The changes that happened in the IS 1893 Part1 in the sixth revision.

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The changes that happened in the IS 1893 Part1 in the sixth revision.

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FOREWORD FOREWORD

This Indian Standard (Part 1) (Fifth Revision) This Indian Standard (Part 1) (sixth

was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Revision) was adopted by the Bureau of

Standards, after the draft finalized by the Indian Standards, after the draft finalized by

Earthquake Engineering Sectional the Earthquake Engineering Sectional

Committee had been approved by the Civil Committee had been approved by the Civil

Engineering Division Council. Engineering Division Council.

Gangetic Plain, Western India, Kutch and and hence earthquake resistant design is

Kathiawar regions are geologically unstable essential. The Committee has considered an

parts of the country, and some devastating earthquake zoning map based on the

earthquakes of the world have occurred there. maximum intensities at each location as

A major part of the peninsular India has also recorded from damage surveys after past

been visited by strong earthquakes, but these earthquakes, taking into account,

were relatively few in number occurring at

much larger time intervals at any site, and had a) known magnitudes and the known

considerably lesser intensity. The earthquake epicentres (see Annex A) assuming

resistant design of structures taking into all other conditions as being

account seismic data from studies of these average; and

Indian earthquakes has become very

essential, particularly in view of the intense b) tectonics (see Annex B) and

construction activity all over the country. It is lithology (see Annex C) of each

to serve this purpose that IS 1893 : 1962 region

Recommendations for earthquake resistant The Seismic Zone Map (see Fig. 1) is

design of structures was published and broadly associated with 1964 MSK Intensity

revised first time in 1966. Scale (see Annex D) corresponding to VI (or

less), VII, VIII and IX (and above) for

As a result of additional seismic data

Seismic Zones II, III, IV and V,

collected in India and further knowledge and

respectively. Seismic Zone Factors for some

experience gained since the publication of the

important towns are given in Annex E.

first revision of this standard, the sectional

committee felt the need to revise the standard

Structures designed as per this standard are

again incorporating many changes, such as

expected to sustain damage during strong

revision of maps showing seismic zones and

earthquake ground shaking. The provisions

epicentres, and adding a more rational

of this standard are intended for earthquake

approach for design of buildings and sub-

resistant design of only normal structures

structures of bridges. These were covered in

(without energy dissipation devices or

the second revision of 1S 1893 brought out in

systems in-built). This standard provides the

1970.

minimum design force for earthquake

As a result of the increased use of the resistant design of special structures (such as

standard, considerable amount of suggestions large and tall buildings, large and high dams,

long-span bridges and major industrial

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

were received for modifying some of the projects). Such projects require rigorous,

provisions of the standard and, therefore, site-specific investigation to arrive at more

third revision of the standard was brought out accurate earthquake hazard assessment.

in 1975. The following changes were

incorporated in the third revision: To control loss of life and property, base

a) The standard incorporated seismic zone isolation or other advanced techniques may

factors (previously given as multiplying be adopted. Currently, the Indian Standard is

factors in the second revision) on a more under formulation for design of such

rational basis. buildings; until the standard becomes

b) Importance factors were introduced to available, specialist literature should be

account for the varying degrees of consulted for design, detail, installation and

importance for various structures. maintenance of such buildings.

c) In the clauses for design of multi-

storeyed buildings, the coefficient of IS 1893 : 1962 Recommendations for

flexibility was given in the form of a earthquake resistant design of structures

curve with respect to period of was first published in 1962, and revised in

buildings. 1966, 1970, 1975 and 1984. Further, in

d) A more rational formula was used to 2002, the Committee decided to present the

combine modal shear forces. provisions for different types of structures in

e) New clauses were introduced for separate parts, to keep abreast with rapid

determination of hydrodynamic developments and extensive research

pressures in elevated tanks. carried out in earthquake-resistant design of

f) Clauses on concrete and masonry dams various structures. Thus, IS 1893 was split

were modified, taking into account their into five parts. The other parts in the series

dynamic behaviour during earthquakes. are:

