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i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 8 4 1 7 e8 4 2 4

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/he

Technical Communication

Comparison of fuel economies of high efficiency diesel and


hydrogen engines powering a compact car with a flywheel
based kinetic energy recovery systems

Alberto Boretti*
School of Science and Engineering, University of Ballarat, PO Box 663, Ballarat, Victoria 3353, Australia

article info abstract

Article history: Coupling of small turbocharged high efficiency diesel engines with flywheel based kinetic
Received 13 April 2010 energy recovery systems is the best option now available to reduce fuel energy usage and
Received in revised form reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. The paper describes engine and vehicle models to
7 May 2010 generate engine brake specific fuel consumption maps and compute vehicle fuel econo-
Accepted 7 May 2010 mies over driving cycles, and applies these models to evaluate the benefits of a H2ICEs
Available online 8 June 2010 developed with the direct injection jet ignition engine concept to further reduce the fuel
energy usage of a compact car equipped with a with a flywheel based kinetic energy
Keywords: recovery systems. The car equipped with a 1.2 L TDI Diesel engine and KERS consumes
H2ICE 25 g/km of fuel producing 79.2 g/km of CO2 using 1.09 MJ/km of fuel energy. These CO2 and
Kinetic energy recovery system fuel energy values are more than 10% better than those of todays best hybrid electric
Fuel economy vehicle. The car equipped with a 1.6 L DI-JI H2ICE engine consumes 8.3 g/km of fuel, cor-
Direct injection responding to only 0.99 MJ/km of fuel energy.
Jet ignition 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Direct injection jet ignition engine concept but more then that dramatically increase part load efficiencies
controlling the load Diesel like by quantity of fuel injected
The hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine is now [11e15].
receiving large attention because of the opportunity to operate The DI-JI engine concept uses a jet ignition device to ignite
lean of stoichiometry (l > 2.25) achieving top brake efficiencies with multiple jets of reacting gases lean stratified mixtures
over 45% while permitting below EURO 6 emissions without produced within the cylinder by a direct fuel injector. The jet
any after treatment [1e10]. The DOEs near-term goals for the ignition device is made up of a pre-chamber, connected to the
H2ICE in 2007 were same as for fuel cell vehicle with peak main chamber through calibrated orifices, accommodating
brake thermal efficiency 45% and Tier2/bin5 emissions or a pre-chamber fuel injector. The jet ignition device also
better (NOx  0.07 g/mile) [32]. Brake efficiencies above 45% includes a spark plug or a glow plug according to the spark
have been already computed in [14] and [33]. The Direct ignited or auto igniting version. The spark plug ignites a pre-
Injection Jet Ignition engine concept being developed by the chamber mixture slightly rich. The glow plug controls the auto
author for gaseous fuels, not only hydrogen but also propane ignition of a smaller amount of fuel that is injected in the pre-
and methane, permits to further boost top brake efficiencies chamber and then auto ignites after impinging on the hot

* Tel.: 61 3 5327 9108; fax: 61 3 5327 9240.


