circuitry inside the
probe changes the capacitance measurement into a
proportional millivolt output (see figure down).

Vocabulary
Hall plate = placa Hall
open covers = tampas abertas
wheels = rodas
voltage = tenso
clutch = engate, embreagem
induction loop: loop, circuito de induo

EXERCCIOS

1 Responda, em portugus, s perguntas sobre o


sensor de efeito Hall:

a) O que um sensor de efeito Hall?


b) Para que ele usado?

126
c) De que forma ele funciona sozinho?
d) Para que as impressoras usam esse sensor?

2 Marque (V) para as informaes verdadeiras e


(F) para as falsas em relao ao sensor de posio indutivo
sem contato:

a) ( ) Para detectar objetos metlicos, o sensor precisa


toc-los.
b) ( ) O campo magntico gerado pela corrente eltrica
gera uma corrente que cai assintomaticamente a zero.
c) ( ) Os metais so mais indutores que outros
materiais.
d) ( ) A presena de metal diminui a corrente que flui
atravs do circuito.

3 Responda, em portugus, s perguntas sobre


sensores de capacitncia:

a) Para que esse sensor usado?


b) Por que o volume de gua no volume total do solo
influencia a permissividade dieltrica do solo?
c) Quais elementos constituem o solo?

127
4 Para ampliar seu vocabulrio, use as palavras do
quadro a seguir e coloque nomes nas imagens:

LANGUAGE SPOT
THERE TO BE VERB SIMPLE PRESENT
(Verbo haver/existir Presente Simples)
Observe a frase: There are uncountable applications
for sensors in everyday life (H/existem inmeras
aplicaes para sensores na vida cotidiana.)
A parte em destaque refere-se ao verbo there to be,
equivalente a haver ou existir do portugus.
Na verdade, there to be uma expresso verbal
formada pela palavra there + verbo to be, e usada para
indicar a existncia de pessoas, situaes e objetos.
S h duas formas:
- There is, para referir-se a elementos no singular;
- There are, para referir-se a elementos no plural.

128
Exemplos: There is a radio receiver on the desk.
(H um receptor de rdio sobre a mesa).

There are ten radio receivers on the desk. (H dez


receptores de rdio sobre a mesa).
Em portugus, tambm possvel usar o verbo
ter (coloquialmente), para expressar existncia, mas em
ingls o verbo ter (to have) no deve ser usado para esse
fim; to have indica posse, ou uma obrigao, quando for
um verbo modal (modal verb). No entanto, possvel
traduzir o there to be nas frases como ter, porque se diz
assim em portugus. Veja os exemplos:
- There are many cars parked in front of the office.
(H muitos carros estacionados em frente ao escritrio.)
Ou, popularmente, (Tem muitos carros estacionados
em frente ao escritrio.)
O verbo there to be tem a seguinte estrutura:
FORMA FORMA FORMA
AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA
There is/ There is not/
SINGULAR Is there?
theres there isnt
There are not/
PLURAL There are/ Are there?
there arent

Exemplos:

There is a boy reading a book under a tree.


(afirmativa)
There arent ten students in class today. (negativa)
Is there someone waiting for me outside?
(interrogativa)

129
EXERCCIOS

1 Complete as frases usando there is ou there are.


Aps, traduza-as corretamente:

a) __________ children playing ball.


b) __________ a bus on the street.
c) __________ three boats on the lake
d) __________ a boy reading under a tree.
e) __________ policemen at the gate of the park.

2 Traduza corretamente a frase a seguir:

In a small city there isnt heavy traffic, there isnt


pollution, there arent many cinemas, there arent many
job opportunities, there isnt amusement.

3 Faa perguntas com is there ou are there:

a) __________ a museum in your city? Yes, there is.


b) __________ pollution in So Paulo? Yes, there is.
c) __________ car accidents in New York? Yes, there are
many.
d) __________ job opportunities in your city? No, there
are not many.

130
4 Complete as frases com o verbo there to be no
presente do indicativo, de acordo com as gravuras a seguir.
Aps, escreva as frases nas formas interrogativa e negativa:

a) _____________ two girls at school.

b) _____________ a teacher in the


classroom.

c) _____________ two people at the party.

131
LESSON 2
POSITION SENSORS PARTE 2
Linear Variable Differential Transformer
(LVDT): It is a type of electrical transformer used for
measuring linear displacement. It has three solenoid
coils placed end-to-end around a tube. The centre
coil is the primary, and the two outer coils are the
secondaries. A cylindrical ferromagnetic core, attached
to the object whose position is to be measured, slides
along the axis of the tube. An alternating current is
driven through the primary, causing a voltage to be
induced in each secondary proportional to its mutual
inductance with the primary.

Vocabulary
linear displacement: deslocamento linear
solenoid coils: bobinas solenoides
outer coils: bobinas exteriores
end-to-end de uma ponta a outra
around a tube: em torno de um tubo
a cylindrical ferromagnetic core: um ncleo cilndrico
ferromagntico
attached: preso, acoplado
slides: desliza
axis: eixo

Encoder
An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer used to
change a signal data into a code. The code may serve

132
any of a number of purposes such as standardization,
compressing information for transmission or storage,
saving space, encrypting or adding redundancies to the
input code, or translating from one code to another.

Vocabulary
core: ncleo
bitstream: bitstream, dados binrios em um chip
encrypting: criptografar

Potentiometer: Its a variable tapped resistor that


can be used as a voltage divider. A form of potentiometer
is used as an instrument to measure the potential (or
voltage) in a circuit by tapping off a fraction of a known
voltage from a resistive slide wire and comparing it
with the unknown voltage by means of a galvanometer.
The sliding tap of the potentiometer is adjusted and
the galvanometer briefly connected to both the sliding
tap and the unknown potential; the deflection of the
galvanometer is observed and the sliding tap adjusted until
the galvanometer no longer deflects. At that point the
galvanometer is drawing no current from the unknown
source, and the magnitude of voltage can be calculated
from the position of the sliding contact. Potentiometers

133
are commonly used as controls for electrical devices such
as a volume control of a radio. Potentiometers operated
by a mechanism that can be used as position transducers,
for example, in a joystick.

Vocabulary
tapped: fechado
slide wire: fio deslize
drawing: desenhando
sliding tap: contato deslizante, cursor
joystick: joystick, timo, leme

EXERCCIOS

1 Complete corretamente a traduo sobre o


transformador de diferencial varivel linear. Preste
especial ateno aos grupos nominais:

O transformador de diferencial varivel linear


um tipo de ____________________ utilizado
para medir o _________________. Ele tem trs
bobinas colocadas de uma ponta a outra em torno de
um ____________. A bobina o centro principal,
e as duas bobinas _________ so as __________.
Um ncleo _______________, anexo ao objeto
__________ posio ser medida, ___________ ao
longo do ____________. Uma __________________
conduzida atravs do primrio, causando uma
___________ a ser induzida em cada secundrio
proporcional sua _____________ com o primrio.

134
2 Responda, em portugus, s perguntas sobre o
Encoder:

a) O que um Encoder?
b) Para que serve o cdigo gerado por ele?

3 Responda, em portugus, s perguntas sobre o


potencimetro:

a) O que um potencimetro?
b) Para que ele usado?
c) Como ele pode ser operado?

4 Para fixar o vocabulrio tcnico, faa a correlao


correta dos termos e seus significados. Tente fazer
primeiro sem olhar no vocabulrio do texto:

a) Coils ( ) ncleo

b) Joystick ( ) deslocamento

c) Slide wire ( ) dados binrios em um chip

d) Core ( ) contato deslizante, cursor

e) Bitstream ( ) bobinas

f ) Axis ( ) fio deslize

g) Displacement ( ) eixo

h) Sliding tap ( ) joystick, timo

135
5 Traduza os textos, levando em conta tudo o
que voc aprendeu sobre as estratgias de leitura, grupos
nominais, alm de utilizar seus conhecimentos bsicos de
gramtica e vocabulrio.

LANGUAGE SPOT
TO BE SIMPLE PAST
(Verbo ser/estar Passado Simples)

O quadro a seguir apresenta a sua forma afirmativa.

FORMA
AFIRMATIVA
I was
You were
He was
She was
It was
We were
You were
They were
Sujeito + verbo

Resumindo: I, he, she, it WAS


You, we, they WERE
Exemplos: He was here yesterday. (Ele esteve/
estava aqui ontem.)
They were traveling last week. (Eles estavam/
estiveram viajando na semana passada.)
A forma interrogativa traz a forma verbal no incio
da frase, apresentando a seguinte estrutura:

136
Was ou were + sujeito + complemento.

Was I?
Were you?
Was he?
Was she?
Was It?
Were we?
Were you?
Were they?
Verbo + sujeito
Exemplos: Was he here yesterday? (Ele esteve/
estava aqui ontem?)
Were they traveling last week? (Eles estavam/
estiveram viajando na semana passada?)

A forma negativa apresenta a seguinte formao:


Sujeito + was ou were + NOT + complemento.

FORMA NEGATIVA FORMA NEGATIVA


(completa) (abreviada)
I was not I wasnt
You were not You werent
He was not He wasnt
She was not She wasnt
It was not It wasnt
We were not We werent
You were not You werent
They were not They werent
Sujeito + verbo + NOT

137
Exemplos: He was not/wasnt here yesterday. (Ele
no esteve/estava aqui ontem.)

They were not/werent traveling last week. (Eles


no estavam/estiveram viajando na semana passada.)

THERE TO BE VERB
SIMPLE PAST
(Verbo haver/existir Passado Simples)

Assim como no tempo presente, no passado s h


duas formas deste verbo:
- There was, para referir-se a elementos no singular;
- There were, para referir-se a elementos no plural.
Exemplos: There was only an empty box on the
table yesterday. (Havia/existia apenas
uma caixa vazia sobre a mesa ontem).

There were a lot of mistakes on the project. (Houve/


havia/existiam muitas falhas no projeto.)
A forma interrogativa feita colocando-se was ou
were no incio da frase, apresentando a seguinte estrutura:
Was ou were + there + complemento.
Exemplos: Was there a pen in the drawer? (Havia
uma caneta na gaveta?)
Were there a lot of people here last night? (Havia
muitas pessoas aqui ontem noite?)

A forma negativa feita com a seguinte estrutura:


There was ou were + NOT + complemento.
Exemplo: There was not any pen in the drawer.
(No havia nenhuma caneta na gaveta.)

138
There were not many people here last night. (No
havia muitas pessoas aqui ontem noite.)
Tambm possvel a seguinte forma negativa:
- There wasnt any pen in the drawer.
- There werent many people here last night.

O quadro resume todas as formas:

FORMA FORMA FORMA


AFIRMATIVA INTERROGATIVA NEGATIVA

There was
SINGULAR There was Was there? not/ there
wasnt
There were
PLURAL There were Were there? not/ there
werent

EXERCCIOS

1 Passe as frases que seguem para o passado simples.


Ateno: necessrio mudar os advrbios de tempo.

a) Where are they today? ________________________


___________________________________________
b) Where is Jack today? _________________________
___________________________________________
c) I am at home this afternoon. ___________________
___________________________________________
d) We arent in school now. ______________________
___________________________________________
e) He isnt a teacher. ____________________________
___________________________________________

139
2 Marque a opo que apresenta a resposta
adequada para a pergunta:

- How many students were there in class yesterday?


a) There were twenty students.
b) Were there thirty students.
c) Were there not any students.
d) There are forty students there.

3 Traduza corretamente as frases a seguir:

a) Was Mr. Watson at the meeting yesterday?


b) Were the manager directors in Europe last week?
c) Computers were once so big they filled entire rooms.
d) Wheel was invented in order to transport goods.
e) Were you at the office yesterday morning?

4 Indique qual a forma negativa da frase There


was an important thing to do.

a) There were not an important thing to do.


b) Were there an important thing to do?
c) There wasnt an important thing to do.
d) There is an important thing to do.

5 A frase Havia dez computadores nesta sala


ontem em ingls corresponde a:

a) There was ten computers in this room yesterday.


b) Was ten computers in this room yesterday.
c) There were ten computers in this room yesterday.
d) Were ten computers in this room yesterday.
6 Marque a alternativa que complete corretamente a frase:

140
_______________ twenty people at the meeting
last week and _______________ only one person at the
meeting yesterday.

a) There was there were


b) There were there was
c) There are there to be
d) There be there is

LESSON 3
SOUND SENSORS
A sound sensor is basically a device that senses
sound. They are mainly used in different kinds of
microphones, but they are also used in mobile phones.
See some kind of them below:
Microphone

A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer


or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Microphones are used in many applications such as
telephones, tape recorders, hearing aids, motion picture
production, live and recorded audio engineering, in
radio and television broadcasting and in computers
for recording voice, speech recognition and for non-
acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking.
(Fonte: Wikipedia).

141
Vocabulary
hearing aids: aparelhos auditivos
motion picture production: produo cinematogrfica
television broadcasting: radiofuso televisiva

Hydrophone

A hydrophone is a microphone designed to be used


underwater for recording or listening to underwater sound.
Most hydrophones are based on a piezoelectric transducer
that generates electricity when subjected to a pressure
change. Such piezoelectric materials or transducers can
convert a sound signal into an electrical signal since
sound is a pressure wave in fluids. Some transducers can
also serve as a projector (emitter), but not all have this
capability, and may be destroyed if used in such a manner.
The term hydrophone is of Greek origin, denoting
hydro = water and phone = sound (in Greek
language). A hydrophone can listen to sound in air, but
will be less sensitive due to its design as having a good
acoustic impedance match to water, the more dense fluid.
Likewise, a microphone can be buried in the ground, or
immersed in water if is put in a waterproof container, but
will give similarly poor performance due to the similarly
bad acoustic impedance match.
(Fonte: Wikipedia).

142
Vocabulary
underwater: debaixo dgua
underwater sound: som subaqutico
pressure change: mudana de presso
emitter: emissor
acoustic impedance: impedncia acstica

SONAR
(SOund NAvigation and Ranging) is a technique
that uses sound propagation (usually underwater) to
navigate, communicate or to detect other vessels.
There are two kinds of SONAR - active and
passive. It may be used as a means of acoustic
location. Acoustic location in air was used before the
introduction of radar. SONAR may also be used in air
for robot navigation. The term SONAR is also used
for the equipment used to generate and receive the
sound. The frequencies used in SONAR systems vary
from infrasonic to ultrasonic. The study of underwater
sound is known as underwater acoustics or sometimes
hydroacoustics.
(Fonte: Wikipedia).

Vocabulary
vessels: embarcaes
upward: ascendente, para cima

143
EXERCCIOS

1 Responda, em portugus, s perguntas sobre


microfone:

a) Tecnicamente, o que um microfone?


b) Quais suas aplicaes mais comuns?

2 Responda, em portugus, s perguntas sobre


hidrofone:

a) O que um hidrofone?
b) O hidrofone tem base em qu?
c) O que um ele pode fazer?
d) O hidrofone e o microfone tm o mesmo desempenho
se utilizados no mesmo ambiente?

3 Responda, em portugus, s perguntas sobre


SONAR:

a) O que SONAR? Para que ele usado?


b) Explique como funcionam os dois tipos de SONAR.
c) Quais os dois tipos de frequncia utilizados no
SONAR?

LANGUAGE SPOT
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
(Presente Simples do Indicativo)
Em sua concepo mais simples, o tempo usado para
expressar aes realizadas com determinada frequncia, aes
rotineiras, usuais, como ir escola e trabalhar. Geralmente
aparece com palavras como always (sempre), sometimes (s

144
vezes), every (todo/a), para expressar essa habitualidade.
Tambm usado para referir-se a situaes permanentes,
como o processo termina quando todos os itens esto em
ordem (the process ends when all items are in order).
Sua formao simples. Na forma afirmativa, a
sequncia :
Sujeito + verbo principal (sem to) + complemento.

Exemplos: I work here. (Eu trabalho aqui.)


We play volley. (Ns jogamos vlei.)
No entanto, h uma variao para as 3s pessoas do
singular (he, she, it). Os verbos conjugados para esses
sujeitos recebem um S no final.

Exemplos: He works here. (Ele trabalha aqui.)


She plays volley. (Ela joga vlei.)

Observe que esse S no tem significado algum


na traduo. E tambm nada tem a ver com o plural do
portugus, pois ele recai exatamente sobre as pessoas do
singular em ingls. Assim, devemos traduzir os verbos
normalmente, ignorando a presena dele.
H muitos verbos que no aceitam simplesmente
a colocao do S; eles precisam passar por algumas
modificaes ortogrficas. Veja as mais comuns:
- Verbos terminados em s, ss, ch, sh, x, z, o recebem ES.
(to fix) = He fixes the car every month. (Ele conserta
o carro todo ms.)
(to go) = She goes to the club every week. (Ela vai ao
clube toda semana.)
- Verbos terminados em y precedido de consoante

145
mudam o y para i e recebem es.
(to study) = She studies English. (Ela estuda ingls.)
(to fly) = The bird flies beautifully). (O pssaro voa
lindamente.)
- Verbos terminados em y precedido de vogal
seguem a regra geral e recebem apenas S.
(to stay) = He always stays till late at work. (Ele
sempre fica at tarde no trabalho.)
As formas interrogativa e negativa utilizam um
verbo auxiliar em sua estrutura. H dois.
DO (para I, we, you, they) e DOES (para he, she, it).
A frase interrogativa feita desta forma:
DO ou DOES + sujeito + verbo principal +
complemento.

Exemplos: Do you work here? (Voc trabalha aqui?)


Does she speak English? (Ela fala ingls?)

importante observar que essa estrutura no


influencia a traduo, pois nela deve ser preservada a
estrutura do portugus.

A frase negativa feita assim:


Sujeito + DO ou DOES + NOT + verbo principal
+ complemento.

Exemplos: You do not work here. (Voc no


trabalha aqui,)
He does not work here. (Ele no
trabalha aqui.)
Tambm possvel fazer a forma
negativa da seguinte forma:

146
You dont work here.
He doesnt work here.
Na traduo, os verbos auxiliares no tm significado,
so traduzidos junto com o not simplesmente como no.

NOTA: O verbo to have (ter) possui as seguintes


formas no Simple Present:
Afirmativa: I, you, we, they = have / he, she, it = has
Exemplos: You have a new car. (Voc tem um carro
novo.)
She has a new car. (Ela tem um carro
novo.)
Interrogativa: Do you have a car? (Voc tem carro?)
Does he have a car? (Ele tem carro?)
Negativa: You do not / dont have a car. (Voc no
tem carro.)
She does not/doesnt have a car. (Ela no tem carro.)

EXERCCIOS
1 Complete as sentenas usando os verbos dos
parnteses no Simple Present:

a) I __________ (to take) the bus at six.


b) She ________ (to work) at our office.
c) We _________ (to buy) a newspaper everyday.
d) He __________ (to watch) TV every day.

