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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

IS 1893 (PART 1): 2002 IS 1893 (PART 1):2016


FOREWORD FOREWORD
This Indian Standard (Part 1) (Fifth Revision) This Indian Standard (Part 1) (sixth
was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Revision) was adopted by the Bureau of
Standards, after the draft finalized by the Indian Standards, after the draft finalized by
Earthquake Engineering Sectional the Earthquake Engineering Sectional
Committee had been approved by the Civil Committee had been approved by the Civil
Engineering Division Council. Engineering Division Council.

Himalayan - Nagalushai region, Indo- India is prone to strong earthquake shaking,


Gangetic Plain, Western India, Kutch and and hence earthquake resistant design is
Kathiawar regions are geologically unstable essential. The Committee has considered an
parts of the country, and some devastating earthquake zoning map based on the
earthquakes of the world have occurred there. maximum intensities at each location as
A major part of the peninsular India has also recorded from damage surveys after past
been visited by strong earthquakes, but these earthquakes, taking into account,
were relatively few in number occurring at
much larger time intervals at any site, and had a) known magnitudes and the known
considerably lesser intensity. The earthquake epicentres (see Annex A) assuming
resistant design of structures taking into all other conditions as being
account seismic data from studies of these average; and
Indian earthquakes has become very
essential, particularly in view of the intense b) tectonics (see Annex B) and
construction activity all over the country. It is lithology (see Annex C) of each
to serve this purpose that IS 1893 : 1962 region
Recommendations for earthquake resistant The Seismic Zone Map (see Fig. 1) is
design of structures was published and broadly associated with 1964 MSK Intensity
revised first time in 1966. Scale (see Annex D) corresponding to VI (or
less), VII, VIII and IX (and above) for
As a result of additional seismic data
Seismic Zones II, III, IV and V,
collected in India and further knowledge and
respectively. Seismic Zone Factors for some
experience gained since the publication of the
important towns are given in Annex E.
first revision of this standard, the sectional
committee felt the need to revise the standard
Structures designed as per this standard are
again incorporating many changes, such as
expected to sustain damage during strong
revision of maps showing seismic zones and
earthquake ground shaking. The provisions
epicentres, and adding a more rational
of this standard are intended for earthquake
approach for design of buildings and sub-
resistant design of only normal structures
structures of bridges. These were covered in
(without energy dissipation devices or
the second revision of 1S 1893 brought out in
systems in-built). This standard provides the
1970.
minimum design force for earthquake
As a result of the increased use of the resistant design of special structures (such as
standard, considerable amount of suggestions large and tall buildings, large and high dams,
long-span bridges and major industrial

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were received for modifying some of the projects). Such projects require rigorous,
provisions of the standard and, therefore, site-specific investigation to arrive at more
third revision of the standard was brought out accurate earthquake hazard assessment.
in 1975. The following changes were
incorporated in the third revision: To control loss of life and property, base
a) The standard incorporated seismic zone isolation or other advanced techniques may
factors (previously given as multiplying be adopted. Currently, the Indian Standard is
factors in the second revision) on a more under formulation for design of such
rational basis. buildings; until the standard becomes
b) Importance factors were introduced to available, specialist literature should be
account for the varying degrees of consulted for design, detail, installation and
importance for various structures. maintenance of such buildings.
c) In the clauses for design of multi-
storeyed buildings, the coefficient of IS 1893 : 1962 Recommendations for
flexibility was given in the form of a earthquake resistant design of structures
curve with respect to period of was first published in 1962, and revised in
buildings. 1966, 1970, 1975 and 1984. Further, in
d) A more rational formula was used to 2002, the Committee decided to present the
combine modal shear forces. provisions for different types of structures in
e) New clauses were introduced for separate parts, to keep abreast with rapid
determination of hydrodynamic developments and extensive research
pressures in elevated tanks. carried out in earthquake-resistant design of
f) Clauses on concrete and masonry dams various structures. Thus, IS 1893 was split
were modified, taking into account their into five parts. The other parts in the series
dynamic behaviour during earthquakes. are:
Simplified formulae for design forces Part 1 General provisions and buildings
were introduced based on results of Part 2 Liquid retaining tanks Elevated and
extensive studies carried out since ground supported
second revision of the standard was Part 3 Bridges and retaining walls
published. Part 4 Industrial structures, including stack-
like structures
The fourth revision, brought out in 1984, was Part 5 Dams and embankments (to be
prepared to modify some of the provisions of formulated)
the standard as a result of experience gained This standard (Part 1) contains general
with the use of the standard. In this revision, provisions on earthquake hazard assessment
a number of important basic modifications applicable to all buildings and structures
with respect to load factors, field values of N, covered in Parts 2 to 5. Also, Part 1 contains
base shear and modal analysis were provisions specific to earthquake-resistant
introduced. A new concept of performance design of buildings. Unless stated otherwise,
factor depending on the structural framing the provisions in Parts 2 to 5 are to be read
system and on the ductility of construction necessarily in conjunction with the general
was incorporated. Figure 2 for average provisions as laid down in Part 1.

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acceleration spectra was also modified and a In this revision, the following changes have
curve for zero percent damping incorporated. been included:
In the fifth revision, with a view to keep a) Design spectra are defined for
abreast with the rapid development and natural period up to 6 s;
extensive research that has been carried out
in the field of earthquake resistant design of b) Same design response spectra
various structures, the committee has decided are specified for all buildings,
to cover the provisions for different types of irrespective of the material of
structures in separate parts. Hence, IS 1893 construction
has been split into the following five parts:
Part 1 General provisions and buildings c) Bases of various load combinations
Part 2 Liquid retaining tanks Elevated and to be considered have been made
ground supported consistent for earthquake effects,
Part 3 Bridges and retaining walls with those specified in the other
Part 4 Industrial structures including stack codes;
like structures
Part 5 Dams and embankments d) Temporary structures are brought
under the purview of this standard;
Part 1 contains provisions that are general in
nature and applicable to all structures. Also, e) Importance factor provisions have
it contains provisions that are specific to been modified to introduce
buildings only. Unless stated otherwise, the intermediate importance category of
provisions in Parts 2 to 5 shall be read buildings, to acknowledge the
necessarily in conjunction with the general density of occupancy of buildings;
provisions in Part 1
f) A provision is introduced to ensure
NOTE Pending finalization of Parts 2 to 5 of IS
1893, provisions of Part 1 will be read along with the that all buildings are designed for at
relevant clauses of IS 1893 : 1984 for structures other least a minimum lateral force;
than buildings.
g) Buildings with flat slabs are brought
The following are the major and important
under the purview of this standard;
modifications made in the fifth revision:
a) The seismic zone map is revised with
h) Additional clarity is brought in on
only four zones, instead of five. Erstwhile
how to handle different types of
Zone I has been merged to Zone II.
irregularity of structural system;
Hence, Zone I does not appear in the new
zoning; only Zones II, III, IV and V do.
j) Effect of masonry infill walls has
b) The values of seismic zone factors have
been included in analysis and design
been changed; these now reflect more
of frame buildings;
realistic values of effective peak ground
acceleration considering Maximum
k) Method is introduced for arriving at
Considered Earthquake (MCE) and
the approximate natural period of
buildings with basements, step back

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service life of structure in each seismic buildings and buildings on hill
zone. slopes;
c) Response spectra are now specified for
three types of founding strata, namely m) Provisions on torsion have been
rock and hard soil, medium soil and soft simplified; and
soil.
d) Empirical expression for estimating the n) Simplified method is introduced for
fundamental natural period Taof multi- liquefaction potential analysis.
storeyed buildings with regular moment
resisting frames has been revised. In the formulation of this standard, effort has
e) This revision adopts the procedure of first been made to coordinate with standards and
calculating the actual force that maybe practices prevailing in different countries in
experienced by the structure during the addition to relating it to the practices in the
probable maximum earthquake, if it were field in this country. Assistance has
to remain elastic. Then, the concept of particularly been derived from the following
response reduction due to ductile publications:
deformation or frictional energy
dissipation in the cracks is brought into 1) IBC 2015, International Building
the code explicitly, by introducing the Code, International Code Council,
response reduction factor in place of the USA, 2015
earlier performance factor.
f) A lower bound is specified for the design 2) NEHRP 2009, NEHRP
base shear of buildings, based on Recommended Seismic Provisions
empirical estimate of the fundamental for New Buildings and Other
natural period Ta. Structures, Report No. FEMA P-
g) The soil-foundation system factor is 750, Federal Emergency
dropped. Instead, a clause is introduced to Management Agency, Washington,
restrict the use of foundations vulnerable DC, USA, 2009
to differential settlements in severe
seismic zones. 3) ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design
h) Torsional eccentricity values have been Loads for Buildings and Other
revised upwards in view of serious Structures, American Society of
damages observed in buildings with Civil Engineers, USA, 2010
irregular plans.
i) Modal combination rule in dynamic 4) NZS 1170.5: 2004, Structural
analysis of buildings has been revised. Design Actions, Part 5: Earthquake
j) Other clauses have been redrafted where Actions New Zealand, Standards
necessary for more effective New Zealand, Wellington, New
implementation. Zealand, 2004
5) IBC 2015, International Building
It is not intended in this standard to lay down Code, International Code Council,
regulation so that no structure shall suffer any USA, 2015
damage during earthquake of all magnitudes.

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It has been endeavoured to ensure that, as far 6) NEHRP 2009, NEHRP
as possible, structures are able to respond, Recommended Seismic Provisions
without structural damage to shocks of for New Buildings and Other
moderate intensities and without total Structures, Report No. FEMA P-
collapse to shocks of heavy intensities. While 750, Federal Emergency
this standard is intended for the earthquake Management Agency, Washington,
resistant design of normal structures, it has to DC, USA, 2009
be emphasized that in the case of special
structures, such as large and tall dams, long- 7) ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design
span bridges, major industrial projects, etc., Loads for Buildings and Other
site-specific detailed investigation should be Structures, American Society of
undertaken, unless otherwise specified in the Civil Engineers, USA, 2010
relevant clauses.
8) NZS 1170.5: 2004, Structural
Through the basis for the design of different Design Actions, Part 5: Earthquake
types of structures is covered in this standard, Actions New Zealand, Standards
it is not implied That detailed dynamic New Zealand, Wellington, New
analysis should be made in every case. In Zealand, 2004
highly seismic areas, construction of a type Also, considerable assistance has been given
which entails heavy debris and consequent by Indian Institutes of Technology, Jodhpur,
loss of life and property, such as masonry, Madras, Bombay, Roorkee and Kanpur;
particularly mud masonry and rubble Geological Survey of India; India
masonry, should preferably be avoided. For Meteorological Department, National
guidance on precautions to be observed in the Centre for Seismology (Ministry of Earth
construction of buildings, reference may be Sciences, Govt of India) and several other
made to IS 4326, IS 13827 and IS 13828. organizations. Significant improvements
have been made to the standard based on
Earthquake can cause damage not only on
findings of a project entitled, Review of
account of the shaking which results from
Building Codes and Preparation of
them but also due to other chain effects like
Commentary and Handbooks awarded to
landslides, floods, fires and disruption to
IIT Kanpur by the Gujarat State Disaster
communication. It is, therefore, important to
Management Authority (GSDMA),
take necessary precautions in the siting,
Gandhinagar, through World Bank finances
planning and design of structures so that they
during 2003-2004.
are safe against such secondary effects also.
The units used with the items covered by the
The Sectional Committee has appreciated symbols shall be consistent throughout this
that there cannot be an entirely scientific standard, unless specifically noted
basis for zoning in view of the scanty data otherwise.
available. Though the magnitudes of
different earthquakes which have occurred in The composition of the Committee
the past are known to a reasonable degree of responsible for the formulation of this
accuracy, the intensities of the shocks caused standard is given in Annex G.

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by these earthquakes have so far been mostly For the purpose of deciding whether a
estimated by damage surveys and there is particular requirement of this standard is
little instrumental evidence to corroborate the complied with, the final value observed or
conclusions arrived at. Maximum intensity at calculated, expressing the result of a test or
different places can be fixed on a scale only analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance
on the basis of the observations made and with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off
recorded after the earthquake and thus a numerical values (revised). The number of
zoning map which is based on the maximum significant places retained in the rounded off
intensities arrived at, is likely to lead in some value should be the same as that of the
cases to an incorrect conclusion in view of(a) specified value in this standard
incorrectness in the assessment of intensities,
(b) human error in judgment during the
damage survey, and (c) variation in quality
and design of structures causing variation in
type and extent of damage to the structures
for the same intensity of shock. The Sectional
Committee has therefore, considered that a
rational approach to the problem would be to
arrive at a zoning map based on known
magnitudes and the known epicentres (see
Annex A) assuming all other conditions as
being average and to modify such an
idealized isoseismal map in light of tectonics
(see Annex B), lithology (see Annex C) and
the maximum intensities as recorded from
damage surveys. The Committee has also
reviewed such a map in the light of the past
history and future possibilities and also
attempted to draw the lines demarcating the
different zones so as to be clear of important
towns, cities and industrial areas, after
making special examination of such cases, as
a little modification in the zonal
demarcations may mean considerable
difference to the economics of a project in
that area. Maps shown in Fig. 1 and Annexes
A, B and C are prepared based on information
available upto 1993.

In the seismic zoning map, Zone I and II of


the contemporary map have been merged and
assigned the level of Zone II. The Killari area
has been included in Zone III and necessary

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modifications made, keeping in view the
probabilistic hazard evaluation. The Bellary
isolated zone has been removed. The parts of
eastern coast areas have shown similar
hazard to that of the Killari area, the level of
Zone II has been enhanced to Zone III and
connected with Zone III of Godawari Graben
area.

The seismic hazard level with respect to ZPA


at 50 percent risk level and 100 years service
life goes on progressively increasing from
southern peninsular portion to the Himalayan
main seismic source, the revised seismic
zoning map has given status of Zone III to
Narmada Tectonic Domain, Mahanandi
Graben and Godawari Graben. This is a
logical normalization keeping in view the
apprehended higher strain rates in these
domains on geological consideration of
higher neotectonic activity recorded in these
areas.

Attention is particularly drawn to the fact that


the intensity of shock due to an earthquake
could vary locally at anyplace due to
variation in soil conditions. Earthquake
response of systems would be affected by
different types of foundation system in
addition to variation of ground motion due to
various types of soils. Considering the effects
in a gross manner, the standard gives
guidelines for arriving at design seismic
coefficients based on stiffness of base soil.

It is important to note that the seismic


coefficient, used in the design of any
structure, is dependent on many variable
factors and it is an extremely difficult task to
determine the exact seismic coefficient in
each given case. It is, therefore, necessary to
indicate broadly the seismic coefficients that
could generally be adopted in different parts

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or zones of the country though, of course, a
rigorous analysis considering all the factors
involved has to be made in the case of all
important projects in order to arrive at a
suitable seismic coefficients for design. The
Sectional Committee responsible for the
formulation of this standard has attempted to
include a seismic zoning map (see Fig. 1) for
this purpose. The object of this map is to
classify the area of the country into a number
of zones in which one may reasonably expect
earthquake shaking of more or less same
maximum intensity in future. The Intensity as
per Comprehensive Intensity Scale (MSK64)
(see Annex D) broadly associated with the
various zones is VI (or less), VII, VIII and IX
(and above) for Zones II, III, IV and V
respectively. The maximum seismic ground
acceleration in each zone cannot be presently
predicted with accuracy either on a
deterministic or on a probabilistic basis. The
basic zone factors included herein are
reasonable estimates of effective peak
ground accelerations for the design of various
structures covered in this standard. Zone
factors for some important towns are given in
Annex E.

Base isolation and energy absorbing devices


may be used for earthquake resistant design.
Only standard devices having detailed
experimental data on the performance should
be used. The designer must demonstrate by
detailed analyses that these devices provide
sufficient protection to the buildings and
equipment as envisaged in this standard.
Performance of locally assembled isolation
and energy absorbing devices should be
evaluated experimentally before they are
used in practice. Design of buildings and
equipment using such device should be
reviewed by the competent authority.

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Base isolation systems are found useful for
short period structures, say less than 0.7s
including soil-structure interaction.

In the formulation of this standard, due


weightage has been given to international
coordination among the standards and
practices prevailing in different countries in
addition to relating it to the practices in the
field in this country. Assistance has
particularly been derived from the following
publications:

a) UBC 1994, Uniform Building Code,


International Conference of Building
Officials, Whittier, California,
U.S.A.1994.
b) NEHRP 1991, NEHRP Recommended
Provisions for the Development of
Seismic Regulations for New
Buildings, Part 1: Provisions, Report
No. FEMA 222, Federal Emergency
Management Agency, Washington
D.C., U.S.A., January 1992.
c) NEHRP 1991, NEHRP Recommended
Provisions for the Development of
Seismic Regulations for New
Buildings, Part 2: Commentary, Report
No. FEMA 223, Federal Emergency
Management Agency, Washington, D.
C., U.S.A., January 1992.
d) NZS 4203:1992, Code of Practice for
General Structural Design and Design
Loadings for Buildings, Standards
Association of New Zealand,
Wellington, New Zealand, 1992.

In the preparation of this standard


considerable assistance has been given by the
Department of Earthquake Engineering,
University of Roorkee; Indian Institute of
Technology, Kanpur; IIT Bombay, Mumbai;
Geological Survey of India; India

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Meteorological Department, and several
other organizations.

The units used with the items covered by the


symbols shall be consistent throughout this
standard, unless specifically noted otherwise.

The composition of the Committee


responsible for the formulation of this
standard is given in Annex F.