Simplified formulae for design forces Part 1 General provisions and buildings

were introduced based on results of Part 2 Liquid retaining tanks Elevated and

extensive studies carried out since ground supported

second revision of the standard was Part 3 Bridges and retaining walls

published. Part 4 Industrial structures, including stack-

like structures

The fourth revision, brought out in 1984, was Part 5 Dams and embankments (to be

prepared to modify some of the provisions of formulated)

the standard as a result of experience gained This standard (Part 1) contains general

with the use of the standard. In this revision, provisions on earthquake hazard assessment

a number of important basic modifications applicable to all buildings and structures

with respect to load factors, field values of N, covered in Parts 2 to 5. Also, Part 1 contains

base shear and modal analysis were provisions specific to earthquake-resistant

introduced. A new concept of performance design of buildings. Unless stated otherwise,

factor depending on the structural framing the provisions in Parts 2 to 5 are to be read

system and on the ductility of construction necessarily in conjunction with the general

was incorporated. Figure 2 for average provisions as laid down in Part 1.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

acceleration spectra was also modified and a In this revision, the following changes have

curve for zero percent damping incorporated. been included:

In the fifth revision, with a view to keep a) Design spectra are defined for

abreast with the rapid development and natural period up to 6 s;

extensive research that has been carried out

in the field of earthquake resistant design of b) Same design response spectra

various structures, the committee has decided are specified for all buildings,

to cover the provisions for different types of irrespective of the material of

structures in separate parts. Hence, IS 1893 construction

has been split into the following five parts:

Part 1 General provisions and buildings c) Bases of various load combinations

Part 2 Liquid retaining tanks Elevated and to be considered have been made

ground supported consistent for earthquake effects,

Part 3 Bridges and retaining walls with those specified in the other

Part 4 Industrial structures including stack codes;

like structures

Part 5 Dams and embankments d) Temporary structures are brought

under the purview of this standard;

Part 1 contains provisions that are general in

nature and applicable to all structures. Also, e) Importance factor provisions have

it contains provisions that are specific to been modified to introduce

buildings only. Unless stated otherwise, the intermediate importance category of

provisions in Parts 2 to 5 shall be read buildings, to acknowledge the

necessarily in conjunction with the general density of occupancy of buildings;

provisions in Part 1

f) A provision is introduced to ensure

NOTE Pending finalization of Parts 2 to 5 of IS

1893, provisions of Part 1 will be read along with the that all buildings are designed for at

relevant clauses of IS 1893 : 1984 for structures other least a minimum lateral force;

than buildings.

g) Buildings with flat slabs are brought

The following are the major and important

under the purview of this standard;

modifications made in the fifth revision:

a) The seismic zone map is revised with

h) Additional clarity is brought in on

only four zones, instead of five. Erstwhile

how to handle different types of

Zone I has been merged to Zone II.

irregularity of structural system;

Hence, Zone I does not appear in the new

zoning; only Zones II, III, IV and V do.

j) Effect of masonry infill walls has

b) The values of seismic zone factors have

been included in analysis and design

been changed; these now reflect more

of frame buildings;

realistic values of effective peak ground

acceleration considering Maximum

k) Method is introduced for arriving at

Considered Earthquake (MCE) and

the approximate natural period of

buildings with basements, step back

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

service life of structure in each seismic buildings and buildings on hill

zone. slopes;

c) Response spectra are now specified for

three types of founding strata, namely m) Provisions on torsion have been

rock and hard soil, medium soil and soft simplified; and

soil.

d) Empirical expression for estimating the n) Simplified method is introduced for

fundamental natural period Taof multi- liquefaction potential analysis.

storeyed buildings with regular moment

resisting frames has been revised. In the formulation of this standard, effort has

e) This revision adopts the procedure of first been made to coordinate with standards and

calculating the actual force that maybe practices prevailing in different countries in

experienced by the structure during the addition to relating it to the practices in the

probable maximum earthquake, if it were field in this country. Assistance has

to remain elastic. Then, the concept of particularly been derived from the following

response reduction due to ductile publications:

deformation or frictional energy

dissipation in the cracks is brought into 1) IBC 2015, International Building

the code explicitly, by introducing the Code, International Code Council,

response reduction factor in place of the USA, 2015

earlier performance factor.