E-mail address: aboretti@staff.ballarat.edu.au
0360-3199/$ e see front matter 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.05.031
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glow plug surface that keeps the temperature within the pre- suffering much higher NOx than their direct injection
chamber very high. The hot reacting gases from the pre- counterparts.
chamber then bulk ignite the ultra lean, stratified main
chamber mixture through the multiple jets of hot reacting
gases entering the cylinder. Fuel is injected directly within the 2. Kinetic energy recovery systems
cylinder by the main chamber DI injector operating single or
multiple injections to produce a lean stratified mixture. This Recovery of braking energy during driving cycles is the most
non homogeneous mixture is mildly lean in an inner region effective option to improve fuel economy and reduce green
surrounded by air and some residuals from the previous cycle. house gas (GHG) emissions. The latest generation of hybrid
The extension of the inner region is reduced in size to achieve electric vehicles (HEV) makes use of many fuel savings tech-
mean chamber average mixtures ranging from l 2.25 to nologies to increase fuel efficiency. The power train system
l 7. This mixture is then ignited by jets of reacting gases that comprises a gasoline engine, an electric motor, a generator,
issue from the pre-chamber. a hybrid battery pack, drive wheels and brakes. The series-
With reference to homogeneous DI or port fuel injection parallel power train system provides drive power indepen-
(PFI) and main chamber spark ignition, non homogeneous DI dently from the gasoline engine or the electric motor or from
and jet ignition offer the advantage of much faster, more both of them simultaneously. Starting is powered by the
complete, much leaner combustion, less sensitivity to mixture battery feed electric motor. Normal running with light accel-
state and composition, and reduced heat losses to the main eration is achieved by using a combination of both the battery
chamber walls. This is because of better fuel to air ratio of the feed electric motor and the gasoline engine. Full, heavy
combusting mixture for same chamber averaged lean condi- acceleration is obtained by using all the power of the engine
tions, combustion in the bulk of the in cylinder gases, heat and the battery feed electric motor. During deceleration and
transfer cushion of air between hot reacting gases and walls, braking, the gasoline engine is shut-off and the electric motor
very high ignition energy, multiple simultaneous ignition sites convert the kinetic energy into electricity stored in the battery.
igniting the bulk of the in cylinder gases, and large concen- Finally, stopping, the gasoline engine is also shut-off. The best
trations of partially oxidized combustion products initiated in C class (compact car) hybrid electric now available has a CO2
the pre-chamber accelerating the oxidation of fresh reactants. production of 89 g/km over the new European driving cycle,
The concept is an original evolution of the idea of using jet- corresponding to a hydrocarbon fuel economy 10% better than
style ignition to enable the operation of a flame-propagation the best vehicle with a traditional power train [16].
engine with very lean mixtures explored many times, mostly The most part of the fuel saving of HEV comes from
in the large engine natural gas industry. The major differences recharging the battery during braking and using the electric
of the present concept are the direct injector to the main motor to replace the thermal engine power supply, with the
chamber creating there mixtures from lean homogeneous to latter being shut-off at idle and during braking and portions of
lean stratified to explore the many options of low temperature the accelerations. Savings also comes in minor part from the
combustion, and the small size pre-chamber fitted with thermal engine downsizing permitted by the torque assis-
a second fuel injector and a spark or a glow plug, enabling tance in heavy accelerations. Recovery of kinetic energy in
start of combustion by multiple jet of hot reacting gases HEV is not very efficient due to a very well known funda-
originating from ignition of a small fraction of the total fuel. mental of physics, that transforming energy from one form to
The volume of the jet ignition pre-chamber less than 1 cm3 another inevitably introduces significant losses.