For the purpose of deciding whether a


particular requirement of this standard is
complied with, the final value observed or
calculated, expressing the result of a test or
analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance
with IS 2:1960 Rules for rounding off
numerical values ( revised ). The number of
significant places retained in* the rounded
off value should be the same as that of the
specified value in this standard.
1 SCOPE 1 SCOPE
1.1 This standard (Part 1) deals with 1.1 This standard (Part 1) primarily deals
assessment of seismic loads on various with earthquake hazard assessment for
structures and earthquake resistant design of earthquake-resistant design of (1) buildings,
buildings. Its basic provisions are applicable (2) liquid retaining structures,
to buildings; elevated structures; industrial (3) bridges, (4) embankments and retaining
and stack like structures; bridges; concrete walls,
masonry and earth dams; embankments and (5) Industrial and stack-like structures, and
retaining walls and other structures. (6) concrete, masonry and earth dams. Also,
this standard (Part 1) deals with earthquake-
resistant design of buildings; earthquake-
resistant design of the other structures is
dealt with in Parts 2 to 5.
1.2 Temporary elements such as scaffolding, 1.2 All structures, like parking structures,
temporary excavations need not be designed security cabins and ancillary structures need
for earthquake forces. to be designed for appropriate earthquake
effects as per this standard
1.3 This standard does not deal with the 1.3 Temporary elements, such as
construction features relating to earthquake scaffolding and temporary excavations,
resistant design in buildings and other need to be designed as per this standard.
structures. For guidance on earthquake 1.4 This standard does not deal with
resistant construction of buildings, reference construction features relating to earthquake-

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may be made to the following Indian resistant buildings and other structures. For
Standards: guidance on earthquake-resistant
IS 4326,1S 13827,IS 13828,IS 13920and ISconstruction of buildings, reference may be
13935 made to the latest revisions of the following
Indian Standards: IS 4326, IS 13827, IS
13828, IS 13920, IS 13935 and IS 15988.
1.5 The provisions of this standard are
applicable even to critical and special
structures, like nuclear power plants,
petroleum refinery plants and large dams.
For such structures, additional requirements
may be imposed based on special studies,
such as site-specific hazard assessment. In
such cases, the earthquake effects specified
by this standard shall be taken as at least the
minimum.
2 REFERENCES 2 REFERENCES
2.1 The following Indian Standards are The standards listed below contain
necessary adjuncts to this standard: provisions, which, through reference in this
text, constitute provisions of this standard.
At the time of publication, the editions
indicated were valid. All standards are
subject to revision, and parties to agreements
based on this standard are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the
most recent editions of the standards
indicated below
IS No. Title Is No. Title

456:2000 Code of practice for plain 456:2000 Code of practice for


and reinforced concrete plain and reinforced
(fourth revision) concrete ( fourth
800:1984 Code of practice for general revision )
construction in steel (second 800:2007 Code of practice for
revision) general
875 Code of practice for design construction in steel
loads (other than earthquake) ( second
for buildings and structures: revision )
(Part l): Dead loads Unit weights
1987 of building material and 875 Code of practice for
stored materials (second design loads
revision)

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(Part 2): Imposed loads (second ( other than
1987 revision) earthquake ) for
buildings
(Part 3): Wind loads (second revision) and structures:
1987 (Part l): 1987 Dead loads Unit
weights of
(Part4 ): Snow loads (second revision) building material
1987 and stored materials
( second revision)
(Part 5): Special loads and load (Part 2):1987 Imposed loads (
1987 combinations (second second revision)
revision)
1343:1980 Code of practice for pre- (Part 3):1987 Wind loads ( second
stressed concrete (first revision)
revision )
1498:1970 Classification and (Part4 ):1987 Snow loads ( second
identification of soils for revision)
general engineering
purposes (first revision ) (Part 5):1987 Special loads and
1888:1982 Method of load test on soils load combinations
(second revision ) ( second revision)
1893 Criteria for earthquake 1343:2012 Code of practice for
(Part4) resistant design of pre-stressed
structures: Part 4 Industrial concrete (Second
structures including stack revision )
like structures 1498:1970 Classification and
2131:1981 Method of standard identification of
penetration test soils for general
for soils (first revision ) engineering
2809:1972 Glossary of terms and purposes (first
symbols relating to soil revision )
engineering ( first revision 1888:1982 Method of load test
) on soils (second
2810:1979 Glossary of terms relating to revision )
soil dynamics (first revision) 1893 Criteria for
4326:1993 Earthquake resistant design earthquake resistant
and construction of buildings design of structures:
Code of practice (second Part 2 :2014 Liquid retaing tank
revision) Part 3 : 2014 Bridge and
6403:1981 Code of practice for retaining walls
determination of bearing Part 4 : 2015 Industrial structures
including stack- like

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capacity of shallow structure (first
foundations (first revision ) revision)
13827: Improving earthquake 1905: 1987 Code of pracrise
1993 resistance of earthen for structural use of
buildings Guidelines unreinforced
13828: Improving earthquake masonary (third
1993 resistance of low strength revision)
masonry buildings 2131:1981 Method of standard
Guidelines penetration test for
13920: Ductile detailing of soils (first
1993 reinforced concrete revision)
structures subjected to
seismic forces Code of 2809:1972 Glossary of terms
practice and symbols
13935:199 Repair and seismic relating to soil
3 strengthening of buildings engineering ( first
Guidelines revision )
SP 6 ( 6 ) Handbook for structural 2810:1979 Glossary of terms
:1972 engineers: Application of relating to soil
plastic theory in design of dynamics (fzrst
steel structures revision)
2974 Code of practice for
design and
construction of
machine
foundations
(Part 1) : 1982 Foundation for
reciprocating type
machines
(Part 2) : 1980 Foundation for
impact type
machines (Hammer
foundations)
(Part 3) : 1992 Foundations for rotary
type machines
(Medium and high
frequency)
(Part 4) : 1979 Foundation for rotary
type machine of low
frequency
4326:1993 Earthquake
resistant design and

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construction of
buildings Code
of practice ( second
revision )
6403:1981 Code of practice for
determination
of bearing capacity
of shallow
foundations (first
revision )
13827:1993 Improving
earthquake
resistance of
earthen buildings
Guidelines
13828:1993 Improving
earthquake
resistance of
low strength
masonry buildings

Guidelines
13920:2016 Ductile detailing of
reinforced
concrete structures
subjected to
seismic forces
Code of practice
13935:1993 Repair and seismic
strengthening of
buildings
Guidelines
15988: 2013 Seismic evalution
and strengthening
of existing
reinforced concrete
building- guidelines
SP 7 : 2016 National Building Code
(Part 6/Sec 4) of India: Part 6
Structural Design,
Section 4 Masonry

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3 TERMINOLOGY FOR 3 TERMINOLOGY
EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
3.1 For the purpose of this standard, the For the purpose of this standard, definitions
following definitions shall apply which are given below shall apply to all structures, in
applicable generally to all structures. general. For definition of terms pertaining to
soil mechanics and soil dynamics, reference
may be made to IS 2809 and IS 2810, and
for definition of terms pertaining to loads,
reference may be made to IS 875 (Parts 1 to
5).
NOTE For the definitions of terms pertaining to soil
mechanics and soil dynamics references may be made
to IS 2809 and IS 2810.
3.2 Closely-Spaced Modes 3.1 Closely-Spaced Modes Closely-
Closely-spaced modes of a structure are those spaced modes of a structure are those of the
of its natural modes of vibration whose natural modes of oscillation of a structure,
natural frequencies differ from each other by whose natural frequencies differ from each
10 percent or less of the lower frequency. other by 10 percent or less of the lower
frequency
3.3 Critical Damping 3.2 Critical Damping The damping
The damping beyond which the free vibration beyond which the free vibration motion will
motion will not be oscillatory. not be oscillatory.
3.4 Damping 3.3 Damping The effect of internal
The effect of internal friction, imperfect friction, inelasticity of materials, slipping,
elasticity of material, slipping, sliding, etc. in sliding, etc, in reducing the amplitude of
reducing the amplitude of vibration and is oscillation; it is expressed as a fraction of
expressed as a percentage of critical critical damping (see 3.2).
damping.
3.5 Design Acceleration Spectrum 3.4 Design Acceleration Spectrum
Design acceleration spectrum refers to an Design acceleration spectrum refers to an
average smoothened plot of maximum average smoothened graph of maximum
acceleration as a function of frequency or acceleration as a function of natural
time period of vibration for a specified frequency or natural period of oscillation for
damping ratio for earthquake excitations at a specified damping ratio for the expected
the base of a single degree of freedom earthquake excitations at the base of a single
system. degree of freedom system
3.6 Design Basis Earthquake ( DBE )
It is the earthquake which can reasonably be
expected to occur at least once during the
design life of the structure.
3.5 Design Horizontal Acceleration
Coefficient (Ah) It is a horizontal

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acceleration coefficient that shall be used for
design of structures.

3.7 Design Horizontal Acceleration 3.5 Design Horizontal Acceleration


Coefficient (Ah) Coefficient (Ah) It is a horizontal
It is a horizontal acceleration coefficient that acceleration coefficient that shall be used for
shall be used for design of structures. design of structures
3.8 Design Lateral Force 3.6 Design Horizontal Force It is the
It is the horizontal seismic force prescribed horizontal seismic force prescribed by this
by this standard, that shall be used to design standard that shall be used to design a
a structure. structure
3.9 Ductility 3.7 Ductility It is the capacity of a
Ductility of a structure, or its members, is the structure (or its members) to undergo large
capacity to undergo large inelastic inelastic deformations without significant
deformations without significant loss of loss of strength or stiffness
strength or stiffness.
3.10 Epicentre 3.8 Epicentre It is the geographical point
The geographical point on the surface of on the surface of earth vertically above the
earth vertically above the focus of the point of origin of the earthquake
earthquake.
3.11 Effective Peak Ground Acceleration
(EPGA)
It is 0.4 times the 5 percent damped average
spectral acceleration between period 0.1 to
0.3 s. This shall be taken as Zero Period
Acceleration (ZPA).
3.12 Floor Response Spectra 3.9 Floor Response Spectrum It is the
Floor response spectra is the response spectra response spectrum (for a chosen material
for a time history motion of a floor. This floor damping value) of the time history of the
motion time history is obtained by an analysis shaking generated at a floor of a structure,
of multi-storey building for appropriate when the structure is subjected to a given
material damping values subjected to a earthquake ground motion at its base
specified earthquake motion at the base of
structure.
3.13 Focus
The originating earthquake source of the
elastic waves inside the earth which cause
shaking of ground due to earthquake.
3.14 Importance Factor (I) 3.10 Importance Factor (I) It is a factor
It is a factor used to obtain the design seismic used to estimate design seismic force
force depending on the functional use of the depending on the functional use of the
structure, characterised by hazardous structure, characterized by hazardous
consequences of its failure, its post- consequences of its failure, post-earthquake

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earthquake functional need, historic value, or functional needs, historical value, or
economic importance. economic importance
3.15 Intensity of Earthquake 3.11 Intensity of Earthquake It is the
The intensity of an earthquake at a place is a measure of the strength of ground shaking
measure of the strength of shaking during the manifested at a place during the earthquake,
earthquake, and is indicated by a number and is indicated by a roman capital numeral
according to the modified Mercalli Scale or on the MSK scale of seismic intensity (see
M.S.K. Scale of seismic intensities (see Annex D).
Annex D).
3.16 Liquefaction 3.12 Liquefaction It is a state primarily in
Liquefaction is a state in saturated saturated cohesionless soils wherein the
cohesionless soil wherein the effective shear effective shear strength is reduced to
strength is reduced to negligible value for all negligible value for all engineering
engineering purpose due to pore pressure purposes, when the pore pressure
caused by vibrations during an earthquake approaches the total confining pressure
when they approach the total confining during earthquake shaking. In this condition,
pressure. In this condition the soil tends to the soil tends to behave like a fluid mass (see
behave like a fluid mass. Annex F).
3.17 Lithological Features 3.13 Lithological Features Features that
The nature of the geological formation of the reflect the nature of the geological formation
earths crust above bed rock on the basis of of the earths crust above bed rock
such characteristics as colour, structure, characterized on the basis of structure,
mineralogical composition and grain size. mineralogical composition and grain size.
3.18 Magnitude of Earthquake (Richters
Magnitude)
The magnitude of earthquake is a number,
which is a measure of energy released in an
earthquake. It is defined as logarithm to the
base 10 of the maximum trace amplitude,
expressed in microns, which the standard
short-period torsion seismometer ( with a
period of 0.8s, magnification 2800 and
damping nearly critical ) would register due
to the earthquake at an epicentral distance of
100 km.
3.19 Maximum Considered Earthquake
(MCE)
The most severe earthquake effects
considered by this standard.
3.20 Modal Mass ( Mk) 3.14 Modal Mass (Mk) in Mode (k) of a
Modal mass of a structure subjected to Structure It is a part of the total seismic
horizontal or vertical, as the case maybe, mass of the structure that is effective in
ground motion is apart of the total seismic

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mass of the structure that is effective in mode natural mode k of oscillation during
k of vibration. The modal mass for a given horizontal or vertical ground motion.
mode has a unique value irrespective of
scaling of the mode shape.
3.21 Modal Participation Factor ( Pk) 3.15 Modal Participation Factor (Pk) in
Modal participation factor of mode k of Mode (k) of a Structure The amount by
vibration is the amount by which mode k which natural mode k contributes to overall
contributes to the overall vibration of the oscillation of the structure during horizontal
structure under horizontal and vertical or vertical earthquake ground motion. Since
earthquake ground motions. Since the the amplitudes of mode shapes can be scaled
amplitudes of 95 percent mode shapes can be arbitrarily, the value of this factor depends
scaled arbitrarily, the value of this factor on the scaling used for defining mode
depends on the scaling used for mode shapes. shapes.
3.22 Modes of Vibration ( see Normal Mode) 3.16 Modes of Oscillation See 3.19.
3.23 Mode Shape Coefficient ( ik ) 3.17 Mode Shape Coefficient ( ik ) It is
When a system is vibrating in normal mode the spatial deformation pattern of oscillation
k, at any particular instant of time, the along degree of freedom i, when the
amplitude of mass i expressed as a ratio of the structure is oscillating in its natural mode k.
amplitude of one of the masses of the system, A structure with N degrees of freedom
is known as mode shape coefficient ( ik ) possesses N natural periods and N
associated natural mode shapes. These
natural mode shapes are together presented
in the form of a mode shape matrix [ ], in
which each column represents one natural
mode shape. The element ik is called the
mode shape coefficient associated with
degree of freedom i, when the structure is
oscillating in mode k.
3.24 Natural Period (T) 3.18 Natural Period (Tk) in Mode (k) of
Natural period of a structure is its time period Oscillation The time taken (in second) by
of undamped free vibration. the structure to complete one cycle of
oscillation in its natural mode k of oscillation
3.24.1 Fundamental Natural Period ( T1) 3.18.1 Fundamental Lateral Translational
It is the first (longest) modal time period of Natural Period (T1) It is the longest time
vibration. taken (in second) by the structure to
complete one cycle of oscillation in its
lateral translational mode of oscillation in
the considered direction of earthquake
shaking. This mode of oscillation is called
the fundamental lateral translational natural
mode of oscillation. A three-dimensional
model of a structure will have one such

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fundamental lateral translational mode of
oscillation along each of the two orthogonal
plan directions.
3.24.2 Modal Natural Period (Tk) 3.19 Normal Mode of Oscillation The
The modal natural period of mode k is the mode of oscillation in which there are special
time period of vibration in mode k. undamped free oscillations in which all
points on the structure oscillate harmonically
at the same frequency (or period), such that
all these points reach their individual
maximum responses simultaneously
3.25 Normal Mode
A system is said to be vibrating in a normal
mode when all its masses attain maximum
values of displacements and rotations
simultaneously, and pass through
equilibrium positions simultaneously.
3.20 Peak Ground Acceleration It is the
maximum acceleration of the ground in a
given direction of ground shaking. Here, the
acceleration refers to that of the horizontal
motion, unless specified otherwise.

3.26 Response Reduction Factor (R) 3.21 Response Reduction Factor (R) It is
It is the factor by which the actual base shear the factor by which the base shear induced
force, that would be generated if the structure in a structure, if it were to remain elastic, is
were to remain elastic during its response to reduced to obtain the design base shear. It
the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) shaking, depends on the perceived seismic damage
shall be reduced to obtain the design lateral performance of the structure, characterized
force. by ductile or brittle deformations,
redundancy in the structure, or overstrength
inherent in the design process.
3.27 Response Spectrum 3.22 Response Spectrum It is the
The representation of the maximum response representation of maximum responses of a
of idealized single degree freedom systems spectrum of idealized single degree freedom
having certain period and damping, during systems of different natural periods but
earthquake ground motion. The maximum having the same damping, under the action
response is plotted against the undamped of the same earthquake ground motion at
natural period and for various damping their bases. The response referred to here can
values, and can be expressed in terms of be maximum absolute acceleration,
maximum absolute acceleration, maximum maximum relative velocity, or maximum
relative velocity, or maximum relative relative displacement
displacement.

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3.28 Seismic Mass 3.24 Seismic Mass of a Floor It is the
It is the seismic weight divided by seismic weight of the floor divided by
acceleration due to gravity. acceleration due to gravity.
3.25 Seismic Mass of a Structure It is the
seismic weight of a structure divided by
acceleration due to gravity
3.29 Seismic Weight (W) 3.26 Seismic Weight of a Floor (W) It is
It is the total dead load plus appropriate the sum of dead load of the floor, appropriate
amounts of specified imposed load contributions of weights of columns, walls
and any other permanent elements from the
storeys above and below, finishes and
services, and appropriate amounts of
specified imposed load on the floor.
3.27 Seismic Weight of a Structure (W) It
is the sum of seismic weights of all floors.
3.30 Structural Response Factors ( Sa/g ) 3.23 Response Acceleration Coefficient of a
It is a factor denoting the acceleration Structure (Sa/g) It is a factor denoting the
response spectrum of the structure subjected normalized design acceleration spectrum
to earthquake ground vibrations, and depends value to be considered for the
on natural period of vibration and damping of design of structures subjected to earthquake
the structure. ground shaking; this value depends on the
natural period of oscillation of the structure
and damping to be considered in the design
of the structure.
3.31 Tectonic Features
The nature of geological formation of the
bedrock in the earths crust revealing regions
characterized by structural features, such as
dislocation, distortion, faults, folding,
thrusts, volcanoes with their age of
formation, which are directly involved in the
earth movement or quake resulting in the
above consequences.
3.32 Time History Analysis 3.29 Time History Analysis It is an
It is an analysis of the dynamic response of analysis of the dynamic response of the
the structure at each increment of time, when structure at each instant of time, when its
its base is subjected to a specific ground base is subjected to a specific ground motion
motion time history. time history.
3.33 Zone Factor (Z) 3.28 Seismic Zone Factor (Z) It is the
It is a factor to obtain the design spectrum value of peak ground acceleration
depending on the perceived maximum considered by this standard for the design of
seismic risk characterized by Maximum structures located in each seismic zone.
Considered Earthquake (MCE) in the zone in

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which the structure is located. The basic zone
factors included in this standard are
reasonable estimate of effective peak ground
acceleration.
3.34 Zero Period Acceleration ( ZPA )
It is the value of acceleration response
spectrum for period below 0.03 s
(frequencies above 33 Hz).
4 TERMINOLOGY FOR 4 SPECIAL TERMINOLOGY FOR
EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING OF BUILDINGS
BUILDINGS
4.1 For the purpose of earthquake resistant 4.1 The definitions given below shall apply
design of buildings in this standard, the for the purpose of earthquake resistant
following definitions shall apply. design of buildings, as enumerated in this
standard.
4.2 Base 4.2 Base It is the level at which inertia
It is the level at which inertia forces forces generated in the building are
generated in the structure are transferred to considered to be transferred to the ground
the foundation, which then transfers these through the foundation. For buildings with
forces to the ground. basements, it is considered at the
bottommost basement level. For buildings
resting on,

a) pile foundations, it is considered to


be at the top of pile cap;

b) raft, it is considered to be at the top


of raft; and

c) footings, it is considered to be at the


top of the footing.