f) A lower bound is specified for the design 2) NEHRP 2009, NEHRP

base shear of buildings, based on Recommended Seismic Provisions

empirical estimate of the fundamental for New Buildings and Other

natural period Ta. Structures, Report No. FEMA P-

g) The soil-foundation system factor is 750, Federal Emergency

dropped. Instead, a clause is introduced to Management Agency, Washington,

restrict the use of foundations vulnerable DC, USA, 2009

to differential settlements in severe

seismic zones. 3) ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design

h) Torsional eccentricity values have been Loads for Buildings and Other

revised upwards in view of serious Structures, American Society of

damages observed in buildings with Civil Engineers, USA, 2010

irregular plans.

i) Modal combination rule in dynamic 4) NZS 1170.5: 2004, Structural

analysis of buildings has been revised. Design Actions, Part 5: Earthquake

j) Other clauses have been redrafted where Actions New Zealand, Standards

necessary for more effective New Zealand, Wellington, New

implementation. Zealand, 2004

5) IBC 2015, International Building

It is not intended in this standard to lay down Code, International Code Council,

regulation so that no structure shall suffer any USA, 2015

damage during earthquake of all magnitudes.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

It has been endeavoured to ensure that, as far 6) NEHRP 2009, NEHRP

as possible, structures are able to respond, Recommended Seismic Provisions

without structural damage to shocks of for New Buildings and Other

moderate intensities and without total Structures, Report No. FEMA P-

collapse to shocks of heavy intensities. While 750, Federal Emergency

this standard is intended for the earthquake Management Agency, Washington,

resistant design of normal structures, it has to DC, USA, 2009

be emphasized that in the case of special

structures, such as large and tall dams, long- 7) ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design

span bridges, major industrial projects, etc., Loads for Buildings and Other

site-specific detailed investigation should be Structures, American Society of

undertaken, unless otherwise specified in the Civil Engineers, USA, 2010

relevant clauses.

8) NZS 1170.5: 2004, Structural

Through the basis for the design of different Design Actions, Part 5: Earthquake

types of structures is covered in this standard, Actions New Zealand, Standards

it is not implied That detailed dynamic New Zealand, Wellington, New

analysis should be made in every case. In Zealand, 2004

highly seismic areas, construction of a type Also, considerable assistance has been given

which entails heavy debris and consequent by Indian Institutes of Technology, Jodhpur,

loss of life and property, such as masonry, Madras, Bombay, Roorkee and Kanpur;

particularly mud masonry and rubble Geological Survey of India; India

masonry, should preferably be avoided. For Meteorological Department, National

guidance on precautions to be observed in the Centre for Seismology (Ministry of Earth

construction of buildings, reference may be Sciences, Govt of India) and several other

made to IS 4326, IS 13827 and IS 13828. organizations. Significant improvements

have been made to the standard based on

Earthquake can cause damage not only on

findings of a project entitled, Review of

account of the shaking which results from

Building Codes and Preparation of

them but also due to other chain effects like

Commentary and Handbooks awarded to

landslides, floods, fires and disruption to

IIT Kanpur by the Gujarat State Disaster

communication. It is, therefore, important to

Management Authority (GSDMA),

take necessary precautions in the siting,

Gandhinagar, through World Bank finances

planning and design of structures so that they

during 2003-2004.

are safe against such secondary effects also.

The units used with the items covered by the

The Sectional Committee has appreciated symbols shall be consistent throughout this

that there cannot be an entirely scientific standard, unless specifically noted

basis for zoning in view of the scanty data otherwise.

available. Though the magnitudes of

different earthquakes which have occurred in The composition of the Committee

the past are known to a reasonable degree of responsible for the formulation of this

accuracy, the intensities of the shocks caused standard is given in Annex G.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

by these earthquakes have so far been mostly For the purpose of deciding whether a

estimated by damage surveys and there is particular requirement of this standard is

little instrumental evidence to corroborate the complied with, the final value observed or

conclusions arrived at. Maximum intensity at calculated, expressing the result of a test or

different places can be fixed on a scale only analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance

on the basis of the observations made and with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off

recorded after the earthquake and thus a numerical values (revised). The number of

zoning map which is based on the maximum significant places retained in the rounded off

intensities arrived at, is likely to lead in some value should be the same as that of the