is definitively small if compared with main chamber combus- When a battery is involved, there are four efficiency
tion chamber volumes at top dead centre of about 130 cm3 in reducing transformations in each regenerative braking cycle.
a 11 L in-line 6 truck engines, or about 60 cm3 in a 3.6 L V6 (1) Kinetic energy is transformed into electrical energy in
passenger car engines, totaling respectively the 0.8 and the a motor/generator, (2) the electrical energy is transformed into
1.6% (indirect injection diesel engine combustion chambers chemical energy as the battery charges up, (3) the battery
were not less than 40e50% of the main chamber combustion discharges transforming chemical into electrical energy, (4)
chamber volumes at top dead centre). The mass of air in the the electrical energy passes into the motor/generator acting as
pre-chamber that will mix with the mass of fuel to be injected a motor and is transformed once more into kinetic energy. The
there is therefore roughly 0.8 to 1.6% of the mass of air trapped four energy transformations reduce the overall level of effi-
within the cylinder respectively in larger heavy duty truck or ciency. If the motor/generator operates at 80% efficiency
smaller passenger car engines. This is not the actual value, just under peak load, in and out, and the battery charges and
a reference value, because injection within the pre-chamber discharges at 75% efficiency at high power, the overall effi-
occurs with the piston moving upward and not with the piston ciency over a full regenerative cycle is only 36%. This means
fixed at top dead centre. This small size volume of the pre- that hybrid vehicles waste near 64% of the braking energy that
chamber and the requirement to inject within the pre-chamber could possibly be recovered to improve the fuel economy. The
only a very small fraction of the total fuel is supposed to keep ideal solution is to avoid all four of the efficiency reducing
low NOx production otherwise a major detriment of traditional transformations from one form of energy to another by
pre-chamber engines even at very lean operating conditions. keeping the vehicles energy in the same form as when the
As a matter of fact, in a traditional pre-chamber engine, all the vehicle starts braking when the vehicle is back up to speed.
fuel is introduced within the pre-chamber, and combustion This can be done using high speed flywheels, popular in space
therefore starts within an environment that is relatively fuel and uninterruptible power supplies for computer systems, but
rich. As a result, Diesel pre-chamber engines have always been novel in ground vehicles. For the space and computer
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applications, high speed motor or generators are used to add efficiency of the control play a dominant role in determining
and remove energy from the flywheels, while in ground the best configuration of a KERS assisted power train. Using
vehicles; more efficient mechanical, geared systems are optimized strategies, CO2 and fuel consumption reductions
preferred. of over 20% are possible on test cycles and more than 30% is
Over the short periods required in cut-and-thrust traffic, possible in real world conditions with gasoline powered
a mechanically driven flywheel is much more effective than vehicles [18].
a battery-based hybrid, providing an overall efficiency over
a full regenerative cycle of more than 70%, almost twice the
value of battery-based hybrids [23]. However, a mechanically 3. Fuel economy data
driven flywheel system has losses, due to friction in bearings
and windage effects, which make it less efficient than Fuel economy is measured over test cycles. The ECE EUDC
a battery-based system in storing energy for long times. cycle is a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer used
Considering the theoretical advantages of storing braking for emission certification of light duty vehicles in Europe [EEC
mechanical energy with a much more efficient, simple and Directive 90/C81/01]. The entire cycle includes four ECE
lighter mechanical device, and the recent improvements in segments, repeated without interruption, followed by one
kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) for F1 applications EUDC segment. Before the test, the vehicle is allowed to soak
[17e28], conventional power trains with high efficiency Diesel for at least 6 h at a test temperature of 20e30  C. It is then
engines may be coupled with KERS to deliver better than started and the emission sampling begins at the same time.