For buildings with combined types of


foundation, the base is considered as the
bottom-most level of the bases of the
constituent individual foundations as per
definitions above.
4.3 Base Dimensions (d) 4.3 Base Dimension (d) It is the
Base dimension of the building along a dimension (in metre) of the base of the
direction is the dimension at its base, in building along a direction of shaking
metre, along that direction.
4.4 Centre of Mass 4.4 Centre of Mass (CM) The point in the
floor of a building through which the

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The point through which the resultant of the resultant of the inertia force of the floor is
masses of a system acts. This point considered to act during earthquake shaking.
corresponds to the centre of gravity of masses Unless otherwise stated, the inertia force
of system. considered is that associated with the
horizontal shaking of the building.
4.5 Centre of Stiffness 4.5 Centre of Resistance (CR)
The point through which the resultant of the 4.5.1 For Single Storey Buildings It is the
restoring forces of a system acts. point on the roof of a building through which
when the resultant internal resistance acts,
the building undergoes,
a) pure translation in the horizontal
direction; and
b) no twist about vertical axis passing
through the CR.
4.5.2 For Multi-Storey Buildings It is the
set of points on the horizontal floors of a
multi-storey building through which, when
the resultant incremental internal resistances
across those floors act, all floors of the
building undergo,
a) pure translation in the horizontal
direction; and
b) no twist about vertical axis passing
through the CR.
4.6 Design Eccentricity (edi) 4.6 Eccentricity
It is the value of eccentricity to be used at 4.6.1 Design Eccentricity (edi) It is the
floor i in torsion calculations for design. value of eccentricity to be used for floor i in
calculations of design torsion effects.
4.6.2 Static Eccentricity (esi) It is the
distance between centre of mass (CM) and
centre of resistance (CR) of floor i.
4.7 Design Seismic Base Shear ( VB) 4.7 Design Seismic Base Shear (VB) It is
It is the total design lateral force at the base the horizontal lateral force in the considered
of a structure. direction of earthquake shaking that the
structure shall be designed for.
4.8 Diaphragm 4.8 Diaphragm It is a horizontal or nearly
It is a horizontal, or nearly horizontal system, horizontal structural system (for example,
which transmits lateral forces to the vertical reinforced concrete floors and horizontal
resisting elements, for example, reinforced bracing systems), which transmits lateral
concrete floors and horizontal bracing forces to vertical elements connected to it.
systems.
4.9 Dual System

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Buildings with dual system consist of shear
walls (or braced frames) and moment
resisting frames such that:
a) The two systems are designed to resist the
total design lateral force in proportion to their
lateral stiffness considering the interaction
of the dual system at all floor levels; and
b) The moment resisting frames are designed
to independently resist at least 25 percent
of the design base shear
4.10 Height of Floor ( hi ) 4.9 Height of Floor (hi) It is the difference
It is the difference in levels between the base in vertical elevations (in metre) of the base
of the building and that of floor i. of the building and top of floor i of the
building.
4.11 Height of Structure(h) 4.10 Height of Building (h) It is the
It is the difference in levels, in metres, height of building (in metre) from its base to
between its base and its highest level. top of roof level,

a) excluding the height of basement


storeys, if basement walls are
connected with the ground floor slab
or basement walls are fitted between
the building columns, but

b) including the height of


basement storeys, if basement walls
are not connected with the ground
floor slab and basement walls are not
fitted between the building columns
In step-back buildings, it shall be
taken as the average of heights of all
steps from the base, weighted with
their corresponding floor areas. And,
in buildings founded on hill slopes, it
shall be taken as the height of the
roof from the top of the highest
footing level or pile cap level.
4.12 Horizontal Bracing System 4.11 Horizontal Bracing System It is a
It is a horizontal truss system that serves the horizontal truss system that serves the same
same function as a diaphragm. function as a diaphragm.

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4.13 Joint 4.12 Joints These are portions of columns
It is the portion of the column that is common that are common to beams/braces and
to other members, for example, beams, columns, which frame into columns
framing into it.
4.14 Lateral Force Resisting Element 4.13 Lateral Force Resisting System It is
It is part of the structural system assigned to part of the structural system, and consists of
resist lateral forces. all structural members that resist lateral
inertia forces induced in the building during
earthquake shaking
4.15 Moment-Resisting Frame 4.14 Moment-Resisting Frame It is an
It is a frame in which members and joints are assembly of beams and columns that resist
capable of resisting forces primarily by induced and externally applied forces
flexure. primarily by flexure.
4.15.1 Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame 4.14.1 Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame
It is a moment-resisting frame not meeting (OMRF) It is a moment-resisting frame
special detailing requirements for ductile designed and detailed as per IS 456 or IS
behaviour. 800, but not meeting special detailing
requirements for ductile behaviour as per IS
13920 or IS 800, respectively
4.15.2 Special Moment-Resisting Frame 4.14.2 Special Moment-Resisting Frame
It is a moment-resisting frame specially (SMRF) It is a moment-resisting frame
detailed to provide ductile behaviour and designed and detailed as per IS 456 or IS
comply with the requirements given in IS 800, and meeting special detailing
4326 or IS 13920 or SP6 (6). requirements for ductile behaviour as per IS
13920 or IS 800, respectively
4.16 Number of Storeys ( n ) 4.15 Number of Storeys (n) It is the
Number of storeys of a building is the number of levels of a building above the
number of levels above the base. This base at which mass is present in substantive
excludes the basement storeys, where amounts. This,
basement walls are connected with the a) excludes the basement storeys,
ground floor deck or fitted between the where basement walls are connected with
building columns. But, it includes the the ground floor deck or fitted between the
basement storeys, when they are not so building columns; and
connected. b) Includes the basement storeys, when
they are not so connected.
4.16 Core Structural Walls, Perimeter
Columns, Outriggers and Belt Truss System
It is a structural system comprising of a
core of structural walls and perimeter
columns, resisting the vertical and lateral
loads, with

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a) the core structural walls connected to
select perimeter column element(s)
(often termed outrigged columns) by
deep beam elements, known as
outriggers, at discrete locations
along the height of the building; and

b) the outrigged columns connected by


deep beam elements (often known as
belt truss), typically at the same level
as the outrigger elements.

A structure with this structural system has


enhanced lateral stiffness, wherein core
structural walls and perimeter columns are
mobilized to act with each other through the
outriggers, and the perimeter columns
themselves through the belt truss. The global
lateral stiffness is sensitive to: flexural
stiffness of the core element, the flexural
stiffness of the outrigger element(s), the
axial stiffness of the outrigged column(s),
and the flexural stiffness of the outrigger
elements connecting the core structural
walls to the perimeter columns.

4.17 Principal Axes 4.17 Principal Plan Axes These are two
Principal axes of a building are generally two mutually perpendicular horizontal directions
mutually perpendicular horizontal directions in plan of a building along which the
in plan of a building along which the geometry of the building is oriented.
geometry of the building is oriented.
4.18 P- Effect 4.18 P- Effect It is the secondary effect
It is the secondary effect on shears and on shear forces and bending moments of
moments of frame members due to action of lateral force resisting elements generated
the vertical loads, interacting with the lateral under the action of the vertical loads,
displacement of building resulting from interacting with the lateral displacement of
seismic forces. building resulting from seismic effects.

4.19 Shear Wall 4.19 RC Structural Wall It is a wall


It is a wall designed to resist lateral forces designed to resist lateral forces acting in its
acting in its own plane. own plane.
4.19.1 Ordinary RC Structural Wall It is
a reinforced concrete (RC) structural wall

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designed and detailed as per IS 456, but not
meeting special detailing requirements for
ductile behaviour as per IS 13920.

4.19.2 Special RC Structural Wall It is a


RC structural wall designed and detailed as
per IS 13920, and meeting special detailing
requirements for ductile behaviour as per IS
13920.
4.20 Soft Storey
It is one in which the lateral stiffness is less 4.20.1 Soft Storey It is one in which the
than 70 percent of that in the storey above or lateral stiffness is less than that in the storey
less than 80 percent of the average lateral above. The storey lateral stiffness is the total
stiffness of the three storeys above. stiffness of all seismic force resisting
elements resisting lateral earthquake shaking
effects in the considered direction.
4.21 Static Eccentricity ( esi)
It is the distance between centre of mass and
centre of rigidity of floor i.
4.22 Storey 4.20 Storey It is the space between two
It is the space between two adjacent floors. adjacent floors.
4.23 Storey Drift 4.21 Storey Drift It is the relative
It is the displacement of one level relative to displacement between the floors above
the other level above or below. and/or below the storey under consideration.
4.24 Storey Shear (Vi) 4.22 Storey Shear (Vi) It is the sum of
It is the sum of design lateral forces at all design lateral forces at all levels above the
levels above the storey under consideration. storey i under consideration
4.25 Weak Storey 4.20.2 Weak Storey It is one in which the
It is one in which the storey lateral strength is storey lateral strength [cumulative design
less than 80 percent of that in the storey shear strength of all structural members
above, The storey lateral strength is the total other than that of unreinforced masonry
strength of all seismic force resisting (URM) infills] is less than that in the storey
elements sharing the storey shear in the above. The storey lateral strength is the total
considered direction. strength of all seismic force resisting
elements sharing the lateral storey shear in
the considered direction.
4.23 Storey Lateral Shear Strength (Si) It
is the total lateral strength of all lateral force
resisting elements in the storey considered in
a principal plan direction of the building.

4.24 Storey Lateral Translational Stiffness


(Ki) It is the total lateral translational

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stiffness of all lateral force resisting
elements in the storey considered in a
principal plan direction of the building.

4.25 RC Structural Wall Plan Density (sw)


It is the ratio of the cross-sectional area at
the plinth level of RC structural walls
resisting the lateral load and the plinth of the
building, expressed as a percentage.
5 SYMBOLS 5 SYMBOLS
The symbols and notations given below The symbols and notations given below
apply to the provisions of this standard: apply to the provisions of this standard:
.4h Design horizontal seismic .4h Design horizontal earthquake
coefficient acceleration coefficient
Ak Design horizontal acceleration Ah Design horizontal earthquake
spectrum value for mode k of acceleration spectrum value for
vibration mode k of oscillation
th
bi i Floor plan dimension of the bi Plan dimension of floor i of the
building building, perpendicular to
perpendicular to the direction of direction of earthquake shaking
force
c Index for the closely-spaced modes c Index for the closely-spaced modes
d Base dimension of the building, in d Base dimension (in metres) of the
metres, in the direction in which building in the direction in which
the seismic force is considered. the earthquake shaking is
DL Response quantity due to dead load considered.
edl Design eccentricity to be used at DL Response quantity due to dead load
floor I calculated as per 7.8.2 edl Design eccentricity to be used at
esi Static eccentricity at floor i defined floor i calculated as per 7.8.2
as the distance between centre of e S1 Static eccentricity at floor i defined
mass and centre of rigidity as the distance between centre of
ELX Response quantity due to mass and centre
earthquake load for horizontal of resistance
shaking along x-direction ELX Response quantity due to
ELY Response quantity due to earthquake load
earthquake load for horizontal for horizontal shaking along x-
shaking along y-direction direction
ELZ Response quantity due to ELY Response quantity due to
earthquake load for vertical earthquake load
shaking along z-direction for horizontal shaking along y-
Froof Design lateral forces at the roof due direction
to all modes considered

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Fi Design lateral forces at the floor i ELZ Response quantity due to
due to all modes considered earthquake load
g Acceleration due to gravity for vertical shaking along z-
h Height of structure, in metres direction
hi Height measured from the base of
the building to floor i
I Importance factor
IL Response quantity due to imposed
load Froo Design lateral forces at the roof due
Mk Modal mass of mode k f to all modes considered
n Number of storeys Fi Design lateral forces at the floor i
N SPT value for soil due to all modes considered
Pk Modal participation factor of mode g Acceleration due to gravity
k h Height of structure, in metres
Qi Lateral force at floor i hi Height measured from the base of
Qik Design lateral force at floor i in the building to floor i
mode k I Importance factor
r Number of modes to be considered IL Response quantity due to imposed
as per 7.8.4.2 load
R Response reduction factor Ki Lateral translational stiffness of
Sa/g Average response acceleration storey i
coefficient for rock or soil sites as L Dimension of a building ina
given by Fig. 2 and Table 3 based considered direction
on appropriate natural periods and Mk Modal mass of mode k
damping of the structure n Number of storeys or floors
T Undamped natural period of N Corrected SPT value for soil
vibration of the structure (in Pk Modal participation factor of mode
second ) k
Ta Approximate fundamental period Q, Lateral force at floor i
(in seconds ) Q~~ Design lateral force at floor i in
Tk Undamped natural period of mode mode k
k of vibration (in second ) Nm Number of modes to be considered
T1 Fundamental natural period of as per
vibration (in second) 7.8.4.2
VB Design seismic base shear R Response reduction factor
Sa/g Design / response acceleration
VB Design base shear calculated using
coefficient
the approximate fundamental
for rock or soil sites as given by
period T,
Fig. 2 and 6.4.2 based on
Vi Peak storey shear force in storey i appropriate natural
due to all modes considered period.
Vik Shear force in storey i in mode k

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Vroof Peak storey shear force at the roof T Undamped natural period of
due to all modes considered Oscillation of the structure (in
W Seismic weight of the structure second )
Wi Seismic weight of floor i Ta Approximate fundamental period (
Z Zone factor in
ik Mode shape coefficient at floor i in seconds )
mode k Tk Undamped natural period of mode
Peak response (for example k of osillation (in second )
member forces, displacements, T1 Fundamental natural period of
storey forces, storey shears or base mode k of oscillation (in second )
reactions) due to all modes VB Design seismic base shear
considered VB( Design base shear calculated using
k Absolute value of maximum bar) the
response in mode k approximate fimdamental period
c Absolute value of maximum Ta
response in mode c, where mode c Peak storey shear force in storey i due
is a closely-spaced mode. Vi to all modes considered
c Peak response due to the closely- Vik Shear force in storey i in mode k
spaced modes only q Peak storey shear force in storey i
ij Coefficient used in the Complete due to
Quadratic Combination (CQC) all modes considered
method while combining responses qk Shear force in storey i in mode k
of modes i and j vroo Peak storey shear force at the top
i Circular frequency in rad/second in f storey due to all modes considered
the ith mode W Seismic weight of the structure
Wi Seismic weight of floor i
z Zone factor
ik Mode shape coefficient at floor i in
mode k
Peak response (for example
member forces,
displacements, storey forces,
storey shears
or base reactions ) due to all modes
considered
Lami Absolute value of maximum
d response in
a(k) mode k
Absolute value of maximum
response in mode c, where mode c
is a closely-spaced mode.

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A* Peak response due to the closely-
spaced
modes only
Pij Coefficient used in the Complete
Quadratic Combination ( CQC )
method while
combining responses of modes i
andj
wi Circular frequency in rad/second in
the
iti mode

6 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND 6 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN


DESIGN CRITERIA CRITERIA
6.1 General Principles 6.1 General Principles
6.1.1 Ground Motion The characteristics (intensity, duration,
The characteristics (intensity, duration, etc.) frequency content, etc) of seismic ground
of seismic ground vibrations expected at any vibrations expected at any site depend on
location depends upon the magnitude of magnitude of earthquake, its focal depth,
earthquake, its depth of focus, distance from epicentral distance, characteristics of the
the epicentre, characteristics of the path path through which the seismic waves travel,
through which the seismic waves travel, and and soil strata on which the structure is
the soil strata on which the structure stands. founded. The random earthquake ground
The random earthquake ground motions, motions, which cause the structure to
which cause the structure to vibrate, can be oscillate, can be resolved in any three
resolved in any three mutually perpendicular mutually perpendicular directions. The
directions. The predominant direction of predominant direction of ground vibration is
ground vibration is usually horizontal. usually horizontal.
Earthquake-generated vertical inertia forces Effects of earthquake-induced vertical
are to be considered in design unless checked shaking can be significant for overall
and proven by specimen calculations to be stability analysis of structures, especially in
not significant. Vertical acceleration should structures (a) with large spans, and
be considered in structures with large spans, (b) those in which stability is a criterion for
those in which stability is a criterion for design. Reduction in gravity force due to
design, or for overall stability analysis of vertical ground motions can be
structures. Reduction in gravity force due to detrimental particularly in prestressed
vertical component of ground motions can be horizontal members, cantilevered
particularly detrimental in cases of members and gravity structures. Hence,
prestressed horizontal members and of special attention shall be paid to effects
cantilevered members. Hence, special of vertical ground motion on prestressed
attention should be paid to the effect of or cantilevered beams, girders and slabs.
vertical component of the ground motion on

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prestressed or cantilevered beams, girders
and slabs.
6.1.2 The response of a structure to ground 6.1.2 The response of a structure to ground
vibrations is a function of the nature of vibrations depends on (a) type of foundation;
foundation soil; materials, form, size and (b) materials, form, size and mode of
mode of construction of structures; and the construction of structures; and duration and
duration and characteristics of ground characteristics of ground motion. This
motion. This standard specifies design forces standard specifies design forces for
for structures standing on rocks or soils structures founded on rocks or soils, which
which do not settle, liquefy or slide due to do not settle, liquefy or slide due to loss of
loss of strength during ground vibrations. strength during earthquake ground
vibrations.
6.1.3 The design approach adopted in this 6.1.3 Actual forces that appear on structures
standard is to ensure that structures possess at during earthquakes are much higher than the
least a minimum strength to withstand minor design forces specified in the standard.
earthquakes (<DBE), which occur Ductility arising from inelastic material
frequently, without damage; resist moderate behaviour with appropriate design and
earthquakes ( DBE ) without significant detailing, and overstrength resulting from
structural damage though some non- the additional reserve strength in structures
structural damage may occur and aims that over and above the design strength are relied
structures withstand a major earthquake upon for the deficit in actual and design
(MCE) without collapse, Actual forces that lateral loads. In other words, earthquake
appear on structures during earthquakes are resistant design as per this standard relies on
much greater than the design forces specified inelastic behaviour of structures. But, the
in this standard. However, ductility, arising maximum ductility that can be realized in
from inelastic material behaviour and structures is limited. Therefore, structures
detailing, and overstrength, arising from the shall be designed for at least the minimum
additional reserve strength in structures over design lateral force specified in this
and above the design strength, are relied upon standard.
to account for this difference in actual and
design lateral loads.
Reinforced and prestressed concrete 6.1.4 Members and connections of
members shall be suitably designed to ensure reinforced and prestressed concrete
that premature failure due to shear or bond structures shall be designed (as per IS 456
does not occur, subject to the provisions of IS and IS 1343) such that premature failure
456 and IS 1343. Provisions for appropriate does not occur due to shear or bond. Some
ductile detailing of reinforced concrete provisions for appropriate ductile detailing
members are given in IS 13920 of RC members are given in IS 13920.
Members and their connections of steel
structures should be so proportioned that
high ductility is obtained in the structure,
avoiding premature failure due to elastic or
inelastic buckling of any type. Some

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provisions for appropriate ductile detailing
of steel members are given in IS 800.
In steel structures, members and their
connections should be so proportioned that
high ductility is obtained, vide SP 6 (Part 6),
avoiding premature failure due to elastic or
inelastic buckling of any type.
The specified earthquake loads are based
upon post elastic energy dissipation in the
structure and because of this fact, the
provision of this standard for design,
detailing and construction shall be satisfied
even for structures and members for which
load combinations that do not contain the
earthquake effect indicate larger demands
than combinations including earthquake.
6.1.4 Soil-Structure Interaction 6.1.5 The soil-structure interaction refers to
The soil-structure interaction refers to the effects of the flexibility of supporting soil-
effects of the supporting foundation medium foundation system on the response of
on the motion of structure. The soil-structure structure. Soil-structure interaction may not
interaction may not be considered in the be considered in the seismic analysis of
seismic analysis for structures supported on structures supported on rock or rock-like
rock or rock-like material. material at shallow depth
6.1.5 The design lateral force specified in this 6.1.6 Equipment and other systems, which
standard shall be considered in each of the are supported at various floor levels of a
two orthogonal horizontal directions of the structure, will be subjected to different
structure. For structures which have lateral motions at their support points. In such
force resisting elements in the two orthogonal cases, it may be necessary to obtain floor
directions only, the design lateral force shall response spectra for design of equipment
be considered along one direction at a time, and its supports. For details, reference may
and not in both directions simultaneously. be made to IS 1893 (Part 4).
Structures, having lateral force resisting
elements (for example frames, shear walls) in
directions other than the two orthogonal
directions, shall be analysed considering the
load combinations specified in 6.3.2.
Where both horizontal and vertical seismic
forces are taken into account, load
combinations specified in 6.3.3 shall be
considered.
6.1.6 Equipment and other systems, which
are supported at various floor levels of the
structure, will be subjected to motions