cases to an incorrect conclusion in view of(a) specified value in this standard

incorrectness in the assessment of intensities,

(b) human error in judgment during the

damage survey, and (c) variation in quality

and design of structures causing variation in

type and extent of damage to the structures

for the same intensity of shock. The Sectional

Committee has therefore, considered that a

rational approach to the problem would be to

arrive at a zoning map based on known

magnitudes and the known epicentres (see

Annex A) assuming all other conditions as

being average and to modify such an

idealized isoseismal map in light of tectonics

(see Annex B), lithology (see Annex C) and

the maximum intensities as recorded from

damage surveys. The Committee has also

reviewed such a map in the light of the past

history and future possibilities and also

attempted to draw the lines demarcating the

different zones so as to be clear of important

towns, cities and industrial areas, after

making special examination of such cases, as

a little modification in the zonal

demarcations may mean considerable

difference to the economics of a project in

that area. Maps shown in Fig. 1 and Annexes

A, B and C are prepared based on information

available upto 1993.

the contemporary map have been merged and

assigned the level of Zone II. The Killari area

has been included in Zone III and necessary

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

modifications made, keeping in view the

probabilistic hazard evaluation. The Bellary

isolated zone has been removed. The parts of

eastern coast areas have shown similar

hazard to that of the Killari area, the level of

Zone II has been enhanced to Zone III and

connected with Zone III of Godawari Graben

area.

at 50 percent risk level and 100 years service

life goes on progressively increasing from

southern peninsular portion to the Himalayan

main seismic source, the revised seismic

zoning map has given status of Zone III to

Narmada Tectonic Domain, Mahanandi

Graben and Godawari Graben. This is a

logical normalization keeping in view the

apprehended higher strain rates in these

domains on geological consideration of

higher neotectonic activity recorded in these

areas.

the intensity of shock due to an earthquake

could vary locally at anyplace due to

variation in soil conditions. Earthquake

response of systems would be affected by

different types of foundation system in

addition to variation of ground motion due to

various types of soils. Considering the effects

in a gross manner, the standard gives

guidelines for arriving at design seismic

coefficients based on stiffness of base soil.

coefficient, used in the design of any

structure, is dependent on many variable

factors and it is an extremely difficult task to

determine the exact seismic coefficient in

each given case. It is, therefore, necessary to

indicate broadly the seismic coefficients that

could generally be adopted in different parts

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

or zones of the country though, of course, a

rigorous analysis considering all the factors

involved has to be made in the case of all

important projects in order to arrive at a

suitable seismic coefficients for design. The

Sectional Committee responsible for the

formulation of this standard has attempted to

include a seismic zoning map (see Fig. 1) for

this purpose. The object of this map is to

classify the area of the country into a number

of zones in which one may reasonably expect

earthquake shaking of more or less same

maximum intensity in future. The Intensity as

per Comprehensive Intensity Scale (MSK64)

(see Annex D) broadly associated with the

various zones is VI (or less), VII, VIII and IX

(and above) for Zones II, III, IV and V

respectively. The maximum seismic ground

acceleration in each zone cannot be presently

predicted with accuracy either on a

deterministic or on a probabilistic basis. The

basic zone factors included herein are

reasonable estimates of effective peak

ground accelerations for the design of various

structures covered in this standard. Zone

factors for some important towns are given in

Annex E.

may be used for earthquake resistant design.

Only standard devices having detailed

experimental data on the performance should

be used. The designer must demonstrate by

detailed analyses that these devices provide

sufficient protection to the buildings and

equipment as envisaged in this standard.

Performance of locally assembled isolation

and energy absorbing devices should be

evaluated experimentally before they are

used in practice. Design of buildings and

equipment using such device should be

reviewed by the competent authority.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Base isolation systems are found useful for

short period structures, say less than 0.7s

including soil-structure interaction.

weightage has been given to international

coordination among the standards and

practices prevailing in different countries in

addition to relating it to the practices in the

field in this country. Assistance has

particularly been derived from the following

publications:

International Conference of Building

Officials, Whittier, California,

U.S.A.1994.

b) NEHRP 1991, NEHRP Recommended

Provisions for the Development of

Seismic Regulations for New

Buildings, Part 1: Provisions, Report

No. FEMA 222, Federal Emergency

Management Agency, Washington

D.C., U.S.A., January 1992.

c) NEHRP 1991, NEHRP Recommended

Provisions for the Development of

Seismic Regulations for New

Buildings, Part 2: Commentary, Report

No. FEMA 223, Federal Emergency

Management Agency, Washington, D.