147
2 Passe as frases seguintes para a forma negativa.
Depois, traduza-as:

a) She stays at home. ___________________________


___________________________________________
b) He helps with the children. ____________________
___________________________________________
c) John comes at seven. _________________________
___________________________________________
d) Mary has a problem. _________________________
___________________________________________

3 Rescreva as frases na forma interrogativa. Depois,


traduza-as:
a) He likes to work at night. _____________________
___________________________________________
b) She wants to work. __________________________
___________________________________________
c) The teacher leaves school at seven. _______________
___________________________________________
d) He has a lot of money. _______________________
___________________________________________

4 Complete o texto, escolhendo uma das opes


entre parnteses:

John and Peter are friends. They ________


(like/likes) sports very much. John ________ (plays/
play) volley and basketball. Peter______ (play/plays)
tennis. They ________ (reads/read) sports magazines
and ________ (watches/watch) sports on TV. They

148
________ (knows/know) the names of many famous
athletes. They ________ (has/have) a friend, Camila.
She _______ (like/likes) sport too and she ________
(enjoys/enjoy) swimming. She ________ (practice/
practices) swimming every day. She _______ (watches/
watch) sports on TV, but she __________ (doesnt/dont)
read sport magazines. Peter and John like swimming, but
they _________ (dont/doesnt) swim every day.

5 Marque (V) para as frases verdadeiras e (F) para


as frases falsas, segundo o texto que voc completou no
exerccio 4:

( ) John e Peter gostam muito de esportes.


( ) Peter joga basquete e tnis.
( ) John e Peter nadam todos os dias.
( ) Camila gosta de natao e nada todos os dias.
( ) Camila no l revistas sobre esportes.

6 Traduza corretamente as frases destacadas no


texto a seguir. Todas elas esto no Simple Present. Os
verbos nesse tempo esto em relevo.

Inductive non-Contact Position Sensor

The sensor consists of an induction loop. Electric


current generates a magnetic field, which collapses
generates a current that falls toward zero from its initial
level when the input electricity ceases. The inductance
of the loop changes according to the material inside
it and since metals are much more effective inductors

149
than other materials the presence of metal increases the
current flowing through the loop. This change can be
detected by sensing circuitry, which can signal to some
other device whenever metal is detected.

Vocabulary

induction loop: circuito de induo

150
UNIDADE 6
TRANSDUCER AND
TRANSMITTER (FUNDAMENTALS
AND APPLICATION)5

LESSON 1
TRANSDUCER
Transducers are electric or electronic devices that
transform energy from one source into another. Some
transducers can detect or transmit information in items
such as microphones, potentiometers, pressure sensors,
thermometers, and antennae.
Most transducers have an inverse that allows for the
energy to be returned to its original form. Audio cassettes,
for example, are created by using a transducer to turn the
electrical signal from the microphone pick-up which
in turn went through a transducer to convert the sound
waves into electrical signal into magnetic fluctuations
on the tape head. These magnetic fluctuations are
then read and converted by another transducer in

5 Os textos desta unidade e da unidade 7 tm como referncias:


- KISSINGER, C. Fiber optic lever displacement transducers: prin-
ciples, improvements, and applications, MTI Instruments Inc. Dis-
ponvel em: <http://www.mtiinstruments.com/gaging/appnotes-
-optic.html>. Acesso em: 15 fev. 2011.
- Norton, H.N. Handbook of Transducers. Library of Congress Ca-
talog, 1989.

151
this case a stereo system to be turned back into an
electrical signal, which is then fed by wire to speakers,
which act as yet another transducer to turn the electrical
signal back into audio waves.
Other transducers turn one type of energy into
another form, not for the purpose of measuring
something in the external environment or to
communicate information, but rather to make use of
that energy in a more productive manner. A light bulb,
for example, one of the many transducers around us
in our day-to-day lives, converts electrical energy into
visible light. Electric motors are another common form
of electromechanical transducer, converting electrical
energy into kinetic energy to perform a mechanical
task. The inverse of an electric motor a generator is
also a transducer, turning kinetic energy into electrical
energy that can then be used by other devices.
As in all energy conversions, some energy is
lost when transducers operate. The efficiency of a
transducer is found by comparing the total energy put
into it to the total energy coming out of the system.
Some transducers are very efficient, while others
are extraordinarily inefficient. A radio antenna, for
example, acts as a transducer to turn radio frequency
power into an electromagnetic field; when operating
well, this process is upwards of 80% efficient. Most
electrical motors, by contrast, are well under 50%
efficient, and a common light bulb, because of the
amount of energy lost as heat, is less than 10% efficient.

152
There are several types of transducers. The main are:
a) Electromagnetic: fluorescent lamp, light bulb;
antenna, magnetic cartridge; others.
b) Electrochemical: pH probes (sondas de
pH); electroactive polymers (polmeros eletroativos);
galvanometer; accelerometer; others.
c) Electroacoustic: microphone; hydrophone;
loudspeaker; others.
d) Photoelectric: laser diode, light-emitting
diode; photodiode, phototransistor, others.
e) Thermoelectric: RTD (Resistance Temperature
Detector); Thermocouple; Peltier cooler (refrigerador Pel-
tier); Thermistor (includes PTC resistor and NTC resistor).

Vocabulary
source: fonte
an inverse: relao inversa
to turn: para transformar
fed: alimentados
purpose: propsito, objetivo
kinetic energy: energia cintica
lost: perdido
coming out: que sai
upwards: mais
while: enquanto

EXERCCIOS
1 Responda, em portugus, s perguntas seguintes:
a) O que so transdutores?
b) O que eles fazem?
c) Como sua eficincia pode ser verificada?

153
d) A maioria dos transdutores tem uma relao inversa
que permite fazer o qu? Cite exemplos.

2 Leia mais sobre os transdutores eletromagnticos


e associe-os corretamente s imagens correspondentes:

a) Antenna - converts electromagnetic waves into electric


current and vice versa.
b) Cathode ray tube (CRT) - converts electrical signals
into visual form.
c) Fluorescent lamp, light bulb - converts electrical power
into visible light.
d) Magnetic cartridge - converts motion into electrical
form.
e) Photodetector or Photoresistor (LDR) - converts light
levels into resistance changes.
f ) Tape head - converts changing magnetic fields into
electrical form.
g) Hall Effect sensor - converts a magnetic field level into
electrical form only.

154
( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )
3 Associe os transdutores eletroacsticos s suas
funes:

a) Geophone
b) Hydrophone
c) Loudspeaker (alto-falante), earphone (fone de ouvido)
d) Microphone
e) Piezoelectric crystal
(---) Converts changes in air pressure into an electrical
signal.
(---) Converts changes in water pressure into an
electrical form.
(---) Converts pressure changes into electrical form.
(---) Converts a ground movement (displacement) into
voltage.
(---) Converts changes in electrical signals into
acoustic form.

155
4 Assinale (V) para as afirmativas verdadeiras
e (F) para as falsas. Aps, reescreva corretamente as
informaes incorretas:

a) (---) Os transdutores apenas transmitem


informaes de uma fonte para outra.
b) (---) A lmpada eltrica um tipo de transdutor.
c) (---) Motores eltricos so tipos comuns de
transdutores eletromagnticos.
d) (---) Os transdutores no perdem energia durante
sua operao.
e) ( ) Todos os transdutores so altamente eficientes.
f ) ( ) Os motores eltricos transformam energia
cintica em energia eltrica.

LANGUAGE SPOT
SIMPLE PAST TENSE
(Passado Simples) PARTE 1

Este tempo passado indica aes concludas num


determinado momento e tambm expressa hbitos
passados. Geralmente vem acompanhado de advrbios
ou locues adverbiais que expressam temporalidade,
como yesterday (ontem), expresses compostas por last
e ago, como last night (ontem noite), last month (ms
passado), a year ago (um ano atrs).
Os verbos so de dois tipos: regulares (acrescenta-se
ED sua base) e irregulares (tm forma prpria, que
precisa ser memorizada).

156
Verbos Regulares
A regra geral acrescentar ED ao verbo.
Exemplo: I work (eu trabalho) I worked (eu
trabalhei).

Essa forma tambm serve para compor o particpio


passado dos verbos. Por exemplo, played pode tanto ser
traduzido como joguei, como na frase I played tennis
yesterday, ou como jogado em I had never played a soccer
match (eu nunca tinha jogado uma partida de futebol).
No Simple Past, todos os sujeitos utilizam a mesma
forma do verbo, tanto no passado quanto no particpio
passado. Observe a tabela:
SIMPLE PARTICPIO
SIMPLE PAST
PRESENT PASSADO
I work I worked
You work You worked
He works He worked
She works She worked
worked
It works It worked
We work We worked
You work You worked
They work They worked

No entanto, nem todos os verbos simplesmente


recebem ED em sua base. H os que passam por uma
alterao ortogrfica antes. Veja:

a) Verbos que terminam em E, recebem somente D.


Exemplo: They love her. (Eles a amam.)
They loved her. (Eles a amaram/amavam).

157
b) Verbos terminados em Y precedido de consoante:
retira-se o Y e acrescenta-se IED. Os precedidos de
vogal recebem S normalmente.
Exemplos: I study English. (Estudo ingles.)
I studied English. (Estudei ingls).
You stay here. (Voc fica aqui.) You stayed here.
(Voc ficou aqui.)
c) Quando o verbo monosslabo ou disslabo oxtono
terminado em CVC (consoante, vogal, consoante),
dobra-se a ltima letra antes do acrscimo de ED.

Exemplo: You permit me to enter. (Voc me


permite entrar.) You permitted me to
enter. (Voc me permitiu entrar.)

d) Quando o verbo termina em CVC, mas disslabo


paroxtono, a ltima letra no dobrada.

Exemplo: They open the door carefully. (Eles


abrem a porta com cuidado.) They
opened the door carefully. (Eles abriram
a porta com cuidado.)

Verbos Irregulares
H muitos deles, com maior ou menor grau de
dificuldade para serem memorizados. Se forem divididos
por grupos, segundo suas particularidades, fica mais fcil
aprend-los.
Eles podem ser agrupados, de forma sinttica, desta
maneira:

158
a) Apresentam as trs formas diferentes (base, passado,
particpio passado)
SIMPLE PAST
BASE FORM
PAST TENSE PARTICIPLE
to draw desenhar) drew drawn
to be (ser/estar) was, were been
to go (ir) went gone

b) Apresentam duas formas iguais (base e particpio


passado).
SIMPLE PAST
BASE FORM
PAST TENSE PARTICIPLE
to become
became become
(tornar-se)
to come (vir) came come

c) Apresentam duas formas iguais (passado e particpio


passado).
SIMPLE PAST
BASE FORM
PAST TENSE PARTICIPLE
to bring (trazer) brought brought
to buy (comprar) bought bought
to feel (sentir) felt felt

159
d) Apresentam as trs formas iguais (base, passado,
particpio passado)
SIMPLE PAST
BASE FORM
PAST TENSE PARTICIPLE
to set (fixar) set set
to cost (custar) cost cost
to hurt (ferir) hurt hurt

Os verbos apresentados so apenas uma pequena


amostra. Voc encontrar uma lista mais completa no
final do livro.

EXERCCIOS

1 Complete as frases a seguir utilizando os verbos


dos parnteses no Simple Past (h verbos regulares e
irregulares):
a) I ___________________ (to finish) work,
____________________ (to walk) to the beach, and
______________ (find) a nice place to swim.
b) He ____________ (to arrive) from the airport at
8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and _____________
(meet) his friends at 10:00.
c) I _______________ (to live) in Brazil for two years.
d) Laura ___________ (to study) Japanese for five
years.
e) He _______________ (to play) the violin; he
__________ (to play negative) the piano.

2 Um executivo estrangeiro chega empresa onde


voc trabalha e, enquanto ele espera para ser atendido,

160
vocs conversam um pouco. A seguir ele conta algumas
coisas que j fez, e outras que no, mas as frases esto
incompletas. Ento, complete os espaos com os verbos
dos parnteses, no Simple Past (ateno: h verbos
regulares e irregulares).

I _______________ yesterday, and I ___________


a good trip (to arrive/to have); yesterday morning I
____________ (to go) to a meeting and ____________
(to meet) the finance director. After, I ___________ (to
give) my files to the accountant and _____________
(to wait) one hour at the reception; but, as I
________________________ (to give/negative form)
him my email address, I ____________ (to come) back
to his room, but I _________________ (to find/negative
form) him, he ______________ (to be) having lunch.

3 Qual opo completa corretamente a frase no


Simple Past?
I ___________ the flowchart.

a) wroted
b) wrote
c) writed
d) writeen

4 Traduza corretamente as frases a seguir. Depois,


separe os verbos destacados em regular e irregular,
indicando tambm sua forma no infinitivo.

a) The PLC market expanded rapidly.

161
b) For years PLC applications remained focused around
discrete automation markets.
c) Personal computers became the easiest way to connect
DCS, PLCs and remote I/O.
d) The discovery of fire helped to heat the man and to
defend himself from wild animals.
e) In 19th century the first applications of electricity
permitted to make some automated operations.
f ) HondaJet achieved maximum speed in flight testing.
g) The graphic showed the history of mergers and
acquisitions in the automation industry.

LESSON 2
TRANSMITTERS
The main function of a transmitter is to
transform the individual signal of the sensor into a
standardized signal, adjusted for transmission. The
stages of processing and conversion of the signal
are described below: a) to catch the signal of the
termelement (PT100, thermocouple or sensor-mV);
b) to amplify the measurement signal; c) linearization/
equalization of the measurement signal; d) conversion
of the signal measurement linearized in a standard
value of exit. As a rule, the mathematical relation
between process variable as the temperature and
the signal of the sensor is not linear. Normally, to a
linear relation is necessary to enter the variable of

162
process and its representation for a standardized
signal. This linearization or equalization is carried
through in this stage of the conversion the first step is
to collect the electric signal of the sensing element. This
includes to amplify, to standardize and to transform
the signal of measurement into adequate signals to
the processing or transmission and into the forms of
electric and mathematical representation.
The transmission of the signal can be analogical or
digital. Diverse analogical interfaces had been developed,
as resulted of the some areas of application in the industry
(laboratories, control centers, areas of process) and of the
state of the technology at the moment of the introduction
of the signal transmission. This analogical interface
standard is classified in two groups, in accordance
with the transmission way: transmission of tension
and transmission of a current signal. Some interfaces
standard, many of developed which for other purposes,
had been established for different cases of applications
in computerized systems. Basically, these interfaces
can be characterized as serial or parallel, in accordance
with the way of transmission of the data. The protocols
SMART or HART are based on the transmission of
audio frequency, 1200 and 2400 Hz. S.M.A.R.T. means
Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology. It
is a system of monitoring of hard disks to detect and
to inform, through some pointers of trustworthiness,
in intention to anticipate imperfections. Basically, hard
disks can suffer two types of imperfections: predictable
and unexpected imperfections, as described down:

163
a) Predictable imperfections: Some types of
imperfections, especially mechanical go occurring
gradually. These imperfections can be detected by a
monitoring device, as well as the counter of temperature
in the panel of a car that informs to the driver (before
something more serious occurs) when the engine to
start to overheat.

b) Unexpected imperfections: Other


imperfections occur suddenly or for accident, as
the burning of some electronic component. This
monitoring can foresee in 60% if a hard disk will go to
fail. This technology (S.M.A.R.T.) has the intention to
inform to the user or the administrator of the system
the imminence of drive to present problems, the time
of if taking some injunction - how the copy of the data
for a substitute record.

Vocabulary
to catch: captar, capturar
had been developed: foram desenvolvidas
trustworthiness: confiabilidade
suddenly: de repente, subitamente
the burning: a queima
to foresee: prever
injunction: injuno, prescrio

164
EXERCCIOS
1 Responda, em portugus, as perguntas a seguir:

a) Qual a principal funo de um transmissor?


b) Cite os quatro estgios de processamento e converso
do sinal feito por um transmissor.
c) O sinal do sensor linear? Explique.
d) O que necessrio para obter uma relao linear?
e) Como se d essa linearizao?
f ) O que significa o acrnimo SMART, em portugus?
g) O que SMART?

2 Traduza corretamente as seguintes frases retiradas


do texto:

a) The mathematical relation between process variable as


the temperature and the signal of the sensor is not linear.
b) To a linear relation is necessary to enter the variable of
process and its representation for a standardized signal.

3 Os discos rgidos podem sofrer dois tipos de


imperfeies. Cite-as e descreva-as.

4 Traduza os grupos nominais a seguir, retirados


do texto:

a) Individual signal: ____________________________


b) Standardized signal: __________________________
c) Measurement signal: _________________________
d) Standard value: _____________________________
e) Mathematical relation: ________________________
f ) Linear relation: _____________________________

165
g) Analogical interface standard: __________________

5 Marque (V) para as afirmativas verdadeiras e (F)


para as falsas:

a) ( ) A transmisso do sinal do transmissor empre


analgica.
b) ( ) Todas as interfaces-padro so desenvolvidas
para atender aos mesmos objetivos.
c) ( ) Alguns transdutores convertem um tipo de
energia em outra, com o objetivo de medir algo no
ambiente externo.
d) ( ) O sistema SMART monitora discos rgidos para
detectar e informar imperfeies.

LANGUAGE SPOT
SIMPLE PAST (Passado Simples) PARTE 2
Assim como no Simple Present, as frases no Simple
Past nas formas afirmativa e negativa precisam de um
verbo auxiliar: DID (usado com todos os sujeitos e
com verbos regulares e irregulares).
A frase interrogativa feita desta forma:
DID + sujeito + verbo principal + complemento.

Exemplos: Did you travel last year here? (Voc


viajou no ano passado?)
Did she write the report? (Ela fez o relatrio?)

importante observar que DID no tem traduo,


mas sua presena na frase indica que o verbo principal
deve ser traduzido no passado.

166
A frase negativa feita assim:
Sujeito + DID + NOT + verbo principal +
complemento.

Exemplos: You did not travel last year. (Voc no


viajou no ano passado.)
She did not write the report. (Ela no fez o
relatrio.)

Tambm possvel fazer a forma negativa


abreviando-se DID + NOT.

Exemplo: You didnt travel last year.


Na traduo, o DID deve ser traduzido junto com
o not simplesmente como no, mas com o verbo no
passado.
importante observar que os verbos principais
nas formas interrogativa e negativa, por estarem
acompanhados pelo DID, ficam com sua forma
original. Os verbos regulares aparecem com ED e os
irregulares com forma prpria de passado apenas na
forma afirmativa.

Exemplo: Did you traveled last year? (incorreto)


Did you travel last year? (correto)

EXERCCIOS
1 Passe as frases a seguir para as formas interrogativa
e negativa:

a) I scanned the newspaper. ______________________


b) They emptied the boxes. ______________________
c) They replied at once. _________________________

167
d) He went to work. ___________________________
e) I shut the windows. __________________________
f ) This program ran fast. ________________________

2 Qual seria a forma interrogativa da frase que


segue?

Industrial instrumentation improved sensors,


amplifiers and displays.

a) Industrial automation did not improve sensors,


amplifiers and displays.
b) Did industrial automation improve sensors, amplifiers
and displays?
c) Did industrial automation improved sensors, amplifiers
and displays?
d) Industrial automation did improved sensors, amplifiers
and displays?

3 Leia as informaes a seguir sobre inventores e


seus inventos e corrija as informaes incorretas, usando
o Simple Past nas formas negativa e afirmativa:

Exemplo: - Thomas Edison invented the


telephone.
- No, he didnt invent the telephone.
He invented the light bulb.
a) Rudolf Diesel created the Induction Electric Motor.
b) Henry Ford invented the telegraph.
c) Nikola Tescla invented the Incandescent Light Bulb.
d) Samuel Morse invented the phonograph.