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corresponding to vibration at their support
points. In important cases, it may be
necessary to obtain floor response spectra for
design of equipment supports. For detail
reference be made to IS 1893 (Part 4).
6.1.7 Additions to Existing Structures 6.1.7 Additions to Existing Structures
Additions shall be made to existing structures Additions shall be made to existing
only as follows: structures only as follows:
a) An addition that is structurally a) An addition that is structurally
independent from an existing structures independent from an existing
shall be designed and constructed in structure shall be designed and
accordance with the seismic requirements constructed in accordance with the
for new structures seismic requirements for new
b) An addition that is not structurally structures.
independent from an existing structure b) An addition that is
shall be designed and constructed such structurally connected to an existing
that the entire structure conforms to the structure shall be designed and
seismic force resistance requirements for constructed such that the entire
new structures unless the following three structure conforms to the seismic
conditions are complied with: force resistance requirements for
1. The addition shall comply with the new structures, unless the following
requirements for new structures, three conditions are complied with:
2. The addition shall not increase the 1) Addition shall comply with the
seismic forces in any structural requirements for new structures,
elements of the existing structure by 2) Addition shall not increase the
more than 5 percent unless the capacity seismic forces in any structural element of
of the element subject to the increased the existing structures by more than 5
force is still in compliance with this percent, unless the capacity of the element
standard, and subject to the increased force is still in
3. The addition shall not decrease the compliance with this standard, and
seismic resistance of any structural 3) Addition shall not decrease the
element of the existing structure unless seismic resistance of any
reduced resistance is equal to or greater structural element of the existing
than that required for new structures. structure unless reduced
resistance is equal to or greater
than that required for new
structures.
6.1.8 Change in Occupancy 6.1.8 Change in Occupancy
When a change of occupancy results in a When a change of occupancy results in a
structure being re-classified to a higher structure being re-classified to a higher
importance factor (I), the structure shall importance factor (I), the structure shall
conform to the seismic requirements for a conform to seismic requirements laid down

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new structure with the higher importance for new structures with the higher
factor. importance factor.
6.2 Assumptions 6.2 Assumptions
The following assumptions shall be made in The following assumptions shall be made in
the earthquake resistant design of structures: the earthquake resistant design of structures:
a) Earthquake causes impulsive ground a. Earthquake ground motions are
motions, which are complex and irregular complex and irregular, consisting of several
in character, changing in period and frequencies and of varying amplitudes each
amplitude each lasting for a small lasting for a small duration. Therefore,
duration. Therefore, resonance of the type usually, resonance of the type as visualized
as visualized under steady-state under steady-state sinusoidal excitations will
sinusoidal excitations, will not occur as it not occur, as it would need time to build up
would need time to build up such such amplitudes. But, there are exceptions
amplitudes. where resonance-like conditions have been
seen to occur between long distance waves
and tall structures founded on deep soft soils
NOTE However, there are exceptions where
resonance-like conditions have been seen to occur
between long distance waves and tall structures
founded on deep soft soils.
b) Earthquake is not likely to Earthquake is not likely to occur
occur simultaneously with wind or simultaneously with high wind, maximum
maximum flood or maximum sea flood or maximum sea waves.
waves,
b) The value of elastic modulus The values of elastic modulus of materials,
of materials, wherever required, may wherever required, will be taken as for static
be taken as for static analysis unless a analysis, unless more definite values are
more definite value is available for available for use in dynamic conditions [see
use in such condition (see IS 456, IS IS 456, IS 800, IS 1343, IS 1905 and IS 2974
1343 and IS 800) (Parts 1 to 5)].
6.3 Load Combination and Increase in 6.3 Load Combinations and Increase in
Permissible Stresses Permissible Stresses
6.3.1 Load Combinations 6.3.1 Load Combinations
When earthquake forces are considered on a The load combinations shall be considered as
structure, these shall be combined as per specified in respective standards due to all
6.3.1.1 and 6.3.1.2 where the terms DL, IL load effects mentioned therein. In addition,
and EL stand for the response quantities due those specified in this standard shall be
to dead load, imposed load and designated applicable, which include earthquake
earthquake load respectively. effects.
6.3.1.1 Even when load combinations that do
not contain earthquake effects, indicate
larger demands than combinations including
them, the provisions shall be adopted related

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to design, ductile detailing and construction
relevant for earthquake conditions, which
are given in this standard, IS 13920 and IS
800.
6.3.1.1 Load factors for plastic design of steel
Structures
In the plastic design of steel structures, the
following load combinations shall be
accounted for:
1) 1.7( DL+IL )
2) 1.7( DLEL)
3) 1.3( DL+lLEL)
6.3.1.2 Partial safety factors for limit state
design of reinforced concrete and prestressed
concrete structures
In the limit state design of reinforced and
prestressed concrete structures, the following
load combinations shall be accounted for:
1) 1.5( DL+IL)
2) 1.2( DL+ILEL)
3) 1.5( DLEL)
4) 0.9DL1.5EL
6.3.2 Design Horizontal Earthquake Load 6.3.2 Design Horizontal Earthquake Load
6.3.2.1 When the lateral load resisting 6.3.2.1 When lateral load resisting elements
elements are oriented along orthogonal are oriented along two mutually orthogonal
horizontal direction, the structure shall be horizontal directions, structure shall be
designed for the effects due to till design designed for effects due to full design
earthquake load in one horizontal direction at earthquake load in one horizontal direction
time. at a time, and not in both directions
simultaneously.
6.3.2.2 When the lateral load resisting 6.3.2.2 When lateral load resisting elements
elements are not oriented along the are not oriented along mutually orthogonal
orthogonal horizontal directions, the horizontal directions [as per 7.1 and Table
structure shall be designed for the effects due 5(e)], structure shall be designed for the
to full design earthquake load in one simultaneous effects due to full design
horizontal direction plus 30 percent of the earthquake load in one horizontal direction
design earthquake load in the other direction. plus 30 percent of design earthquake load
along the other horizontal direction. Thus,
structure should be designed for the
following sets of combinations of earthquake
effects:
NOTE For instance, the building should be a) ELX 0.3 ELY, and
designed for (ELx0.3ELy) as well as

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(0.3ELxELy), where x and y are two orthogonal b) 0.3 ELX ELY,
horizontal directions, EL in 6.3.1.1 and 6.3.1,2 shall
be replaced by (ELx0.3ELy ) or (ELy0.3ELx ).
where X and Y are two orthogonal horizontal
plan directions. Thus, EL in the load
combinations given in 6.3.1 shall be replaced
by (ELX 0.3ELY) or (ELY0.3 ELX). Hence,
the sets of load combinations to be
considered shall be as given below:
1) 1.2[DL+IL(ELX0.3ELY)]
1.2[DL+IL(ELY0.3ELX)];
2) 1.5 [DL (ELX 0.3 ELY)] and
1.5 [DL (ELY 0.3 ELX)]; and
3) 0.9 DL 1.5 (ELX 0.3 ELY)
0.9 DL 1.5 (ELY 0.3 ELX)
6.3.3 Design Vertical Earthquake Load 6.3.3 Design Vertical Earthquake Effects
When effects due to vertical earthquake loads 6.3.3.1 Effects due to vertical earthquake
are to be considered, the design vertical force shaking shall be considered when any of the
shall be calculated in accordance with 6.4.5 following conditions apply:
a) Structure is located in Seismic Zone IV
or V;
b) Structure has vertical or plan
irregularities;
c) Structure is rested on soft soil;
d) Bridges;
e) Structure has long spans; or
f) Structure has large horizontal
overhangs of structural members or
sub-systems.
6.3.3.2 When effects due to vertical
earthquake shaking are to be considered, the
design vertical force shall be calculated for
vertical ground motion as detailed in 6.4.6.
6.3.3.3 Where both horizontal and vertical
seismic forces are taken into account, load
combination specified in 6.3.4 shall be
considered.
6.3.4 Combination for Two or Three 6.3.4 Combinations to Account for Three
Component Motion Directional Earthquake Ground Shaking
6.3.4.1 When responses from the three 6.3.4.1 When responses from the three
earthquake components are to be considered, earthquake components are to be
the responses due to each component may be considered, the responses due to each
combined using the assumption that when the component may be combined using the
maximum response from one component assumption that when the maximum

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occurs, the responses from the other two response from one component occurs, the
component are 30 percent of their maximum. responses from the other two components
All possible combinations of the three are 30 percent each of their maximum. All
components (ELx, ELy and ELz) including possible combinations of three components
variations in sign ( plus or minus ) shall be (ELX, ELY and ELZ) including variations in
considered, Thus, the response due sign (plus or minus) shall be considered.
earthquake force (EL) is the maximum of the Thus, the structure should be designed for
following three cases: the following sets of combinations of
earthquake load effects:
1) ELx0.3ELy0.3ELz a) ELX 0.3 ELY 0.3 ELZ,
2) 0.3ELxELy0.3ELz b) ELY 0.3 ELZ 0.3 ELX, and
3) 0.3ELx0.3ELyELz c) ELZ 0.3 ELX 0.3 ELY,
where x and y are two orthogonal directions where X and Y are orthogonal plan
and z is vertical direction directions and Z vertical direction. Thus, EL
in the above referred load combinations
shall be replaced by (ELX 0.3 ELY
0.3 ELZ), (ELY 0.3 ELZ 0.3 ELX) or (ELZ
0.3 ELX 0.3 ELY,). This implies that the
sets of load combinations involving
earthquake effects to be considered shall be
as given below:
1) 1.2 [DL + IL (ELX 0.3 ELY 0.3
ELZ)] and 1.2 [DL + IL (ELY 0.3
ELX 0.3 ELZ)];
2) 1.5 [DL (ELX 0.3 ELY 0.3 ELZ)]
and
1.5 [DL (ELY 0.3 ELX 0.3
ELZ)]; and
3) 0.9 DL 1.5 (ELX 0.3 ELY 0.3
ELZ) and 0.9 DL 1.5 (ELY 0.3 ELX
0.3 ELZ).
6.3.4.2 As an alternative to the procedure in 6.3.4.2 As an alternative to the procedure in
6.3.4.1, the response (EL) due to the 6.3.4.1, the net response (EL) due to the
combined effect of the three components can combined effect of the three components can
be obtained on the basis of square root of the be obtained by:
sum of the square (SRSS) that is EL ( ELx) 2 ( ELy) 2 ( ELz ) 2
EL ( ELx) 2 ( ELy) 2 ( ELz ) 2
NOTE The combination procedure of Caution may be exercised on loss of sign
6.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.2 apply to the same especially of the axial force, shear force and
response quantity (say, moment in a column bending moment quantities, when this
about its major axis, or storey shear in a procedure is used; it can lead to grossly
uneconomical design of structures.

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frame) due to different components of the
ground motion.
6.3.4.3 Procedure for combining shaking
effects given by 6.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.2 apply to
the same response quantity (say, bending
moment in a column about its major axis, or
storey shear force in a frame) due to different
components of the ground motion.
6.3.4.3 When two component motions (say 6.3.4.4 When components corresponding to
one horizontal and one vertical, or only two only two ground motion components (say
horizontal) are combined, the equations in one horizontal and one vertical, or only two
6.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.2 should be modified by horizontal) are combined, the equations in
deleting the term representing the response 6.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.2 should be modified by
due to the component of motion not being deleting the term representing the response
considered. due to the component of motion not being
considered.
6.3.5 Increase in Permissible Stresses 6.3.5 Increase in Net Pressure on Soils in
Design of Foundations
6.3.5.1 In the design of foundations,
unfactored loads shall be combined in line
with IS 2974, while assessing the bearing
pressure in soils.
6.3.5.1 Increase impermissible stresses in 6.3.5.2 When earthquake forces are
materials included, net bearing pressure in soils can be
When earthquake forces are considered along increased as per Table 1, depending on type
with other normal design forces, the of foundation and type of soil. For
permissible stresses in material, in the elastic determining the type of soil for this purpose,
method of design, maybe increased by one- soils shall be classified in four types as given
third. However, for steels having a definite in Table 2.In soft soils, no increase shall be
yield stress, the stress be limited to the yield applied in bearing pressure, because
stress; for steels without a definite yield settlements cannot be restricted by
point, the stress will be limited to 80 percent increasing bearing pressure.
of the ultimate strength or 0.2 percent proof
stress, whichever is smaller; and that in
prestressed concrete members, the tensile
stress in the extreme fibers of the concrete
may be permitted so as not to exceed two-
thirds of the modulus of rupture of concrete.
6.3.5.2 Increase in allowable pressure in soils 6.3.5.3 In soil deposits consisting of
When earthquake forces are included, the submerged loose sands and soils falling
allowable bearing pressure in soils shall be under classification SP with corrected
increased as per Table 1, depending upon standard penetration test values N, less than
15 in Seismic Zones III, IV and V, and less

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type of foundation of the structure and the than 10 in Seismic Zone II, the shaking
type of soil. caused by earthquake ground motion may
In soil deposits consisting of submerged cause liquefaction or excessive total and
loose sands and soils falling under differential settlements. Such sites should be
classification SP with standard penetration avoided preferably for locating new
N-values less than 15 in seismic Zones III, structures, and should be avoided for
IV, V and less than 10 in seismic Zone II, the locating structures of important projects.
vibration caused by earthquake may cause Otherwise, settlements need to be
liquefaction or excessive total and investigated, and appropriate methods
differential settlements. Such sites should adopted of compaction or stabilization to
preferably be avoided while locating new achieve N values indicated in Note 4 of
settlements or important projects. Otherwise, Table 1. Alternatively, deep pile foundations
this aspect of the problem needs to be may be adopted and anchored at depths well
investigated and appropriate methods of below the underlying soil layers, which are
compaction or stabilization adopted to likely to liquefy or undergo excessive
achieve suitable N-values as indicated in settlements.
Note 3 under Table 1. Alternatively, deep pile
foundation may be provided and taken to Also, marine clay layers and other sensitive
depths well into the layer which is not likely clay layers are known to liquefy, undergo
to liquefy. Marine clays and other sensitive excessive settlements or even collapse,
clays are also known to liquefy due to owing to low shear strength of the said soil;
collapse of soil structure and will need such soils will need special treatment
special treatment according to site condition. according to site condition (see Table 2).

A simplified method is given in Annex F, for


evaluation of liquefaction potential.
NOTE Specialist literature may be referred for
determining liquefaction potential of a site.
6.4 Design Spectrum 6.4 Design Acceleration Spectrum
6.4.1 For the purpose of determining seismic 6.4.1 For the purpose of determining design
forces, the country is classified into four seismic force, the country is classified into
seismic zones as shown in Fig. 1. four seismic zones as shown in Fig. 1.
6.4.2 The design horizontal seismic 6.4.2 The design horizontal seismic
coefficient Ah for a structure shall be coefficient Ah for a structure shall be
determined by the following expression: determined by
Z I Sa Z I Sa
Ah Ah
2R g 2R g
Provided that for any structure with T <0.1 s,
the value of Ah will not be taken less than Z/2
whatever be the value of I/R
Where Where
Z = Zone factor given in Table 2, is z. = seismic zone factor given in
for the Maximum Considered Table 3;

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Earthquake (MCE) and service I = importance factor given in IS
life of structure in a zone. The 1893 (Parts 1 to 5) for the
factor 2 in the denominator of Z corresponding structures; when
is used so as to reduce the not specified, the minimum
Maximum Considered values of I shall be,
Earthquake (MCE) zone factor a) 1.5 for critical and
to the factor for Design Basis lifeline structures;
Earthquake (DBE).
I = Importance factor, depending b) 1.2 for business
upon the functional use of the continuity
structures, characterised by structures; and
hazardous consequences of its
failure, post-earthquake c) 1.0 for the rest.
functional needs, historical
value, or economic importance
(Table 6).
R = Response reduction factor,
depending on the perceived
seismic damage performance of R = response reduction factor given
the structure, characterised by in IS 1893 (Parts 1 to 5) for the
ductile or brittle deformations. corresponding structure and
However, the ratio (I/R) shall
not be greater than 1.0 (Table7). Sa = Design accerlation coefficient
The values of R for buildings g for different soil types,
are given in Table 7. normalized with peak ground
Sa = Average response acceleration acceleration, corresponding to
g coefficient for rock or soil sites natural period T of structure
as given by Fig. 2 and Table 3 (considering soil-structure
based on appropriate natural interaction, if required). It shall
periods and damping of the be as given in Parts 1 to 5 of IS
structure. These curves 1893 for the corresponding
represent free field ground structures; when not specified,
motion. it shall be taken as that
corresponding to 5 percent
damping, given by expressions
below:

For es A
For response spectram
6.4.2.1 For determining the correct spectrum
to be used in the estimate of (Sa/g), the type
of soil on which the structure is placed shall

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be identified by the classification given in
Table 4, as:

a) Soil type I Rock or hard soils;

b) Soil type II Medium or stiff soils;


and

c) Soil type III Soft soils.

In Table 4, the value of N to be used shall be


the weighted average of N of soil layers from
the existing ground level to 30 m below the
existing ground level; here, the N values of
individual layers shall be the corrected
values.

