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GIST OF PHYSICS FROM NCERT BOOKS charged, beta particles are negatively

charged, and gamma particles have no

ATOMIC PHYSICS charge. The radiations also have
two fundamental particles (electrons increasing levels of energy, first Alpha,
and protons) inside the atom, led to then Beta, and finally Gamma, which
the failure of this aspect of Daltons is the most energetic of all these. Alpha
atomic theory. and Beta are particles, but Gamma is a
The negative and positive charges are
equal in magnitude. So, the atom as a whole The term half-life describes
is electrically neutral. the time it takes for half of the atoms
in a sample to change, and half to
Rutherfords alpha-particle scattering remain the same.
experiment led to the discovery of the
atomic nucleus There is even a radioactive isotope of
carbon, carbon-14. Normal carbon is
Neils Bohrs model of the atom was carbon-12. C-14 has two extra neutrons
more successful. He proposed that and a half-life of 5730 years.
electrons are distributed in different
shells with discrete energy around the Every living thing has some C-14 in it.
nucleus. Fission is the splitting of an atom. Not
. The mass of an electron is about all atoms will go through fission;
1/2000 times the mass of an hydrogen In a nuclear reaction, scientists shoot a
atom. whole bunch of neutrons at uranium-
The mass of a proton and a neutron is 235 atoms. When one neutron hits the
taken as one unit each. nucleus, the uranium becomes U-236.
It is the number of protons of an atom, When it becomes 236, the uranium
which determines its atomic number. It atom wants to split apart. After it splits,
is it gives off three neutrons and a lot of
denoted by Z. All atoms of an element energy.
have the same atomic number, Z Each cycle, the reaction
Mass of an atom is practically due to gets three times bigger. A reaction that,
protons and neutrons alone. These are once started, continues by itself, is
present in the nucleus of an atom. called a chain reaction.
Hence protons and neutrons are also Fusion is the process of two small
called nucleons. Therefore, the mass of atomic nuclei coming together to make
an atom resides in its nucleus. a larger nucleus which is stable.
Isotopes are atoms of the same The SI unit of heat energy transferred is
element, which have different mass expressed in joule (J
Isobars are atoms having the same mass Clinical thermometer is used to
number but different atomic numbers. measure our body temperature. The
range of this thermometer is from 35C
The nuclear force is much stronger than to 42C.
the Coulomb force acting between
charges or the gravitational forces In convention heat is carried from one
between masses. The nuclear force place to another by the actual
between neutron-neutron, proton- movement of liquid and gases. In
neutron and proton-proton is liquids and gases the heat is
approximately the same. The nuclear transferred by convection.
force does not depend on the electric Dark-coloured objects absorb radiation
charge. better than the light-coloured objects.
Radioactivity occurs when an atomic That is the reason we feel more
nucleus breaks down into smaller comfortable in light-coloured clothes in
particles. There are three types of the summer. Woollen clothes keep us
nuclear radiation: alpha, beta, and warm during winter. It is so because
gamma. Alpha particles are positively wool is a poor conductor of heat and it
has air trapped in between the fibres. which cannot be obtained on a screen
is called a virtual image.
The amount of heat energy required
to raise the temperature of 1g of a The image formed by a plane mirror is
substancethrough 1 is called specific erect. It is virtual and is of the same
heat capacity of the substance. size as the object. The image is at the
same distance behind the mirror as the
Water has the highest specific heat