hybrids fuel economies. This cold-start procedure is also referred to as the New
SuperCaps might probably be better than batteries for this European Driving Cycle or NEDC. The ECE cycle is an urban
application, and the efficiency of CVTs generally poor, driving cycle, also known as UDC. It was devised to represent
especially at part load, certain leaves space to further city driving conditions, e.g. in Paris or Rome. It is characterized
improvements. Flywheels at high speed are very risky by low vehicle speed, low engine load, and low exhaust gas
because in case of a failure or accident the stored energy gets temperature. The EUDC (Extra Urban Driving Cycle) segment
free within a time going to zero and the power is seemingly has been added after the fourth ECE cycle to account for more
unlimited. The F1 flywheel comprised a carbon fibre filament aggressive, high speed driving modes. The maximum speed of
wound rim surrounding a steel hub [24]. Weighing in at circa the EUDC cycle is 120 km/h Table 1 summarizes the parame-
5 kg with a diameter of 200 mm and a length of 100 mm, the ters for both the ECE and EUDC cycles.
flywheel spins at high speeds with an operating range of The best C class (compact car) vehicle available today [17]
64,500 rpm to 32,250 rpm running in a vacuum and being couples thermal engine, electric motor, generator, battery
enclosed within a housing that provides containment in the pack, drive wheels and brakes to power the vehicle with
event of failure [24]. The total system weight for the flywheel, modulated thermal and electric motors and recovery of
housing gear drives and CVT was less than 25 kg [24]. The braking energy. However, the increase in vehicle weight and
total axial length of CVT and flywheel was 300 mm. Speed of dimensions per load volume and the inefficiency of the
flywheels for passenger car applications and more over for multiple mechanical to electric energy conversions make
heavy duty truck applications do not have to be that high as it their effectiveness much less than what is expected by a car
has been proposed for F1 applications, because the weight much more environmentally expensive to produce, maintain
and packaging constraints are respectively not that signifi- and dispose.
cant or non significant at all. Therefore, risk of flywheel Table 2 presents fuel economy and CO2 production data of
storage perhaps controllable with a careful design is not the best C class (compact car) hybrid electric and traditional
expected to be that relevant in passenger car and heavy duty power train now available [1]. The first has a 1.8 L gasoline
truck applications. engine, while the second a 1.6 L TDI Diesel engine. Considered
KERS store energy under vehicle braking and return it lower heating values (LHV) are 42 MJ/Kg and 43.5 MJ/Kg for
under vehicle acceleration. The system utilizes a flywheel as gasoline and Diesel fuels, while densities are 0.75 and 0.835 kg/
the energy storage device and a Continuously Variable L respectively. The hybrid electric vehicle is more environ-
Transmission (CVT) to transfer energy to and from the mentally friendly during operation, and in particular covering
driveline. Transfer of vehicle kinetic energy to flywheel the urban (cold) sector where accelerations are followed by
kinetic energy reduces the speed of the vehicle and decelerations and stop thanks to the recovery of braking
increases the speed of the flywheel. Transfer of flywheel energy completely dissipated with the traditional power train
kinetic energy to vehicle kinetic energy reduces the speed of configuration.
the flywheel and increases the speed of the vehicle. The CVT
is used because ratios of vehicle and flywheel speed are
different during a braking or acceleration event. A clutch
allows disengagement of the flywheel when not used. Table 1 e Main characteristics of ECE and EUDC cycles.
Recovery of the braking energy reduces the amount of
Characteristics ECE 15 EUDC
thermal energy requested to power the vehicle and reduce
the time the thermal engine is on. Efficiency of KERS energy Distance [km] 4  1.013 4.052 6.955
storage and release, maximum amount of energy being Duration [s] 4  195 780 400
Average Speed [km/h] 18.7 (with idling) 62.6
stored, energy loss in start/stop of engine and timing of
Maximum Speed [km/h] 50 120
deceleration and acceleration processes and therefore
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Table 3 presents the main data of the 1.6 L TDI engine,