168
LESSON 3
TYPES OF TRANSMITTERS
Analogical transmitter of temperature: It
converts the signal of entrance proceeding from RTDs
and thermocouples into an analogical signal (4-20
mA) linear and proportional the temperature without
using for this processors one digital converters. The
0 variable of exit of a termelement, as resistance or
tension are caught, linearized and compensated and
always they exist directly in the analogical form, not
being represented internally for logical or digitalized
states for the posterior processing.
Digital transmitter of Temperature: It is one
that converts the signal of entrance proceeding from
RTDs, thermocouples or sensors-mV in a digital signal
through internal circuits electronic as processing and
converting digital A/D and D/A. The data of the
measurement are represented by logical states and
numbers. The posterior stage of processing is carried
through mainly in the microprocessor having as base
mathematical information not more in the analogical
form. Into the final stage, the value is converted into
an analogical signal of exit, for example 4 the 20 mA.
Transmitter of Pressure: It measures the pressure
of the process through a called element diaphragm.
This meets in direct contact with the fluid and to the
measure that the pressure varies; the diaphragm is
pressured with proportional intensity. A small sensor
located in the internal part of the diaphragm converts

169
the pressure variation into a proportional variation of
electric resistance. A small electronic circuit transforms
this information into a proportional signal 4-20 mA
that it can be on practically any type of automation
device as CLPs, digital pointers etc.
Transmitter of Level: It has for function to
transmit the level of the process for a control room or
system of control. It can be used for the control of level
of some types of liquids as: combustible water, fluids
(alcohol, gasoline, oil diesel, kerosene, and lubricant),
corrosive fluids, etc. It consists of the free movement of
a magnetic buoy in pipe guides, in accordance with the
variation that occurs with the level of the liquid. In the
interior of this pipe guide some sensors meet magnetic
(reed switches) that they are activated by the ticket of
the buoy. The set buoy/sensors magnetic/resistor acts
in similar way to the potentiometer. The electronic
unit is responsible for the conversion of the tension
signal received from the set in 4-20 mA. The figure
below presents the model of a level transmitter.

Level transmitter

170
Vocabulary
magnetic buoy in pipe guides: boia magntica em
tubo de guias
ticket: passagem
set: conjunto, grupo

EXERCCIOS

1 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:


a) O que faz um transmissor digital de temperatura?
b) Como so representados os dados da medio?
c) Explique os dois estgios de processamento dos dados.
d) Os transmissores digitais possuem uma interface de
comunicao digital. Para que ela usada?
e) O que faz um transmissor de presso?
f ) Como funciona o diafragma?
g) Cite exemplos de usos desses transmissores.
h) Qual a funo do transmissor de nvel?
i) Para que o transmissor de nvel pode ser usado?
j) Em que consiste o controle de nvel? De acordo com
o qu?

2 Leia a traduo de um fragmento do texto,


corrigindo as informaes equivocadas:

Um transmissor analgico de temperatura converte


o sinal de sada do processo RTDs e termopares em um
sinal analgico (4-20 mA) no linear e proporcional
temperatura, usando para isso processadores e

171
conversores analgicos. O 0 varivel de entrada de
um termoelemento, como resistncia ou tenso so
capturados, linearizados e discompensados, e sempre
existem indiretamente na forma analgica, no sendo
representados externamente para os estados lgicos ou
digitalizados para o processamento anterior.

3 Com base no texto, enumere corretamente a


sequncia de aes do transmissor de presso:

(---) medida que a presso varia, o diafragma


pressionado com uma intensidade proporcional.
(---) Um pequeno circuito eletrnico transforma essa
informao em um sinal de 4-20 mA proporcional.
(---) Mede a presso do processo atravs do diafragma.
(---) Este entra em contato direto com o lquido.
(---) Um pequeno sensor localizado na parte interna
do diafragma converte a variao de presso em uma
variao proporcional da resistncia eltrica.

Language spot
GERUND (Usos do ING)
Voc deve ter notado nos textos a presena de
palavras como processing, converting, proceeding, entre
outras com a terminao ING.
Apesar de terem o mesmo sufixo, essas palavras
podem ser traduzidas de diferentes maneiras, dependendo
de sua classe gramatical. Exemplo: a palavra processing
derivada do verbo to process (processar). Com o sufixo
ING, ela poderia ser traduzida como processando,

172
processamento ou processar, dependendo do contexto
e da estrutura da frase em que aparece. Veja:

a) Gerndio: como parte integrante do Present


Continuous Tense (indica aes que esto acontecendo).
The computer is processing data. (O computador
est processando os dados.)

b) Verbo no infinitivo (aps preposies: in, without,


of, by, before, after, to)
By processing the data in this computer, you agree
to the specified terms.
(Ao processar os dados neste computador, voc
concorda com os termos especficos.)

c) Substantivo (parte de um grupo nominal,


funcionando como adjetivo)
You can write a code using the Processing Language.
(Voc pode escrever um cdigo utilizando a
Linguagem de Processamento.)

d) Substantivo (iniciando frase)


Processing is a set of actions or events that produce
continuation or gradual change.
(O processamento um conjunto de aes ou
eventos que produzem mudana gradual ou contnua.)

e) Particpio passado (parte de um grupo nominal,


funcionando como adjetivo)
In alternating current the movement of electric
charge reverses direction.

173
(Em corrente alternada o movimento de carga
eltrica inverte a direo.)

EXERCCIOS
1 Relacione as frases com sua classificao
gramatical e traduo corretas:

a) Gerndio: como parte integrante do Present Continuous


Tense.
b) Verbo no infinitivo: (aps preposies)
c) Substantivo: (parte de um grupo nominal)
d) Substantivo: (iniciando frase)

(---) This is part of the learning process. (Isto parte do


processo de aprendizagem.)
(---) They are learning how to get more information.
(Eles esto aprendendo como conseguir mais
informaes.)

(---) This is a way of learning about management. (Esta


uma maneira de aprender sobre gerenciamento.)

(---) Learning is essential to life. (Aprendizagem


essencial vida.)

2 Leia o fragmento de texto e em seguida responda


s perguntas, em portugus:

174
Fax Machines

Fax machine (Facsimile machine) is


a device that is used for sending and
receiving data through a telephone
line. The fax machine uses an optical
scanner for converting the images
and texts into a digital format. The
greatest advantage of using a fax machine is that it can easily
transmit data over long distances and thus saves the cost of
sending it through postal services. The different types of fax
machines can be differentiated on the basis of technology
used as wireless fax machine, color fax machines, digital fax
machines, laser fax machines and thermal fax machines.
(Fonte: http://www.digitivity.com/office-automotion/)

a) Defina o que a mquina de fax.


b) O que a mquina de fax usa e para qu?
c) Cite duas vantagens de usar a mquina de fax.
d) Existem diferentes tipos de mquinas de fax. Cite trs
tipos, de acordo com o texto.

3 Aprendemos que muitas palavras cuja formao


composta por ING podem apresentar diferentes
classes gramaticais e variar quanto ao significado. Sendo
assim, observe as palavras destacadas no texto e marque a
opo correta sobre elas:

a) (---) Aps preposio, podem ser traduzidas como


verbos no infinitivo, sendo, respectivamente, enviar,
receber e converter.

175
b) (---) Caracterizam-se como substantivo com funo
de adjetivo (parte de um grupo nominal) e podem ser
traduzidas, respectivamente, por que envia, que
recebe e que converte.
c) (---) Formam parte do Present Continuous Tense,
podendo ser traduzidas, respectivamente, como
enviando, recebendo e convertendo.

4 Leia o texto e em seguida responda corretamente


s questes (em portugus):

Automation Products Ltda. was established in 1988


to provide a diverse range of high quality, automation-
related products to New Zealand industry. There are
two major aspects to the business:
1. The design, manufacture and installation
of custom-built control systems for manufacturing
machines for local and international markets, and
2. Providing a wide range of specialized products
from international companies who are industry leaders
in their field of expertise.
Our company is dedicated to providing the highest
level of customer satisfaction and fully supports all
products it sells.
(Fonte: http://www.automationproducts.co.nz/automation.html)

Vocabulary
custom-built : feito sob medida

176
A) A empresa Automation Products Ltda. foi criada em
1988 com que finalidade?

B) Complete corretamente a seguinte afirmativa:


A palavra installation, que significa em portugus
______________, derivada do verbo _____________
(em ingls), que significa ______________.

C) Em manufacturing machines, a palavra manufacturing


derivada do verbo to manufacture, que significa fabricar,
produzir. A essa palavra foi acrescentado o sufixo ING,
que tem vrias tradues possveis em ingls. No caso em
questo, marque a classificao gramatical e a traduo
corretas dessa palavra:

a) (---)_ Caracteriza-se como gerndio formando adjetivo


(parte de um grupo nominal e pode ser traduzida por
fabricao.
b) (---)_ Caracteriza-se como gerndio aps preposio e
pode ser traduzida como fabricando.
c) (---)_ Caracteriza-se como gerndio formando
substantivo, podendo ser traduzida como fbrica.

D) Traduza corretamente a seguinte frase, retirada do


texto:

The highest level of customer satisfaction.


___________________________________________

177
E) Marque (V) para as afirmativas verdadeiras e (F) para
as falsas:

(---) A empresa tem, como um dos principais objetivos,


atender a pequenas e desconhecidas empresas no seu
ramo de atuao.
(---) A empresa quer atuar apenas no mercado local.
(---) A empresa oferece um pequeno nmero de
produtos especializados.

178
UNIDADE 7
CONTROL SYSTEMS
(FUNDAMENTALS AND
APPLICATION)6

LESSON 1
INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL
Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch of
engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior
of dynamical systems. The desired output of a system is
called the reference. When one or more output variables
of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a
controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the
desired effect on the output of the system (see figure below).

6 Esta unidade tem como referncias:


- Golten, J. A. Control, design and simulation. McGraw_Hill, 1992.
- Seborg, G. Process dynamics and control. Wiley, 1989.
- Wikipedia.

179
Feedback is a process whereby some proportion
of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to
the input. This is often used to control the dynamic
behavior of the system. Examples of feedback can be
found in most complex systems, such as engineering,
architecture, economics, thermodynamics, and biology.
An example of a complex feedback system is the steering
system of an automobile. While driving, a person
receives signals from the environment, such as signs and
hazards. The drivers brain processes the information
and sends signals to the automobile via the steering
wheel and pedals. The automobile responds by changing
direction or speed accordingly. In organizations,
feedback is a process of sharing observations, concerns
and suggestions between persons or divisions of the
organization with an intention of improving both
personal and organizational performance. Feedback
can be unilateral, but experience suggests that bi-
directional feedback is more effective in achieving
continuous improvement in an organization.
Consider an automobiles cruise control, which is
a device designed to maintain a constant vehicle speed;
the desired or reference speed, provided by the driver.
The system in this case is the vehicle. The system
output is the vehicle speed, and the control variable is
the engines throttle position which influences engine
torque output.
A simple way to implement cruise control is to
lock the throttle position when the driver engages cruise
control. However, on hilly terrain, the vehicle will

180
slow down going uphill and accelerate going downhill.
In fact, any parameter different than what was assumed
at design time will translate into a proportional error
in the output velocity, including exact mass of the
vehicle, wind resistance, and tire pressure. This type
of controller is called an open-loop controller because
there is no direct connection between the output of the
system (the engine torque) and the actual conditions
encountered; that is to say, the system does not and can
not compensate for unexpected forces.

Vocabulary
branch: ramo
behavior: comportamento
the desired output: o resultado desejado
whereby: pelo qual
steering system: sistema de direo
hazards: riscos
sharing observations: compartilhamento de observaes
engines throttle: acelerador do motor
hilly terrain: terreno montanhoso, acidentado
to lock: travar
throttle: acelerador
slow down: desacelerar
uphill: ladeira acima
cruise control: controle de velocidade

181
EXERCCIOS
1 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:

a) O controle est relacionado a quais reas do


conhecimento?
b) O que referncia?
c) O que feedback?
d) Para que o feedback usado?
e) Cite um exemplo de feedback usado em sistemas
complexos.

2 Voc aprendeu que palavras formadas com o sufixo


ING podem ter vrios significados, dependendo do
contexto. A seguir esto vrias palavras com essa formao,
encontradas no texto. Traduza-as considerando o contexto:

a) Engineering: ____________________________
b) Steering system: _________________________
c) Driving: _______________________________
d) Changing: _____________________________
e) Sharing: _______________________________
f ) Improving: _____________________________
g) Achieving: _____________________________
h) Including: ______________________________

3 Encontre no texto o antnimo das palavras que


seguem, e tambm sua traduo:

a) Output: _______________________________
b) Unilateral: _____________________________
c) Uphill: _______________________________
d) Different: ______________________________

182
4 Complete corretamente a traduo de um
fragmento do texto:

Uma maneira simples de implementar o controle de


velocidade __________ a posio do ______________
quando o ____________ aciona o controle de velocidade.
______________, em terreno montanhoso, o
__________ vai abrandar na subida e ______________
na _____________. Na verdade, qualquer parmetro
diferente do que foi assumido no tempo projetado vai
se traduzir em um ________________ na velocidade
de ____________, incluindo a massa exata do veculo,
a ____________ e a ______________. Este tipo de
___________ chamado de controlador de ciclo aberto,
porque _______________ entre a ______________ (o
torque do motor) e as ______________________, ou
seja, o sistema no e no pode _______________ as
foras inesperadas.

LANGUAGE SPOT
SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
(Futuro Simples do Indicativo)
Este tempo corresponde ao futuro do indicativo do
portugus e pode ser usado com vrios objetivos, por
exemplo, falar sobre uma deciso que est sendo tomada
no momento em que se fala; fazer uma predio, uma
previso, falar de aes no planejadas etc. Geralmente
aparece com os seguintes advrbios ou locues adverbiais:
tomorrow (amanh), soon (logo, em breve), next month/

183
year/week (prximo ms, ano, prxima semana) in a few
days (em poucos dias), in a short time (em instantes), in
hours (em algumas horas) etc.
Sua formao muito simples: coloca-se o verbo
auxiliar WILL aps o verbo principal (sem to), na forma
afirmativa. A forma interrogativa apresenta WILL
antes do sujeito, e na forma negativa coloca-se NOT
aps WILL. Veja os exemplos:

AFFIRMATIVE FORM
SUJEITO + WILL + VERBO PRINCIPAL +
COMPLEMENTO
The company will buy a new machine next year.
A empresa comprar uma nova mquina no prximo ano.
This program will be better than that one. Este
programa ser melhor do que aquele.

INTERROGATIVE FORM
WILL + SUJEITO + VERBO PRINCIPAL +
COMPLEMENTO
Will the company buy a new machine? A
empresa comprar uma nova mquina?
Will this program be better than that one? Este
programa ser melhor do que aquele?

NEGATIVE FORM
SUJEITO + WILL + VERBO PRINCIPAL + NOT
+ COMPLEMENTO
The company will not buy a new machine. A
empresa no comprar uma nova mquina.

184
This program will not be better than that one.
Este programa no ser melhor do que aquele.
Tambm pode ser usada a forma abreviada
WONT.
importante notar que o WILL no tem
traduo como verbo auxiliar. A presena dele na frase
simplesmente indica que ela deve ser traduzida no futuro.

EXERCCIOS
1 Complete as frases a seguir, colocando os verbos
dos parnteses no futuro simples, na forma afirmativa:

a) Automation companies ______________ (to


customize) products for specific applications and
requirements.
b) The innovation technology ___________ (to come)
from targeted applications.
c) Innovation and technology ___________ (to
reestablish) growth in industrial automation.
d) Major new software applications _________ (to be)
in wireless sensors.
e) Industrial automation ____________ (to generate)
considerable growth with technology related to new
inflection points: nanotechnology and nanoscale
assembly systems.
f ) The factory of the future _________ (to be) small,
movable (to where the resources are, and where the
customers are).
2 Traduza corretamente o fragmento de texto
seguinte, prestando ateno especial aos verbos
conjugados no Simple Future:

185
The next big wave of automation will come from
radio frequency identification tags. These tags will soon be
used in most stores at point-of-sale checkout replacing all
cashiers. Sensors will detect purchases and automatically
charge your ATM or credit card or direct you to a cash
machine. Customers will save time and merchants will
expand their price competitiveness by eliminating more
employees.

3 Complete os fragmentos da msica seguinte


(cantada por Toto) conjugando os verbos dos parnteses
no Simple Future:

As soon as my heart stops breakin


Anticipating; as soon as forever is through
I ________ (to be) over you
There were the nights, holding you close
Someday I ________ (to try) to forget them

4 Agora, passe as frases que voc completou para


as formas interrogativa (I) e negativa (N):

I - _________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

N - ________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

5 Forme frases usando o Simple Future, conforme


indicado a seguir:

186
a) The boss / sign / the contract.78
Affirmative: ______________________________
___________________________________________
Negative: ________________________________
___________________________________________
Interrogative: _____________________________
___________________________________________

LESSON 2
CONTROL SPECIFICATIONS
Several different control strategies have been
devised in the past years. These vary from extremely
general ones (PID7 controller), to others devoted to
very particular classes of systems (especially robotics or
aircraft cruise control8).
A control problem can have several specifications.
Stability, of course, is always present. The controller
must ensure that the closed-loop system is stable,
regardless of the open-loop stability. A poor choice
of controller can even worsen the stability of the
open-loop system, which must normally be avoided.
Another typical specification is the rejection of a step
disturbance; including an integrator in the open-loop
chain (i.e. directly before the system under control)
easily achieves this. Other classes of disturbances need
different types of sub-systems to be included.
7 Acrnimo para Proportional-integral-derivative controller:
Controlador proporcional-integral-derivativo.
8 O cruise control um sistema que mantm a velocidade de
conduo de um veculo previamente programada.

187
Other classical control theory specifications
regard the time-response of the closed-loop system: these
include the rise time (the time needed by the control
system to reach the desired value after a perturbation),
peak overshoot (the highest value reached by the
response before reaching the desired value) and others
(settling time, quarter-decay). See figure below.

Time-response of the closed-loop system

Frequency domain specifications are usually


related to robustness. A control system must always
have some robustness property. A robust controller is
such that its properties do not change much if applied
to a system slightly different from the mathematical
one used for its synthesis. This specification is
important: no real physical system truly behaves like
the series of differential equations used to represent it
mathematically. Typically a simpler mathematical model

188
is chosen in order to simplify calculations, otherwise
the true system dynamics can be so complicated that a
complete model is impossible.

Vocabulary
domain: domnio
devised: criadas
closed-loop system: sistema de circuito fechado
regardless: independentemente
a poor choice: uma m escolha
worsen: piorar
open-loop chain: corrente em malha aberta
to reach: chegar, alcanar
settling time: tempo de estabilizao, sedimentao
overshoot: superao
decay: declnio, decadncia
robustness: robustez, resistncia, rigidez

EXERCCIOS
1 Explique, em portugus, o que significam os
termos a seguir:

a) Rise time (tempo de elevao)


b) Peak overshoot (superao de pico)

2 Complete corretamente a traduo de um


fragmento do texto:

Vrias estratgias de controle foram criadas nos lti-


mos anos. Existem desde as mais gerais (_____________),
outras dedicadas a casos muito particulares de sistemas

189
(especialmente _____________ ou _____________).

3 Marque (V) para as afirmativas verdadeiras e (F)


para as falsas:

a) (---) Um problema de controle tem poucas especifi-


caes.
b) (---) A estabilidade sempre deve ser considerada,
quando se trata de controle.
c) (---) O controlador deve assegurar que o sistema de
malha aberta esteja estvel, independentemente da esta-
bilidade dessa malha.
d) (---) Uma m escolha do controlador no interfere
na estabilidade do sistema.