NOTE For various types of structures, the values of


Importance Factor I, Response Reduction Factor R,
and damping values are given in the respective parts
of this standard. The method (empirical or otherwise)
to calculate the natural periods of the structure to be
adopted for evaluating Sa/g is also given in the
respective parts of this standard.
Table 1 Percentage of Permissible Increase in Allowable Bearing Pressure or Resistance of
Soils
(Clause 6.3.5.2)
S1 No. Foundation Type of Soil Mainly Constituting the Foundation

Type I Rock or Type H Type III Soft


Hard Soil : Medium Soils: Soils: All soils
W having )@ All soils with N other than SPJ
above 30, between 10 and with N< 10
where 30, and poorly
N is the graded sands or
standard gravelly sands
penetration with little or no
valueell graded fines ( SP1~)
gravel and sand with N> 15
gravel mixtures
with or without
clay binder, and
clayey sands
poorly graded

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or sand clay
mixtures ( GB,
CW, SB, SW,
and SC )1
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
I Piles passing through 50 50 50
any soil but resting on
soil type I

2 Piles not covered under 25 25


item i
3 Raft foundations 50 50 50
4 Combined isolated RCC 50 25 25
footing with tie beams

5 Isolated RCC footing 50 25


without tie beams, or
unreinforced strip
foundations
6 Well foundations 50 25 25

As per 1893:2016
Table 1 Percentage Increase in Net Bearing Pressure and Skin Friction of Soils (Clause
6.3.5.2)
Sl.no Type of Soil Percentage Increase Allowable

(1) (2) (3)

i) Type A: Rock or hard soils 50

ii) Type B: Medium or stiff soils 25

iii) Type C: Soft soils 0

NOTES Notes
1. The allowable bearing pressure shall be 1. The net bearing pressure shall be
determined in accordance with IS 6403 or determined in accordance with IS 6403 or IS
IS 1888. 1888.
2. If any increase in bearing pressure has 2. Only corrected values of N shall be used.
already been permitted for forces other 3. If any increase in net bearing pressure has
than seismic forces, the total increase in already been permitted for forces other than

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allowable bearing pressure when seismic seismic forces, the increase in allowable
force is also included shall not exceed the bearing pressure, when seismic force is also
limits specified above. included, shall not exceed the limits
3. Desirable minimum field values of N specified above.
if soils of smaller N-values are met,
compacting may be adopted to achieve 4.The desirable minimum corrected field
these values or deep pile foundations values of N shall be as specified below:
going to stronger strata should be used.
4. The values of N (corrected values ) are at
the founding level and the allowable
bearing pressure shall be determined in
accordance with IS 6403 or IS 1888.
Seismic Depth N- Remark Seismic Depth N- Remark
Zone Below Valu Zone (m) Val
level (in Groun es Below ues
metres ) d Ground
III, IV 5 15 For values of III, IV 5 15 For values of
and V l0 25 depths and V l0 25 depths
II (for 5 15 between 5 m II (for 5 15 between 5 m
important l0 20 and 10 m, important l0 20 and 10 m,
structures linear structures linear
only) interpolation is only) interpolation is
recommended recommended
If soils of lower N values are encountered
than those specified in the table above, then
suitable ground improvement techniques
shall be adopted to achieve these values.
Alternately, deep pile foundations should be
used, which are anchored in stronger strata,
underlying the soil layers that do not meet
the requirement.
5. The piles should be designed for lateral 5. Piles should be designed for lateral loads
loads neglecting lateral resistance of soil neglecting lateral resistance of those soil
layers liable to liquefy. layers (if any), which are liable to liquefy.
6. IS 1498 and IS 2131 may also be 6. Indian Standards IS 1498 and IS 2131 may
referred. be referred for soil notation, and corrected N
7. Isolated R, C.C. footing without tie values shall be determined by applying
beams, or unreinforced strip foundation correction factor CN for effective
shall not be permitted in soft soils with
N<10. overburden pressure 'vo using
relation N C N N1 ,

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where CN Pa 'vo 1.7 ,
Pa is the
atmospheric

pressure and N1 is the uncorrected SPT


value for soil.

7 While using this table, the value of N to


be considered shall be determined as
below:

a)Isolated footings Weighted


average of N of soil layers from depth
of founding, to depth of founding
plus twice the breadth of footing;

b) Raft foundations Weighted


average of N of soil layers from
depth of founding, to depth of
founding plus twice the breadth of
raft;

c)Pile foundation Weighted average


of N of soil layers from depth of
bottom tip of pile, to depth of bottom
tip of pile plus twice the diameter of
pile;

d) Group pile foundation Weighted


average of N of soil layers from
depth of bottom tip of pile group, to
depth of bottom tip of pile group plus
twice the width of pile group; and

e)Well foundation Weighted


average of N of soil layers from
depth of bottom tip of well, to depth
of bottom tip of well plus twice the
width of well.

Table 2 Classification of Types of Soils


for Determining Percentage Increase in
Net Bearing Pressure and Skin Friction

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(Clause 6.3.5.2)

Sl Soil Remarks
No. Type (3)
(1) (2)
i) Type Well graded gravel (GW)
A or well graded sand (SW)
Rock both with less than 5
or percent passing 75 mm
hard sieve (Fines) Well graded
soils gravel sand mixtures
with or without fines
(GW-SW) Poorly-graded
sand (SP) or Clayey sand
(SC), all having N above
30 Stiff to hard clays
having N above 30, where
N is corrected standard
penetration test value
ii) Type B Poorly graded sands or
B poorly graded sands with
Medi gravel (SP) with little or
um or no fines having N between
stiff 10 and 30 Stiff to medium
soils stiff fine-grained soils,
like silts of low
compressibility (ML) or
clays of low
compressibility (CL)
having N between 10 and
30
iii) Type All soft soils other than SP
C with N<10. The various
Soft possible soils are:
soils Silts of intermediate
compressibility (Ml); Silts
of high compressibility
(MH); Clays of
intermediate
compressibility (CI);
Clays of high
compressibility (CH);
Silts and clays of

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intermediate to high
compressibility (MI-MH
or CI-CH); Silt with clay
of intermediate
compressibility (MI-CI);
and Silt with clay of high
compressibility (MH-CH).

iv) Type Requires site-specific


D study and special
Unsta treatment according to site
ble, condition (see 6.3.5.3)
collap
sible,
liquef
iable
soils

Table 4 Classification of Types of Soils for


Determining the Spectrum to be Used to
Estimate Design Earthquake Force
(Clause 6.4.2.1)
Sl Soil
Remarks
No. Type
(3)
(1) (2)
i) I a) Well graded gravel (GW)
Rock or well graded sand (SW)
or both with less than 5
Hard percent passing 75 m
Soils sieve (Fines)
b) Well graded gravel-sand
mixtures with or without
fines (GW-SW)
c) Poorly graded sand (SP) or
clayey sand (SC), all
having N above 30
d) Stiff to hard clays having N
above 30, where N is
standard penetration test
value

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ii) II a) Poorly graded sands or
Medi poorly graded sands with
um gravel (SP) with little or no
or fines having N between 10
Stiff and 30
soils b) Stiff to medium stiff fine-
grained soils, like silts of
low compressibility (ML)
or clays of low
compressibility (CL)
having N between 10 and
30

iii) III All soft soils other than SP with


Soft N<10. The various possible soils
soils are:
a) Silts of intermediate
compressibility (Ml);
b) Silts of high
compressibility (MH);
c) Clays of intermediate
compressibility (CI);
d) Clays of high
compressibility (CH);
e) Silts and clays of
intermediate to high
compressibility (MI-MH
or CI-CH);
f) Silt with clay of
intermediate
compressibility (MI-CI);
and
g) Silt with clay of high
compressibility (MH-CH).

Table 2 Zone Factor, Z Table 3 Seismic Zone Factor Z


( Clause 6.4.2) (Clause 6.4.2)
Seism II III IV V Seismic Zone
II III IV V
ic Factor
(2) (3) (4) (5)
(1)

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Seism Low Mode severe Very 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3
Z
ic rate Sever 0 6 4 6
Intens e
ity
Z 0.1 0.16 0.24 0.36

6.4.3 Effects of design earthquake loads


applied on structures can be considered in
two ways, namely:

a) Equivalent static method, and

b) Dynamic analysis method.

In turn, dynamic analysis can be performed


in three ways, namely:

1) Response spectrum method,

2) Modal time history method, and

3) Time history method.

In this standard, Equivalent Static Method,


Response Spectrum Method and Time
History Method are adopted. Equivalent
static method may be used for analysis of
regular structures with approximate natural
period Ta less than 0.4 s.
6.4.3.1 For structural analysis, the moment
of inertia shall be taken as:
a) In RC and masonry structures: 70
percent of Igross of columns, and 35 percent
of Igross of beams; and
b) In steel structures: Igross of both
beams and columns.
6.4.3 Where a number of modes are to be 6.4.4 Where a number of modes are to be
considered for dynamic analysis, the value of considered in response spectrum method, Ah
Ah as defined in 6.4.2 for each mode shall be as defined in 6.4.2 for each mode k shall be
determined using the natural period of determined using natural period Tk of
vibration of that mode. oscillation of that mode.
6.4.4 For underground structures and 6.4.5 For underground structures and
foundations at depths of 30 m or below, the buildings whose base is located at depths of

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design horizontal acceleration spectrum 30 m or more, Ah at the base shall be taken
value shall be taken as half the value obtained as half the value obtained from 6.4.2. This
from 6.4.2. For structures and foundations reduced value shall be used only for
placed between the ground level and 30m estimating inertia effects due to masses at
depth, the design horizontal acceleration the corresponding levels below the ground;
spectrum value shall be linearly interpolated the inertia effects for the above ground
between Ah and 0.5Ah, where Ah is as portion of the building shall be estimated
specified in 6.4.2. based on the unreduced value of Ah. For
estimating inertia effects due to masses of
structures and foundations placed between
the ground level and 30 m depth, the design
horizontal acceleration spectrum value shall
be linearly interpolated between Ah and 0.5
Ah, where Ah is as specified in 6.4.2.
6.4.5 The design acceleration spectrum for 6.4.6 The design seismic acceleration
vertical motions, when required, may be spectral value Av or vertical motions shall be
taken as two-thirds of the design horizontal taken as:
acceleration spectrum specified in 6.4.2.

6.4.5 The design acceleration spectrum for The value of Sa/g shall be based on natural
vertical motions, when required, may be period T corresponding to the first vertical
taken as two-thirds of the design horizontal mode of oscillation, using 6.4.2
acceleration spectrum specified in 6.4.2.

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Fig: 2 Response Spectra for Rock and soil


sites for 5 Percent Damping
6.4.6 In case design spectrum is specifically 6.4.7 When design acceleration spectrum is
prepared for a structure at a particular project developed specific to a project site, the same
site, the same may be used for design at the may be used for design of structures of the
discretion of the project authorities project. In such cases, effects of the site-
specific spectrum shall not be less than those
arising out of the design spectrum specified
in this standard.
7 BUILDINGS 7 BUILDINGS
7.1 Regular and Irregular Configuration The four main desirable attributes of an
earthquake resistant building are:

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To perform well in an earthquake, a building
should possess four main attributes, namely a) Robust structural configuration,
simple and regular configuration, and
adequate lateral strength, stiffness and b) At least a minimum elastic lateral
ductility. Buildings having simple regular stiffness,
geometry and uniformly distributed mass and
stiffness in plan as well as in elevation, suffer c) At least a minimum lateral strength,
much less damage than buildings with and
irregular configurations. A building shall be
considered as irregular for the purposes of d) Adequate ductility.
this standard, if at least one of the conditions
given in Tables 4 and 5 is applicable, 7.1 Regular and Irregular Configurations

Buildings with simple regular geometry and


uniformly distributed mass and stiffness in
plan and in elevation, suffer much less
damage, than buildings with irregular
configurations. All efforts shall be made to
eliminate irregularities by modifying
architectural planning and structural
configurations. A building shall be
considered to be irregular for the purposes of
this standard, even if any one of the
conditions given in Tables 5 and 6 is
applicable. Limits on irregularities for
Seismic Zones III, IV and V and special
requirements are laid out in Tables 5 and 6.
7.2 Importance Factor I and Response
Reduction Factor R
The minimum value of importance factor, I,
for different building systems shall be as
given in Table 6. The response reduction
factor, R, for different building systems shall
be as given in Table 7.
7.3 Design Imposed Loads for Earthquakes
Force Calculation
7.3.1 For various loading classes as specified
in IS 875(Part 2), the earthquake force shall
be calculated for the full dead load plus the
percentage of imposed load as given in Table
8.

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7.3.2 For calculating the design seismic
forces of the structure, the imposed load on
roof need not be considered.
7.3.3 The percentage of imposed loads given
in 7.3.1 and 7.3.2 shall also be used for
Whole frame loaded condition in the load
combinations specified in 6.3.L 1 and 6.3.1.2
where the gravity loads are combined with
the earthquake loads [that is, in load
combinations (3) in 6.3.1.1, and (2) in
6.3.1.2]. No further reduction in the imposed
load will be used as envisaged in IS 875(Part
2) for number of storeys above the one under
consideration or for large spans of beams or
floors.
7.3.4 The proportions of imposed load
indicated above for calculating the lateral
design forces for earthquakes are applicable
to average conditions. Where the probable
loads at the time of earthquake are more
accurately assessed, the designer may alter
the proportions indicated or even replace the
entire imposed load proportions by the actual
assessed load. In such cases, where the
imposed load is not assessed as per 7.3.1 and
7.3.2 only that part of imposed load, which
possesses mass, shall be considered. Lateral
design force for earthquakes shall not be
calculated on contribution of impact effects
from imposed loads.
7.3.5 Other loads apart from those given
above (for example snow and permanent
equipment) shall be considered as
appropriate.
7.4 Seismic Weight
7.4.1 Seismic Weight of Floors
The seismic weight of each floor is its full
dead load plus appropriate amount of
imposed load, as specified in 7.3.1 and 7.3.2.
While computing the seismic weight of each
floor, the weight of columns and walls in any
storey shall be equally distributed to the
floors above and below the storey.

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7.4.2 Seismic Weight of Building
The seismic weight of the whole building is
the sum of the seismic weights of all the
floors.
7.4.3 Any weight supported in between
storeys shall be distributed to the floors above
and below in inverse proportion to its
distance from the floors.
Table 3 Multiplying Factors for Obtaining Values for Other Damping
( Clause 6.4.2)

Table 4 Definitions of Irregular Buildings Table 5 Definitions of Irregular Buildings


Plan Irregularities ( Fig. 3 ) Plan Irregularities (see Fig. 3) (Clause 7.1)
Irregularity Type and Description Type of Plan Irregularity
1. Torsion Irregularity i) Torsional Irregularity
To be considered when floor diaphragms are
rigid in their own plan in relation to the Usually, a well-proportioned
vertical structural elements that resist the building does not twist about its
lateral forces. Torsional irregularity to be vertical axis, when
considered to exist when the maximum
storey drift, computed with design a) the stiffness distribution of the
eccentricity, at one end of the structures vertical elements resisting
transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 times lateral loads is balanced in plan
the average of the storey drifts at the two ends according to the distribution of
of the structure mass in plan (at each storey
level); and

b) the floor slabs are stiff in their


own plane (this happens when
its plan aspect ratio is

less than 3)

A building is said to be torsionally


irregular, when,

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1) the maximum horizontal
displacement of any floor in the
direction of the lateral force at
one end of the floor is more than
1.5 times its minimum
horizontal displacement at the
far end of the same floor in that
direction; and

2) the natural period


corresponding to the
fundamental torsional mode of
oscillation is more than those of
the first two translational modes
of oscillation along each
principal plan directions
i) In torsionally irregular
buildings, when the ratio of
maximum horizontal
displacement at one end and
the minimum horizontal
displacement at the other end
is, in the range 1.5 2.0, (a)
the building configuration
shall be revised to ensure that
the natural period of the
fundamental torsional mode of
oscillation shall be smaller
than those of the first two
translational modes along
each of the principal plan
directions, and then (b) three
dimensional dynamic analysis
method shall be adopted; and

ii) more than 2.0, the building


configuration shall be revised

2. Re-entrant Corners ii) Re-entrant Corners


Plan configurations of a structure and its
lateral force resisting system contain re- A building is said to have a re-
entrant corners, where both projections of the entrant corner in any plan direction,
structure beyond the re-entrant corner are when its structural configuration in

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greater than 15 percent of its plan dimension plan has a projection of size greater
in the given direction. than 15 percent of its overall plan
dimension in that direction

In buildings with re-entrant corners, three-


dimensional dynamic analysis method shall
be adopted
3. Diaphragm Discontinuity 3.Floor Slabs having Excessive Cut-Outs or
Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or Openings
variations in stiffness, including those having
cut-out or open areas greater than 50 percent Openings in slabs result in flexible
of the gross enclosed diaphragm area, or diaphragm behaviour, and hence the
changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of lateral shear force is not shared by
more than 50 percent from one storey to the the frames and/or vertical members
next. in proportion to their lateral
translational stiffness. The problem
is particularly accentuated when the
opening is close to the edge of the
slab. A building is said to have
discontinuity in their in-plane
stiffness, when floor slabs have cut-
outs or openings of area more than
50 percent of the full area of the floor
slab

In buildings with discontinuity in


their in-plane stiffness, if the area of
the geometric cut-out is,

a. less than or equal to 50


percent, the floor slab shall be
taken as rigid or flexible
depending on the location of
and size of openings; and

more than 50 percent, the floor slab shall be


taken as flexible.
4. Out-of-Plane Offsets IV0 Out-of-Plane Offsets in Vertical
Discontinuities in a lateral force resistance Elements Out-of-plane offsets in vertical
path, such as out-of-plane offsets of vertical elements resisting lateral loads cause
elements discontinuities and detours in the load path,
which is known to be detrimental to the
earthquake safety of the building. A building

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is said to have out-of-plane offset in vertical
elements, when structural walls or frames are
moved out of plane in any storey along the
height of the building

In a building with out-of-plane


offsets in vertical elements,

a) specialist literature shall be


referred for design of such a
building, if the building is located
in Seismic Zone II; and

b) the following two conditions shall


be satisfied, if the building is
located in Seismic Zones III, IV
and V: 1) Lateral drift shall be less
than 0.2 percent in the storey
having the offset and in the
storeys
below; and

2) Specialist literature shall be


referred for removing the
irregularity arising due to out-
of-plane offsets in vertical
elements.

5.Non-parallel Systems V) Non-Parallel Lateral Force System


The vertical elements resisting the lateral
force are not parallel to or symmetric about Buildings undergo complex earthquake
the major orthogonal axes or the lateral force behaviour and hence damage, when they do
resisting elements not have lateral force resisting systems
oriented along two plan directions that are
orthogonal to each other. A building is said
to have non-parallel system when the
vertically oriented structural systems
resisting lateral forces are not oriented along
the two principal orthogonal axes in plan

Buildings with non-parallel lateral


force resisting system shall be

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analyzed for load combinations
mentioned in 6.3.2.2 or 6.3.4.1.

Table 5 Definition of Irregular Buildings Table 6 Definition of Irregular Buildings


Vertical Irregularities ( Fig. 4 ) Vertical Irregularities (see Fig. 4)
( Clause 7.1 ) (Clause 7.1)
Irregularity Type and Description Type of Vertical Irregularity
1. 1. Stiffness Irregularity (Soft Storey)
a) Stiffness Irregularity Soft Storey A soft storey is a storey whose lateral
A soft storey is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than that of the storey above.
stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the The structural plan density (SPD) shall be
storey above or less than 80 percent of the estimated when unreinforced masonry infills
average lateral stiffness of the three storeys are used. When SPD of masonry infills
above. exceeds 20 percent, the effect of URM infills
b) Stiffness Irregularity Extreme Soft shall be considered by explicitly modelling
Storey the same in structural analysis (as per 7.9).
A extreme soft storey is one in which the The design forces for RC members shall be
lateral stiffness is less than 60 percent of that larger of that obtained from analysis of:
in the storey above or less than 70 percent of a) Bare frame, and
the average stiffness of the three storeys b) Frames with URM infills, using 3D
above. For example, buildings on STILTS modelling of the structure. In buildings
will fall under this category, designed considering URM infills, the inter-
storey drift shall be limited to 0.2 percent in
the storey with stiffening and also in all
storeys below.
2. Mass Irregularity ii) Mass Irregularity
Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist
where the seismic weight of any storey is Mass irregularity shall be considered
more than 200 percent of that of its adjacent to exist, when the seismic weight (as
storeys. The irregularity need not be per 7.7) of any floor is more than 150
considered in case of roofs percent of that of the floors below.

In buildings with mass irregularity


and located in Seismic Zones III, IV
and V, the earthquake effects shall be
estimated by Dynamic Analysis
Method (as per 7.7).

3. Vertical Geometric Irregularity ii) Vertical Geometric Irregularity

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Vertical geometric irregularity shall be Vertical geometric irregularity shall
considered to exist where the horizontal be considered to exist, when the
dimension of the lateral force resisting horizontal dimension of the lateral
system in any storey is more than 150 percent force resisting system in any storey is
of that in its adjacent storey. more than 125 percent of the storey
below.