C., U.S.A., January 1992.

d) NZS 4203:1992, Code of Practice for

General Structural Design and Design

Loadings for Buildings, Standards

Association of New Zealand,

Wellington, New Zealand, 1992.

considerable assistance has been given by the

Department of Earthquake Engineering,

University of Roorkee; Indian Institute of

Technology, Kanpur; IIT Bombay, Mumbai;

Geological Survey of India; India

9

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Meteorological Department, and several

other organizations.

symbols shall be consistent throughout this

standard, unless specifically noted otherwise.

responsible for the formulation of this

standard is given in Annex F.

particular requirement of this standard is

complied with, the final value observed or

calculated, expressing the result of a test or

analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance

with IS 2:1960 Rules for rounding off

numerical values ( revised ). The number of

significant places retained in* the rounded

off value should be the same as that of the

specified value in this standard.

1 SCOPE 1 SCOPE

1.1 This standard (Part 1) deals with 1.1 This standard (Part 1) primarily deals

assessment of seismic loads on various with earthquake hazard assessment for

structures and earthquake resistant design of earthquake-resistant design of (1) buildings,

buildings. Its basic provisions are applicable (2) liquid retaining structures,

to buildings; elevated structures; industrial (3) bridges, (4) embankments and retaining

and stack like structures; bridges; concrete walls,

masonry and earth dams; embankments and (5) Industrial and stack-like structures, and

retaining walls and other structures. (6) concrete, masonry and earth dams. Also,

this standard (Part 1) deals with earthquake-

resistant design of buildings; earthquake-

resistant design of the other structures is

dealt with in Parts 2 to 5.

1.2 Temporary elements such as scaffolding, 1.2 All structures, like parking structures,

temporary excavations need not be designed security cabins and ancillary structures need

for earthquake forces. to be designed for appropriate earthquake

effects as per this standard

1.3 This standard does not deal with the 1.3 Temporary elements, such as

construction features relating to earthquake scaffolding and temporary excavations,

resistant design in buildings and other need to be designed as per this standard.

structures. For guidance on earthquake 1.4 This standard does not deal with

resistant construction of buildings, reference construction features relating to earthquake-

10

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

may be made to the following Indian resistant buildings and other structures. For

Standards: guidance on earthquake-resistant

IS 4326,1S 13827,IS 13828,IS 13920and ISconstruction of buildings, reference may be

13935 made to the latest revisions of the following

Indian Standards: IS 4326, IS 13827, IS

13828, IS 13920, IS 13935 and IS 15988.

1.5 The provisions of this standard are

applicable even to critical and special

structures, like nuclear power plants,

petroleum refinery plants and large dams.

For such structures, additional requirements

may be imposed based on special studies,

such as site-specific hazard assessment. In

such cases, the earthquake effects specified

by this standard shall be taken as at least the

minimum.

2 REFERENCES 2 REFERENCES

2.1 The following Indian Standards are The standards listed below contain

necessary adjuncts to this standard: provisions, which, through reference in this

text, constitute provisions of this standard.

At the time of publication, the editions

indicated were valid. All standards are

subject to revision, and parties to agreements

based on this standard are encouraged to

investigate the possibility of applying the

most recent editions of the standards

indicated below

IS No. Title Is No. Title

and reinforced concrete plain and reinforced

(fourth revision) concrete ( fourth

800:1984 Code of practice for general revision )

construction in steel (second 800:2007 Code of practice for

revision) general

875 Code of practice for design construction in steel

loads (other than earthquake) ( second

for buildings and structures: revision )

(Part l): Dead loads Unit weights

1987 of building material and 875 Code of practice for

stored materials (second design loads

revision)

11

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

(Part 2): Imposed loads (second ( other than

1987 revision) earthquake ) for

buildings

(Part 3): Wind loads (second revision) and structures:

1987 (Part l): 1987 Dead loads Unit

weights of

(Part4 ): Snow loads (second revision) building material

1987 and stored materials

( second revision)

(Part 5): Special loads and load (Part 2):1987 Imposed loads (

1987 combinations (second second revision)

revision)

1343:1980 Code of practice for pre- (Part 3):1987 Wind loads ( second

stressed concrete (first revision)

revision )

1498:1970 Classification and (Part4 ):1987 Snow loads ( second

identification of soils for revision)

general engineering

purposes (first revision ) (Part 5):1987 Special loads and

1888:1982 Method of load test on soils load combinations

(second revision ) ( second revision)