4 Um sistema de controle deve sempre ter uma


propriedade robusta (resistente, vigorosa). Por qu?

a) (---) Suas propriedades podem sofrer mais variaes.


b) (---) Suas proriedades so mais rgidas, inadaptveis a
outros sistemas.
d) (---) Assim suas propriedades no mudam muito se
aplicadas a um sistema um pouco diferente.

5 Encontre no texto os antnimos referentes aos


termos a seguir. Caso necessite, consulte um dicionrio:
a) Never: ____________________________________
b) Open: ____________________________________
c) After: _____________________________________
d) Rich: _____________________________________
e) Indirectly: _________________________________
f ) Similar: ___________________________________

190
i) Hardly: ___________________________________
j) Few: ______________________________________

LANGUAGE SPOT
CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS
(Nmeros Cardinais e Ordinais)
Os nmeros cardinais em ingls geralmente so bem
conhecidos:
1 one 21 twenty-one
2 two 22 twenty-two
3 three 23 twenty-three
4 four 24 twenty-four
5 five 25 twenty-five
6 six 26 twenty-six
7 seven 27 twenty-seven
8 eight 28 twenty-eight
9 nine 29 twenty-nine
10 ten 30 thirty
11 eleven 31 thirty-one
12 twelve 40 forty
13 thirteen 50 fifty
14 fourteen 60 sixty
15 fifteen 70 seventy
16 sixteen 80 eighty
17 seventeen 90 ninety
18 eighteen 100 a/one hundred
19 nineteen 1.000 a/one thousand
20 twenty 1.000.000 a/one million

Em relao a esses nmeros, h algumas


particularidades a serem observadas.

a) As centenas e as dezenas so separadas pelo and (e) no


ingls americano.

191
Exemplos: 120 - one hundred and twenty
1,350 - one thousand, three hundred
and fifty
4,001 - four thousand and one

b) Mil e milho so separados por vrgula.

Exemplo: 67,338,202

c) Os nmeros so geralmente escritos no singular.

Exemplos: Five hundred Euros.


Ten million Dollars.

d) Assim como o nmero 100 formado com a especificao


da quantidade de centena + a palavra hundred, os outros
nmeros seguem a mesma regra. Assim:

200 = two hundred


300 = three hundred
400 = four hundred
... e assim sucessivamente.

Os numerais ordinais so bem parecidos com os


cardinais. A maioria formada pelo acrscimo de th ao
cardinal. So excees a essa regra o 1, o 2 e o 3, que
tm uma palavra prpria. Outros que passam por uma
modificao na ortografia antes do acrscimo de th so:
five = fifth; eight = eighth; nine = ninth e twelve = twelfth.
Observe a tabela:

192
1 first 21 twenty-first
2 second 22 twenty-second
3 third 23 twenty-third
4 fourth 24 twenty-fourth
5 fifth 25 twenty-fifth
6 sixth 26 twenty-sixth
7 seventh 27 twenty-seventh
8 eighth 28 twenty-eighth
9 ninth 29 twenty-ninth
10 tenth 30 thirtieth
11 eleventh 31 thirty-first
12 twelfth 40 fortieth
13 thirteenth 50 fiftieth
14 fourteenth 60 sixtieth
15 fifteenth 70 seventieth
16 sixteenth 80 eightieth
17 seventeenth 90 ninetieth
18 eighteenth 100 one hundredth
19 nineteenth 1,000 one thousandth
20 twentieth 1,000,000 one millionth

Os numerais ordinais tambm tm suas peculiari-


dades. Veja:

a) Quando expressos em algarismos, vm acompanhados


das duas ltimas letras correspondentes escrita do
nmero em ordinal.
first = 1st
second = 2nd

193
third = 3rd
fourth = 4th
thirty-sixth = 36th
two hundred and first = 201st

b) Nos nmeros ordinais compostos, s o ltimo nmero


escrito em ordinal.

21st = twenty-first

EXERCCIOS
1 Classifique os nmeros a seguir em Cardinal ou
Ordinal, separando-os corretamente em colunas. Faa
esse exerccio no seu caderno.

eight seventeenth twenty-first two sixth


twenty-eighth ninth thirty second fifteen
fifth eleven third twelfth fourth one sixty-
seventh eighty thirteen tenth

2 Marque a alternativa que d o resultado correto


das operaes matemticas a seguir:

2.1. Sixty-one + thirteen

a) Seventy-four
b) Ninety-one
c) Ninety-five
d) Twelve

194
2.2. Fourteen + fifty

a) Eighty-five
b) Ninety
c) Sixth-six
d) Sixty-four

3 Voc trabalha como assessor(a) em uma empresa.


Um cliente telefona e pede para falar com o diretor. Ele
no est, ento voc anota o telefone das pessoas para
depois retornar a ligao. Os nmeros esto escritos por
extenso. Voc deve escrever o numeral correspondente.

a) four six five eight double five one three: __________


___________________________________________
b) seven nine double six eight one: ________________
___________________________________________
c) double nine four seven six five two: ______________
___________________________________________

4 Leia corretamente, por extenso, os nmeros


cardinais seguintes:

a) 154: ______________________________________
b) 93: ______________________________________
c) 1.674: ____________________________________
d) 55: ______________________________________

195
5 Voc trabalha em um escritrio que fica em
um edifcio bem alto. No elevador, algumas pessoas
pedem informao sobre onde esto os escritrios de
outras empresas. Leia por extenso os nmeros ordinais,
utilizados para localizar o andar onde esto os escritrios:

a) 21: ______________________________________
b) 2: _______________________________________
c) 16: ______________________________________
d) 3: _______________________________________
e) 4: _______________________________________

LESSON 3
SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION
The process of determining the equations
that govern the models dynamics is called system
identification. This can be done off-line: for example,
executing a series of measures from which to calculate
an approximated mathematical model, typically
its transfer function or matrix. Such identification
from the output, however, cannot take account of
unobservable dynamics. Sometimes the model is built
directly starting from known physical equations: for
example, in the case of a mass-spring-damper system.
Even assuming that a complete model is
used in designing the controller, all the parameters
included in the defined equations (called nominal
parameters) are never known with absolute
precision; the control system will have to behave
correctly even when connected to physical system

196
with true parameter values away from nominal.
Some advanced control techniques include an
on-line identification process. The parameters
of the model are calculated (identified) while the
controller itself is running: in this way, if a drastic
variation of the parameters ensues (for example, if
the robots arm releases a weight), the controller
will adjust itself consequently in order to ensure the
correct performance.
A particular robustness issue is the requirement for
a control system to perform properly in the presence
of input and state constraints. In the physical world
every signal is limited. It could happen that a controller
will send control signals that cannot be followed by the
physical system: for example, trying to rotate a valve at
excessive speed. This can produce undesired behavior
of the closed-loop system, or even break actuators
or other subsystems. Specific control techniques are
available to solve the problem.
(Fonte: Wikipedia)

Vocabulary
chosen: escolhido, selecionado
mass-spring-damper: mola do amortecedor de massa

197
EXERCCIOS
1 Na frase A control system must always have some
robustness property, a palavra destacada tem como
sinnimo, em ingls:

a) Weakness b) Hardiness c) Smoothness

2 Todas as palavras a seguir, retiradas do texto, esto


formadas pelo sufixo LY, que transforma adjetivos em
advrbios de modo. Traduza-as corretamente, buscando
no dicionrio, caso necessrio, a traduo da palavra-
base. Mas, lembre-se de que algumas palavras passam por
modificaes ortogrficas antes da sufixao.

a) Slightly: ___________________________________
b) Truly: ____________________________________
c) Mathematically:_____________________________
d) Typically: _________________________________

3 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:

a) O que sistema de identificao?


b) Como o sistema de identificao pode ser feito?
Cite exemplos.

4 Busque no texto as formas verbais no particpio


passado, a seguir relacionadas:

a) Aplicada: __________________________________
b) Usada: ____________________________________
c) Denominada: ______________________________
d) Definida: __________________________________

198
e) Conectada: ________________________________
f ) Calculada: _________________________________
g) Identificada: _______________________________

5 Agora passe as formas verbais que voc encontrou


no texto (exerccio 4) para sua forma de infinitivo e d
sua traduo.

6 Coloque (V) diante das afirmativas verdadeiras


e (F) para as falsas:

a) (---)_ O sistema de identificao s pode funcionar


on-line.
b) (---)_ Em relao ao sistema de controle, os sinais do
mundo fsico so ilimitados.
c) (---)_ Tcnicas avanadas de controle so usadas
sempre off-line.
d) (---)_ Os parmetros nominais utilizados no so
conhecidos com total preciso.

LANGUAGE SPOT
PASSIVE VOICE (Voz Passiva)
Frases formuladas na voz passiva esto muito
presentes em textos cientficos e acadmicos porque, ao
contrrio da voz ativa, em que se d nfase ao sujeito que
praticou a ao, a voz passiva enfatiza o objeto que sofre
a ao do sujeito.

199
Exemplos:
Voz ativa: Graham Bell invented the telephone.
(Graham Bell inventou o telefone.)
Voz passiva: The telephone was invented by Graham
Bell. (O telefone foi inventado por Graham Bell.)
Nas frases anteriores, as mudanas so visveis: a
inverso entre sujeito e objeto, ou seja, quem sujeito
na voz ativa passa a ser objeto na voz passiva, a mudana
quanto forma verbal, na voz ativa o verbo est no
passado, na passiva, est no particpio passado, alm do
acrscimo do verbo ser (to be) + a preposio by.
No entanto, nem todas as frases seguem essa
estrutura, principalmente os verbos, que precisam
estar em consonncia com o verbo da voz ativa. Para
exemplificar, apresenta-se a tabela:

TEMPO NA
VOZ PASSIVA EXEMPLOS
VOZ ATIVA
Voz ativa: Peter writes
many reports. (Peter es-
creve muitos relatrios.)
is/are + par-
Simple Present Voz passiva: Many re-
ticpio
ports are written by Peter.
(Muitos relatrios so
escritos por Peter.)
Voz ativa: Peter is writing
a report. (Peter est escre-
is/are + be- vendo um relatrio.)
Present Con-
ing + verbo Voz passiva: A report is
tinuous
no particpio being written by Peter.
(Um relatrio est sendo
escrito por Peter.)

200
Voz ativa: Peter wrote a
report. (Peter escreveu um
was/were relatrio.)
Simple Past + verbo no Voz passiva: A report was
particpio written by Peter. (Um
relatrio foi escrito por
Peter.)
Voz ativa: Peter was writ-
ing a report. (Peter estava
was/were
escrevendo um relatrio.)
Past Continu- + being +
Voz passiva: A report
ous verbo no
was being written by Pe-
particpio
ter. (Um relatrio estava
sendo escrito por Peter.)
Voz ativa: Peter will write
a report. (Peter escrever
will be + um relatrio.)
Simple Future verbo no Voz passiva: A report
particpio will be written by Peter.
(Um relatrio ser escrito
por Peter.)
Voz ativa: Peter has writ-
ten reports. (Peter tem
has/have + escrito relatrios.)
Present Perfect been + verbo Voz passiva: Reports have
no particpio been written by Peter.
(Relatrios tm sido escri-
tos por Peter.)
Voz ativa: Peter had writ-
ten letters. (Peter tinha
had been escrito relatrios.)
Past Perfect + verbo no Voz passiva: Reports had
particpio been written by Peter.
(Relatrios tinham sido
escritos por Peter.)

201
Voz ativa: Peter is going
to write a report. (Peter es-
am/is/are +
crever um relatrio.)
Future going going to be +
Voz passiva: A report is
to verbo no par-
going to be written by
ticpio
Peter. (Um relatrio ser
escrito por Peter.)

EXERCCIOS

1 Qual destas opes traz a voz passiva referente


frase a seguir?
Mary collects money.

a) Money was collect by Mary.


b) Mary is collecting money.
c) Money is collected by Mary.
d) Money is not being collect by Mary.

2 Relacione os inventores com seus inventos. Essas


frases esto na voz ativa. Aps, passe-as para a voz passiva,
em seu caderno:

a) Benjamin Franklin invented


b) Henry Ford improved
c) Eli Whitney invented
d) Thomas Edison developed
e) Johannes Gutenberg invented

(---) The cotton gin in 1794. It is a machine that


separates seeds.
(---) The Gutenberg press, an innovative printing
machine that used movable type.

202
(---) The lightning rod, bifocal glasses, and the odometer.
(---) The tin foil phonograph.
(---) The assembly line for automobile manufacturing.

3 Traduza corretamente as frases seguintes:

a) An automated method for fixing software bugs was


developed by a team of researchers from the University
of Virginia.
b) The ICARO project has been undertaken by the
Basque corporation Tecnalia to develop software to
optimize the design of aircraft wings.
c) The software was developed and refined to make it
commercially available.
d) The SketchCAD software that supports creation of
3D designs by sketching on a tablet computer, has been
developed by a team of engineers at Carnegie Mellon
University.
e) Molecular computers which self-assemble from RNA
within living cells have been developed by two scientists
at California Institute of Technology.

4 As frases do exerccio 3 esto na voz passiva.


Passe-as em seu caderno para a voz ativa.

203
204
UNIDADE 8
PLC (PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC
CONTROLLER)9

LESSON 1
INTRODUCTION TO PLC
PLC describes equipment that controls a process
(e.g. a printing machine for printing newspapers, a
press for pressing plastic-shaped parts etc.). This process
occurs according to the instructions of a program in
the memory of the equipment (see figure below).

9 Esta unidade e a unidade 9 tm como referncias:


- Astrom, Karl J. Computers controlled systems. Prentice-Hall,
1990.
- Madhuchhanda, M. Programmable logic controllers and indus-
trial automation book. Penram International publishing, (India), 2006.
- Wikipedia.

205
The PLC controls the process, in which actuators
are wired as outputs to designated connections of a PLC
with a control supply voltage of e.g. 24V. Motors can
be switched on and off, valves extended or retracted,
or lamps switched on and off through this connection
(see figure below).

A PLC receives information about the process from


signal generators which are wired to the inputs of the PLC.
These signal generators can be sensors which recognize
whether a working part, switches or buttons lie in a certain
position. This position can be closed or opened. Note the
variation between NC contacts (Normally Close), which
are inactive when closed, and NO contacts, which are
inactive when open (see figure below).

The variation between NO contacts and NC


contacts is within a signal PLC input signal generator
(see figure below).

206
The designation of a certain input or output
within the program is referred to as addressing. The
inputs and outputs of the PLCs are mostly defined in
groups of eight on digital input and/or digital output
devices. This eight-unit is called a byte.
Every such group receives a number as a byte
address. Each in/output byte is divided into 8 individual
bits, through which it can respond with. These bits are
numbered from bit 0 to bit 7. Thus one receives a bit
address. The PLC represented here has input bytes 0
and 1 as well as output bytes 4 and 5.

Vocabulary
press: prensa
plastic-shaped parts: peas moldadas de plstico
wired: ligados
addressing: endereamento
switches: interruptores
lie in: se encontram, esto
lit: passado de light - ascender
shown: mostrado(a/s)

207
EXERCCIOS

1 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:


a) Cite alguns equipamentos que controlam um processo.
b) Como ocorre esse controle?
c) O que endereamento?
d) Como so definidas as entradas e sadas dos CLPs?

2 Na frase The PLC controls the process, in which


actuators are wired as outputs, a palavra destacada um
pronome relativo. A que ou a quem ele se refere e qual
sua traduo? ________________________________ .

3 Numere a sequncia de aes relativas ao


endereamento:

a) (---) Os bits so numerados de bit 0 a bit 7.


b) (---) Cada grupo de oito unidades recebe um nmero
como um endereo de byte.
c) (---) Cada byte de sada se divide em 8 bits individuais.

4 Nesse texto, h muitos verbos regulares no


particpio passado. Para relembrar o que voc estudou
sobre eles, preencha o quadro a seguir. A primeira coluna
traz os verbos no infinitivo. Voc deve procurar no texto
suas formas no particpio passado e preencher a segunda
coluna. Na terceira, voc deve escrever a traduo dos
verbos que encontrou.

208
INFINITIVE PAST TRADUO
PARTICIPLE
To wire
To designate
To switch
To extend
To retract
To close
To open
To refer
To define
To call
To number
To represent

LANGUAGE SPOT
PLURAL OF NOUNS (Plural dos Substantivos)
O plural dos substantivos feito de forma bem
parecida com o portugus: a regra geral acrescentar
S palavra.
Exemplos: notebook notebooks
computer computers
engine engines
No entanto, h casos especiais. Veja os mais comuns:
a) Substantivos que terminam em S, SS, SH, X, CH, Z e
O fazem o plural com ES.
Exemplos: tomato tomatoes
bus buses
class classes
brush brushes
box boxes

209
church churches
buzz buzzes
Excees:
- Palavras terminadas em CH, mas que tenham o
som de K, fazem o plural apenas com S.
Exemplos: monarch monarchs
patriarch patriarchs
- Palavras estrangeiras terminadas em O fazem o
plural apenas com S.
Exemplos: casino casinos
photo photos
b) Substantivos terminados em Y precedido de vogal:
retira-se o Y e acrescenta-se IES.
Exemplos: story stories
city cities
study studies
Os substantivos terminados em Y precedido de
consoante seguem a regra geral, recebem apenas S.
Exemplos: day days
boy boys
c) Muitos substantivos terminados em F ou FE mudam
essa terminao para V e depois recebem VES.
Exemplos: wife wives
knife knives
leaf leaves
d) Plurais irregulares, aqueles feitos de forma diferente,
sem S.
Exemplos: man men woman women
child children
tooth teeth

210
foot feet
mouse mice

EXERCCIOS

1 Coloque as frases a seguir no plural. Preste


especial ateno aos substantivos destacados, mas no se
esquea de fazer a adequao de outros elementos como
artigos, pronomes, verbos etc.
a) The fox and the wolf attacked the ox in that valley last
week.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
b) There is a thief on that roof, and a spy in that church.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
c) He lives in a beautiful city.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
d) That lady is talking to that monarch about the problem
of her country.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
e) He bough a piano, a dress and a watch, and got a kiss
from his wife.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

211
2 Escreva o plural dos substantivos seguintes na
coluna correta. Aproveite para aprender mais palavras do
vocabulrio tcnico.

technology mouse carry address cable path


alarm switch area capacity crash access
array industry instrument flash sensor shelf
watch key man woman frequency port
control display protocol light resistor wave

S ES IES IRREGULAR

LESSON 2
PROGRAM WORK IN A PLC
Program processing in a PLC happens cyclically
with the following execution:
1 - After the PLC is switched on, the processor (which
represents the brain of the PLC) questions if the individual
inputs have been transmitted or not. This status of the input
is stored in the process-image input table (PII). Leading
inputs become the information 1 or High when enabled,
or the information 0 or Low when not enabled.
2 - This processor processes the program deposited
into the program memory. This consists of a list of

212
logic functions and instructions, which are successively
processed, so that the required input information
will already be accessed before the read in PII and the
matching results are written into a process-image output
table (PIQ)2. Also other storage areas for counters,
timers and memory bits will be accessed during
program processing by the processor if necessary.