In buildings with vertical geometric


irregularity and located in Seismic
Zones III, IV and V, the earthquake
effects shall be estimated by
Dynamic Analysis Method (as per
7.7).

4. In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical ii) In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical


Elements Resisting Lateral Force Elements Resisting Lateral Force
A in-plane offset of the lateral force resisting
elements greater than the length of those In-plane discontinuity in vertical
elements elements which are resisting lateral
force shall be considered to exist,
when in-plane offset of the lateral
force resisting elements is greater
than 20 percent of the plan length of
those elements.

In buildings with in-plane


discontinuity and located in Seismic
Zones II, the lateral drift of the
building under the design lateral
force shall be limited to 0.2 percent
of the building height; in Seismic
Zones III, IV and V, buildings with
in-plane discontinuity shall not be
permitted.
5. Discontinuity in Capacity Weak Storey ii) Strength Irregularity (Weak Storey)
A weak storey is one in which the storey A weak storey is a storey whose
lateral strength is less than 80 percent of that lateral strength is less than that of the
in the storey above, The storey lateral storey above.
strength is the total strength of all seismic In such a case, buildings in Seismic
force resisting elements sharing the storey Zones III, IV and V shall be designed
shear in the considered direction. such that safety of the building is not
jeopardized; also, provisions of 7.10
shall be followed.

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iii) Floating or Stub Columns
Such columns are likely to cause
concentrated damage in the structure.
This feature is undesirable, and
hence should be prohibited, if it is
part of or supporting the primary
lateral load resisting system.
iv) Irregular Modes of Oscillation in
Two Principal Plan Directions

Stiffnesses of beams, columns,


braces and structural walls determine
the lateral stiffness of a building in
each principal plan direction. A
building is said to have lateral storey
irregularity in a principal plan
direction, if
a) the first three modes contribute
less than 65 percent mass
participation factor in each
principal plan direction, and

b) the fundamental lateral natural


periods of the building in the two
principal plan directions are
closer to each other by 10 percent
of the larger value.
In buildings located in Seismic Zones II and
III, it shall be ensured that the first three
modes together contribute at least 65 percent
mass participation factor in each principal
plan direction. And, in buildings located in
Seismic Zones IV and V, it shall be ensured
that,

1) the first three modes together


contribute at least 65 percent
mass participation factor in each
principal plan direction, and

2) the fundamental lateral


natural periods of the building in the
two principal plan directions are

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away from each other by at least 10
percent of the larger value
7.2 Lateral Force

7.2.1 Design Lateral Force

Buildings shall be designed for the design


lateral force
VB given by:

Vb=Ah*w
7.2.2 Minimum Design Lateral Force

Buildings and portions there of shall be


designed and constructed to resist at least the
effects of design lateral force specified in
7.2.1. But, regardless of design earthquake
forces arrived at as per 7.3.1, buildings shall
have lateral load resisting systems capable of
resisting a horizontal force not less than
(VB)min given in Table 7.

Table 7 Minimum Design


Earthquake Horizontal Lateral
Force for Buildings
(Clause 7.2.2)

Sl No. Seismic Zone
Percent
(1) (2)
(3)
i) II 0.7
ii) III 1.1
iii) IV 1.6
iv) V 2.4

7.2.3 Importance Factor (I)

In estimating design lateral force VB of


buildings as per 7.2.1, the importance factor
I of buildings shall be taken as per Table 8.
Table 6 Importance Factors, 1 Table 8 Importance Factor (I)
( Clause 6.4.2)

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(Clause 7.2.3)
Structure Importance Table 8 Importance Factor (I)
Factor (Clause 7.2.3)
Important service and 1.5 Sl
Structure I
community buildings, such No.
(2) (3)
as hospitals; schools; (1)
monumental structures; i) Important service and 1.5
emergency buildings like community buildings or
telephone exchange, structures (for example,
television stations, radio critical governance
stations, railway stations, buildings, schools),
fire station buildings; large signature buildings,
community halls like monument buildings,
cinemas, assembly halls lifeline and emergency
and subway stations, power building (for example,
stations. hospital buildings,
ALL other buildings 1.0 telephone exchange
buildings, television
station buildings, radio
station buildings, bus
station buildings, metro
rail buildings and metro
rail station buildings),
railway stations,
airports, food storage
buildings (such as
warehouses), fuel
station buildings, power
station buildings, and
fire station buildings),
and large community
hall buildings (for
example, cinema halls,
shopping malls,
assembly halls and
subway stations)
ii) Residential or 1.2
commercial buildings
[other than those listed
in Sl No. (i)] with
occupancy more than
200 persons
iii) All other buildings 1.0

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NOTES NOTES
1. The design engineer may choose values of 1. Owners and design engineers of
importance factor I greater than those mentioned
buildings or structures may choose
above.
2. Buildings not covered in SI No. (i) and (ii) above values of importance factor I more than
may be designed for higher value of Z, depending those mentioned above.
on economy, strategy considerations like multi- 2. Buildings or structures covered under Sl
storey buildings having several residential units. No. (iii) may be designed for higher
3. This does not apply to temporary structures like value of importance factor I, depending
excavations, scaffolding etc. of short duration.
on economy and strategy.
3. In Sl No. (ii), when a building is
composed of more than one structurally
independent unit, the occupancy size
shall be for each of the structurally
independent unit of the building.
In buildings with mixed occupancies,
wherein different I factors are applicable for
the respective occupancies, larger of the
importance factor I values shall be used for
estimating the design earthquake force of the
building.
7.2.4 Damping Ratio
The value of damping shall be taken as 5
percent of critical damping for the purposes
of estimating Ah in the design lateral force
VB of a building as per 7.2.1, irrespective of
the material of construction (namely steel,
reinforced concrete, masonry, or a
combination thereof of these three basic
materials) of its lateral load resisting system,
considering that buildings experience
inelastic deformations under design level
earthquake effects, resulting in much higher
energy dissipation than that due to initial
structural damping in buildings. This value
of damping shall be used, irrespective of the
method of the structural analysis employed,
namely Equivalent Static Method (as per
7.6) or Dynamic Analysis Method (as per
7.7).
7.2.5 Design Acceleration Spectrum
Design acceleration coefficient Sa/g
corresponding to 5 percent damping for
different soil types, normalized to peak

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ground acceleration, corresponding to
natural period
T of structure considering soil-structure
interaction,

irrespective of the material of construction of


the structure. Sa/g shall be as given by
expressions in 6.4.2.
7.2.6 Response Reduction Factor (R)

Response reduction factor, along with


damping during extreme shaking and
redundancy: (a) influences the nonlinear
behaviour of buildings during strong
earthquake shaking, and (b) accounts for
inherent system ductility, redundancy and
overstrength normally available in buildings,
if designed and detailed as per this standard
and the associated Indian Standards.

For the purpose of design as per this


standard, response reduction factor R for
different building systems shall be as given
in Table 9. The values of R shall be used for
design of buildings with lateral load resisting
elements, and NOT for just the lateral load
resisting elements, which are built in
isolation.

7.2.7 Dual System

Buildings with dual system consist of


moment resisting frames and structural walls
(or of moment resisting frames and bracings)
such that both of the following conditions are
valid:

a) Two systems are designed to resist


total design lateral force in
proportion to their lateral stiffness,
considering interaction of two
systems at all floor levels; and

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b) Moment resisting frames are
designed to resist independently at
least 25 percent of the design base
shear.
As per Is 1893:2002
Table 7 Response Reduction Factor l), R, for Building Systems.
( Clause 6.4.2)
S1 Lateral Load Resisting System R
No.
(1) (2) (3)
Building Frame Systems
Ordinary RC moment-resisting frame ( OMRF )2) 3.0
Special RC moment-resisting frame ( SMRF )3) 5.0
Steel frame with
a) Concentric braces 4
b) Eccentric braces 5
Steel moment resisting frame designed as per SP 6 ( 6 ) 5.0
Building with Shear Walls
Load bearing masonry wall buildings)
a) Unreinforced 1.5
b) Reinforced with horizontal RC bands 2.5
c) Reinforced with horizontal RC bands and vertical bars at 3.0
corners of rooms and
jambs of openings
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls@ 3.0
Ductile shear walls7 4.0
Buildings with Dual Systemss)
Ordinary shear wall with OMRF 3.0
Ordinary shear wall with SMRF 4.0
Ductile shear wall with OMRF 4.5
Ductile shear wall with SMRF 5.0
1) The values of response reduction factors are to be used for buildings with lateral load
resisting elements, and not Just for the lateral load resisting elements built in
isolation.
2) OMRF are those designed and detailed as per IS 456 or Is 800 but not meeting
ductile detailing reqllirertleMllt per IS 13920 or SP 6 (6) respectively.
3) SMRF defined in 4.15.2.
4) Buildings with shear walls also include buildings having shear walls and frames, but
where:
a) frames are not designed to carry lateral loads, or
b) frames are designed to carry lateral loads but do not fulfil the requirements of dual
systems.

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5) Reinforcement should be as per IS 4326.
6) Prohibited in zones IV and V.
7) Ductile shear walls are those designed and detailed as per IS 13920.
8) Buildings with dual systems consist of shear walls ( or braced frames ) and moment
resisting frames such that:
a) the two systems are designed to resist the total design force in proportion to their
lateral stiffness considering the interaction of the dual system at all floor levels,; and
b) the moment resisting frames are designed to independently resist at least 25
percent of the design seismic base shear.
As per IS 1893:2016
Table 9 Response Reduction Factor R for Building Systems
(Clause 7.2.6)
Sl
Lateral Load Resisting System R
No.
(2) (3)
(1)
i) Moment Frame Systems
a) RC buildings with ordinary moment resisting frame (OMRF) 3.0
(see Note 1) 5.0
b) RC buildings with special moment resisting frame (SMRF) 3.0
c) Steel buildings with ordinary moment resisting frame (OMRF) 5.0
(see Note 1)
d) Steel buildings with special moment resisting frame (SMRF)
ii) Braced Frame Systems (see Note 2)
a) Buildings with ordinary braced frame (OBF) having concentric 4.0
braces 4.5
b) Buildings with special braced frame (SBF) having concentric 5.0
braces
c) Buildings with special braced frame (SBF) having eccentric
braces
iii) Structural Wall Systems (see Note 3)
a) Load bearing masonry buildings
1) Unreinforced masonry (designed as per IS 1905) 1.5
without horizontal RC seismic bands (see Note 1)
2) Unreinforced masonry (designed as per IS 1905) 2.0
with horizontal RC seismic bands
3) Unreinforced masonry (designed as per IS 1905) 2.5
with horizontal RC seismic bands and vertical
reinforcing bars at corners of rooms and jambs of
openings (with reinforcement as per IS 4326)
4) Reinforced masonry [see SP 7 (Part 6) Section 4] 3.0
5) Confined masonry 3.0
b) Buildings with ordinary RC structural walls (see Note 1) 3.0

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c) Buildings with ductile RC structural walls 4.0
iv) Dual Systems (see Note 3)
a) Buildings with ordinary RC structural walls and RC OMRFs 3.0
(see Note 1)
b) Buildings with ordinary RC structural walls and RC SMRFs 4.0
(see Note 1
c) Buildings with ductile RC structural walls with RC OMRFs 4.0
(see Note 1)
d) Buildings with ductile RC structural walls with RC SMRFs 5.0
v) Flat Slab Structural Wall Systems (see Note 4)
RC building with the three features given below: 3.0
a) Ductile RC structural walls (which are designed to resist 100
percent of the design lateral force),
b) Perimeter RC SMRFs (which are designed to independently
resist 25 percent of the design lateral force), and preferably
c) An outrigger and belt truss system connecting the core ductile
RC structural walls and the perimeter RC SMRFs (see Note 1).
NOTES
1. RC and steel structures in Seismic Zones III, IV and V shall be designed to be
ductile. Hence, this system is not allowed in these seismic zones.
2. Eccentric braces shall be used only with SBFs.
3. Buildings with structural walls also include buildings having structural walls and
moment frames, but where,
a. frames are not designed to carry design lateral loads, or
b. frames are designed to carry design lateral loads, but do not fulfill the
requirements of Dual Systems.
4. In these buildings, (a) punching shear failure shall be avoided, and (b) lateral drift
at the roof under design lateral force shall not exceed 0.1 percent.
7.3 Design Imposed Loads for Earthquake
Force Calculation

7.3.1 For various loading classes specified


in IS 875 (Part 2), design seismic force shall
be estimated using full dead load plus
percentage of imposed load as given in
Table 10. The same shall be used in the
three-dimensional dynamic analysis of
buildings also.

7.3.2 For calculation of design seismic forces


of buildings, imposed load on roof need not
be considered. But, weights of equipment

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and other permanently fixed facilities should
be considered; in such a case, the reductions
of imposed loads mentioned in Table 10 are
not applicable to that part of the load

Table 8 Percentage of Imposed Load to be Table 10 Percentage of Imposed Load to be


Considered in Seismic Weight Calculation Considered in Calculation of Seismic
(Clause 7.3.1 Weight
(Clause 7.3.1)
Imposed Percentage of Sl Imposed uniformly
Percentage of
Uniformity Imposed No Distributed Floor
Imposed Load
Distributed Floor Load . Loads
Loads ( kN/ m2 ) kN/m2
(3)
(1) (2) (1) (2)
Upto and including 25 Up to and including
i) 25
3.0 3.0
Above 3.0 50 ii) Above 3.0 50
7.3.3 Imposed load values indicated in Table
10 for calculating design earthquake lateral
forces are applicable to normal conditions.
When loads during earthquakes are more
accurately assessed, designers may alter
imposed load values indicated or even
replace the entire imposed load given in
Table 10 with actual assessed load values,
subject to the values given in Table 7 as the
minimum values. Where imposed load is not
assessed as per 7.3.1 and 7.3.2,

a) only that part of imposed load, which


possesses mass, shall be considered;
and

b) lateral earthquake design force shall


not be calculated on contribution of
impact effects from imposed loads.

7.3.4 Loads other than those given above (for


example, snow and permanent equipment)
shall be considered appropriately.
7.3.5 In regions of severe snow loads and
sand storms exceeding intensity of 1.5

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kN/m2, 20 percent of uniform design snow
load or sand load, respectively shall be
included in the estimation of seismic weight.
In case the minimum values of seismic
weights corresponding to these load effects
given in IS 875 are higher, the higher values
shall be used.
7.3.6 In buildings that have interior
partitions, the weight of these partitions on
floors shall be included in the estimation of
seismic weight; this value shall not be less
than 0.5 kN/m2. In case the minimum values
of seismic weights corresponding to
partitions given in parts of IS 875 are higher,
the higher values shall be used. It shall be
ensured that the weights of these partitions
shall be considered only in estimating
inertial effects of the building.

7.5 Design Lateral Force 7.2 Lateral Force


7.5.1 Buildings and portions there of shall be 7.2.1 Design Lateral Force
designed and constructed, to resist the effects
of design lateral force specified in 7.5.3 as a Buildings shall be designed for the design
minimum. lateral force
VB given by:
VB=Ah*w
where Ah shall be estimated as per 6.4.2, and
W as per 7.4.
7.2.2 Minimum Design Lateral Force

Buildings and portions there of shall be


designed and constructed to resist at least the
effects of design lateral force specified in
7.2.1. But, regardless of design earthquake
forces arrived at as per 7.3.1, buildings shall
have lateral load resisting systems capable of
resisting a horizontal force not less than
(VB)min given in Table 7
Table 7 Minimum Design
Earthquake Horizontal Lateral
Force for Buildings

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(Clause 7.2.2)


Sl No. Seismic Zone
Percent
(1) (2)
(3)
i) II 0.7
ii) III 1.1
iii) IV 1.6
iv) V 2.4
7.4 Seismic Weight
7.4.1 Seismic Weight of Floors

Seismic weight of each floor is its full dead


load plus appropriate amount of imposed
load, as specified in 7.3. While computing
the seismic weight of each floor, the weight
of columns and walls in any storey shall be
appropriately apportioned to the floors
above and below the storey.

7.4.2 Any weight supported in between


storeys shall be distributed to floors above
and below in inverse proportion to its
distance from the floors.
7.6 Equivalent Static Method

As per this method, first, the design base


shear VB shall be computed for the building
as a whole. Then, this VB shall be distributed
to the various floor levels at the
corresponding centres of mass. And, finally,
this design seismic force at each floor level
shall be distributed to individual lateral load
resisting elements through structural
analysis considering the floor diaphragm
action. This method shall be applicable for
regular buildings with height less than 15 m
in Seismic Zone II.

7.5.2 The design lateral force shall first be


computed for the building as a whole. This
design lateral force shall then be distributed
to the various floor levels. The overall design

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seismic force thus obtained at each floor
level, shall then be distributed to individual
lateral load resisting elements depending on
the floor diaphragm action.
7.5.3 Design Seismic Base Shear 7.6.1 The design base shear VB along any
The total design lateral force or design principal direction of a building shall be
seismic base shear ( VB)along any principal determined by:
direction shall be determined by the
following expression:
VB = AhW VB = AhW
where where
Ah Design horizontal acceleration
spectrum value as per 6.4.2, using Ah = design horizontal acceleration
the fundamental natural period T, as coefficient value as per 6.4.2, using
per 7.6 in the considered direction of approximate fundamental natural
vibration, and period Ta as per 7.6.2 along the
W Seismic weight of the building as per considered direction of shaking; and
7.4.2.
W = seismic weight of the building as per
7.4
7.6 Fundamental Natural Period
7.6.1 The approximate fundamental natural 7.6.2 The approximate fundamental
period of vibration ( Ta ), in seconds, of a translational natural period Ta of oscillation,
moment-resisting frame building without in second, shall be estimated by the
brick infill panels may be estimated by the following expressions:
empirical expression:
Ta = 0.075 h0.75 for RC frame building
= 0.085 h0.75 for steel frame building a) Bare MRF buildings (without any
masonry infills):
T=0.075

0.08
0.08

Where where
h = Height of building, in m. This excludes
the basement storeys, where basement walls h =height (in m) of building (see Fig. 5). This
are connected with the ground floor deck or excludes the basement storeys, where
fitted between the building columns. But it basement storey, walls are connected with
includes the basement storeys, when they are the ground floor deck or fitted between the
not so connected. building columns, but includes the basement
storeys, when they are not so connected.

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b)Buildings with RC structural walls:
equation
where Aw is total effective area (m2)
of walls in the first storey of the
building given by:

N
w L 2
wi

Aw Awi
0.2

h
1

where

h = height of building as defined in


7.6.2(a), in m;

Awi = effective cross-sectional area


of wall i in first storey of
building, in m2;

L wi = length of structural wall i


in first storey in the considered
direction of lateral forces, in
m;

d = base dimension of the building


at the plinth level along the
considered direction of
earthquake shaking, in m; and

N w = number of walls in the


considered direction of
earthquake shaking.

The value of Lwi/h to be used in this


equation shall not exceed 0.9.

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7.6.2 The approximate fundamental natural c) All other buildings:


period of vibration (Ta), in seconds, of all
other buildings, including moment-resisting
frame buildings with brick infill panels, may
be estimated by the empirical expression:
Where Ta 0.09h
h=Height of building, in m as defined in7.6.l;
and d
d=Base dimension of the building at the where
plinth level, in m, along the considered
direction of the lateral force. h = height of building, as defined in
7.6.2(a), in m; and

d = base dimension of the building at


the plinth level along the
considered direction of earthquake
shaking, in m.