object is in front of it.
capacity which is equal to 4200 (J/kg
)K. A spherical mirror, whose
reflecting surface is curved inwards,
The amount of heat energy required
that is, faces towards the centre of the
to raise the temperature of a given
sphere, is called a concave mirror.
mass of substancethrough 1 is
A spherical mirror whose reflecting
callede heat capacity or thermal
surface is curved outwards, is called a
capacity of the substance. Its S.I. Unit
convex mirror.
is (J/K)
Concave mirrors are commonly used
The change of state from solid to liquid
in torches, search-lights and vehicles
is called melting and from liquid to
headlights to get powerful parallel
solid is called fusion.
beams of light. They are often used as
The temperature at which the liquid and shaving mirrors to see a larger image
the vapour states of the substance of the face. The dentists use concave
coexist is called its boiling point. At mirrors to see large images of the teeth
high altitudes, atmospheric pressure is of patients. Large concave mirrors are
lower, reducing the boiling point of used to concentrate sunlight to produce
water as compared to that at sea level. heat in solar furnaces.
On the other hand, boiling point is
Convex mirrors are commonly used as
increased inside a pressure cooker by
rear-view (wing) mirrors in vehicles.
increasing the pressure. Hence cooking
is faster. Convex mirrors are
preferred because they always give an
The change from solid state to vapour
erect, though diminished, image. Also,
state without passing through the liquid
they have a wider field of view as they
state is called sublimation, and the
are curved outwards. Thus, convex
substance is said to sublime. Dry ice
mirrors enable the driver to view much
(solid CO2) sublimes, so also iodine.
larger area than would be possible with
The amount of heat per a plane mirror.
unit mass transferred during change of
state of the substance is called latent
lenses which feel thicker in the middle
heat of the substance for the process.
than at the edges are convex lenses.
LIGHT TRAVELS ALONG A Those which feel thinner in the middle
STRAIGHT LINE. than at the edges are concave lenses
The angle between the normal and A convex lens converges (bends
incident ray is called the angle of inward) the light generally falling on
incidence . The angle between the it. Therefore, it is called a converging
normal and the reflected ray is known lens. On the other hand, a concave lens
as the angle of reflection. diverges (bends outward) the light and
Two laws of reflection are: is called a diverging lens.
1. The angle of incidence is equal to the
A convex lens can forms real and
angle of reflection.
inverted image. When the object is
2. Incident ray, reflected ray and the
placed very close to the lens, the image
normal drawn at the point of
formed is virtual, erect and magnified.
incidence to the reflecting surface,
convex lens is called a magnifying
lie in the same plane.
An image which can be obtained on a
A concave lens always forms erect,
screen is called a real image. An image
virtual and smaller image than the Motion: In physics, motion is change
object. of location or position of an object
The power of a lens is a measure of the with respect to time
degree of convergence( in the case of a transitional (
convex lens) or divergence ( in the case linear ) and rotational ( spin).
of a concave lens).
VELOCITY: The distance covered by
Dispersion of Light: It is the an object in a specified direction in
phenomenon of splitting of a beam of unit time interval is called velocity.
white light into its constituent colors
on passing through prism. The order ACCELERATION: When an objects
of colors from the lower end are violet, velocity changes, it accelerates.
indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and Acceleration shows the change in
red. velocity in a unit time