3 - In the third step after the processing of the user


program, the status from the PIQ will transfer to the
outputs and then be switched on and/or off. Afterwards it
continues to operate, as seen in point 1 (see figure below)

Note: The time that the processor requires for this


execution is called a cycle time. This time is independent
from the number and types of commands.
Logic Operations in a PLC Program
Logic functions can be used in order to specify
conditions for the toggling of outputs. These
10

10 Abreviao de Paper Invoice Quotient, um mtodo de ava-


liao da eficincia do seu ambiente de processamento.

213
functions can be provided to the PLC-Program in
the programming languages ladder diagram (LAD),
function block diagram (FBD) or statement list (STL).
For the sake of descriptiveness, we will limit ourselves
here to FBD. A wide range of different logic operations
can be used in PLC programs.
AND as well as OR- operation and NEGATION
of an input can be frequently used. Basic examples are
briefly described below. The figure below shows the
main languages used in one PLC.

Vocabulary
the toggling of outputs: alternncia de resultados
for the sake of: por razes de
descriptiveness: descrio

214
EXERCCIOS

1 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:

a) De que forma acontece o programa de processamento


em um CPL? Explique sua execuo.
b) De que consiste a memria do programa?
c) O que tempo de ciclo?
d) Para que so usadas as funes lgicas?
2 Complete o trecho, retirado do texto, com
os elementos do quadro. Primeiro tente sem consultar
imediatamente o texto:

transmitted brain low processor high switched


on stored inputs

After the PLC is ______________, the


____________ (which represents the ___________ of
the PLC) questions if the individual ____________ have
been or not. This status of the input is ___________ in the
process-image input table (PII). Leading inputs become
the information 1 or ___________ when enabled, or the
information 0 or ___________ when not enabled.

3 Traduza corretamente as seguintes frases,


adaptadas do texto:

a) This processor processes the program deposited into


the program memory.
b) The program memory consists of a list of logic
functions and instructions.
c) Other storage areas will be accessed during program

215
processing by the processor if necessary.
d) The cycle time is independent from the number and
types of commands.

4 Vrias siglas e acrnimos so iniciais de Grupos


Nominais. No texto h vrios deles. Traduza-os:
a) PLC (Programming Language Control): __________
___________________________________________
b) LAD (Languages Ladder Diagram): _____________
c) STL (Statement List): ________________________
___________________________________________
d) FBD (function block diagram): _________________
___________________________________________

LANGUAGE SPOT
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
(Adjetivos e Advrbios)
Os adjetivos so palavras que modificam
substantivos, atribuindo-lhes uma caracterstica. No
variam em gnero nem em nmero. Uma variao, no
entanto, ocorre na traduo para o portugus.
Exemplos: a slow machine (uma mquina lenta) /
slow machines (mquinas lentas) a fast
machine (uma mquina rpida) / fast
machines (mquinas rpidas)
Os advrbios so palavras que modificam verbos,
adjetivos ou outros advrbios.
Exemplos: This machine runs slowly. (Esta
mquina funciona lentamente.)
That machine runs quickly. (Esta mquina funciona
rapidamente.)
Algumas palavras como hard (difcil), fast (rpido),

216
late (atrasado/tarde), early (cedo) podem ser adjetivos e
advrbios.
Exemplos: This is a fast car. (Este um carro
rpido.)
You drive fast. (Voc dirige rpido/rapidamente.)
Muitos advrbios so formados a partir de adjetivos,
ao acrescentar-se LY ao adjetivo. Exemplos:
Beautiful (bonito, lindo) beautifully (lindamente)
Lisa is a beautiful girl. (Lisa uma garota linda.)
This bird sings beautifully. (Este pssaro canta
lindamente.)
Sad (triste) sadly (tristemente)
Michael is a sad boy. (Michael um garoto triste.)
He sings sadly. (Ele canta tristemente.)
Alguns adjetivos passam por uma modificao
ortogrfica quando so acrescidos de LY. As mais comuns so:
a) Quando terminados em Y precedido de consoante,
troca-se o Y por I e acrescenta-se LY.
Exemplos: heavy (pesado) heavily (pesadamente)
happy (feliz) happily (felizmente) lazy
(preguioso) lazily (preguiosamente)
b) Alguns advrbios apresentam formao irregular.
Exemplo: good (bom) well (bem)
c) Alguns advrbios mudam o significado quando
acrescidos de LY.
Exemplo: late (tarde) lately (recentemente)

217
EXERCCIOS
1 Circule ou sublinhe a palavra que completa
corretamente as frases (adjetivo ou advrbio):
a) Sophie lived in Canada for many years, now she speaks
English fluent / fluently.
b) Melaine spoke confident / confidently to the audience.
c) An entrance examination is extreme / extremely
challenging.
d) Mr. Gmez generously / generous donated money to the
school fund.

2 Transforme os adjetivos dos parnteses em


advrbios de modo e insira-os nos espaos. Depois,
traduza corretamente as frases:
a) Peter works ___________. (slow)
b) He ____________ reads a book. (quick)
c) The class is ____________ loud today. (terrible)
d) You can _____________ open this tin. (easy)
e) He drives the car _____________. (careful)
3 Complete as palavras cruzadas transformando os
adjetivos em advrbios:

218
Tips

Down Across
1. quiet 3. fantastic
2. good 7. hard
4. nice 8. perfect
5. terrible 9. heavy
6. careful 10. regular

219
LESSON 3
Ladder language,
TIMERS AND COUNTERS
Ladder language is a programming language
used with PLCs. Ladder logic uses components that
resemble elements used in a line diagram format to
describe hard-wired control. The left vertical
line of a ladder logic diagram represents the power or
energized conductor. The output element or instruction
represents the neutral or return path of the circuit.
The right vertical line, which represents the return
path on a hard-wired control line diagram, is omitted.
Ladder logic diagram is read from left to right, top to
bottom. Rungs are sometimes referred to as networks.
A network may have several control elements, but only
one output coil.
Timers: Are devices that count increments of time.
Traffic lights are one example where timers are used. In
this example timers are used to control the length of
time between signal changes. Timers are represented by
boxes in ladder logic. When a timer receives an enable,
the timer starts to time. The timer compares its current
time with the preset time. The output of the timer is
a logic 0 as long as the current time is less than the
preset time. When the current time is greater them the
preset time the timer output is a logic 1.
Hard-Wired Timing Circuit: Timers used with
PLC can be compared to timing circuits used in hard-wired
control line diagrams. In the following example, a NO
switch (S1) is used with a timer (TR1). For this example
the timer has been set for 5 seconds. When S1 is closed
TR1 begins timing. When 5 seconds have elapsed, TR1

220
will close its associated NO TR1 contacts. Illuminating
pilot lights PL1. When S1 is open, desenergizing TR1,
the TR1 contacts open, immediately extinguishing PL1.
This type of timer is referred to as ON delay. ON delay
indicates that once a timer receives an enable signal, a
predetermined amount of time (set by the timer) must
pass before the timers contacts change sate.
Counters: The ones used in PLCs serve the same
function as mechanical counters. Counters compare an
accumulated value to a present value to control circuit
functions. Control applications that commonly use
counters include the following:
a) Count to a preset value and cause an event to
occur.
b) Cause an event to occur until the count reaches
a preset value. A blotting machine, for example, may
use a counter to count bottles into groups of six for
packaging.
Counters are represented by boxes in ladder logic.
Counters increment/decrement one account each time
the input transitions from off (logic 0) to on (logic
1). The counters are reset when RESET instruction is
executed.

Vocabulary
ladder: escada
timer: temporizador
resemble: se assemelham
hard-wired control: controle com fio
rungs: degraus
the length of time: perodo de tempo
preset time: tempo determinado
timing circuits: circuitos de temporizao

221
have elapsed: tiverem sido decorridos
counters: contadores, temporizadores
to reset: redefinir

EXERCCIOS
1 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:
a) O que linguagem Ladder?
b) O que a lgica Ladder utiliza?
c) Como lido o diagrama lgico da Ladder?
d) O que so temporizadores? Cite um exemplo.
e) Como os temporizadores so representados na lgica
Ladder?

2 Escreva o que os elementos a seguir representam


(em portugus):
a) A linha vertical esquerda: __________________
___________________________________________
b) O elemento de sada ou instruo: ___________
___________________________________________
c) A linha vertical direita: ____________________
___________________________________________

3 Relacione as palavras com seus significados. Tente


fazer isso, de preferncia, sem consultar imediatamente o
vocabulrio do texto:
a) Timing circuits ( ) controle com fio
b) Timer ( ) tempo determinado
c) Rungs ( ) perodo de tempo
d) Preset time ( ) temporizador
e) Hard-wired control ( ) degraus
f ) The length of time ( ) circuitos de temporizao

222
4 Assinale (V) para as afirmativas verdadeiras e (F)
para as falsas sobre os contadores.
a) ( ) Os usados em PLCs tm a mesma funo como
contadores mecnicos.
b) ( ) Eles comparam um valor acumulado com um
valor presente para controlar as funes do circuito.
c) ( ) Eles no tm representao na linguagem
Ladder.
d) ( ) No possvel redefinir os contadores aps uma
execuo.

LANGUAGE SPOT
DEGREES OF COMPARISON
(Graus do Comparativo)
O grau comparativo divide-se em comparativo
de igualdade (equality), superioridade (superiority)
e inferioridade (inferiority). O grau comparativo, de
forma geral, estabelece uma diferena entre dois ou
mais elementos.

COMPARATIVE OF EQUALITY
formado por: AS + ADJETIVO + AS
Significando: TO + ADJETIVO + QUANTO
Exemplo: Max is as tall as Tom. Max to alto
quanto Tom.
Quando o verbo est na negativa, tambm possvel
usar SO + ADJETIVO +AS

223
Exemplo: Sylvia is not so tall as John. Slvia no
to alta quanto John.

COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORITY
H duas formas de fazer o comparativo de
superioridade:
a) Adjetivos e advrbios com uma s slaba so
formados com o acrscimo da terminao ER + THAN.
Hard (difcil) harder (mais difcil)
Tall (alto) taller (mais alto)
Cold (frio) colder (mais frio)
Fast (rpido) faster (mais rpido)

Exemplo: This car is faster than that. Este carro


mais rpido que aquele.
Alguns adjetivos e advrbios passam por uma
modificao ortogrfica antes do acrscimo de ER.
Veja as mais comuns:

1 - Quando terminados em CVC (consoante, vogal,


consoante), desde que a ltima letra no seja W, X, Y ou
Z, dobra-se a ltima letra antes do acrscimo de ER.
Big (grande) bigger (maior)
Fat (gordo) fatter (mais gordo)
Hot (quente) hotter (mais quente)

Exemplo: Today is hotter than yesterday Hoje


est mais quente do que ontem.

2 - Quando terminados em E, recebem apenas R.


Large (grande) larger (maior)
Wide (amplo) wider (mais amplo)

224
Exemplo: Brazil is larger than Argentina. O
Brasil maior do que a Argentina.
3 - Quando terminados em Y precedido de
consoante, troca-se o Y por I e depois acrescenta-se ER.
Happy (feliz) happier (mais feliz)
Pretty (bonita) prettier (mais bonita)
Ugly (feio) uglier (mais feio)

Exemplo: Mary is happier than me. Mary est


mais feliz do que eu.

4 - Alguns adjetivos e advrbios tm o comparativo


irregular.
Good (bom)/well (bem) better (melhor)
Bad (ruim) worse (pior)
Little (pouco) less (menos)
Exemplo: This book is better than that. Este
livro melhor do que aquele.
b) Adjetivos ou advrbios com mais de uma slaba
so formados com MORE + ADJETIVO + THAN.
Polluted (poludo) more polluted than (mais
poludo que)
Interesting (interessante) more interesting than
(mais interessante que)
Expensive (caro) more expensive than (mais
caro que)
Exemplo: Helen is more efficient than Melaine.
(Helen mais eficiente que Melaine).

225
EXERCCIOS
1 Marque a opo que completa corretamente a
frase:
Hippopotamus are _________ elephants.
a) as fatter as
b) as fat as
c) as fatter than
d) as fat
e) more fat than

2 Marque a alternativa correta:


a) John is better than Mary but worse than me.
b) John is more better than Mary but worse than me.
c) John is better than Mary but more bed than me.
d) John is gooder than Mary bur worse than me.
e) John is more good than Mary but more bad than me.

3 Faa sentenas com os elementos indicados,


usando o comparativo de igualdade:

A teacher/a doctor (useful)


___________________________________________
Dennis/his sister (clever)
___________________________________________
Miss Taylor/Miss Smith (competent)
___________________________________________

4 Faa sentenas usando o comparativo de


inferioridade para comparar os itens a seguir:
a) Guarapari So Paulo (polluted)
___________________________________________

226
b) Swimming parachuting (dangerous)
___________________________________________

c) Fiat Uno Corolla (comfortable)


___________________________________________

5 Use o comparativo de igualdade na negativa na


sentena I e o de superioridade nas sentenas II e III:

Chess/checkers
I_________________________________ (good)
II___________________________ (hard to learn)
III______________________________ (exciting)

Spanish/Arabic
I_______________________________ (difficult)
II________________________________ (useful)
III_________________________________ (old)

A lion/an elephant
I________________________________ (strong)
II__________________________________ (fast)
III___________________________ (frightening)

Chicago / Miami
I________________________________ (sunny)
II______________________________ (polluted)
III_____________________________ (beautiful)

227
6 (UFPR) Do you think the play was _________
than the film?
a) more worse
b) badder than
c) as bad
d) worse

7 (PUC) Riding a horse is not ___________


riding a bicycle.
a) so easy as
b) more easy than
c) so easy so
d) most easy

228
UNIDADE 9
SCADA (Supervisory
Control and Data
Acquisition)

LESSON 1
INTRODUCTION TO SCADA
SCADA is the acronym for Supervisory Control
And Data Acquisition. In Europe, it refers to a large-
scale, distributed measurement and control system,
while in the rest of the world SCADA may describe
systems of any size or geographical distribution.
SCADA systems are typically used to perform data
collection and control at the supervisory level. Some
systems are called SCADA despite only performing
data acquisition and not control.
The supervisory control system is a system that is
placed on top of a real-time control system to control
a process that is external to the SCADA system (i.e.
a computer, by itself, is not a SCADA system even
though it controls its own power consumption and
cooling). This implies that the system is not critical to
control the process in real time, as there is a separate
or integrated real-time automated control system that
can respond quickly enough to compensate for process
changes within the time constants of the process. The
process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility

229
based as described below: industrial processes include
those of manufacturing, production, power generation,
fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous,
repetitive, or discrete modes.
Infrastructure processes may be public or
private, and include water treatment and distribution,
wastewater collection and treatment, oil and
gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and
distribution, and large communication systems. Facility
processes occur both in public facilities and private
ones, including buildings, airports, ships, and space
stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access, and
energy consumption.

Vocabulary
despite: apesar de
gas pipelines: gasodutos
HVAC = sigla para heating, ventilating and
air conditioning: aquecimento, ventilao e ar
condicionado.

EXERCCIOS

1 Traduza corretamente o acrnimo SCADA, que


formado por grupos nominais: Supervisory Control And
Data Acquisition: _____________________________

2 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:

a) Para que os sistemas SCADA so usados?

230
b) Cite duas definies de SCADA.

3 Existem vrios tipos de processos que podem


usar os sistemas SCADA. Classifique os processos a seguir
segundo estejam relacionados indstria, infraestrutura
ou a instalaes.

fabricao tratamento de gua produo


recolhimento de guas residuais gerao de energia
refino controle em estaes espaciais distribuio
de gua gasoduto transmisso de energia eltrica
controles em aeroportos

a) Indstria: __________________________________
___________________________________________
b) Infraestrutura: ______________________________
___________________________________________
c) Instalaes: ________________________________
___________________________________________

LANGUAGE SPOT
THE SUPERLATIVE (O Superlativo)
O superlativo usado para comparar elementos
em relao a grandes grupos, destacando-se uma
caracterstica em relao a todos os demais do mesmo
conjunto. Por exemplo, se em uma sala de aula
quisssemos destacar a altura de uma aluna em relao
s demais, seria invivel dizer que ela mais alta que
Maria, Mariana, Selma, e todas as demais meninas.
Assim, usando o superlativo, poderamos dizer que
Maria a aluna mais alta da sala.

231
Existem o superlativo de superioridade e o de
inferioridade.
A estrutura do superlativo de s uperioridade tambm
diferenciada em relao a adjetivos ou advrbios de uma
ou mais slaba. Veja:

a) Quando monosslabos, so formados com THE +


EST acrescentado palavra.

Hard (difcil) the hardest (o mais difcil)


Tall (alto) the tallest (o mais alto)
Cold (frio) coldest (o mais frio)
Fast (rpido) fastest (o mais rpido)

Exemplo: This car is the fastest I know. Este


carro o mais rpido que eu conheo.

Alguns adjetivos e advrbios passam por uma


modificao ortogrfica antes do acrscimo de ER.
Veja as mais comuns:

1 - Quando terminados em CVC (consoante, vogal,


consoante), desde que a ltima letra no seja W, X, Y ou
Z, dobra-se a ltima letra antes do acrscimo de ER.

Big (grande) the biggest (o maior)


Fat (gordo) the fattest (o mais gordo)
Hot (quente) hottest (o mais quente)

Exemplo: Today is the hottest day of the week.


Hoje o dia mais quente da semana.

2 - Quando terminados em E, recebem apenas ST.


Large (grande) the largest (o maior)

232
Wide (amplo) the widest (o mais amplo)
Exemplo: Brazil is the largest country in South
America. O Brasil o maior pas da
Amrica do Sul.

3 - Quando terminados em Y precedido de consoante,


troca-se o Y por I e depois se acrescenta EST.
Happy (feliz) the happiest (o mais feliz)
Pretty (bonita) the prettiest (a mais bonita)

Ugly (feio) the ugliest (o mais feio)

Exemplo: Mary is the happiest girl in the party.


Mary a garota mais feliz da festa.

4 - Alguns adjetivos e advrbios tm o comparativo


irregular.

Good (bom)/well (bem) the best (o melhor)


Bad (ruim) the worst (o pior)
Little (pouco) the least (o menos)

Exemplo: This book is the best of this year. Este


livro melhor deste ano.

b) Adjetivos ou advrbio com mais de uma slaba


so formados com THE MOST + ADJETIVO.

Polluted (poludo) the most polluted (o mais poludo)


Interesting (interessante) the most interesting (o
mais interessante)
Expensive (caro) the most expensive (o mais caro)

233
Exemplo: Helen is the most efficient secretary in
this company. Helen a secretria mais eficiente desta
empresa.

O superlativo de inferioridade feito assim:

THE + LEAST + ADJETIVO

Tall = The least tall = O menos alto


Interesting = The least interesting = O menos interessante
Beautiful = The least beautiful = O menos bonito
Exemplo: This is the least interesting magazine I
ever read. Esta a revista menos
interessante que eu j li.

EXERCCIOS

1 Sublinhe ou circule a alternativa correta quanto


ao grau superlativo:

a) Nancy is (more happy/the happiest/happier) girl in


class today. Its her birthday.
b) I want to buy (good/the best/the better) book in the
shop.
c) I think chess is (most complicated/more complicated/
the most complicated) game in the world.

2 Complete as frases usando os adjetivos dos


parnteses no grau superlativo de superioridade:

a) Our product is _____________ (good) in Automation


Management System.
b) This Lighting Control System provides

234
______________ (wide) range of solutions for all indoor
applications.
c) We offer ________________ (sophisticated) products
to our customers.
d) Our training center is equipped with
____________________ (late) automation equipment
and full audiovisual capabilities.
e) Get this guide to ____________ (sensible) automation
products.