Table 2 e Fuel economy of C class (compact car) vehicles
with hybrid and traditional power trains (measured while Table 4 presents the main data of the vehicles. Fig. 2
values [17]). presents the brake specific fuel consumption and brake effi-
ciency maps computed with WAVE. Brake specific fuel
Best C Best C class
class hybrid car with consumption is in g/kWh and it is presented vs. engine speed
electric car a traditional in rpm and brake mean effective pressure in bar. Fig. 2 also
power train presents the maximum load brake mean effective pressure vs.
engine speed.
Fuel gasoline Diesel
Urban (cold) Fuel [l/100 km] 4 4.7 Load variations are obtained by reducing the amount of
Extra Urban Fuel [l/100 km] 3.8 3.4 fuel injected, i.e. changing the air-to-fuel equivalence ratio.
Combined Fuel [l/100 km] 4 3.8 This produces the typical high efficiency map of Diesel over
Combined CO2 [g/km] 89 99 the most part of engine loads. At idle, efficiency theoretically
Combined Energy [MJ/km] 1.26 1.38 goes to zero, or the brake specific fuel consumption goes
theoretically to infinity, because a certain amount of fuel is
used to produce an indicated mean effective pressure equal to
the friction mean effective pressure with no brake mean
4. Computational results
effective pressure output. The brake specific fuel consumption
map is completed by using finite values at idle.
Fig. 1 presents the fuel flow rate for a D class, full size
First, baseline computations have been performed. Results
passenger car equipped with a gasoline engine, during two
of simulations agree with measured data. Fig. 3 presents the
accelerations with an intermediate deceleration. The KERS
engine brake mean effective pressureespeed operating points
permits to shut-off the engine when the car is braking spin-
of the baseline configuration. One operating point is consid-
ning the flywheel to increase its energy. The engine is then
ered every 0.5 s.
restarted when the stored kinetic energy is used to partially
Computations have then been performed modeling
reaccelerate the vehicle. The engine stop/start is integrated
a modified version with KERS. Reference values [17e28] are
with the KERS.
assumed for maximum energy storage in KERS, energy
A model for the engine and a model for the car have been
penalties for start/stop, efficiency of storage and recovery of
defined using the WAVE and the Lotus vehicle software
energy, energy requested to run ancillary loads, new ancillary
[30,31]. An engine model is applied first to compute the brake
loads introduced by KERS and engine warmeup profile. The
specific fuel consumption map vs. engine speed and load of
engine is shut-off during decelerations, and it is restarted
the engine. Results of simulations are validated vs. available
during the following acceleration when the kinetic energy
experimental data. Then, a vehicle model is applied to
recovered during the braking is fully consumed. No weight
compute the instantaneous fuel flow rate to the engine of the
penalty is considered for the KERS, and no weight reduction is
vehicle with traditional power train running a driving cycle.
considered following downsizing. These two differences in
The fuel flow rates are obtained interpolating the brake
weights are roughly the same.
specific fuel consumption map with the computed instanta-
Results show the engine may be stopped more than 50% of
neous speeds and loads with corrections for the cold-start.
the time with KERS, with the engine being run to deliver only
Results of simulations are validated vs. the fuel consumption
the amount of energy needed by the vehicle during part of
data measured. Engine and car manufacturer name as well as
accelerations and cruising, and to cover the start-stop penal-
details of the experiments are covered by confidentiality.
ties. Fig. 4 presents the engine brake mean effective pressur-
What is important for the reader is to understand that the
eespeed operating points of the configuration with a 1.6TDI
WAVE model for the 1.6 TCDI Diesel engine and the Lotus
engine and the KERS. One operating point is considered every
model for the C class car with fitted the 1.6 TCDI Diesel engine
0.5 s. The shut-off of the engine reduces the number of points
are validated vs. reliable experiments done by their original
in figure.
equipment manufacturer.
Computations have finally been performed considering the
12
option to downsize the engine to 1.2 L thanks to the boost
no KERS provided by KERS. For sake of simplicity, the same brake
11 KERS
10 specific fuel consumption map and maximum load brake
9 mean effective pressure curve is supposed to apply for
Fuel Flow Rate [Kg/hr]