1893 Criteria for earthquake 1343:2012 Code of practice for

(Part4) resistant design of pre-stressed

structures: Part 4 Industrial concrete (Second

structures including stack revision )

like structures 1498:1970 Classification and

2131:1981 Method of standard identification of

penetration test soils for general

for soils (first revision ) engineering

2809:1972 Glossary of terms and purposes (first

symbols relating to soil revision )

engineering ( first revision 1888:1982 Method of load test

) on soils (second

2810:1979 Glossary of terms relating to revision )

soil dynamics (first revision) 1893 Criteria for

4326:1993 Earthquake resistant design earthquake resistant

and construction of buildings design of structures:

Code of practice (second Part 2 :2014 Liquid retaing tank

revision) Part 3 : 2014 Bridge and

6403:1981 Code of practice for retaining walls

determination of bearing Part 4 : 2015 Industrial structures

including stack- like

12

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

capacity of shallow structure (first

foundations (first revision ) revision)

13827: Improving earthquake 1905: 1987 Code of pracrise

1993 resistance of earthen for structural use of

buildings Guidelines unreinforced

13828: Improving earthquake masonary (third

1993 resistance of low strength revision)

masonry buildings 2131:1981 Method of standard

Guidelines penetration test for

13920: Ductile detailing of soils (first

1993 reinforced concrete revision)

structures subjected to

seismic forces Code of 2809:1972 Glossary of terms

practice and symbols

13935:199 Repair and seismic relating to soil

3 strengthening of buildings engineering ( first

Guidelines revision )

SP 6 ( 6 ) Handbook for structural 2810:1979 Glossary of terms

:1972 engineers: Application of relating to soil

plastic theory in design of dynamics (fzrst

steel structures revision)

2974 Code of practice for

design and

construction of

machine

foundations

(Part 1) : 1982 Foundation for

reciprocating type

machines

(Part 2) : 1980 Foundation for

impact type

machines (Hammer

foundations)

(Part 3) : 1992 Foundations for rotary

type machines

(Medium and high

frequency)

(Part 4) : 1979 Foundation for rotary

type machine of low

frequency

4326:1993 Earthquake

resistant design and

13

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

construction of

buildings Code

of practice ( second

revision )

6403:1981 Code of practice for

determination

of bearing capacity

of shallow

foundations (first

revision )

13827:1993 Improving

earthquake

resistance of

earthen buildings

Guidelines

13828:1993 Improving

earthquake

resistance of

low strength

masonry buildings

Guidelines

13920:2016 Ductile detailing of

reinforced

concrete structures

subjected to

seismic forces

Code of practice

13935:1993 Repair and seismic

strengthening of

buildings

Guidelines

15988: 2013 Seismic evalution

and strengthening

of existing

reinforced concrete

building- guidelines

SP 7 : 2016 National Building Code

(Part 6/Sec 4) of India: Part 6

Structural Design,

Section 4 Masonry

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

3 TERMINOLOGY FOR 3 TERMINOLOGY

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

3.1 For the purpose of this standard, the For the purpose of this standard, definitions

following definitions shall apply which are given below shall apply to all structures, in

applicable generally to all structures. general. For definition of terms pertaining to

soil mechanics and soil dynamics, reference

may be made to IS 2809 and IS 2810, and

for definition of terms pertaining to loads,

reference may be made to IS 875 (Parts 1 to

5).

NOTE For the definitions of terms pertaining to soil

mechanics and soil dynamics references may be made

to IS 2809 and IS 2810.

3.2 Closely-Spaced Modes 3.1 Closely-Spaced Modes Closely-

Closely-spaced modes of a structure are those spaced modes of a structure are those of the

of its natural modes of vibration whose natural modes of oscillation of a structure,

natural frequencies differ from each other by whose natural frequencies differ from each

10 percent or less of the lower frequency. other by 10 percent or less of the lower

frequency

3.3 Critical Damping 3.2 Critical Damping The damping

The damping beyond which the free vibration beyond which the free vibration motion will

motion will not be oscillatory. not be oscillatory.

3.4 Damping 3.3 Damping The effect of internal

The effect of internal friction, imperfect friction, inelasticity of materials, slipping,

elasticity of material, slipping, sliding, etc. in sliding, etc, in reducing the amplitude of

reducing the amplitude of vibration and is oscillation; it is expressed as a fraction of

expressed as a percentage of critical critical damping (see 3.2).

damping.

