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# Chapter 3 - Drying

## Drying rate + heat and mass balance

L Ngc Liu
Office: A1-706
Email: lnlieu@hcmiu.edu.vn

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Table of content

1 Moisture definitions

2 Drying mechanism

3 Drying rate

4 Mass transfer

5 Heat transfer

## 6 Intermediate moisture foods

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Important moisture definitions
Equilibrium moisture content (X*) is the moisture level at which a product is in equilibrium with
the moisture of its surrounding air.
Free moisture (X-X*) is moisture in excess of the equilibrium moisture content, so can be
removed by drying.
Unbound moisture is moisture in excess of a minimum level (called the critical moisture content)
required for the product to exhibit a water activity of 1. Thus, a product with unbound moisture will
dry at the same rate as a free water surface, and at a constant rate.
Bound moisture is moisture less than the critical moisture content, so exerts a lower vapor
pressure than the saturation vapor pressure. As a result, the product water activity is less than 1
if the product moisture is less than the critical moisture content.

## Can drying remove bound

water?

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Drying mechanism

A-B: short initial settling down period as the surface heats up to the wet-bulb temperature. Drying then
starts, water moves from the interior of the food at the same rate as it evaporates from the surface, the
surface remains wet
B-C: constant-rate period drying continues until a certain critical moisture content is reached. The
surface temperature of the food remains close to the wet-bulb temperature of the drying air until the
end of the constant-rate period, due to the cooling effect of the
evaporating water
C-D: falling-rate period when the moisture content of the food falls below the critical moisture
content, the rate of drying slowly decreases until it approaches zero at the equilibrium moisture content4
Drying rate
The rate of drying can be determined for a sample of a substance by suspending it in a
cabinet or duct, in a stream of air, from a balance. The weight of the drying sample can
then measured as a function of time.

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Drying rate
For the constant-rate period:

## The rate of heat transfer: = % () +) Kg: mass transfer coefficient (kg/m2 s)

HR: humidity ratio (kg moisture per kg dry air)
The rate of mass transfer = . % 1
(drying rate in kg/s):

During the constant-rate period, an equilibrium exists between the rate of heat transfer to
the food and the rate of mass transfer in the form of moisture loss from the food

%
= % () +) = 2 = +)
2 ()
The surface heat transfer coefficient hs

## o For parallel air flow:

% = 14.3 8.9 G: mass flow rate of air per unit area (kg/m2 s)

## o For perpendicular air flow:

% = 24.2 8.;<

The drying time: =
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Drying rate

%
The rate of drying (in kg/m2s) =

Ss: mass of dry solid
O A: wet surface over which the gas blows
% QR
Time for drying = N = N
P QS

## Assume that N is linear with X: X: moisture content

c: critical
N = aX + b e: equilibrium
f: final

% (U V ) U V
=
U X V
Problem 3.8
A conveyor dryer is required to dry peas from an initial moisture content of 78% to 16%
moisture (wet weight basis), in a bed 10 cm deep that has a voidage of 0.4. Air at 85 oC
with a relative humidity of 10% is blown perpendicularly through the bed at 0.9 m/s.
The dryer belt measures 0.75m wide and 4m long. Assuming that drying takes place
from the entire surface area of the peas and that there is no shrinkage, calculate the
drying time, average drying rate and energy consumption in both the constant- and
falling-rate periods. (Additional data: the equilibrium moisture content of the peas is
9%, the critical moisture content 300% (dry weight basis), the average diameter 6 mm,
the bulk density 610 kg/m3 and the latent heat of evaporation 2300 kJ/kg)
Problem 3.9
A single-drum drier (Section 15.2.2) 0.7m in diameter and 0.85m long operates at
150oC and is fitted with a doctor blade to remove food after 3/4 revolution. It is used to
dry a 0.6mm layer of 20% w/w solution of gelatin, pre-heated to 100oC, at atmospheric
pressure. Calculate the speed of the drum required to produce a product with a moisture
content of 4 kg of solids per kilogram of water. (Additional data: the density of gelatin
feed is 1020 kg/m3 and the overall heat transfer coefficient 1200W/m2 K)