3 Complete as frases usando os adjetivos dos


parnteses no grau superlativo de inferioridade:

a) This is _________________ (long) track of the CD.


b) Your technique is ________________ (efficient).
c) This program is __________________ (useful).
d) This equipment is ___________________________
(advanced) of all.
e) Real-time working is one of _________ (new) in the
computer field.

LESSON 2
SYSTEMS CONCEPTS
SCADA systems, a branch of instrumentation
engineering, include input-output signal hardware,
controllers, human-machine interfacing (HMI),
networks, communications, databases, and software.
The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems
which monitor and control entire sites, or complexes
of systems spread out over large areas (on the scale of
kilometers or miles). Most site control is performed

235
automatically by remote terminal units (RTUs) or by
programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Host control
functions are usually restricted to basic site overriding
or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC
may control the flow of cooling water through part
of an industrial process, but the SCADA system may
allow operators to change the set points for the flow,
and enable alarm conditions, such as loss of flow and
high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The
feedback control loop passes through the RTU or
PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the overall
performance of the loop (see figure down).
Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level
and includes meter readings and equipment status
reports that are communicated to SCADA as required.
Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way
that a control room operator using the HMI can make
supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU
(PLC) controls. Data may also be fed to a Historian,
often built on a commodity Database Management
System, to allow trending and other analytical auditing.
SCADA systems typically implement a distributed
database, commonly referred to as a tag database,
which contains data elements called tags or points.
A point represents a single input or output value
monitored or controlled by the system. Points can be
either hard or soft. A hard point represents an actual
input or output within the system, while a soft point
results from logic and math operations applied to other
points. (Most implementations conceptually remove

236
the distinction by making every property a soft point
expression, which may, in the simplest case, equal a
single hard point.) Points are normally stored as value-
timestamp pairs: a value, and the timestamp when it
was recorded or calculated. A series of value-timestamp
pairs gives the history of that point. Its also common to
store additional metadata with tags, such as the path to
a field device or PLC register, design time comments,
and alarm information.

Vocabulary
spread out: espalhados
cooling water: gua de refrigerao
control loop: malha de controle

237
the overall performance: o desempenho global
wastewater collection: recolhimento de guas residuais
gas pipelines: gasodutos
ships: navios
override: substituir, ultrapassar
meter readings: leituras do medidor
report: relatrio
fed: alimentados
historian: historiador
trending: tendncias
auditing: auditoria
value-timestamp pairs: pares valor-hora

EXERCCIOS

1 Traduza o fragmento de texto a seguir:

SCADA systems, a branch of instrumentation


engineering, include input-output signal hardware,
controllers, human-machine interfacing (HMI),
networks, communications, databases, and software.

2 Na frase The term SCADA usually refers to


centralized systems which monitor and control entire
sites, o pronome relativo destacado refere-se:

a) Ao termo SCADA
b) A monitor e controle
c) Aos sistemas centralizados
d) A sites

238
3 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:

a) Como feita a maioria dos controles de site?


b) Como geralmente so as funes de controle de
acolhimento? Cite um exemplo.
c) O que inclui a aquisio de dados?
d) O que acontece com os dados no sistema SCADA?
e) No banco de dados de tag, o que o ponto representa?
f ) Como podem ser os pontos? Explique.
g) Como podem ser armazenados os pontos?

4 Relacione as palavras com seus significados. Tente


fazer isso, de preferncia, sem consultar imediatamente o
vocabulrio do texto:

a) Cooling water ( ) gasodutos


b) Control loop ( ) pares valor-hora
c) Gas pipelines ( ) relatrio
d) Ships ( ) malha de controle
e) Meter readings ( ) gua de refrigerao
f ) Report ( ) leituras do medidor
g) Value-timestamp pairs ( ) navios

LANGUAGE SPOT
THE POSSESSIVE CASE (O Caso Possessivo)
O Possessive Case expressa uma relao de posse
entre sujeito e elemento possudo quando se refere a seres
animados (pessoas ou animais). Normalmente no
utilizado quando o possuidor um ser inanimado (coisas,
objetos); usado para simplificar a relao de posse
estabelecida por meio do artigo the e a preposio of.

239
Estrutura bsica: possuidor + S + elemento
possudo.

Exemplos: The play of Shakespeare Shakespeares


play
The food bowl of the dog The dogs
food bowl

H algumas regras especiais para o uso do Possessive


Case. Veja as mais comuns:

a) Quando o possuidor estiver no plural (terminado em


S), ou for um nome prprio terminado em S, bastar o
uso do apstrofo.

Exemplos: The notebooks of the boys


The boys notebooks.
The house of Jones Jones house.

b) Quando o possuidor est com plural irregular,


acrescenta-se normalmente S.

Exemplos: The toilet of the women The womens


toilet.
The nest of the mice The mices nest

c) Quando h dois possuidores para o mesmo elemento


possudo, acrescenta-se ou S ao ltimo possuidor.

Exemplos: The project of John and Alice John


and Alices project.
The wedding of Lucy and James
Lucy and James wedding.

240
d) Quando so mencionados dois sujeitos, mas
suas posses so individuais, acrescenta-se ou S a cada
possuidor.

Exemplos: The jobs of Paul and Richard


Pauls and Richards jobs.

The schoolbag of the boys and the girls. The


boys and the girls schoolbags.

e) Para possuidores que no so pessoas ou animais,


usam-se as construes the e of para estabelecer a relao
de posse.

Exemplos: The door of the church A porta da igreja


The key of the door A chave da porta

Tambm possvel usar o ou S quando:


1 - O possuidor uma organizao (grupo de
pessoas).

Exemplos: The governments laws As leis


do governo

The companys policy As polticas


da empresa

2 - O possuidor um lugar.

Exemplos: The citys new square A nova praa


da cidade
The worlds environmental problems Os
problemas ambientais do mundo.

241
3 - O possuidor um substantivo relativo a tempo.

Exemplos: Last nights party was cancelled. (A


festa de ontem noite foi cancelada.)
I need to study for next weeks test.
(Preciso estudar para a prova da se-
mana que vem.)

f ) possvel encontrar a estrutura possuidor + S ou


sem o elemento possudo quando a palavra relativa a este
ltimo fica subentendida.

Exemplos: Im going to the doctors (doctors office) =


Vou ao mdico.
My husband went to the butchers
(butchers shop) = Meu marido foi ao
aougue.

EXERCCIOS
1 Forme frases com os elementos a seguir usando
o (S) ou () para estabelecer uma relao de posse entre
eles, quando possvel. H casos em que essa relao ser
estabelecida por the + of.

a) Camera/Randy _________________________
b) The top/the page ________________________
c) Names/your friend ________________________
d) Car/Mike ______________________________
e) Price/the computer _______________________
f ) House/the Coopers _______________________
g) The second page/this book _________________

242
2 Traduza corretamente as frases, prestando ateno
relao de posse estabelecida entre os substantivos, por
meio do (S) ou ():

a) We offer start-up assistance for our customers


programmable controllers
b) Because no manufacturers line can fulfill all the
requirements of an every application, we customize many
automation products.
c) Todays competitive manufacturing environments
require automation to better control production
processes.
d) The worlds most successful companies.
f ) A team of industrys most qualified technocrats and
specialist engineers.

3 Marque a alternativa que complete corretamente


as frases:

A) Whose laptop is this? Its my ______________.


a) fathers
b) fathers
c) fathers
d) fathers

B) The womens office is here, and the _______ one is


there.
a) mans
b) men
c) mens
d) of mens

243
LESSON 3
Communication infrastructure and methods
SCADA systems have traditionally used
combinations of radio and direct serial or modem
connections to meet communication requirements,
although Ethernet and IP over SONET is also
frequently used at large sites such as railways and
power stations.
The remote management or monitoring function
of a SCADA system is often referred to as telemetry.
This has also come under threat with some customers
wanting SCADA data to travel over their pre-established
corporate networks or to share the network with other
applications. The legacy of the early low-bandwidth
protocols remains, though.
SCADA protocols are designed to be very
compact and many are designed to send information
to the master station only when the master station polls
the RTU. Typical legacy SCADA protocols include
Modbus, RP570 and Conitel. These communication
protocols are all SCADA-vendor specific. Standard
protocols are IEC 60870-5-101 or 104, IEC 61850,
Profibus and DNP3. These communication protocols
are standardized and recognized by all major SCADA
vendors. Many of these protocols now contain
extensions to operate over TCP/IP, although it is good
security engineering practice to avoid connecting
SCADA systems to the Internet so the attack surface
is reduced.

244
RTUs and other automatic controller devices were
being developed before the advent of industry wide
standards for interoperability. The result is that developers
and their management created a multitude of control
protocols. Among the larger vendors, there was also the
incentive to create their own protocol to lock in their
customer base. In latest days, the OPC or OLE for
Process Control has become a wide an accepted solution
for intercommunicating different hardware and software,
allowing communication even between devices originally
not intended to be part of an industrial network. There
are also other protocols like Modbus TCP/IP that became
widely accepted and are now the standard for many
hardware manufacturers.

Vocabulary
although: embora, contudo
railways: ferrovias
power stations: usinas de energia
telemetry: telemetria
the legacy: o legado
the early: os primeiros
low-bandwidth: banda de pequena largura
master station: estao mestre
interoperability: interoperabilidade
vendors: fornecedores
polls: controla

245
EXERCISES

1 Responda, corretamente, em portugus:

a) Quais combinaes so geralmente utilizadas pelos


sistemas SCADA?
b) O que telemetria?
c) Cite as caractersticas do protocolo SCADA.

2 Marque (V) para as afirmativas verdadeiras e (F)


para as falsas:

a) (---) Os protocolos SCADA tpicos so procedentes


de fornecedores especficos.
b) (---) Atualmente os protocolos so to seguros que po-
dem ser livremente conectados Internet.
c) (---) O protocolo Modbus atualmente muito aceito e
tem se tornado padro para muitos fabricantes de hardware.

3 Encontre no quadro e escreva os seguintes


termos, em ingls:
K T M O R Q N P Y K X Z T U V W H X R

M A S T E R S T A T I O N E O E V A A

J T U J K T Z E H Y I A L R L I D S D

R A I L W A Y S E T E R E W T S B E C

Y A I S Q G U I N N O L M M M G H K R

G G N I N T E R O P E R A B I L I T Y

P O W E R S T A T I O N T C S I M J W

W E Y H D R C R S U U E R M E R P A T

W A T B H O C R M E D E B A R I X W O

L O W B A N D W I D T H M E X Z T X Q

246
Ferrovias: ____________________________________
Usinas de energia: _____________________________
Telemetria: __________________________________
Banda de pequena largura: ______________________
Estao mestre: _______________________________
Interoperabilidade: ____________________________

4 Traduza corretamente as frases seguintes,


adaptadas do texto:

a) SCADA protocols are designed to be very compact.


b) Many SCADA protocols are designed to send information
to the master station only when it polls the RTU.
c) The communication protocols are standardized and
recognized by all major SCADA vendors.
d) Many protocols contain extensions to operate over
TCP/IP.
e) Other protocols like Modbus TCP/IP became widely
accepted and are now the standard for many hardware
manufacturers.

LANGUAGE SPOT
THE IMPERATIVE (O Imperativo)
O Imperativo usado para expressar uma ordem,
um pedido, um oferecimento, ou dar instrues. Em
relao a este ltimo, muito comum ser necessrio
orientar algum na utilizao de algum equipamento, e
as instrues de manuais esto geralmente no Imperativo,
da a importncia de conhecer bem esse tema. Pode ser
usado nas formas afirmativa e negativa.

247
AFFIRMATIVE FORM = VERBO (-TO) +
COMPLEMENTO

Exemplo: Study for the test! (Estude para a prova!)

NEGATIVE FORM = DONT VERBO (-TO) +


COMPLEMENTO

Exemplo: Dont open this door. (No abra esta porta.)

Geralmente o Imperativo usado para:

a) Dar uma ordem direta:


Give me the details.
Answer the questions.

b) Dar instrues:
Turn on/Turn off.
Press the button.

c) Fazer um convite:
Come in and sit down.

d) Fazer um oferecimento:
Have another piece of cake. Its delicious.

e) Dar conselhos de forma amistosa e informal:


Dont go way. Stay here and take some rest.
Talk to him about your feelings.

Tambm usamos o Imperativo em placas e avisos:

Exemplos: Keep out.


Dont touch this.
Insert one dollar.

248
Para suavizar o tom de uma ordem, tonando-a mais
polida e educada, usa-se please no incio da frase.

Exemplo: Please, dont close the window.

EXERCCIOS

1 Imagine que voc trabalhe em uma indstria de


produtos automotivos, no departamento de compras, e
recebe as ordens a seguir. Traduza-as corretamente:
a) Receive the goods: ___________________________
___________________________________________
b) Order these supplies: _________________________
___________________________________________
c) Check the invoice: ___________________________
___________________________________________
d) Take a credit card order: ______________________
___________________________________________

2 Complete o texto utilizando os verbos dos


parnteses no Imperativo Afirmativo.
______________ (to build) level and pressure sensors
for process monitoring and control. ____________ (to
keep) your eye on a level or a pressure to control your
processes. ______________ (to base) your sensors on a
wide range of technologies.
___________ (to help) your costumers finding the
right model.
___________ (to specialize) your company in matching
the right technology to the best application.

249
___________ (to have) a broad foundation of different
technologies.
___________ (to rest) assured that you will find the
right solution for your application needs.
3 Organize os elementos a seguir, de modo a
formar frases no Imperativo Negativo:

a) The new equipment/start _____________________


___________________________________________

b) Insert/password/the new ______________________


___________________________________________

c) This bottom/ press __________________________


___________________________________________

d) The flowchart/now/correct ____________________


___________________________________________

e) Buy/machine/this____________________________
___________________________________________

f ) Repair/the engines/this week ___________________


___________________________________________

4 O modo Imperativo pode ser usado para dar


instrues, fazer pedidos, dar ordens diretas etc. Diante
das frases a seguir, coloque (1) se a frase expressa ordem
direta, (2) se d instruo, (3) se um conselho. Pode
haver mais de uma alternativa correta, dependendo do
contexto.
a) ( ) Put all your valuables in a safe deposit box.
b) ( ) Stay at home and rest up. Youre so tired!

250
c) ( ) Give me the details.
d) ( ) Open your book.
e) ( ) Insert a one dollar bill and take the drink.

251
UNIDADE 10
PRTICA DE INTERPRETAO
DE TEXTOS

Nesta unidade, voc encontrar exerccios de leitura


e interpretao de textos sobre temas variados na rea de
automao. Ser mais uma oportunidade de ampliar seu
vocabulrio tcnico e praticar as estruturas gramaticais
do idioma.

1 Leia o fragmento de texto a seguir e responda s


perguntas, em portugus:

Photocopy machines

Photocopy machines are devices that are used


to reproduce copies of a text or image on paper.
Photocopiers have multiple advantages like they easily
reproduce copies of text or image taking very less time,
they do not make noise while doing so, thus keeping
the office environment noise free and they have fewer
moving parts which means that mechanical breakdown
rate is less (chances of machine developing fault).
(Fonte: http://www.digitivity.com/office-automotion/)

252
a) Defina o que so Photocopy machines.

_______________________________________

b) Cite duas vantagens de utilizar as Photocopy machines.


_______________________________________

c) Traduza corretamente os seguintes grupos nominais,


retirados do texto:

a) Office environment noise: _________________


b) Moving parts: __________________________
c) Mechanical breakdown: ___________________
d) Machine developing fault: _________________

2 Aproveitando a semelhana dos termos tcnicos


apresentados nos textos, relacione corretamente os termos
a seguir com sua traduo. Consulte um dicionrio
para ajud-lo com o significado das palavras que voc
desconhece totalmente ou que no so cognatas:

a) Thermocouples ( ) motores de passo


b) Ohmmeter ( ) lente de grande
abertura
c) Ammeter ( ) coordenador de
turno
d) Leaf electroscope ( ) calibre de tenso
e) Watt-hour meters ( ) cintilmetro
f ) Pressure gauge ( ) giroscpio de anel de
laser
g) Rate-of-climb indicator ( ) magnoestrio
h) Flow meter ( ) franjas

253
i) Strain gauge ( ) de onde
j) Light time-of-flight ( ) modo de
desligamento
k) Surveying equipment ( ) velocmetro
l) Standby mode ( ) equipamentos de
topografia
m) Shutdown mode ( ) encouraado
n) Beam ( ) medidor de vazo
o) Whence ( ) sismgrafo
p) Large aperture lens ( ) tempo limite do
percurso da luz
q) Battleship ( ) modo de espera
r) Fringes ( ) indicador de taxa de
elevao
s) Stepper motors ( ) eletroscpio de
folhas
t) Scintillation counter ( ) contadores
u) Seismometer ( ) manmetro de
presso
v) Speedometer ( ) ampermetro
x) Turn coordinator ( ) feixe, facho
y) Ring laser gyroscope ( ) ohmmetro
z) Magnetostriction ( ) termopares

3 The instruments can be grouped in agreement


the type of transmitted signal or the supplement. The
types of signals more used are:

Electric signal Pneumatic signal BY Modem


Hydraulical signal By radio Digital signal

254
Put which type in the space of the correspondent
function.
________________: In this type a compressed gas is
used, whose pressure is modified in agreement the value
that it desires to represent.
________________: Similar to the pneumatic type and
with disadvantages equivalents, the hydraulical type is
used on the variation of pressure exerted in hydraulical
oils for signal transmission.
________________: Instrumentation whose feeding is
the electric tension and the signal transmission standard
is the chain (4-20mA) or the tension (1-5Vcc). This type
of transmission is made using electric current signals or
tension.
________________: In this type, packages of
information on the measured variable are sent for a
receiving station, through modulated and standardized
digital signals. So that the communication between
the transmitting element and the receiver is carried
through with success is used a language standard called
communication protocol.
________________: In this type, the signal or a package
of measured signals is sent to its receiving station saw
waves of radio in a band of specific frequency.
________________: The transmission of the signals is
made through use of telephonic lines for the modulation
of the signal in frequency, phase or amplitude.