7.7 Distribution of Design Force 7.6.3 The design base shear (VB) computed
7.7.1 Vertical Distribution of Base Shear to in 7.6.1 shall be distributed along the height
Different Floor Levels of the building and in plan at each floor level
The design base shear (VB) computed in 7.5.3 as below
shall be distributed along the height of the a) Vertical distribution of base shear to
building as per the following expression: different

Wi hi2 floor levels The design base shear


Qi VB n VB computed in 7.6.1 shall be
W h
j 1
j
2
j distributed along the height of the
building as per the following
expression:

where

Qi = design lateral force at floor i;

W
i = seismic weight of floor i;

height of floor i measured from


hi = base;

and

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where n = number of storeys in building,
Qi = Design lateral force at floor i, that is, number of levels at
Wi = Seismic weight of floor i, which masses are located.
hi = Height of floor i measured from base,
and
n = Number of storeys in the building is the
number of levels at which the masses are
located.
b)In-plan distribution of design lateral force
at floor i to different lateral force resisting
elements The design storey shear in any
storey shall be calculated by summing the
design lateral forces at all floor above that
storey. In buildings whose floors are capable
of providing rigid horizontal diaphragm
action in their own plane, the design storey
shear shall be distributed to the various
vertical elements of lateral force resisting
system in proportion to the lateral stiffness
of these vertical elements
7.7.2 Distribution of Horizontal Design
Lateral Force to Different Lateral Force
Resisting Elements
7.7.2.1 In case of buildings whose floors are
capable of providing rigid horizontal
diaphragm action, the total shear in any
horizontal plane shall be distributed to the
various vertical elements of lateral force
resisting system, assuming the floors to be
infinitely rigid in the horizontal plane.
7.7.2.2 In case of building whose floor
diaphragms can not be treated as infinitely
rigid in their own plane, the lateral shear at
each floor shall be distributed to the vertical
elements resisting the lateral forces,
considering the in-plane flexibility of the
diaphragms.
NOTES 7.6.4 Diaphragm
1) A floor diaphragm shall be considered to
be flexible, if it deforms such that the In buildings whose floor diaphragms cannot
maximum lateral displacement measured provide rigid horizontal diaphragm action in
from the chord of the deformed shape at their own plane, design storey shear shall be
any point of the diaphragm is more than distributed to the various vertical elements

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1.5 times the average displacement of the of lateral force resisting system considering
entire diaphragm. the in-plane flexibility of the diaphragms.
2) Reinforced concrete monolithic slab-
beam floors or those consisting of A floor diaphragm shall be considered to be
prefabricated/precast elements with flexible, if it deforms such that the
topping reinforced screed can be taken a maximum lateral displacement measured
rigid diaphragms from the chord of the deformed shape at any
point of the diaphragm is more than 1.2
times the average displacement of the entire
diaphragm (see Fig. 6).

Usually, reinforced concrete monolithic


slab-beam floors or those consisting of
prefabricated or precast elements with
reasonable reinforced screed concrete (at
least a minimum of 50 mm on floors and of
75 mm on roof, with at least a minimum
reinforcement of 6 mm bars spaced at 150
mm centres) as topping, and of plan aspect
ratio less than 3, can be considered to be
providing rigid diaphragm action.
7.8 Dynamic Analysis 7.7 Dynamic Analysis Method
7.8.1 Dynamic analysis shall be performed to 7.7.1 Linear dynamic analysis shall be
obtain the design seismic force, and its performed to obtain the design lateral force
distribution to different levels along the (design seismic base shear, and its
height of the building and to the various distribution to different levels along the
lateral load resisting elements, for the height of the building, and to various lateral
following buildings: load resisting elements) for all buildings,
a) Regular buildings Those greater than other than regular buildings lower than 15 m
40 m in height in Zones IV and V, and those in Seismic Zone II.
greater than 90 m in height in Zones II and
111. Modelling as per 7.8.4.5 can be used. 7.7.2 The analytical model for dynamic
b) irregular buildings ( as defined in 7.1 ) analysis of buildings with unusual
All framed buildings higher than12 m in configuration should be such that it
Zones IV and V and those greater than 40 m adequately represents irregularities present
in height in Zones II and III. in the building configuration.

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The analytical model for dynamic analysis of
buildings with unusual configuration should
be such that it adequately models the types of
irregularities present in the building
configuration. Buildings with plan
irregularities, as defined in Table 4 (as per
7.1), cannot be modelled for dynamic
analysis by the method given in 7.8.4.5.
NOTE For irregular buildings, lesser than
40 m in height in Zones II and III, dynamic
analysis, even though not mandatory, is
recommended
7.8.2 Dynamic analysis may be performed 7.7.3 Dynamic analysis may be performed
either by the Time History Method or by the by either the Time History Method or the
Response Spectrum Method. However, in Response Spectrum Method. When either of
either method, the design base shear (VB) the methods is used, the design base shear
shall be compared with a base shear ( VB ) VB estimated shall not be less than the design
calculated using a fundamental period Ta,
where Ta is as per 7.6. Where VB is less than
base shear V B calculated using a
VB all the response quantities (for example
fundamental period Ta, where Ta is as per
member forces, displacements, storey forces, 7.6.2.
storey shears and base reactions) shall be
multiplied by VB / VB . When VB is less than V B , the force response
quantities (for example member stress
resultants, storey shear forces, and base
reactions) shall be multiplied by

V B VB . For earthquake shaking


considered along,

a) the two mutually perpendicular plan


directions X and Y, separate
multiplying factors shall be

calculated, namely V BX VBX and V


BY VBY, respectively; and

the vertical Z direction, the multiplying


factor shall be taken as Max V BX VBX ;V
BY VBY

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7.8.2.1 The value of damping for buildings Damping 5% for all materials
may be taken as 2 and 5 percent of the
critical, for the purposes of dynamic analysis
of steel and reinforced concrete buildings,
respectively.

7.8.3 Time History Method 7.7.4 Time History Method


Time history method of analysis, when used, Time history method shall be based on an
shall be based on an appropriate ground appropriate ground motion (preferably
motion and shall be performed using compatible with the design acceleration
accepted principles of dynamics. spectrum in the desired range of natural
periods) and shall be performed using
accepted principles of earthquake structural
dynamics.
7.8.4 Response Spectrum Method 7.7.5 Response Spectrum Method
Response spectrum method of analysis shall
be performed using the design spectrum Response spectrum method may be
specified in 6.4.2, or by a site-specific design performed for any building using the design
spectrum mentioned in 6.4.6. acceleration spectrum specified in 6.4.2, or
by a site-specific design acceleration
spectrum mentioned in 6.4.7.

7.8.4.1 Free Vibration Analysis 7.7.5.1 Natural modes of oscillation


Undamped free vibration analysis of the
entire building shall be performed as per Undamped free vibration analysis of the
established methods of mechanics using the entire building shall be performed as per
appropriate masses and elastic stiffness of the established methods of structural dynamics
structural system, to obtain natural periods using appropriate mass and elastic stiffness

(T) and mode shapes { } of those of its
of the structural system, to obtain natural
periods Tk and mode shapes {}k of those of
modes of vibration that need to be considered its Nm modes of oscillation [k (1,Nm)] that
as per 7.8.4.2 need to be considered as per 7.7.5.2.

7.8.4.2 Modes to be considered


The number of modes to be used in the 7.7.5.2 Number of modes to be considered
analysis should be such that the sum total of
modal masses of all modes considered is at The number of modes Nm to be used in the
least 90 percent of the total seismic mass and analysis for earthquake shaking along a
missing mass correction beyond 33 percent. considered direction, should be such that the
If modes with natural frequency beyond33 sum total of modal masses of these modes
Hz are to be considered, modal combination considered is at least 90 percent of the total
shall be carried out only for modes upto 33 seismic mass.

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Hz. The effect of higher modes shall be
included by considering missing mass If modes with natural frequencies beyond 33
correction following well established Hz are to be considered, the modal
procedures. combination shall be carried out only for
modes with natural frequency less than

33 Hz; the effect of modes with natural


frequencies more than 33 Hz shall be
included by the missing mass correction
procedure following established principles
of structural dynamics. If justified by
rigorous analysis, designers may use a cut
off frequency other than 33 Hz.

7.8.4.3 Analysis of building subjected to


design forces
The building may be analyzed by accepted
principles of mechanics for the design forces
considered as static forces.
7.8.4.4 Modal combination 7.7.5.3 Combination of modes
The peak response quantities (for example,
member forces, displacements, storey forces, The responses of different modes considered
storey shears and base reactions) shall be shall be combined by one of the two
combined as per Complete Quadratic methods given below:
Combination (CQC) method.
a) Peak response quantities (for
example, member forces,
displacements, storey forces, storey
shears, and base reactions) may be
combined as per Complete
Quadratic Combination (CQC)
method, as given below:

r r r r

i 1 j 1
i ij j
i 1 j 1
i ij j
Where Where
r = Number of modes being
considered
ij = Cross model coefficient

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i = Response quality in mode i = estimate of peak response
(including sign) quantity;
j =`= Response
Response quality
quality inin mode
mode j i
(including
(includingsign)
sign) i = response quantity in mode

ij = 8 2 (1 ) 1.5 i (with sign);


(1 2 ) 2 4 2 (1 ) 2
j = response quantity in mode
j (with sign);
= Modal damping ratio (in
fraction) as specified in 7.8.2.1, ij = cross-modal correlation co-
= Frequency ratio = j / i efficient

i = Circular frequency in ith mode,


Nm= number of modes considered;
j = Circular frequency in jth mode.
= modal damping coefficient
ratio which shall be taken as
0.05;

j
= natural frequency ratio = i ;

j = circular natural frequency in


mode j; and
i = circular natural frequency in
mode i.
Alternatively, the peak response quantities b) Alternatively, the peak response
may be combined as follows: quantities may be combined as
follows:

a)if the building does not have closely-spaced 1) If building does not have closely-
modes, then the peak response quantity () spaced modes, then net peak
due to all modes considered shall be obtained response quantity due to all
as modes considered shall be
r estimated as:
( )2 r

(
k
k 1 k )2
k 1

Where where
K Absolute value of quantity in mode
k, and k = peak response quantity in mode k, and
r Number of modes being considered
Nm= number of modes considered

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b)if the building has a few closely spaced 2) If building has a few closely-
modes (see 3.2), then the peak response spaced modes, then net peak
quantity (*) due to these modes shall be response quantity due to these
obtained as closely space modes alone shall
r be obtained as:
c
*
r
c
'
*
c '
c
Where the summation is for the closely where
spaced modes only. This peak response
quantity due to the closely spaced modes (*)c = peak response quantity in closely spaced
is then combined with those of the remaining mode c. The summation is for closely spaced
well-separated modes by the method modes only. Then, this peak response
described in 7.8.4.4 (a). quantity due to closely spaced modes is
combined with those of remaining well-
separated modes by method described above
7.8.4.5 Buildings with regular, or nominally 7.7.5.4 Simplified method of dynamic
irregular plan configurations may be analysis of buildings
modelled as a system of masses lumped at the
floor levels with each mass having one Regular buildings may be analyzed as a
degree of freedom, that of lateral system of masses lumped at the floor levels
displacement in the direction under with each mass having one degree of
consideration. In such a case; the following freedom, that of lateral displacement in the
expressions shall hold in the computation of direction under consideration. In such a case,
the various quantities : the following expressions shall hold in the
computation of the various quantities:

a) Modal mass a) Modal mass Modal mass Mk of


The modal mass (Mk) of mode k is mode k is given by:
2
given by n
n
2
Wiik
Wiik M k in1
M k in1 g Wi (ik ) 2
g Wi (ik ) 2 i 1

i 1

Where where
g = Acceleration due to gravity
ik = Mode shape coefficient at floor i g = acceleration due to gravity,
in mode k, and
Wi = Seismic weight of floor i. ik = mode shape coefficient at floor
i in mode k,

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Wi = seismic weight of floor i of the
structure, and

n = number of floors of the structure


b) Modal Participation Factors The Mode participation factor Mode
modal participation factor (Pk) of mode k is participation factor Pk of mode k is given by:
given by
n n

Wiik W i ik
Pk n
i 1
Pk n
i 1

Wi (ik ) 2
i 1
W (
i 1
i ik )2

c)Design Lateral force at each floor in each Design lateral force at each floor in each
Mode the peak lateral force(Qik) at floor I mode Peak lateral force Qik at floor i in
in mode k is given by mode k is given by Equation

Qik Akik Pk Wi Qik Akik Pk Wi


Where Where
Ak = Design horizontal acceleration spectrum Ak = design horizontal acceleration spectrum
value as per 6.4.2 using the natural period of value as per 6.4.2 using natural period of
vibration (Tk) of mode k. oscillation Tk of mode k obtained from
dynamic analysis.
d)storey shear forces in each mode the peak Storey shear forces in each mode Peak
shear force (Vik) acting in storey I in mode k shear force Vik acting in storey i in mode k is
is given by given by:
n n
Vik Qik
j i 1
Vik Q
j i 1
ik

e)Storey Shear Forces due to All modes Storey shear force due to all modes
Considered The peak storey shear force considered Peak storey shear force Vi in
(Vi) in storey i due to all modes considered is storey i due to all modes considered, shall be
obtained by combining those due to each obtained by combining those due to each
mode in accordance with 7.8.4.4. mode in accordance with 7.7.5.3
f)Lateral forces at Each Storey Due to All Lateral forces at each storey due to all modes
Modes Considered The design lateral considered Design lateral forces Froof at
forces, Froof and Fi, at roof and at floor i; roof level and Fi at level of floor i shall be
Froof = V roof , and obtained as:
Fi = Vi Vi+1 Froof = V roof , and
Fi = Vi Vi+1
7.9 Torsion 7.8 Torsion
7.9.1 Provision shall be made in all buildings 7.8.1 Provision shall be made in all
for increase in shear forces on the lateral buildings for increase in shear forces on the
force resisting elements resulting from the lateral force resisting elements resulting
horizontal torsional moment arising due to from twisting about the vertical axis of the

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eccentricity between the centre of mass and building, arising due to eccentricity between
centre of rigidity. The design forces the centre of mass and centre of resistance at
calculated as in 7,8.4.5 are to be applied at the the floor levels. The design forces calculated
centre of mass appropriately displaced so as as in 7.6 and 7.7.5, shall be applied at the
to cause design eccentricity ( 7.9.2 ) between displaced centre of mass so as to cause
the displaced centre of, mass and centre of design eccentricity (as given by 7.8.2)
rigidity. However, negative torsional shear between the displaced centre of mass and
shall be neglected. centre of resistance.

7.9.2 The design eccentricity, edi to be used 7.8.2 Design Eccentricity


at floor i shall be taken a
Fhdhfh While performing structural analysis by the
Seismic Coefficient Method or the Response
whichever of these gives the more severe Spectrum Method, the design eccentricity edi
effect in the shear of any frame where to be used at floor i shall be taken as:
edi Static eccentricity at floor i defined
as the distance between centre of
mass and centre of rigidity, and
bi Floor plan dimension of floor i,
perpendicular to the direction of
force.
whichever gives the more severe effect on
lateral force resisting elements;
where

esi = static eccentricity at floor i,

= distance between centre of mass


and centre of resistance, and

bi
= floor plan dimension of floor i,
perpendicular to the direction of force.
NOTE The factor 1.5 represents dynamic
The factor 1.5 represents dynamic amplification factor, and 0.05bi represents
amplification factor, while the factor 0.05 the extent of accidental eccentricity. The
represents the extent of accidental above amplification of 1.5 need not be used,
eccentricity. when performing structural analysis by the
Time History Method.

7.9.3 In case of highly irregular buildings


analysed according to 7.8.4.5, additive shears
will be superimposed for a statically applied

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eccentricity of 0.05bi, with respect to the
centre of rigidity.
7.9 RC Frame Buildings with Unreinforced
Masonry Infill Walls
7.9.1 In RC buildings with moment resisting
frames and unreinforced masonry (URM)
infill walls, variation of storey stiffness and
storey strength shall be examined along the
height of the building considering in-plane
stiffness and strength of URM infill walls. If
storey stiffness and strength variations along
the height of the building render it to be
irregular as per Table 6, the irregularity shall
be corrected especially in Seismic Zones III,
IV and V.
7.9.2 The estimation of in-plane stiffness
and strength of URM infill walls shall be
based on provisions given hereunder.
7.9.2.1 The modulus of elasticity Em (in
MPa) of masonry infill wall shall be taken
as:

Em = 550 fm
where fm is the compressive strength of
masonry prism (in MPa) obtained as per IS
1905 or given by expression:

fm = 0.433fb0.64 fmo0.36

wher
e

compressive strength of brick, in MPa;


fb = and
f
m compressive strength of mortar, in
o = MPa.

7.9.2.2 URM infill walls shall be modeled by


using equivalent diagonal struts as below:

a) Ends of diagonal struts shall be


considered to be pin-jointed to RC
frame;

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b) For URM infill walls without any
opening, width

wds of equivalent diagonal strut (see


Fig. 7) shall be taken as:

wds = 0.175h0.4 Lds


where

h h 4 Emt
sin 2

4E I h

where Em and Ef are the modulii of


elasticity of the materials of the
URM infill and RC MRF, Ic the
moment of inertia of the adjoining
column, t the thickness of the infill
wall, and

the angle of the diagonal strut


with the horizontal;

c) For URM infill walls with openings,


no reduction in strut width is
required; and

d) Thickness of the equivalent diagonal


strut shall be taken as thickness t of
original URM infill wall, provided
h/t < 12 and l/t < 12, where h is clear
height of URM infill wall between
the top beam and bottom floor slab,
and l clear length of the URM infill
wall between the vertical RC
elements (columns, walls or a
combination thereof) between which
it spans.

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7.10 RC Frame Buildings with Open Storeys


7.10.1 RC moment resisting frame
buildings, which have open storey(s) at any
level, such as due to discontinuation of
unreinforced masonry (URM) infill walls or
of structural walls, are known to have
flexible and weak storeys as per Table 6. In
such buildings, suitable measures shall be
adopted, which increase both stiffness and
strength to the required level in the open
storey and the storeys below. These
measures shall be taken along both plan
directions as per requirements laid down
under 7.10.2 to 7.10.4. The said increase
may be achieved by providing measures,
like:

a) RC structural walls, or

b) Braced frames, in select bays of the


building.
7.10.2 When the RC structural walls are
provided, they shall be,

a) founded on properly designed


foundations;

b) continuous preferably over the full


height of the building; and
c) connected preferably to the moment
resisting frame of the building.