3.5 Design Acceleration Spectrum 3.4 Design Acceleration Spectrum

Design acceleration spectrum refers to an Design acceleration spectrum refers to an

average smoothened plot of maximum average smoothened graph of maximum

acceleration as a function of frequency or acceleration as a function of natural

time period of vibration for a specified frequency or natural period of oscillation for

damping ratio for earthquake excitations at a specified damping ratio for the expected

the base of a single degree of freedom earthquake excitations at the base of a single

system. degree of freedom system

3.6 Design Basis Earthquake ( DBE )

It is the earthquake which can reasonably be

expected to occur at least once during the

design life of the structure.

3.5 Design Horizontal Acceleration

Coefficient (Ah) It is a horizontal

15

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

acceleration coefficient that shall be used for

design of structures.

Coefficient (Ah) Coefficient (Ah) It is a horizontal

It is a horizontal acceleration coefficient that acceleration coefficient that shall be used for

shall be used for design of structures. design of structures

3.8 Design Lateral Force 3.6 Design Horizontal Force It is the

It is the horizontal seismic force prescribed horizontal seismic force prescribed by this

by this standard, that shall be used to design standard that shall be used to design a

a structure. structure

3.9 Ductility 3.7 Ductility It is the capacity of a

Ductility of a structure, or its members, is the structure (or its members) to undergo large

capacity to undergo large inelastic inelastic deformations without significant

deformations without significant loss of loss of strength or stiffness

strength or stiffness.

3.10 Epicentre 3.8 Epicentre It is the geographical point

The geographical point on the surface of on the surface of earth vertically above the

earth vertically above the focus of the point of origin of the earthquake

earthquake.

3.11 Effective Peak Ground Acceleration

(EPGA)

It is 0.4 times the 5 percent damped average

spectral acceleration between period 0.1 to

0.3 s. This shall be taken as Zero Period

Acceleration (ZPA).

3.12 Floor Response Spectra 3.9 Floor Response Spectrum It is the

Floor response spectra is the response spectra response spectrum (for a chosen material

for a time history motion of a floor. This floor damping value) of the time history of the

motion time history is obtained by an analysis shaking generated at a floor of a structure,

of multi-storey building for appropriate when the structure is subjected to a given

material damping values subjected to a earthquake ground motion at its base

specified earthquake motion at the base of

structure.

3.13 Focus

The originating earthquake source of the

elastic waves inside the earth which cause

shaking of ground due to earthquake.

3.14 Importance Factor (I) 3.10 Importance Factor (I) It is a factor

It is a factor used to obtain the design seismic used to estimate design seismic force

force depending on the functional use of the depending on the functional use of the

structure, characterised by hazardous structure, characterized by hazardous

consequences of its failure, its post- consequences of its failure, post-earthquake

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

earthquake functional need, historic value, or functional needs, historical value, or

economic importance. economic importance

3.15 Intensity of Earthquake 3.11 Intensity of Earthquake It is the

The intensity of an earthquake at a place is a measure of the strength of ground shaking

measure of the strength of shaking during the manifested at a place during the earthquake,

earthquake, and is indicated by a number and is indicated by a roman capital numeral

according to the modified Mercalli Scale or on the MSK scale of seismic intensity (see

M.S.K. Scale of seismic intensities (see Annex D).

Annex D).

3.16 Liquefaction 3.12 Liquefaction It is a state primarily in

Liquefaction is a state in saturated saturated cohesionless soils wherein the

cohesionless soil wherein the effective shear effective shear strength is reduced to

strength is reduced to negligible value for all negligible value for all engineering

engineering purpose due to pore pressure purposes, when the pore pressure

caused by vibrations during an earthquake approaches the total confining pressure

when they approach the total confining during earthquake shaking. In this condition,

pressure. In this condition the soil tends to the soil tends to behave like a fluid mass (see

behave like a fluid mass. Annex F).

3.17 Lithological Features 3.13 Lithological Features Features that

The nature of the geological formation of the reflect the nature of the geological formation

earths crust above bed rock on the basis of of the earths crust above bed rock

such characteristics as colour, structure, characterized on the basis of structure,

mineralogical composition and grain size. mineralogical composition and grain size.