(Wikipedia adaptado)

255
Vocabulary
counter device: dispositivo de contagem
in agreement: de acordo com
package: pacote
waves: ondas

4 Uma empresa que vende produtos de automao


apresenta o produto a seguir. Traduza, nos espaos, as
especificaes desse produto:

ACS has introduced a NEW CD-ROM based


training of Programmable Logic Controllers called PLC
Automation Trainer. It includes the following:

PLC: includes

a) Introduction to PLC: ________________________


b) Input/Output Modules: ______________________
c) Basic Programming: _________________________
d) Timer Instruction: __________________________
e) Counter Instruction: ________________________
f ) Program Control Instruction: __________________

256
5 Ainda sobre o produto acima, nas expresses
Programmable Logic Controllers e PLC Automation Trainer,
muitas palavras so formadas por sufixos. Considerando
isso, escreva os verbos em ingls que as originaram. Voc
conseguir isso retirando o sufixo e, s vezes, sendo
necessrio fazer alguma adaptao na escrita.

a) Programmable: _____________________________
b) Controllers: ________________________________
c) Automation: _______________________________
d) Trainer: ___________________________________

6 Em relao ao exerccio anterior, agora escreva a


traduo das palavras com sufixos e tambm dos verbos
que voc encontrou:

a) ____________________ / ____________________
b) ____________________ / ____________________
c) ____________________ / ____________________
d) ____________________ / ____________________

7 There are many types of optical radiation. The


main are presented below. Link them with their right
definition:

a) Scanning laser
b) Interferometry
c) Light time-of-flight
d) Proximity sensor
e) Light sensors
f ) Infrared sensor
g) Scintillometers

257
h) Focus
i) Binocular

( ) Used in modern surveying equipment, a short pulse


of light is emitted and returned by a retroreflector. The
return time of the pulse is proportional to the distance
and is related to atmospheric density in a predictable way.
( ) Or photodetectors, including semiconductor devices
such as photocells, photodiodes, phototransistors, CCDs,
and image sensors; vacuum tube devices like photo-
electric tubes, photomultiplier tubes; and mechanical
instruments such as the Nichols radiometer.
( ) Especially used as occupancy sensor for lighting and
environmental controls.
( ) A type of distance sensor but less sophisticated. Only
detects a specific proximity. May be optical - combination
of a photocell and LED or laser. Applications in cell
phones, paper detector in photocopiers, auto power
standby/shutdown mode in notebooks and other devices
may employ a magnet and a Hall Effect device.
( ) A narrow beam of laser light is scanned over the
scene by a mirror. A photocell sensor located at an offset
responds when the beam is reflected from an object to the
sensor, whence the distance is calculated by triangulation.
( ) A large aperture lens may be focused by a servo
system. The distance to an in-focus scene element may
be determined by the lens setting.
( ) Two images gathered on a known baseline are brought
into coincidence by a system of mirrors and prisms. The
adjustment is used to determine distance. Used in some

258
cameras (called range-finder cameras) and on a larger
scale in early battleship range-finders.
( ) Interference fringes between transmitted and
reflected lightwaves produced by a coherent source such
as a laser are counted and the distance is calculated.
Capable of extremely high precision.
( ) Measure atmospheric optical disturbances.
(Fonte: Wikipedia adaptado)

8 Leia o fragmento de texto a seguir e responda s


perguntas que seguem, em portugus:

Unlike fossil fuels, which produce significant amounts


of pollution and enormous amounts of greenhouse
gases, the suns energy is clean and its supply virtually
limitless. In just one hour the Earth receives more
energy from the sun than human beings consume
during an entire year. According to Americas
Department of Energy, solar panels have the potential
to provide for all its current electricity needs.
(Extracted from: Ingls Srie Novo Ensino Mdio.
Amadeu Marques, So Paulo: tica, 2008, p. 76.)

a) O que os combustveis fsseis produzem? _________


___________________________________________
b) Como a luz solar?__________________________
c) O que significam as palavras virtually e limiteless,
retiradas do texto?______________________________
d) Traduza corretamente a seguinte frase, retirada do
texto:

259
In just one hour the Earth receives more energy from the
sun than human beings consume during an entire year.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
e) Retire trs grupos nominais do texto e traduza-os:
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

9 Aprendemos que muitas palavras cuja


formao composta por ING podem apresentar
diferentes classes gramaticais e variar quanto ao
significado. Com base nessa informao, identifique
as palavras em destaque nas frases a seguir como FV
(forma verbal) ou S (substantivo):

a) The temperature is rising in the Arctic. ( )


b) Global warming causes the ice-caps to melt. ( )
c) Why is it happening now? ( )
d) The boom in energy is changing the economy. ( )

10 Traduza corretamente as frases do exerccio 10.

11 Leia o fragmento de texto a seguir e responda


s perguntas que seguem, em portugus:

Currently, for manufacturing companies, the purpose


of automation has shifted from increasing productivity
and reducing costs, to broader issues, such as increasing
quality and flexibility in the manufacturing process.

260
The old focus on using automation simply to
increase productivity and reduce costs was seen to be
short-sighted, because it is also necessary to provide
a skilled workforce who can make repairs and manage
the machinery. Moreover, the initial costs of automation
were high and often could not be recovered by the time
entirely new manufacturing processes replaced the old.
Automation is now often applied primarily to
increase quality in the manufacturing process, where
automation can increase quality substantially. For
example, automobile and truck pistons used to be installed
into engines manually. This is rapidly being transitioned
to automated machine installation, because the error
rate for manual installment was around 1-1.5%, but has
been reduced to 0.00001% with automation. Hazardous
operations, such as oil refining, the manufacturing of
industrial chemicals, and all forms of metal working,
were always early contenders for automation.
(Fonte: http://mad4cad.com/automation.php)

Vocabulary
moreover: alm disso

a) Segundo o primeiro pargrafo do texto, o objetivo


da automao da indstria foi ampliado. Antes, os dois
objetivos (principais) eram ______________________
_____________________ e agora tambm so ______
__________________________________________ .

b) Consulte o segundo pargrafo e responda corretamente,


em portugus: por que foi necessrio ampliar os objetivos

261
iniciais da automao?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

c) Segundo o texto, atualmente, qual a prioridade da


automao?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

d) Traduza (pode ser de forma resumida) o exemplo


dado pelo texto que justifique a resposta da letra c.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

e) Retire do texto quatro grupos nominais e traduza-os.

f ) Aprendemos que muitas palavras cuja formao


composta por ING podem apresentar diferentes classes
gramaticais e variar quanto ao significado. Sendo assim,
retire do texto e traduza os seguintes exemplos dessas
palavras (apenas um exemplo de cada):

Gerndio aps preposio: ______________________


___________________________________________
Gerndio formando adjetivo (parte de um grupo
nominal): ___________________________________
___________________________________________
Gerndio formando Present Continuous Tense: ________
___________________________________________

g) Estudamos a formao de palavras em ingls, que pode

262
ocorrer, principalmente, a partir de prefixos e sufixos.
Sendo assim, retire do texto e traduza um exemplo de:

Advrbio de modo formado a partir de um adjetivo:


___________________________________________
Substantivo abstrato formado a partir de adjetivo: _____
___________________________________________

12 Leia sobre os produtos ofertados a seguir e


traduza corretamente a definio sobre eles. No preciso
traduzir o nome dos produtos:

a) Remote Desktop: Allows you to use mouse and


keyboard to control the other PC remotely.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

b) Global Automotive and CapitalEquipment:


Can quickly apply the same technology for global
automotive products and factory automation.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

d) Oil Services and Gas Producers: Helps oil exploration


companies comply with global safety regulations.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

e) Wireless, CRM and Sales Force Automation:


Is an ideal tool to compress technical manuals
distributed by wireless or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

263
13 Leia o texto a seguir para responder corretamente
s questes:

(Universidade Federal de Itajub - adaptada)


Hy-Wire Car - General Motors

The car of the future looks something like this: it


has no engine, no steering column and no brake pedal.
It requires no gasoline, emits no pollution (just a little
water vapor) and yet handles like a high-performance
Porsche. It might sound like an environmentalists
fantasy, but there it was on display at the Paris Auto
Show last September: the Hy-Wire, a politically correct,
fully functional prototype that General Motors claims
could be road ready by 2010. Instead of an international-
combustion engine, for example, the Hywire is powered
by fuel cells like those used in the orbiting space station.
Power is generated by an electrochemical reaction of
hydrogen and oxygen that yields as its by-product
only heat and H20. No smelly exhaust, no smoke, no
greenhouse gases.
a) Cite trs razes pelas quais o carro descrito pode ser
considerado a realizao de um sonho dos ambientalistas
(resposta em portugus):
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

b) Sobre as caractersticas deste novo carro, correto


afirmar que:

264
a) muito caro.
b) Estar disponvel para venda antes de 2010.
c) No tem motor.
d) Ainda no foi feito nenhum exemplar dele.

c) Como gerada a energia para funcionar este carro?


(resposta em portugus)
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

14 Leia o texto a seguir e depois responda


corretamente s questes:

Electronics Today
Businesses and other organizations depend on
complex electronic equipment for a variety of functions.
Industrial controls automatically monitor and direct
production processes on the factory floor. Transmitters
and antennae provide communication links for many
organizations. Electric power companies use electronic
equipment to operate and control generating plants,
substations, and monitoring equipment. The Federal
Government uses radar and missile control systems to
provide for the national defense and to direct commercial
air traffic. These complex pieces of electronic equipment
are installed, maintained, and repaired by electrical and
electronics installers and repairers.
(Fonte: http://www.free-ed.net/free-ed/ElecTech/default.asp)

265
a) Retire do texto trs grupos nominais e traduza-os:

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

b) Para que as empresas de energia usam equipamentos


eletrnicos? (resposta em portugus)
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

c) Para que o Governo Federal usa radares e sistemas de


controles de msseis? (resposta em portugus)
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

d) Traduza corretamente a seguinte frase, retirada do


texto:
These complex pieces of electronic equipment are
installed, maintained, and repaired by electrical and
electronics installers and repairers.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

15 Leia este anncio da empresa ABB e depois


responda s perguntas corretamente, em portugus:

This ABB business serves customers with energy


efficient and reliable products to improve customers
productivity, including drives, motors and generators, low
voltage products, instrumentation and power electronics.

266
a) O que a ABB oferece aos clientes? _______________
___________________________________________
b) Quais so os produtos oferecidos por esta empresa? __
___________________________________________

16 Leia o texto a seguir e, responda corretamente


questo (em portugus):

Bar codes to identify missing children

It could prove the perfect solution for parents worried


about losing their children. The European Commission
is considering a Belgian plan to sew supermarket-style
bar codes into childrens clothing to help identify them if
they go missing. Under the scheme, devised by a Belgian
company and computer experts at Louvain University,
parents would buy blank versions of the so-called junior
stripe badges which could be programmed with the
childrens details at a police station.
Policemen, coastguards and other officials would
have electronic pens and software to read the strips.
Besides the names and addresses of the children, the
bar code could contain other information such as their
blood group. Families on holiday, when most children go
missing, could include a hotel address.
(Fonte: Sunday Times, July 13, 1997:19)

Vocabulary
stripe badges: crachs em forma de etiqueta
devised by: concebido por

267
could: poderia
to sew: costurar

a) O texto apresenta um novo uso para o cdigo de barras.


Mencione sua finalidade: ________________________
Explique como as crianas o usariam: ______________
___________________________________________
b) Cite as quatro informaes que poderiam estar
contidas no cdigo de barras usado pelas crianas:
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
c) A que se refere o pronome them, destacado no texto?
(em portugus)
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
d) Encontre no texto pelo menos cinco grupos nominais
e traduza-os:
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
e) Retire do texto palavras que correspondam s seguintes
em portugus:
Alm de: ____________________________________
Preocupados: _________________________________
Tais como: ___________________________________
Vestimenta, roupa: ____________________________

268
17 Leia informaes sobre um curso bsico de
automao, disponibilizado pela Internet e, em seguida,
responda s perguntas (em portugus):

Short term Automation Course for 6 days


This course is specially for persons coming from
the industry who need to have the right knowledge
of PLC applications, instructions, programming,
interfacing. The course starts from the Basics as we have
different persons coming from different backgrounds
with varied experiences and we need to start from a
common ground.

a) Para quem, especialmente, esse curso foi planejado?__


b) Por que o curso se comea do nvel bsico?
___________________________________________
c) Retire do texto cinco palavras cognatas e escreva sua
traduo_____________________________________

18 Leia o texto a seguir e depois resolva as questes:

Microeletronics: how does it affect


our lives?

Microeletronics has affected nowadays culture. It has


specially affected our lives in the field of small personal
consumer goods. Digital watches, pocket calculators,
personal stereos are now universally available in great
variety. Microeletronics is also applied in our home.
Cookers, washing machines, dishwashers and microwave
ovens are now being fitted with their own microeletronic

269
programmes. A microcomputer, for example, enables us
to programme all services we use in the house: to switch
lights on and off, record selected programmes, switch the
TV on and off, take telephone messages etc. Can you
imagine an office without microeletronic nowadays? Big
business companies without computers? Machines do
not replace people. On the other hand, some people do
not replace certains machines!

Vocabulary

microelectronics: microeletrnica
consumer goods: bens de consumo

a) Coloque (V) para as alternativas verdadeiras e (F) para


as falsas:

( ) H muitos escritrios sem microeletrnicos.


( ) Com a microeletrnica, possvel ligar e desligar
uma TV.
( ) O campo dos pequenos bens de consumo pessoais
tm muitas variedades.
( ) As mquinas no substituem certas pessoas.
( ) Nossas vidas no so afetadas pela microeletrnica.

b) Traduza corretamente o ttulo do texto:


Microelectronics: how does it affect our lives? ________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

270
c) Traduza corretamente a seguinte frase:
Machines do not replace people, but some people do not
replace certains machines.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
d) Cite, com base no texto, dois exemplos de pequenos
bens de consumo pessoais (em portugus):
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

e) Cite, com base no texto, dois exemplos de


eletrodomsticos que tm programas da microeletrnica
(em portugus):
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
f ) Traduza corretamente a seguinte frase:
A microcomputer enables us to programme all
services we use in the house.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

19 Leia o fragmento de texto a seguir e depois


responda, em portugus:
ABB has delivered millions of drives over the past 30
years, helping increase productivity, improve process
control, reduce maintenance costs and save energy.

Os drives da ABB tm ajudado a fazer o qu?_________


___________________________________________

271
20 Traduza corretamente as seguintes frases:
a) Large-scale power converters and drives must be
reliable, fast and precise.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
b) AC drives are used to control the speed and torque of
a standard induction motor.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

21 Leia o texto a seguir e, em seguida, faa o que


se pede:

Strategic Maintenance Solutions Magazine

The Strategic Maintenance magazine has been


developed to provide the information you need to identify
automation-related maintenance issues, develop the right
maintenance strategy utilizing the right combination of
predictive, prevent and reactive methods. Inside you
will find feature articles, whats new in maintenance,
frequently asked questions, customer success stories, and
details on the complete portfolio of maintenance-related
products, services and support we offer to help you meet
your production and business goals.
(Fonte: http://www.rockwellautomation.com/solutions/
maintenance/magazine.html)

a) Traduza corretamente os seguintes grupos nominais


retirados do texto:

272
Strategic Maintenance magazine: __________________
___________________________________________
Automation-related maintenance issues: ____________
___________________________________________
Right maintenance strategy: _____________________
___________________________________________
Customer success stories: ________________________
___________________________________________
Maintenance-related products: ___________________
___________________________________________
Production and business goals: ___________________
___________________________________________

b) Responda corretamente, em portugus: para que foi


desenvolvida esta revista?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

c) O que se pode encontrar nela? __________________


___________________________________________
___________________________________________

22 Observe o fragmento de texto seguinte e retire


dele palavras que correspondam s seguintes palavras ou
expresses em portugus:

An operating system (called an OS for short) is a


set of programs that runs your computer. A computer is
made of hardware (your monitor, hard disk motherboard
and so on) and software (for example your word processor,
and the web browser you are reading this on right now).

273
The job of the operating system is to tell the hardware
how it should operate, and how the software should use
the hardware. It also provides the basic user interface
the thing that tells you where your files are, how to open
them, close them and so on.

a) : _______________________________________
b) Um, uma: _________________________________
c) Operar: ___________________________________
d) Processador de texto: _________________________
e) Fornece: __________________________________
f ) Operacional: _______________________________
g) Usar: _____________________________________
h) Usurio: __________________________________
i) Arquivos: __________________________________

23 O produto a seguir est sendo vendido por


uma empresa especializada em produtos para automao.
Leia suas especificaes e depois responda s questes:

One of the primary methods of air isolation for


cleaning, maintenance and set-up of machinery is
LockOut/TagOut (LOTO)
- Should be easy to identify
- Should be easy to operate

274
- Must have exhaust port larger or equal to supply
port size
- Should only be capable of being locked in the off
position
(Fonte: http://www.lewisautomation.com.au/auto_ref.htm)

a) Para que este produto usado?


b) Escreva, em portugus, suas 4 principais caractersticas:
___________________________________________
___________________________________________.

___________________________________________
___________________________________________.

___________________________________________
___________________________________________.

___________________________________________
___________________________________________.

24 - Leia o texto e, em seguida, responda corretamente


s questes em portugus:

RoboTask Automation Software


People like RoboTask for four reasons: It uses very
few system resources (it needs only 64M bytes of RAM
and about 7M bytes of free disk); it is easy to use but
offers rich and complex functionality; it is robust; and
finally, it is inexpensive ($99).
The user interface consists of a vertical arrangement
of panels consisting of a task browser panel divided into a
left-hand subpanel list of folders and a list of the tasks in the
selected folder in the right-hand subpanel. The bottom panel

275
is the RoboTask log, which displays information, warnings
and error messages. You can order RoboTask online at any
time before or after the evaluation period expires.
We invite you to download RoboTask trial version
for a free 30-day evaluation. You can try all of the
features to see if the software meets your needs. During
the evaluation, all features are fully functional.
(Fonte: http://www.top4download.com/robotask/ipxietem.html)

Vocabulary

bottom panel: painel inferior, ou de fundo


folders: pastas
features: recursos

a) O que RoboTask? __________________________


___________________________________________

b) Cite as quatro razes pelas quais as pessoas gostam do


RoboTask.

c) Traduza corretamente a seguinte parte de uma frase,


retirada do texto:
The user interface consists of a vertical arrangement
of panels.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

d) Diga de que forma e quando o RoboTask pode ser


comprado: __________________________________
___________________________________________

276
e) Traduza corretamente a seguinte parte de uma frase,
retirada do texto:
We invite you to download RoboTask trial version
for a free 30-day evaluation.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

f ) Para qu a empresa oferece um download grtis para


testar?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

g) possvel testar apenas partes ou todos os recursos?


___________________________________________
___________________________________________

25 Leia o fragmento de texto e em seguida


responda s perguntas, corretamente, em portugus:

Electronics is a branch of science and technology


that deals with the flow of electrons through nonmetallic
conductors, mainly semiconductors such as silicon.
Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio
receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few
types of basic circuits.
(Fonte: http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=36577761849)

a) A Eletrnica um ramo da cincia que lida com o qu?


___________________________________________
___________________________________________

277
b) A partir de que so construdos os receptores de rdio?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

26 Leia o texto seguinte e depois responda,


corretamente e em portugus, s questes:

Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number


of discrete voltage levels. Digital circuits are the most
common physical representation of Boolean algebra and
are the basis of all digital computers. To most engineers,
the terms digital circuit, digital system and logic are
interchangeable in the context of digital circuits. Most
digital circuits use two voltage levels labeled Low(0)
and High(1). Often Low will be near zero volts and
High will be at a higher level depending on the supply
voltage in use.
(Fonte: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronics#Digital_circuits)

a) O que so circuitos digitais?____________________


___________________________________________
b) Explique os dois nveis de voltagem da maioria dos
circuitos digitais:
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
c) Retire do texto trs exemplos de grupos nominais e
traduza-os:
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

278
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

27 Leia o texto e em seguida responda, corretamente


e em portugus, s perguntas:

Electrical & Electronic Passive Devices Products

Electronic components that consume electrical energy


or power but do not produce electrical energy are called
electronic passive devices. In other words it can be said that
passive devices contribute no power gain or amplification to
a circuit. They only require a signal to perform their function.
Electrical, Electronic Passive Devices include Resistors,
Capacitors and Inductors, required to build electronic
circuits. The selection criteria for electrical, electronic passive
devices is as demanding as the applications for which they
are used, which consist of they being accurate, stable, small
size, surface mounting and of low cost.
(Fonte: http://www.digitivity.com/passive-devices/)

a) Defina o que so dispositivos eletrnicos passivos.