8
7
6
5
4 Table 3 e Basic engine data.
3 Parameter 1.6TDI Diesel engine
2
1 Number of Cylinders 4
0 Bore [mm] 79.50
640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 Stroke [mm] 80.50
time [s] Compression ratio 16.5
Swept Volume [l] 1.5984
Fig. 1 e Fuel flow rates with and without KERS.
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Table 4 e Basic vehicle data.


Parameter Best C class
car with a traditional
power train

Weight [kg] 1336


Frontal Area [m2] 2.2
Drag Coefficient 0.298
Tyre Rolling Radius [m] 0.3080
Final Drive Ratio 3.389
Gearbox Manual
Number of ratios 5
Gear. 1 Ratio 3.7780
Gear. 2 Ratio 1.9440
Gear. 3 Ratio 1.1850
Gear. 4 Ratio 0.8160
Gear. 5 Ratio 0.6250

a downsized version of the engine to 1.2 L, having reduced


bore and stroke reduced (72.2 and 73.1 mm respectively) and
same compression ratio. Therefore maximum power and
maximum torque speeds are the same for both engines, while
maximum power and maximum torque outputs reduce with
downsizing by the displacement ratio.
Fig. 5 presents the engine brake mean effective pressur-
eespeed operating points of the configuration with a 1.2TDI
engine and the KERS. One operating point is considered every
0.5 s. The shut-off of the engine reduces the number of points
in figure. The downsizing of the engine increases the oper-
ating BMEP towards points of better fuel economy. Torque
assistance by KERS permits same maximum accelerations of
the larger engine following a deceleration.
Computations have then been performed for a 1.6 L H2ICE
engine, derived from the engine in Table 3 reducing the
compression ratio to 14.5 and adopting a central direct
injector plus the central jet ignition pre-chamber. Fig. 6 pres-
ents the brake specific fuel consumption map computed with
WAVE. Brake specific fuel consumptions in g/kWh and pre-
sented vs. engine speed in rpm and brake mean effective
pressure in bar. Fig. 6 also presents the maximum load brake
mean effective pressure vs. engine speed. It has to be pointed
out that the conversion to hydrogen is not optimal, and better
top brake efficiencies may certainly follow an engine optimi-
zation for hydrogen. Despite of that, the hydrogen engine has
better than Diesel part load conditions, thanks to the always
lean burn properties of the DI-JI engine concept.
The H2ICE is able to deliver better part load efficiency than
the Diesel because of the better thermodynamic. Both the
Diesel and the DI-JI H2ICE have the load controlled by the
quantity of fuel injected. However, the DI Diesel engine
combustion is different from the DI-JI H2ICE combustion. In
the Diesel combustion, the fuel is injected in air, then it
diffuses in air, then it auto ignites. In the DI-JI H2ICE, the main
chamber combustion is premixed and not diffusion. The fuel
is injected in air, then it mixes, then it receives the multiple
jets of reacting gases from the jet ignition pre-chamber and
Fig. 2 e Maps of (a) brake specific fuel consumption
burns almost instantaneously. Recalling basic thermody-
(in g/kWh) and (b) Brake efficiency for the1.6 TDI Diesel
namics concepts, the Air-Standard Otto Cycle has efficiency:
engine (values computed with a validated WAVE [29]
1 engine model).
h 1
rk1
8422 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 8 4 1 7 e8 4 2 4

20
18
16
14
12
BMEP [bar]

10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Engine Speed [Rpm]

Fig. 3 e Engine brake mean effective pressureespeed


operating points of the baseline configuration with
a 1.6TDI engine.

20
18
16
14
12
BMEP [bar]

10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Engine Speed [Rpm]

Fig. 4 e Engine brake mean effective pressureespeed


operating points of the configuration with a 1.6TDI engine
and KERS.

where r is the compression ratio and k 1.4 for air. Combus-


tion is a constant-volume heat transfer to the air from an
external source while the piston is at top dead centre. This
process is intended to represent the ignition of the fueleair

20
18
16
14
12
BMEP [bar]

10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Engine Speed [Rpm]
Fig. 6 e Maps of (a) brake specific fuel consumption
Fig. 5 e Engine brake mean effective pressureespeed (in g/kWh) and (b) Brake efficiency for the 1.6 H2ICEl
operating points of the configuration with a 1.2TDI engine engine (values computed with a WAVE [29] engine model).
and KERS.
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20 to 3.16 L per 100 km, with a fuel saving of 17%. The configuration
18 with the downsized 1.2TDI engine and the KERS reduces the
16 fuel usage to 3.04 L per 100 km, with a total fuel saving of 20%.
14 The 1.6 H2ICE and KERS finally reduces the fuel usage to 8 g/km
12 of fuel, corresponding to only 0.96 MJ/km of fuel energy.
BMEP [bar]

