Você está na página 1de 68

Processamento Ssmico

Fundamentos

Leo Nascimento
Falhamentos Geolgicos

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 2


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 3
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 4
Frequencia de Nyquist ( 2* t ) -1

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 5


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 6
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 7
Fluxo de Trabalho

Pre-processamento empilhamento migrao

Geometria Anlise Velan

Field
residual Migrao
Data Pre-empilhamento

Estaticas Empilhamento

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 8


Pre-empilhamento

Reamostragem ( 2ms 4ms )


Correo Esttica ( terra ) efeitos da zona de
baixa velocidade e elevao.
Remoo dos efeitos do instrumento.
Remoo dos fantasmas ( mar )
Remoo dos efeitos da fonte ( mar )
Remoo Mltiplas
Dominio do tiro ( FFID ) x CMP ( CDP ).

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 9


Dispositivo de registro bipartido simtrico com tiro entre as estacas
(Stack-array)

Dispositivo bsico com seis canais

Multiplicidade 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1

Combinao de trs tiros consecutivos com IPT = IE

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 10


FAMILIA CDP

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 11


Fluxo de Trabalho

Pre-processamento empilhamento migrao

Geometria Anlise Velan

Field
residual Migrao
Data Pre-empilhamento

Estaticas Empilhamento

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 12


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 13
Correo de NMO

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 14


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 15
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 16
Fluxo de Trabalho

Pre-processamento empilhamento migrao

Geometria Anlise Velan

Field
residual Migrao
Data Pre-empilhamento

Estaticas Empilhamento

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 17


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 18
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 19
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 20
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 21
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 22
Sismograma de Tiros ( FFID )

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 23


CDP ou CMP

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 24


Seo empilhada

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 25


Seo migrada

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 26


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 27
Field
Data
Fluxo de Trabalho

Load Geometry Mute


NMO
Trace Edits Deconvolution Vel CDPs
DMO
Filter Velocity Analysis
Archival Near Traces
Shots DMO
Residual Statics gathers
QC Shots Stack
DeSignature NMO
Decon
Shots Mute Migration
Stack
Gain
Filter Stk Mig
QC Stack
Trace Decimation
Migration
Multiple Rejection
Smashed NMO NMO
Shots Migrated
Offsets
Stack Demult Stack
CDPs

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. QC Stack 28 QC Stack


Processamento 4D

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 29


Same data processed by 6 different contractors

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 30


Respuesta tradicional de Amplitud

Channel A

Fault-Controlled Channel

Amplitude
Point Bar 1

Channel B analysis window length = 100ms

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 31


10,000 ft
Tuning Cube, Amplitude at Frequency = 16 hz

Channel A

North-South Extent Fault-Controlled Channel


of Channel A Delineation
Amplitude
Point Bar 1

Channel B analysis window length = 100ms

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 32

10,000 ft
Tuning Cube, Amplitude at Frequency = 26 hz

Channel A

North-South Extent Fault-Controlled Channel


of Channel A Delineation
Amplitude
Point Bar 1

Channel B analysis window length = 100ms

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 33

10,000 ft
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 34
GEOFSICA do PETRLEO

Tecnologia Geofsica
Leo Nascimento
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 2
Agenda

Mtodos Geofsicos
Magntico
Radiomtrico
Eletromagntico
GPR
sensoreamento remoto
Gravitacional
Ssmico

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 3


Mtodo Gravimtrico

Latitude
Elevao
Topografia
Mar
Densidade

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 4


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 5
Correo Latitude
Correo Elevao
Correo Terreno

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 6


Mapa Bouguer

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 7


Mapa de
Profundidade
Do embasamento

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 8


Metodo Ssmico

Princpio fisico Propagao de onda mecnica.


Tipos de onda Corpo / Superficie
Ondas Elsticas (corpo) Compressiva ( p )/Cisalhante ( s )
Propagao Reflexo / Transmisso
Objetivo da aquisio Regional / semidetalhe / detalhe
Tipos de aquisio Superficial / fundo do mar ( Ocean Bottom Cable ) /
sismica de poo ( Vertical Seismic Profile )
Metodologia de aquisio 2D; 3D; 4D;
Ambiente Mar / terra
Receptores Hidrofone / geofone
Fontes ssmicas Canho de ar / explosivos
Equipamento de Registro Sismgrafo
Mdias de gravao Fitas Magnticas / discos rgidos
Modelos de negcios Contratados / Spec

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 9


1. Sismgrafo

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 10


INCIDNCIA DE UMA ONDA SSMICA

Sen(1) = Sen(2)
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. V1 11V2
O Sismograma

Shot 1

* Geophones

* Seismic Energy Source


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 12
Sismograma

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 13


D
Shot 1

* Geophones

E
H
V

H
2 2 2
2E = (2H) + D
E Dividindo por V2

T2 = to2 + (D/V)2

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved.

* 14
A hiprbole

t0

Hiprbole
t2 = t02 + D2/V2

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 15


Offset

V1 = 1500 m/s

T
e
m V2 = 6000 m/s
p
o
(s)

V3 = 2800 m/s

V4 = 4000 m/s

CAIO

00:01

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 16 OFFSET


Offset

V1 = 1500 m/s

T
e
m V2 = 6000 m/s
p
o
(s)

V3 = 2800 m/s

V4 = 4000 m/s

CAIO

00:02

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 17 OFFSET


Offset

V1 = 1500 m/s

T
e
m V2 = 6000 m/s
p
o
(s)

V3 = 2800 m/s

V4 = 4000 m/s

CAIO

00:03

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 18 OFFSET


Offset

V1 = 1500 m/s

T
e
m V2 = 6000 m/s
p
o
(s)

V3 = 2800 m/s

V4 = 4000 m/s

CAIO

01:00

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 19 OFFSET


Dado Sinttico

1500 m/s

6000 m/s

2800 m/s

4000 m/s

Modelo com camada de alta velocidade


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 20
What is really going on?

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 21


What is really going on?

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 22


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 23
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 24
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 25
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 26
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 27
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 28
2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 29
Terrestre - Explosivo

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 30


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 31
Geofones

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 32


2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 33
Aquisio

2009 Halliburton. All Rights Reserved. 34