Laser isnt a word but an FORCE: Force can be defined as a push

acronym. It stands for LIGHT or a pull. (Technically, force is
AMPLIFICATION by STIMULATED something that can accelerate objects.)
EMISSION of RADIATION. . Force is measured by N (Newton)

When a bar magnet is freely Centripetal Force: For a body to move

suspended, it points in the north- in a circle there must be a force on it
south direction. directed towards the centre. This is
called the centripetal force and is
like poles repel, unlike poles attracts necessary to produce continuous
each other change of direction in a circular motion.
iv. Magnetic poles always exist in pairs.
v. the strength of a magnet is Mass
maximum at poles located near the shows the quantity, and weight shows
poends the size of gravity. The weight of a body
is maximum at the poles and minimum
Magnetic induction depends upon the at equator
nature of magnetic substance. Magnetic
induction is inversely propotional to WEIGHT: the weight of a body is the
the distance between inducing magnet force with which the earth attracts the
and the magnetic substance. body towards its centre.

They travel from north to south pole mass, which is a measure of the
outside the magnet and from south quantity of matter contained in it
to north pole inside the magnet. It should be noted here that on the
o They mutually repel each other surface of the moon the value of the
o They never intersect with each other acceleration due to gravity is neraly
one-sixth of that on earth,
For example, when a plastic bar is
rubbed with fur, electrons will move therefore, an object on the moon would
from the fur to the plastic stick. weigh only one-sixth its weight on
Therefore, plastic bar will be earth.
negatively charged and the fur will be
positively charged. Inertia: Inertia is the tendency of an
object to resist changes in its state of
Semiconductors are materials which motion.
allow the electrical charges to flow
better than insulators, but less than Blood rushes from your head to your
conductors. Examples are silicon and feet while quickly stopping when
germanium riding on a descending elevator.
The head of a hammer can be tightened
Whenever current is passed through a onto the wooden handle by banging
straight conductor it behaves like a the bottom of the handle against a hard
magnet. The magnitude of magnetic surface.
effect increases with the increase in the While riding a skateboard (or wagon
strength of current. or bicycle), you fly forward off the
board when hitting a curb or rock or A sound of single frequency is called
other object which abruptly halts the a tone whereas a sound of multiple
motion of the skateboard. frequencies is called a note.
Molecule is defined as the smallest unit The speed of sound
of matter which has independent decreases when we go from solid to
existence and can retain complete gaseous state. In any medium as we
physical and chemical properties of increase the temperature the speed of
sound increases. Experiment shows
In case of solids, the intermolecular that the velocity of sound in air at 0 0C
space being very small, so is about 332 metres per second.
intermolecular forces are very large
and hence solids have definite size and
sensation of sound persists in our brain
for about 0.1 second. To hear a distinct
In case of liquids, the intermolecular
echo, the time interval between the
space being large, so intermolecular
original sound and the reflected one
forces are small and hence liquids have
must be at least 0.1 second.
definite volume but no definite shape.
In case of gases, the intermolecular Thus, for hearing
space being very large, so distinct echoes, the minimum distance
intermolecular forces are extremely of the obstacle from the source of
small and hence gases have neither a sound must be half of this distance, that
definite volume and nor definite shape. is, 17.2 m. This distance will change
with the temperature of air. Ec
A number of devices such as hydraulic lift
and hydraulic brakes are based on the The audible range of sound for human
Pascals law. beings extends from about 20 Hz to
20000 Hz (
, oil and water do not mix; water wets you
and me but not ducks; mercury does not Sounds of frequencies below 20 Hz are
wet glass but water sticks to it, oil rises called infrasonic sound or infrasound.
up a cotton wick, inspite of gravity, Sap Rhinoceroses communicate using
and water rise up to the top of the infrasound of frequency as low as 5 Hz.
leaves of the tree, hairs of a paint brush Whales and elephants produce sound
do not cling together when dry and in the infrasound range
even when dipped in water but form a
Frequencies higher than 20 kHz are
fine tip when taken out of it. All these called ultrasonic sound or ultrasound.
and many more such experiences are Ultrasound is produced by dolphins,
related with the free surfaces of bats and porpoises.
liquids Ultrasounds can be used to detect
cracks and flaws in metal blocks.
These surfaces possess some additional
energy. This phenomenon is known as Ultrasonic waves are made to reflect
surface tension and it is concerned with only from various parts of the heart and
liquid as gases do not have free form the image of the heart. This
surfaces. technique is called echocardiography.
Ultrasound scanner is an instrument
To and fro motion of an object is known
which uses ultrasonic waves for getting
as vibration. This motion is also
images of internal organs of the human
calledoscillatory motion.
The distance between two consecutive
The acronym SONAR stands for Sound
compressions or two consecutive
Navigation And Ranging. Sonar is a
rarefaction is calledthe wavelength,
device that uses ultrasonic waves to
The number of complete oscillations measure the distance, direction and
per unit time is called speed of underwater objects.
the frequency (), =(1/T). The
The International System of Units (SI)
frequency is expressed in hertz (Hz).
based on seven base units is at present
internationally accepted unit system
and is widely used throughout the
The mean distance from the earth to
the sun is called an astronomical unit:
approximately 1.5 1011m.
Transverse waves cause the
medium to move perpendicular to
the direction of the wave.
o Longitudinal waves cause the
medium to move parallel to the
direction of the wave.
o Surface waves are both transverse
waves and longitudinal waves
mixed in one medium.
Electromagnetic waves do not
require a medium to travel (light,
The unit of work is joule: 1 joule
= 1 newton 1 metre. Work done on
an object by a force would be zero if
the displacement of the object is zero.
Power is defined as the rate of doing
work. Power = (work done) / (time
taken). The SI unit of power is watt. 1
W = 1 Joule/second. The unit of power
is also horse power
Pressure: Pressure is defined as force
acting per unit area. Pressure = force/
area. The SI unit of pressure is newton
per meter squared or Pascal.
The same force acting on a smaller area
exerts a larger pressure, and a smaller
pressure on a larger area. This is the
reason why a nail has a pointed tip,
knives have sharp edges and buildings
have wide foundations.
Archimedes Principle: When a body
is immersed fully or partially in a fluid,
it experiences an upward force that is
equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced by it.