10
8
6
5. Conclusions
4
2
KERS permit efficient regenerative braking and torque assis-
0
tance as a means of dramatically improving efficiency and
-2
hence reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, while
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
Engine Speed [Rpm] Direct Injection and Jet Ignition permits not only large top
brake efficiencies, but especially very large part load
Fig. 7 e Engine brake mean effective pressureespeed efficiencies.
operating points of the configuration with a 1.6 H2ICE Computational results presented here for a conventional C
engine and KERS. class (compact car) vehicle equipped with a 1.6TDI Diesel
engine running the new European driving cycle (NEDC). The
car equipped with a 1.2 L TDI Diesel engine and KERS
mixture and the subsequent rapid burning. Conversely, in the consumes 25 g/km of fuel producing 79.2 g/km of CO2 using
Air-Standard Diesel Cycle, the efficiency is: 1.09 MJ/km of fuel energy. These CO2 and fuel energy values
are more than 10% better than those of todays best hybrid
 k 
1 rc  1 electric vehicle. The car equipped with a 1.6 L DI-JI H2ICE
h 1 $
rk1 k$rc  1 engine consumes 8.3 g/km of fuel, corresponding to only
where r is the compression ratio and rc the cut off ratio, ratio of 0.99 MJ/km of fuel energy.
volumes at the end and at the start of the heat addition. In the The KERS and the DI-JI engine concept are potential
Diesel cycle the heat addition takes place at constant pres- enablers of dramatic improvements in vehicle fuel economy.
sure. Accordingly, the constant-volume process of the Otto H2ICE are able to deliver not only similar to Diesel top brake
cycle involving only heat now involves both work and heat. efficiencies, but also better than Diesel part load efficiencies.
We can consider this expression with rc 1 in case of the Otto Hydrogen is a beneficial fuel and KERS is a measure to
cycle, and rc 2 to rc 3 in case of the Diesel cycle. If we recover break energy. Synergies of KERS with Diesel engine
consider the Air-Standard Otto cycle with r 14 representa- and DI-JI H2ICE engines are similar because of the good part
tive of the DI-JI H2ICE, and the Air-Standard Diesel cycle with load efficiencies for the sake of quality control of the air to fuel
r 16.5 and rc 2, the DI-JI has clear thermodynamic mixture. The Diesel engine coupled with KERS may be
advantages, with a theoretical efficiency of 65.2% vs. 61.9%. considered a bench mark for fuel efficiency use with today
Fig. 7 presents the engine brake mean effective pressur- technologies. The H2ICE with KERS further push forward this
eespeed operating points of the configuration with a 1.6 H2ICE benchmarking.
engine and the KERS. The KERS is also used to boost acceler- The results of the best cars with hybrid gasoline or tradi-
ation increasing the engine BMEP when needed in a few points tional power train and Diesel are validated via measurements.
in the low speed range. The results with flywheel based KERS and Diesel or DI-JI H2ICE
Table 5 resumes the fuel economy results of all the modeled are only calculated. The calculation accuracy of the engine
configurations, the baseline 1.6TDI engine without KERS, this model is expected to be within a 5%, as well as the calculation
engine and KERS, an intermediate downsized engine 1.2TDI accuracy of the vehicle model. The combination of two
engine without KERS, and the downsized engine 1.2TDI and simulations for the brake specific fuel consumption and for
KERS. The baseline configuration with the 1.6TDI engine and no the driving cycle could multiply both deviations. Nevertheless,
KERS requires 3.81 L of Diesel fuel per 100 km. The configura- results of improvement of fuel economy with a flywheel based
tion with the 1.6 L engine and the KERS reduces the fuel usage KERS are in-line with what has been estimated and measured
by others, and the better than Diesel fuel efficiency map of the
DI-JI H2ICE engine will certainly produce better fuel energy
usage on the driving cycle.
For what concerns DI-JI engine concept, as well as our
Table 5 e Fuel economy of C class (compact car) vehicle
version of KERS, these and others preliminary evaluations
with traditional power trains and KERS (values computed
based on simulations are very promising. It is the roles of
with a validated Lotus Vehicle [31] model).
universities to develop new concepts, but it is then the roles of
Configuration Fuel [l/100 km] CO2 [g/km] Energy [MJ/km]
original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to
1.6TDI 3.81 99.2 1.38 develop new technologies and ultimately deliver new prod-
1.6TDI KERS 3.16 82.4 1.15 ucts. Unfortunately, the global financial melt down has left
1.2TDI 3.66 95.4 1.33 very little moneys to explore new technologies, and the
1.2TDI KERS 3.04 79.2 1.10
development of the DI-JI engine concept as well as of our
1.2H2ICE KERS 0.99
version of KERS lacks of financial support.
8424 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 8 4 1 7 e8 4 2 4

There are uncertainties involved in assumptions and [17] http://www.vcacarfueldata.org.uk [retrieved 8.1.10].
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