___________________________________________
___________________________________________
b) Cite trs exemplos de dispositivos eletrnicos/eltricos
passivos e diga para que eles so usados.
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
c) Qual o critrio para uso desses dispositivos?
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

279
28 Leia sobre o produto a seguir e depois marque
com um X somente as informaes verdadeiras sobre ele:

Programmable Logic Controllers


MicroLogix 1000 brings high speed, powerful
instructions and flexible communications to applications
that demand compact, cost-effective solutions. The
MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller is available in
10-point, 16-point or 32-point digital I/O versions. Analog
versions are also available with 20 digital I/O points, with 4
analog inputs (two voltages and two current) and 1 analog
output (configurable for either voltage or current). This
little powerhouse is both inexpensive and compact, the
analog I/O circuitry is embedded into the base controller,
not accomplished through add-on modules, providing
compact and cost-effective analog performance.
Features
Preconfigured 1K programming and data memory
help ease configuration (bit, integer, timers, counters etc.)
Fast processing allows for typical throughput
time of 1.5 ms for a 500-instruction program
(Fonte: http://allen-bradley.5130cn.com/)

( ) de baixa velocidade.
( ) indicado para grandes demandas.
( ) de alto custo.
( ) Est disponvel em trs verses.
( ) de rpido processamento
( ) Tem fcil configurao.

280
29 Observe os produtos e, em seguida, responda
s questes sobre cada um deles:
Phoenix Contact announces
QUICKON M8 connectors
QUICKON uses insulation-displacement
technology to reduce installation times by
up to 80 percent.

a) Para que usado este produto? ______


________________________________
Software Toolbox Enhances Top Server
Software
Enhancements in Version 5.3 include
DNP 3.0 Ethernet and serial drivers that
enable utilities to connect, control and
manage devices locally or from remote
substations.

b) O que este software permite fazer? ____


________________________________
Perpetuum announces PGM Free-
Standing Harvester
Free-Standing Harvester converts unused
mechanical vibration into useable
electrical energy to power wireless sensor
systems.

c) Para que este produto pode ser usado? _


_________________________________

281
AutomationDirect releases Cat5e
Ethernet patch cables
Patch cables reduce the effects of
electromagnetic interference by
incorporating a single metal foil shield
which wraps around the entire set of four
twisted shielded pairs.

d) O que faz este produto?


________________________________
________________________________

30 Leia o texto e em seguida responda s perguntas,


em portugus:

Walk Around
The Enpac family is a collection of Windows CE
based, high performance, portable condition monitoring
data collectors and signal analyzers. Enpac allows for
easy condition monitoring of equipment found in many
process industries.
The small, rugged, and light weight design makes
it ideal for industrial environments. New 1/4VGA color
LCD display allows for clear viewing in almost any light
situation. Speed improvements through the addition of

282
the latest chip design. Channel function option allows
for advance use and simultaneous data collection.
Modular design offers easy component add on and future
improvements.
(Fonte: http://www.provisosystems.co.uk/index.
php?option=com_content&view=article&id=131:enpac-data-
collectors&catid=37&Itemid=63)

O que a famlia Enpac?_______________________


O que a Enpac permite fazer? ____________________
Cite trs caractersticas fsicas do produto: ___________
___________________________________________
Cite uma vantagem de seu novo display: ____________
___________________________________________
Como sua velocidade pode ser melhorada? __________
___________________________________________

LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES

Esta tabela traz somente verbos de maior frequncia


em livros e manuais da rea de automao.

283
PAST PAST PARTI-
INFINITIVE TRANSLA-
CIPLE
(INFINITI- TENSE TION
(PARTIC-
VO) (PASSADO) (TRADUO)
PIO)
to arise arose arisen surgir, erguer-se

to be was, were been ser, estar

to beat beat beat/beaten bater


to become became become tornar-se
to begin began begun comear

to blow blew blown soprar


to break broke broken quebrar
to bring brought brought trazer
to build built built construir
to burn burnt burnt queimar
to buy bought bought comprar
to catch caught caught pegar, capturar
to choose chose chosen escolher
to come came come vir
to cost cost cost custar
to cut cut cut cortar

to do did done fazer


negociar, lidar
to deal dealt dealt
com
to draw drew drawn desenhar

to drive drove driven dirigir

to fall fell fallen cair

284
to feed fed fed alimentar
to feel felt felt sentir
to fight fought fought lutar
to find found found encontrar
to fly flew flown voar
to forbid forbade forbidden proibir
to forget forgot forgotten esquecer

to forsake forsook forsaken abandonar

conseguir,
to get got got/gotten
obter, adquirir
to give gave given dar, conceder
to go went gone ir
crescer,
to grow grew grown
aumentar
to have had had ter
to hear heard heard ouvir, escutar
esconder,
to hide hid hid/hidden
ocultar
to hit hit hit bater, ferir
to hold held held segurar
to hurt hurt hurt machucar
to keep kept kept manter, guardar
to know knew known saber, conhecer
conduzir,
to lead led led
comandar
to lend lent lent emprestar
to lose lost lost perder
to make made made fazer, criar
to meet met met encontrar
to pay paid paid pagar

285
to put put put colocar
to read read read ler
to ride rode ridden andar, passear
tocar (sino,
to ring rand rung
campainha)
to rise rose rise levantar, erguer
correr,
to run ran run
funcionar
to say said said dizer
to see saw seen ver
to sell sold sold vender
to send sent sent enviar
to set set set fixar, estabelecer
to shut shut shut fechar, tapar
to sleep slept slept dormir

deslizar,
to slide slid slid
escorregar
apressar,
to speed sped sped
acelerar
entornar,
to spill spilt spilt
derramar
girar, rodar,
to spin spun spun
tecer
dividir,
to split split split
fracionar
to take took taken pegar
to teach taught taught ensinar
to tell told told dizer

to win won won ganhar


to write wrote written escrever

286
GLOSSRIO TCNICO

Este glossrio contempla palavras, termos e expresses


especficos da rea de automao e afins.

Main Verbs

A
add up = somar
analyse = analisar

B
back up = voltar/retroceder
begin = comear
break = interromper/quebrar
build = construir/fazer
buy = comprar

C
catch = captar, capturar
carry = carregar
carry out = executar
change = mudar
check = verificar/checar
choose = escolher

287
classify = classificar
clear = limpar
close = fechar
combine = combinar
compare = comparar
configure = configurar
contain = conter
control = controlar
copy = copiar
cover = cobrir
create = criar

D
deal = negociar/lidar com
debug = corrigir erros/depurar
delay = retardar
delete = apagar/remover
describe = descrever
design = projetar/desenhar
determine = determinar
develop = desenvolver
disable = desativar
display = mostrar/exibir
do = fazer
draw = desenhar
duplicate = duplicar

E
empty = esvaziar
enable = ativar

288
encode = codificar
erase = apagar
execute = executar
explain = explicar
express = expressar

F
fill = preencher/ocupar
find = encontrar
fit = ajustar
fix = consertar
forget = esquecer

G
generate = gerar
get = obter/conseguir

H
halt = parar
have = ter
help = ajustar
hide = esconder
hold = segurar/armazenar/guardar

I
improve = melhorar
include = incluir
indicate = indicar
insert = inserir
interrupt = interromper

289
invert = inverter

L
link = ligar/conectar
list = listar
locate = situar
lock = travar/trancar/fechar
lose = perder

M
mail = remeter
manage = manipular
map = mapear
marge = intercalar
match = combinar
measure = medir
modify = modificar
move = mover
multiply = multiplicar

O
open = abrir
optimize = otimizar
overwrite = sobregravar/sobreescrever

P
paint = pintar
pass = passar
perform = executar/desempenhar
plan = planejar

290
print = imprimir
process = processar
provide = fornecer/proporcionar
punch = perfurar
push = pressionar/apertar
put = colocar

R
reach = alcanar
read = ler
rebuild = refazer
record = registrar
reload = recarregar
relocate = relocalizar
remove = remover
repair = consertar
replace = substituir
report = relatar
request = solicitar/requerer
reset = restaurar
resize = redimencionar
restart = reiniciar
restore = restaurar/rearmazenar
retry = repetir/tentar
return = retornar
rewrite = regravar
round = arredondar
run = rodar/funcionar

291
S
save = salvar/gravar
search = buscar
see = ver
seek = buscar/procurar
select = selecionar
sell = vender
send = enviar
separate = separar
set = fixar/estabelecer/montar
share = compartilhar
shift = deslocar
show = mostrar
sign = assinar
simulate = simular
skip = pular
slow down = desacelerar
sort = classificar
specify = especificar
stack = empilhar
start = comear
stop = parar
store = armazenar
survey = pesquisar

T
take = pegar
test = testar
transcribe = transcrever
transform = transformar

292
translate = traduzir
transmit = transmitir

U
understand = entender
update = atualizar
use = usar

V
verify = verificar

W
work = trabalhar
write = escrever/gravar

Important Words and Terms:

A
access = acesso
access arm = brao de acesso
accumulator = acumulador
accuracy = exatido
acknowledgement = confirmao
acoustic impedance = impedncia acstica
active station = terminal ativo
activity = atividade
activity ratio = proporo de atividade
address = endereo
addressing = endereamento
adjust = ajuste
alarm = alarme

293
algorithm = algoritmo
allocation = alocao
analogue = analgico
analyser = analista
angle valve = vlvula angular
application = aplicao
area = rea
array = arranjo
attached = preso/acoplado
availability = disponibilidade
available = disponvel
axis = eixo

B
backbone = uma rede que conecta outras redes internet
ball valve = vvula de esfera
band = faixa
bandpass filters = filtros de banda
basic = beginners all-purpose symbolic instrution code
= linguagem de programao de uso simples e fcil
aprendizagem
batch = lote
battleship = encouraado
benchmark = ponto de referncia de medidas
bell character = caractere de alarme
bias = desvio
block = bloco
blocking = blocagem
boot ou bootstrap = autocarregador
bottom panel = painel inferior, ou de fundo

294
box = caixa
brain = crebro
break = interrupo
breakpoint switch = chave de interrupo
bubble sort = classificao por bolhas
buffer = rea de memria para armazenamento temporrio
bulb = bulbo/lmpada
buoy = boia
bus = caminho/canal ou linha atravs do qual dados e
sinais podem ser transferidos
business = negcios
busy = ocupado

C
cable = cabo
card = carto
carriage = carro de impresso
carry = transporte
cartridge = cartucho
catalog = catlogo
chain = cadeia/corrente/srie
chaining = encadeamento
change = mudana/transformao
channel = canal
character = caractere
charge = carga
chart = diagrama/grfico
cladding = revestimento
classify = classificar
closed-loop system = sistema de circuito fechado

295
clutch = engate/embreagem
code = cdigo
coil = bobina
command = comando
compatibility = compatibilidade
compiler = compilador
component = componente
configuration = configurao
console = dispositivo de entrada
constant = constante
content = contedo
control loop = malha de controle
controller = controlador
conversion = controlador
continuous trace registers = registradores de trao
contnuo
cooling water = gua de refrigerao
correction = correo
counter = contador
cover = tampa/capa/cobertura
cycle = ciclo

D
damage = dano/prejuzo
damper = amortecedor
data = dados
date = data
debugger = depurador
decision = deciso
deck = conjunto

296
decode = decodificador
delay = retardo
design = projeto
device = dispositivo
diagram = diagrama
differencial travel = percurso diferencial
displacement = deslocamento
distortion = distoro
double = dobro
down limit = limite inferior
duty = tarefa

E
efficiency = eficincia
emitter = emissor
engine = motor/mquina
engineering time = tempo de manuteno
engines throttle = acelerador do motor
environment = ambiente
error = erro
except = exceto
exit = sada
extent = extenso

F
fault = falha
features = caractersticas
feedback = realimentao
feeding = alimentao
field = campo

297
file = arquivo
filter = filtro
fine-tune production = produo em estreita sintonia
folders = pastas
force = fora
format = formato
flow meter = medidor de fluxo
flush mounting = montagem embutida
frame = estrutura
fringes = franja
function = funo

G
gas pipelines = gasodutos
gate = porto
gearbox = caixa de marchas
generator = gerador
glass core = ncleo de vidro
graphic = grfico
grid = planilha
growth = crescimento/aumento

H
hall plate = placa hall
handler = manipulador
hang-up = uma parada no programada em uma rotina
hard-wired control: controle com fio
hvac = sigla para heating, ventilating and air conditioning
= aquecimento, ventilao e ar condicionado
hazards = riscos

298
high-level = alto nvel
host computer = computador hospedeiro
hysteresis = histerese

I
index = ndice
induction loop = circuito/loop de induo
input = entrada
inquiry = consulta
interchange = intercmbio
interface = conexo/ligao
interger = inteiro
interruption = interrupo
invalid = no vlido
inverter = inversor
interactive = interativo
interoperability = interoperabilidade

J
jack = tomada
job scheduler = escalonador de tarefas
joint use = uso coletivo
joystick = timo/leme/joystick
jump = salto
jumper = ponte/conector

K
kind = tipo
kinetic energy = energia cintica
key = chave/tecla

299
keyboard = teclado
keywords = palavras-chave

L
label = rtulo/etiqueta
label record = registro de rtulo
language = linguagem
large aperture lens = lente de grande abertura
largeness = grandeza
layer = camada
layout = organizao/disposio
leaf electroscope = eletroscpio de folhas
leakage current = corrente de fuga
letter = letra/carta
level = nvel
light = luz/claridade
light time-of-flight = tempo limite do percurso da luz
linkage = ligao
load = carga
loader = carregador
location = localizao
log = registro de trabalho
look-up = busca
loop = ciclo/lao
louver = claraboia
low-bandwidth = banda de pequena largura

M
machine = mquina
magnetic buoy in pipe guides = boia magntica em tubo

300
de guias
maintenance = manuteno
malfunction = defeito
manufacturing = fabricao
mapping = mapeamento
margin = margem
mark = marca
market = mercado
mask = mscara
master station = estao mestre
matrix = matriz
maximum inrush current = corrente mxima de ativao
measurement = medio
memory cell = clula de memria
mesh = malha
meter = medidor
meter readings = leituras do medidor
minimum load current = corrente de carga mnima
module = mdulo
moisture = umidade
motion = movimento

N
networks = redes (de comunicao)
noise = rudo/barulho
next = prximo

O
off = desligado
off-line = fora de linha

301
offset = deslocamento
on = ligado
on-hook = desativado
on-line = em linha
open covers = tampas abertas
operating distance = alcance
operating distance assured = alcance confirmado
operator = operador
order = ordem
outer coils = bobinas exteriores
outflow = escoamento/fluxo de sada/descarga/efuso/
jorro
output = sada
outputs = resultados
outside = dentro
overall equipment effectiveness = eficincia global dos
equipamentos
overflow = estouro/excesso
overlay = superposio

P
package = pacote
packages, packs = pacotes
page = pgina
paging = paginao
password = senha
path = caminho
picture = quadro
pipe = tubo
place = lugar

302
plastic-shaped parts = peas moldadas de plstico
plant = fbrica
port = porta
powder = poeira/plvora/p
power = potncia, energia
power stations = usinas de energia
preset time = tempo determinado
press = prensa
pressure gauge = manmetro de presso
printer = impressora
printing = impresso
prior = anterior
procedure = procedimento
processing = processamento
processor = processador

Q
queue = fila

R
radioactive decay = decaimento radioativo
rate = taxa
rate-of-climb indicator = indicador de taxa de elevao
rungs = degraus
read-only = somente leitura
reader = leitora
record = registro
redundancy = edundncia
remark = observao
repeatability = fidelidade

303
report = relatrio
resort/resource = recurso
return = retorno
retrieval = recuperao
ring laser gyroscope = giroscpio de anel de laser
routine = rotina
rugged = resistente/robusto

S
safety = segurana
sale = venda
scale = escala
schelude = escalonamento/plano/esquema
scintillation counter = cintilmetro
screen = tela
sensing distance = distncia de deteco
sensing range = faixa de deteco
sequence = sequncia
shafts = eixos
shared instruments = instrumentos comuns
shielded sensor = sensor blindado
shutdown mode = modo de desligamento
signal = sinal
simulation = simulao
size = tamanho
skip = salto
slide wire = fio deslize
sliding = deslizamento
solenoid coils = bobinas solenoides
sort = tipo

304
sorting = classificao
source = fonte
space = espao
spaced magnets = ms espaadas
spare parts = pea de reposio
speed = velocidade
speedometer = velocmetro
stacker = empilhador
standard = padro
standby = reserva/tempo de espera
statement = declarao/item
station = estao
steering system = sistema de direo
step = passo/etapa
stepper motors = motores de passo
storage = armazenamento
strain gauge = calibre de tenso
string = cadeia/srie
subject = assunto
subroutine = sub-rotina
subscript = indexados
suitable = adequado
surface = superfcie
surveying equipment = equipamento de topografia
swapping = permuta/troca
switch = chave/interruptor/comutador/disjuntor
switching frequency (hz) = frequncia de comutao

T
table = tabela/matriz

305
tapped = fechado
target = alvo
task = tarefa
thermocouple = termopar
timing circuits = circuitos de temporizao
telemetry = telemetria
timer = temporizador
tire = pneu
tool = ferramenta
trace = rastro
traceability = rastreamento
track = trilha/faixa
transducer = transdutor
transfer = transferncia
translator = tradutor
transmission = transmisso
tubing = tubulao

U
underflow = estouro negativo
upper limit = limite superior

V
value-timestamp pairs = pares valor-hora
validity = validade
value = valor
varifier = verificadora
voltage = tenso/voltagem
voltage drop = queda de tenso

306
W
wastewater collection = recolhimento de guas residuais
watt-hour meters = contadores
waves = ondas
way = caminho/modo/maneira
weld = solda
wet = mido
wheels = rodas
wire = fio
wired = ligado
window = janela
word = palavra

Z
zone = zona

307
REFERNCIAS

Astrom, Karl J. 1990. Computers controlled systems.


Prentice-Hall.
Golten, J. 1992. A control, design and simulation.
McGraw-Hill. NY.
IEC 60848: GRAFCET specification language for
sequential function charts.
ISA (The Instrumentation, Systems and Automation
Society). Process Instrumentation Terminology, ANSI/ISA
S51.1-1979.
ISA. 1992. Standards and practices for instrumentation
and control. 11th Edition. Research Triangle Park.
KISSINGER, C. Fiber optic lever displacement
transducers: principles, improvements, and applications,
MTI Instruments Inc. Disponvel em: <http://www.
mtiinstruments.com/gaging/appnotes-optic.html>.
Acesso em: 15 fev. 2011.
Ko, W. H. Sensors & actuators. Lausanne, A49, p. 51-55,
1995.
Madhuchhanda, M. 2006. Programmable logic controllers
and industrial automation book. Penram International

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Publishing, India.
Marques, Amadeu. 2008. Ingls Srie Novo Ensino
Mdio. tica, So Paulo.
Miller, A. Michael. 2004. Data and network
communication. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Canada.
Norton, H.N. 1989. Handbook of transducers. Library of
Congress Catalog.
Ramon-Palls-Areny. 2004. Sensor and signal conditioning.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Canada.
Seborg, G. 1989. Process dynamics and control. Wiley.
Wilson, J.S. 2004. Sensor technology handbook. Elsevier:
Oxford, UK.

309

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