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Chapter 2 [1]

If we take the entire roomincluding the air and the refrigerator (or
fan)as the system, which is an adiabatic closed system since the
room is well-sealed and well-insulated, the only energy interaction
involved is the electrical energy crossing the system boundary and
entering the room.
As a result of the conversion of electric energy consumed by the
device to heat, the room temperature will rise.
A fan running in a
well-sealed and
well-insulated room
will raise the
temperature of air in
the room.

A refrigerator
operating with its
door open in a well-
sealed and well-
insulated room 2
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed: it can only change forms
- based on experimental observations
- the first law of thermodynamics / conservation of energy principle
- the first law of thermodynamics ; during an interaction between a
system and its surroundings, the amount of energy gained by the system must
be exactly equal to the amount of energy lost by the surroundings.
Energy can cross the boundary of a closed system in two distinct forms : heat
and work
Definition : the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are
joules or ergs
E = f { T, p, V, t and etc }
In thermodynamics, generally ; combination of potential energy, kinetic energy
and internal energy
where PE potential energy
KE kinetic energy

U - internal energy

Energy can exist in numerous forms such as thermal, mechanical,
kinetic, potential, electric, magnetic, chemical, and nuclear, and their
sum constitutes the total energy, E of a system.
Thermodynamics deals only with the change of the total energy.
Macroscopic forms of energy: Those a system possesses as a whole
with respect to some outside reference frame, such as kinetic and
potential energies.
Microscopic forms of energy: Those related to the molecular
structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity.
Internal energy, U: The sum of all the microscopic forms of energy.

Kinetic energy, KE: The energy

that a system possesses as a result
of its motion relative to some
reference frame.
Potential energy, PE: The energy
that a system possesses as a result The macroscopic energy of an
of its elevation in a gravitational object changes with velocity and
field. elevation. 4
Internal energy
The energy that contains in the molecular structure of a
system and the degree of the molecular activity

Internal energy can be increase by work in or heat in that

make an increase of temperature

In thermodynamics, the internal energy is always cause

by temperature change. Internal energy is increase with
increase in temperature and vice versa.

If no temperature rise, no change in internal energy = 0

Internal energy, U (kJ)

Specific internal energy, u (kJ/kg) where u = U/m (kJ/kg)

Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy
per unit mass

Mass flow rate

Potential energy

Potential energy
per unit mass Energy flow rate

Total energy
of a system

Energy of a system
per unit mass

Total energy
per unit mass 6
Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy
Sensible energy: The portion
of the internal energy of a
system associated with the
kinetic energies of the
Latent energy: The internal
energy associated with the
phase of a system.
Chemical energy: The internal
energy associated with the
atomic bonds in a molecule.
Nuclear energy: The
tremendous amount of energy
associated with the strong
The internal energy of a
system is the sum of all forms
bonds within the nucleus of the
of the microscopic energies. atom itself.
The various forms of
microscopic Thermal = Sensible + Latent
energies that make Internal = Sensible + Latent + Chemical + Nuclear
up sensible energy.
Mechanical Energy
Mechanical energy: The form of energy that can be converted to
mechanical work completely and directly by an ideal mechanical device such
as an ideal turbine.
Kinetic and potential energies: The familiar forms of mechanical energy.

Mechanical energy of a
flowing fluid per unit mass

Rate of mechanical
energy of a flowing fluid

Mechanical energy change of a fluid during incompressible flow per unit mass

Rate of mechanical energy change of a fluid during incompressible flow

Heat: The form of energy that is
transferred between two
systems (or a system and its
surroundings) by virtue of a
temperature difference.

Temperature difference is the driving

Energy can cross the force for heat transfer. The larger the
boundaries of a closed system temperature difference, the higher is the
in the form of heat and work. rate of heat transfer. 9
Heat transfer
per unit mass
Amount of heat transfer
when heat transfer rate
is constant
Amount of heat transfer
when heat transfer rate
changes with time

Energy is
as heat
transfer only
as it crosses
the system

During an adiabatic process, a system

exchanges no heat with its surroundings. 10
Historical Background on Heat
Kinetic theory: Treats molecules as tiny balls that are in
motion and thus possess kinetic energy.
Heat: The energy associated with the random motion of
atoms and molecules.
Heat transfer mechanisms:
Conduction: The transfer of energy from the more
energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less
energetic ones as a result of interaction between
Convection: The transfer of energy between a solid
surface and the adjacent fluid that is in motion, and it
involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid
Radiation: The transfer of energy due to the emission of
electromagnetic waves (or photons).
Work: The energy transfer associated with a force acting through a distance.
A rising piston, a rotating shaft, and an electric wire crossing the
system boundaries are all associated with work interactions
Formal sign convention: Heat transfer to a system and work done by a
system are positive; heat transfer from a system and work done on a system
are negative.
Alternative to sign convention is to use the subscripts in and out to indicate
direction. This is the primary approach in this text.