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Mass balance

H2, t2, F2,Y2

## Air inlet Dryer

Feed
Ho, to, L1,
Fo,Yo X1 ,
x1
Heater
Product Supplement
L2, Heater
X2,
x2 10
Mass balance

## X: mass moisture/mass dry solid.

x: mass moisture/mass wet solid.
L1, L2: mass of wet solid before and after dry (kg/h, or kg)
Lk: mass of absolute dry solid, kg or kg/s
W: loss moisture in drying process (mass moisture /time)
x1 - x 2 x - x2
W=L1-L2 W = L1 ( ) = L2 ( 1 )
1 - x2 1 - x1

## G: mass dry air requirement (mass dry air/time)

W
G.Y2=G.Y1+W G=
Y2 - Y1
g: partial mass dry air requirement (kg dry air/kg moisture)
G 1
g= =
W Y2 - Y1 11
Heat balance
Air outlet
heater Moist air outlet
H1, t1, H2, t2, F2,Y2
F1,Y1
Air inlet Dryer
Feed
Ho, to, L1,
Fo,Yo X1 ,
x1,
Heater
ts1
Product Supplement
L2, Heater
X2 ,
x2 ,
ts2 12
Heat balance

## t tr1,t tr2: inlet and outlet temperature of transport equip

Cs: heat capacity of dry solid
Heat in
- By air: G.Ho
- By solid material: L2.Csts1+WCA.ts1
- By transport equip : m.Ctr.ttr1
- By heater: Qc
-By supplement heater: Qs
Heat out
- By air: G.H2
- By solid material: L2.Csts2
- By transport equip : m.Ctr.ttr2
-By heat losses: Qm 13
Heat balance

Q = Qc + Qs = G(H2 - Ho) + L2Cs (ts2 - ts1)+mCtr(ttr2 -
ttr1)+Qm-WCAts1
Qso = L2Cs (ts2 - ts1)
Qtr = mCtr(ttr2 - ttr1)

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Heat balance

## Heat require to evaporate 1 kg moisture

Q Qc Qs G
q= = + = (H 2 - H o ) +
Q
- Cs t s1
W W W W W

H2 - Ho
q = qc + q s = + q - Cs t s1
Y2 - Yo
Call D = qs + Cs t s1 - q

H2 - Ho
qc = - D = g (H 2 - H o ) - D
Y2 - Yo
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Heat balance

H2 - Ho
qc = - D = g (H 2 - H o ) - D
Y2 - Yo

## =0: Ideal drying

H2 - Ho
qc = = g (H 2 - H o )
Y2 - Yo

## During drying, Enthalpy of air = const

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Heat balance
H2 - Ho
qc = - D = g (H 2 - H o ) - D
Y2 - Yo

0: Real drying
g ( H 2 - H o ) - D = g ( H1 - H o )
D
H 2 - H1 =
g
If >0: heat supply higher than heat losses, H2 >H1

## If <0: heat supply less than heat losses, H2 < H1

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Drying with air circulation

## 1 kg fresh air mixing with n kg air circulation

H o + nH 2 1
HM = , kJ / kgdryair =
1+ n Z [
Y + nY2 1
YM = o , kgmoist / kgdryair \ =
1+ n Z ]
H M - H O YM - YO \ = (1+n)
n= =
H 2 - H M Y2 - YM
Z \
= \ Z \ =
Z \

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Problem 3.10

Calculate flow rate of air and heat energy to dry 1 ton material from x1=50% to
x2=6%. The properties of air are: t=25oC, Y=0,0095kgmois/kg dry air; t2=60oC,
Y2=0,041 kg moist/kg dry air.
a) Normal drying
b) Drying with 80% air circulation

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Problem 3.11
Feed of dryer is 500 kg/h (dry solid) to remove moisture from x1=70% to 10%. Dry
bulb and wet bulb temperature are 20 and 15oC. Moist air outlet have 45oC, relative
humidity 50%, total heat losses is 8%.
Calculate the area surface of heater and flow rate of steam (saturated steam at 2
atm) if heat transfer coefficient is 35W/m2.oC

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