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7.10.3 When the RC structural walls are
provided, they shall be designed such that the
building does NOT have:

a) Additional torsional irregularity in


plan than that already present in the
building. In assessing this, lateral
stiffness shall be included of all
elements that resist lateral actions at
all levels of the building;

b) Lateral stiffness in the open storey(s)


is less than 80 percent of that in the
storey above; and

c) Lateral strength in the open storey(s)


is less than 90 percent of that in the
storey above.
7.10.4 When the RC structural walls are
provided, the RC structural wall plan density
sw of the building shall be at least 2 percent
along each principal direction in Seismic
Zones III, IV and V. These walls shall be
well distributed in the plan of the building
along each plan direction. RC structural
walls of this measure can be adopted even in
regular buildings that do not have open
storey(s).
7.10.5 RC structural walls in buildings
located in Seismic Zones III, IV and V shall
be designed and detailed to comply with all
requirements of IS 13920.
7.10 Buildings with Soft Storey
7.10.1 In case buildings with a flexible
storey, such as the ground storey consisting
of open spaces for parking that is Stilt
buildings, special arrangement needs to be
made to increase the lateral strength and
stiffness of the soft/open storey.
7.10.2 Dynamic analysis of building is
carried out including the strength and
stiffness effects of infills and inelastic
deformations in the members, particularly,

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those in the soft storey, and the members
designed accordingly
7.10.3 Alternatively, the following design
criteria are to be adopted after carrying out
the earthquake analysis, neglecting the effect
of infill walls in other storeys:
a) the columns and beams of the soft storey
are to be designed for 2.5 times the storey
shears and moments calculated under seismic
loads specified in the other relevant clauses:
or.
b) besides the columns designed and detailed
for the calculated storey shears and moments,
shear walls placed symmetrically in both
directions of the building as far away from
the centre of the building as feasible; to be
designed exclusively for 1.5 times the lateral
storey shear force calculated as before,
7.11 Deformations 7.11 Deformation
7.11.1 Storev Drift Limitation Deformation of RC buildings shall be
The storey drift in any storey due to the obtained from structural analysis using a
minimum specified design lateral force, with structural model based on section properties
partial load factor of 1.0 shall not exceed given in 6.4.3.
0.004 times the storey height.
For the purposes of displacement 7.11.1 Storey Drift Limitation
requirements only (see 7.11.1,7.11.2 and
7.11.3 only), it is permissible to use seismic 7.11.1.1 Storey drift in any storey shall not
force obtained from the computed exceed 0.004 times the storey height, under
fundamental period (T) of the building the action of design base of shear VB with no
without the lower bound limit on design load factors mentioned in 6.3, that is, with
seismic force specified in 7.8.2. There shall partial safety factor for all loads taken as 1.0.
be no drift limit for single storey building
which has been designed to accommodate 7.11.1.2 Displacement estimates obtained
storey drift. from dynamic analysis methods shall not be
scaled as given in 7.7.3.

7.11.2 Deformation Compatibility of Non- 7. 11.2 Deformation Capability of Non-


Seismic Members Seismic Members
For building located in seismic Zones IV and
V it shall be ensured that the structural For buildings located in Seismic Zones III,
components, that are not a part of the seismic IV and V, it shall be ensured that structural
force resisting system in the direction under components, that are not a part of seismic
consideration, do not lose their vertical load- force resisting system in considered

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carrying capacity under the induced moments direction of ground motion but are
resulting from storey deformations equal to R monolithically connected, do not lose their
times the storey displacements calculated as vertical load-carrying capacity under
per 7.11.1. Where R is specified in Table 7. induced net stress resultants, including
additional bending moments and shear
forces resulting from storey deformations
equal to R times storey displacements
calculated as per 7.11.1, where R is specified
in Table 9.

NOTE For instance, consider a flat-slab


building in which lateral load resistance is
provided by shear walls. Since the lateral
load resistance of the slab-column system is
small. these are often designed only for the
gravity loads, while all the seismic force is
resisted by the shear walls. Even though the
slabs and columns are not required to share
the lateral forces, these deform with rest of
the structure under seismic force, The
concern is that under such deformations, the
slab-column system should not lose its
vertical load capacity.
7.11.3 Separation Between Adjacent Units 7.11.3 Separation between Adjacent Units
Two adjacent buildings or two adjacent units
of the same building with separation joint in Two adjacent buildings, or two adjacent
between shall be separated by a distance units of the same building with separation
equal to the amount R times the sum of the joint between them, shall be separated by a
calculated storey displacements as per 7.11.1 distance equal to R times sum of storey
of each of them, to avoid damaging contact displacements 1 and 2 calculated as per
when the two units deflect towards each 7.11.1 of the two buildings or two units of
other. When floor levels of two similar the same building, to avoid pounding as the
adjacent units or buildings are at the same two buildings or two units of the same
elevation levels, factor R in this requirement building oscillate towards each other.
may be replaced by R/2.
When floor levels of the adjacent units of a
building or buildings are at the same level,
the separation distance shall be calculated as
(R11 + R22), where R1 and 1 correspond
to building 1, and R2 and 2 to building 2.

7.12 Miscellaneous 7.12 Miscellaneous


7.12.1 Foundations 7.12.1 Foundations

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The use of foundations vulnerable to
significant differential settlement due to Isolated RC footings without tie beams or
ground shaking shall be avoided for unreinforced strip foundations, shall not be
structures in seismic Zones III, IV and V In adopted in buildings rested on soft soils
seismic Zones IV and V, individual spread (with corrected N < 10) in any Seismic
footings or pile caps shall be interconnected Zone. Use of foundations vulnerable to
with ties, (see 5.3.4.1 of IS 4326) except significant differential settlement due to
when individual spread footings are directly ground shaking shall be avoided in buildings
supported on rock. All ties shall be capable of located in Seismic Zones III, IV and V.
carrying, in tension and in compression, an
axial force equal to Ah/4 times the larger of Individual spread footings or pile caps shall
the column or pile cap load, in addition to the be interconnected with ties (see 5.3.4.1 of IS
otherwise computed forces, Here, Ah is as per 4326), except when individual spread
6.4.2. footings are directly supported on rock, in
buildings located in Seismic Zones IV and
V. All ties shall be capable of carrying, in
tension and in compression, an axial force
equal to Ah/4 times the larger of the column
or pile cap load, in addition to the otherwise
computed forces, subject to a minimum of 5
percent of larger of column or pile cap loads.
Here, Ah is as per 6.4.2.

Pile shall be designed and constructed to


withstand maximum curvature imposed
(structural response) by earthquake ground
shaking. Design of anchorage of piles into
the pile cap shall consider combined effects,
including that of axial forces due to uplift
and bending
moments due to fixity to pile cap.

7.12.2 Cantilever Projections 7.12.2 Cantilever Projections


7.12.2.1 Vertical Projections 7.12.2.1 Vertical projections
Tower, tanks, parapets, smoke stacks
(chimneys) and other vertical cantilever Small-sized facilities (like towers, tanks,
projections attached to buildings and parapets, smoke stacks/chimneys) and other
projecting above the roof, shall be designed vertical cantilever projections attached to
and checked for stability for five times the buildings and projecting vertically above the
design horizontal seismic coefficient Ah roof, but not a part of the structural system
specified in 6.4.2. In the analysis of the of the building, shall be designed and
building, the weight of these projecting checked for stability for five times the design
horizontal seismic coefficient Ah specified

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elements will be lumped with the roof in 6.4.2 for that building. In the analysis of
weight. the building, weights of these projecting
elements shall be lumped with the roof
weight.

7.12.2.2 Horizontal projection 7.12.2.2 Horizontal projections


All horizontal projections like cornices and All horizontal projections of buildings (like
balconies shall be designed and checked for cantilever structural members at the porch
stability for five times the design vertical level or higher) or attached to buildings (like
coefficient specified in 6.4.5 (that is = 10/3 brackets, cornices and balconies) shall be
Ah) designed for five times the design vertical
coefficient Av specified in 6.4.6 for that
building.

7.12.2.3 The increased design forces 7.12.2.3 The increased design forces
specified in 7.12.2.1 and 7.12.2.2 are only for specified in 7.12.2.1 and 7.12.2.2 are only
designing the projecting parts and their for designing the projecting parts and their
connections with the main structures. For the connections with the main structures, and
design of the main structure, such increase NOT for the design of the main structure.
need not be considered.
7.12.3 Compound Walls 7.12.3 Compound Walls
Compound walls shall be designed for the Compound walls shall be designed for the
design horizontal coefficient Ah with design horizontal coefficient Ah of 1.25Z,
importance factor I= 1.0 specified in 6.4.2. that is, Ah calculated using 6.4.2 with I = 1,
R = 1 and Sa/g = 2.5
7.12.4 Connections Between Parts 7.12.4 Connections between Parts
All parts of the building, except between the All small items and objects of a building
separation sections, shall be tied together to shall be tied to the building or to each other
act as integrated single unit. All connections to act as single unit, except those between
between different parts, such as beams to the separation joints and seismic joints.
columns and columns to their footings, These connections shall be made capable of
should be made capable of transmitting a transmitting the forces induced in them, but
force, in all possible directions, of magnitude not less than 0.05 times weight of total dead
(Qi/Wi) times but not less than 0.05 times the and imposed load reactions; frictional
weight of the smaller part or the total of dead resistance shall not be relied upon in these
and imposed load reaction. Frictional calculations.
resistance shall not be relied upon for
fulfilling these requirements.

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ANNEX D
(Foreword and Clause 3.15) (Foreword and Clause 3.11)
Comprehensive intensity scale (MSK 64) MSK 1964 INTENSITY SCALE
The scale was discussed generally at the The following description shall be applicable
inter-governmental meeting convened by
UNESCO in April 1964. Though not finally
approved the scale is more comprehensive
and describes the intensity of earthquake
more precisely. The main definitions used
are followings;
a) Type of Structures (Buildings) -do-
Type A Building in field-stone, rural
structures, unburnt-brick
houses, clay houses.
Type B Ordinary brick buildings,
buildings of large block and
prefabricated type, half
timbered structures,
buildings in natural hewn
stone,
Type C Reinforced buildings, well
built wooden structures,
b)Definition of Quantity: -do-
Single, few About 5 percent
Many About 50 percent
Most About 75 percent
c)Classification of Damage to Buildings -do-
Grade 1 Slight Fine cracks in
Damage plaster: fall of
small pieces of
plaster
Grade 2 Moderate Small cracks in
damage plaster: fall of
fairly large
pieces of
plaster:
pantiles slip
off cracks in
chimneys parts
of chimney fall
down,

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Grade 3 Heavy Large and deep
damage cracks in
plaster: fall of
chimneys
Grade 4 Destruction Gaps in walls:
parts of
buildings may
collapse:
separate parts
of the buildings
lose their
cohesion: and
inner walls
collapse,
Grade 5 Total damage Total collapse
of the
buildings.
d) Intensity Scale D-2 MSK INTENSITY SCALE
D-2.1 The following introductory letters (i),
(ii) and
(iii) have been used throughout the intensity
scales (I to XII), describing the following:
i) Persons and surroundings,
ii) Structures of all kinds, and
Nature
1. Not noticeable The intensity of the -do-
vibration is below the limits of
sensibility: the tremor is detected and
recorded by seismograph only.
2. Scarcely noticeable (very slight)
Vibration is felt only by individual
people at rest in houses, especially on
upper floors of buildings.
3. Weak, partially observed only The
earthquake is felt indoors by a few
people, outdoors only in favourable
circumstances. The vibration is like that
due to the passing of a light truck.
Attentive observers notice a slight
swinging of hanging objects. somewhat
more heavily on upper floors.

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4. Largelv observed The earthquake is
felt indoors by many people, outdoors by
few. Here and there people awake, but no
one is frightened. The vibration is like
that due to the passing of a heavily loaded
truck. Windows, doors, and dishes rattle.
Floors and walls crack. Furniture begins
to shake. Hanging objects swing slightly.
Liquid in open vessels are slightly
disturbed. In standing motor cars the
shock is noticeable.
5. Awakening
i) The earthquake is felt indoors by all,
outdoors by many. Many people awake.
A few run outdoors. Animals become
uneasy. Building tremble throughout.
Hanging objects swing considerably.
Pictures knock against walls or swing out
of place. Occasionally pendulum clocks
stop. Unstable objects overturn or shift.
Open doors and windows are thrust open
and slam back again. Liquids spill in
small amounts from well-filled open
containers. The sensation of vibration is
like that due to heavy objects falling
inside the buildings.
ii) Slight damages in buildings of Type A
are possible.
iii) Sometimes changes in flow of
springs.
6. Frightening
i) Felt by most indoors and outdoors.
Many people in buildings are frightened
and run outdoors. A few persons loose
their balance. Domestic animals run out
of their stalls. In few instances, dishes
and glassware may break, and books fall
down. Heavy furniture may possibly
move and small steeple bells may ring.
ii) Damage of Grade 1is sustained in
single buildings of Type B and in many
of Type A. Damage in few buildings of
Type A is of Grade 2.

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iii) In few cases, cracks up to widths of
1cm possible in wet ground in mountains
occasional landslips: change in flow of
springs and in level of well water are
observed.
7. Damage of buildings
i) Most people are frightened and run
outdoors. Many find it difficult to stand.
The vibration is noticed by persons
driving motor cars. Large bells ring.
ii) In many buildings of Type C damage
of Grade 1 is caused: in many buildings
of Type B damage is of Grade 2. Most
buildings of Type A suffer damage of
Grade 3, few of Grade 4. In single
instances, landslides of roadway on steep
slopes: crack inroads; seams of pipelines
damaged; cracks in stone walls.
iii) Waves are formed on water, and is
made turbid by mud stirred up, Water
levels in wells change, and the flow of
springs changes. Some times dry springs
have their flow resorted and existing
springs stop flowing. In isolated
instances parts of sand and gravelly
banks slip off.
8. Destruction of buildings
i) Fright and panic; also persons driving
motor cars are disturbed, Here and there
branches of trees break off. Even heavy
furniture moves and partly overturns.
Hanging lamps are damaged in part.
ii) Most buildings of Type C suffer
damage of Grade 2, and few of Grade 3,
Most buildings of Type B suffer damage
of Grade 3. Most buildings of Type A
suffer damage of Grade 4. Occasional
breaking of pipe seams. Memorials and
monuments move and twist. Tombstones
overturn. Stone walls collapse.
iii) Small landslips in hollows and on
banked roads on steep slopes; cracks in
ground upto widths of several

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centimetres. Water in lakes become
turbid. New reservoirs come into
existence. Dry wells refill and existing
wells become dry. In many cases, change
in flow and level of water is observed.
9. General damage of buildings
i) General panic; considerable damage to
furniture. Animals run to and fro in
confusion, and cry.
ii) Many buildings of Type C suffer
damage of Grade 3, and a few of Grade
4. Many buildings of Type B show a
damage of Grade 4 and a few of Grade 5.
Many buildings of Type A suffer damage
of Grade 5. Monuments and columns fall.
Considerable damage to reservoirs;
underground pipes partly broken, In
individual cases, railway lines are bent
and roadway damaged.
iii) On flat land overflow of water, sand
and mud is often observed. Ground
cracks to widths of up to 10 cm, on slopes
and river banks more than 10 cm.
Furthermore, a large number of slight
cracks in ground; falls of rock, many land
slides and earth flows; large waves in
water. Dry wells renew their flow and
existing wells dry up.
10. General destruction of building
i) Many buildings of Type C suffer
damage of Grade 4, and a few of Grade
5. Many buildings of Type B show
damage of Grade 5. Most of Type A have
destruction of Grade 5. Critical damage
to dykes and dams. Severe damage to
bridges. Railway lines are bent slightly.
Underground pipes are bent or broken.
Road paving and asphalt show waves.
ii) In ground, cracks up to widths of
several centimetres, sometimes up to 1m,
Parallel to water courses occur broad
fissures. Loose ground slides from steep
slopes. From river banks and steep

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coasts, considerable landslides are
possible. In coastal areas, displacement
of sand and mud: change of water level
in wells; water from canals, lakes. rivers.
etc. thrown on land. New lakes occur.
11. Destruction
i) Severe damage even to well built
buildings. bridges, water dams and
railway lines. Highways become useless
Underground pipes destroyed.
ii) Ground considerably distorted by
broad cracks and fissures, as well as
movement in horizontal and vertical
directions. Numerous landslips and falls
of rocks. The intensity of the earthquake
requires to be investigated specifically.
12. Landscape changes
i) Practically all structures above and
below ground are greatly damaged or
destroyed.
ii) The surface of the ground is radically
changed. Considerable ground cracks
with extensive vertical and horizontal
movements are observed. Falling of rock
and slumping of river banks over wide
areas, lakes are dammed; waterfalls
appear and rivers are deflected. The
intensity of the earthquake requires to be
investigated specially.

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ANNEX E
(Foreword)

List of some towns with population more than 3 lakhs (As per Census 2011) and their Seismic
Zone factor Z. Table is same for old and new codes.

Town Zone Z Town Zone Z

Agra III 0.16 Calicut (Kozhikode) III 0.16

Ahmedabad III 0.16 Chandigarh IV 0.24

Ajmer II 0.10 Chennai III 0.16

Allahabad II 0.10 Chitradurga II 0.10

Almora IV 0.24 Coimbatore III 0.16

Ambala IV 0.24 Cuddalore II 0.10

Amritsar IV 0.24 Cuttack III 0.16

Asansol III 0.16 Darbhanga V 0.36

Aurangabad II 0.10 Darjeeling IV 0.24

Bahraich IV 0.24 Dharwad III 0.16

Bangalore (Bengaluru) II 0.10 Dehra Dun IV 0.24

Barauni IV 0.24 Dharampuri III 0.16

Bareilly III 0.16 Delhi IV 0.24

Belgaum III 0.16 Durgapur III 0.16

Bhatinda III 0.16 Gangtok IV 0.24

Bhilai II 0.10 Guwahati V 0.36

Bhopal II 0.10 Gulbarga II 0.10

Bhubaneswar III 0.16 Gaya III 0.16

Bhuj V 0.36 Gorakhpur IV 0.24

Bijapur III 0.16 Hyderabad II 0.10

Bikaner III 0.16 Imphal V 0.36

Bokaro III 0.16 Jabalpur III 0.16

Bulandshahr IV 0.24 Jaipur II 0.10

Burdwan III 0.16 Jamshedpur II 0.10

Jhansi II 0.10 Patna IV 0.24

Jodhpur II 0.10 Pilibhit IV 0.24

96
IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

IS 1893 (PART 1): 2002 IS 1893 (PART 1):2016


Jorhat V 0.36 Puducherry) II 0.10

Kakrapara III 0.16 Pune III 0.16

Kalpakkam III 0.16 Raipur II 0.10

Kanchipuram III 0.16 Rajkot III 0.16

Kanpur III 0.16 Ranchi II 0.10

Karwar III 0.16 Roorkee IV 0.24

Kochi III 0.16 Rourkela II 0.10

Kohima V 0.36 Sadiya V 0.36

Kolkata III 0.16 Salem III 0.16

Kota II 0.10 Shillong V 0.36

Kurnool II 0.10 Shimla IV 0.24

Lucknow III 0.16 Sironj II 0.10

Ludhiana IV 0.24 Solapur III 0.16

Madurai II 0.10 Srinagar V 0.36

Mandi V 0.36 Surat III 0.16

Mangaluru III 0.16 Tarapur III 0.16

Mungher IV 0.24 Tezpur V 0.36

Moradabad IV 0.24 Thane III 0.16

Mumbai III 0.16 Thanjavur II 0.10

Mysuru II 0.10 Thiruvananthapuram III 0.16

Nagpur II 0.10 Tiruchirappalli II 0.10

Nagarjunasagar II 0.10 Tiruvannamalai III 0.16

Nainital IV 0.24 Udaipur II 0.10

Nashik III 0.16 Vadodara III 0.16

Nellore III 0.16 Varanasi III 0.16

Osmanabad III 0.16 Vellore III 0.16

Panjim III 0.16 Vijayawada III 0.16

Patiala III 0.16 Vishakhapatnam II 0.10

97