Work done
per unit mass

Power is the
Specifying the directions
work done per
of heat and work. 12
unit time (kW)
Heat vs. Work
Both are recognized at the boundaries
of a system as they cross the
boundaries. That is, both heat and work
are boundary phenomena.
Systems possess energy, but not heat
or work.
Both are associated with a process, not
a state.
Unlike properties, heat or work has no
meaning at a state.
Both are path functions (i.e., their
magnitudes depend on the path followed
during a process as well as the end
states). Properties are point functions; but
heat and work are path functions
(their magnitudes depend on the
Properties are point functions path followed).
have exact differentials (d ).
Path functions
have inexact
differentials ( )
JKM,PPD,2014 13
The first law of thermodynamics (the conservation of energy
principle) provides a sound basis for studying the relationships among the
various forms of energy and energy interactions.
The first law states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed
during a process; it can only change forms.
The First Law: For all adiabatic processes between two specified states of
a closed system, the net work done is the same regardless of the nature of
the closed system and the details of the process.

cannot be
created or
destroyed; The increase in the energy of a
it can only potato in an oven is equal to the
change amount of heat transferred to it.
The work
(electrical) done
on an adiabatic
system is equal
to the increase
in the energy of
the system.

In the absence of any

work interactions, the
energy change of a
The work (shaft)
system is equal to the
done on an
net heat transfer.
adiabatic system
is equal to the
increase in the
energy of the
Energy Balance
The net change (increase or decrease) in the total energy of the system
during a process is equal to the difference between the total energy
entering and the total energy leaving the system during that process.

The energy change

of a system during
a process is equal
to the net work and
heat transfer
between the
system and its

The work (boundary) done on an

adiabatic system is equal to the
increase in the energy of the system. 16
Energy Change of a System, Esystem

Internal, kinetic, and

potential energy changes

Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout
Heat transfer, Q
Work transfer, W
Mass flow, m (kJ)

-A closed mass
involves only heat
transfer and work.
- Q = 0 for
adiabatic process

For a cycle E = 0,
thus Q = W.

The energy
content of a
control volume
can be changed
by mass flow as
well as heat and
work interactions. 18
Example 1:

A rigid tank contains a hot fluid that is cooled

while being stirred by a paddle wheel. Initially,
the internal energy of the fluid is 800 kJ.
During the cooling process, the fluid loses 500
kJ of heat, and the paddle wheel does 100 kJ of
work on the fluid. Determine the final internal
energy of the fluid. Neglect the energy stored
in the paddle wheel.


Ein Eout = Esystem

Wshaft.in Qout = U = U2 U1
100 kJ -500kJ = U2 800kJ
U2 = 400kJ
Example 2

A steam power plant operates on a thermodynamic

cycle in which water circulates through a boiler,
turbine, condenser, pump, and back to the boiler. For
each kilogram of steam (water) flowing through the
cycle, the cycle receives 2000 kJ of heat in the boiler,
rejects 1500 kJ of heat to the environment in the
condenser, and receives 5 kJ of work in the cycle
pump. Determine the work done by the steam in the
turbine, in kJ/kg. (Answer = 505kJ/kg)


Qnet Wnet Ecycle

Qnet Wnet
Qin Qout Wout Win
Wout Qin Qout Win
Let w and q
m m
wout qin qout win
wout 2000 1500 5
wout 505
Example 3

Air flows into an open system and carries energy at

the rate of 300 kJ. As the air flows through the
system it receives 600 kJ of work and loses 100 kJ of
energy by heat transfer to the surroundings. If the
system experiences no energy change as the air flows
through it, how much energy does the air carry as it
leaves the system, in kJ? (Answer : 800kJ)


Conservation of Energy:

E in E out E system
E mass ,in Win E mass , out Q out E system 0
E mass ,out E mass , in Win Q out
E mass ,out 300 600 100 kW 800 kW

Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it
indicates how well an energy conversion or transfer process is accomplished.

Efficiency of a water
heater: The ratio of the
energy delivered to the
house by hot water to
the energy supplied to
the water heater.

The definition of
performance is not limited
to thermodynamics only. 25
Example 4:

A steam power plant received 2000 kJ/kg of

heat, 5 kJ/kg of pump work, and produced 505
kJ/kg of turbine work. Determine the thermal
efficiency for this cycle. (Answer : 25%)


wnet , out
wout win
505 5

qin kJ
0.25 or 25%