3.18 Magnitude of Earthquake (Richters

Magnitude)

The magnitude of earthquake is a number,

which is a measure of energy released in an

earthquake. It is defined as logarithm to the

base 10 of the maximum trace amplitude,

expressed in microns, which the standard

short-period torsion seismometer ( with a

period of 0.8s, magnification 2800 and

damping nearly critical ) would register due

to the earthquake at an epicentral distance of

100 km.

3.19 Maximum Considered Earthquake

(MCE)

The most severe earthquake effects

considered by this standard.

3.20 Modal Mass ( Mk) 3.14 Modal Mass (Mk) in Mode (k) of a

Modal mass of a structure subjected to Structure It is a part of the total seismic

horizontal or vertical, as the case maybe, mass of the structure that is effective in

ground motion is apart of the total seismic

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

mass of the structure that is effective in mode natural mode k of oscillation during

k of vibration. The modal mass for a given horizontal or vertical ground motion.

mode has a unique value irrespective of

scaling of the mode shape.

3.21 Modal Participation Factor ( Pk) 3.15 Modal Participation Factor (Pk) in

Modal participation factor of mode k of Mode (k) of a Structure The amount by

vibration is the amount by which mode k which natural mode k contributes to overall

contributes to the overall vibration of the oscillation of the structure during horizontal

structure under horizontal and vertical or vertical earthquake ground motion. Since

earthquake ground motions. Since the the amplitudes of mode shapes can be scaled

amplitudes of 95 percent mode shapes can be arbitrarily, the value of this factor depends

scaled arbitrarily, the value of this factor on the scaling used for defining mode

depends on the scaling used for mode shapes. shapes.

3.22 Modes of Vibration ( see Normal Mode) 3.16 Modes of Oscillation See 3.19.

3.23 Mode Shape Coefficient ( ik ) 3.17 Mode Shape Coefficient ( ik ) It is

When a system is vibrating in normal mode the spatial deformation pattern of oscillation

k, at any particular instant of time, the along degree of freedom i, when the

amplitude of mass i expressed as a ratio of the structure is oscillating in its natural mode k.

amplitude of one of the masses of the system, A structure with N degrees of freedom

is known as mode shape coefficient ( ik ) possesses N natural periods and N

associated natural mode shapes. These

natural mode shapes are together presented

in the form of a mode shape matrix [ ], in

which each column represents one natural

mode shape. The element ik is called the

mode shape coefficient associated with

degree of freedom i, when the structure is

oscillating in mode k.

3.24 Natural Period (T) 3.18 Natural Period (Tk) in Mode (k) of

Natural period of a structure is its time period Oscillation The time taken (in second) by

of undamped free vibration. the structure to complete one cycle of

oscillation in its natural mode k of oscillation

3.24.1 Fundamental Natural Period ( T1) 3.18.1 Fundamental Lateral Translational

It is the first (longest) modal time period of Natural Period (T1) It is the longest time

vibration. taken (in second) by the structure to

complete one cycle of oscillation in its

lateral translational mode of oscillation in

the considered direction of earthquake

shaking. This mode of oscillation is called

the fundamental lateral translational natural

mode of oscillation. A three-dimensional

model of a structure will have one such

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

fundamental lateral translational mode of

oscillation along each of the two orthogonal

plan directions.

3.24.2 Modal Natural Period (Tk) 3.19 Normal Mode of Oscillation The

The modal natural period of mode k is the mode of oscillation in which there are special

time period of vibration in mode k. undamped free oscillations in which all

points on the structure oscillate harmonically

at the same frequency (or period), such that

all these points reach their individual

maximum responses simultaneously

3.25 Normal Mode

A system is said to be vibrating in a normal

mode when all its masses attain maximum

values of displacements and rotations

simultaneously, and pass through

equilibrium positions simultaneously.

3.20 Peak Ground Acceleration It is the

maximum acceleration of the ground in a

given direction of ground shaking. Here, the

acceleration refers to that of the horizontal

motion, unless specified otherwise.

3.26 Response Reduction Factor (R) 3.21 Response Reduction Factor (R) It is

It is the factor by which the actual base shear the factor by which the base shear induced

force, that would be generated if the structure in a structure, if it were to remain elastic, is

were to remain elastic during its response to reduced to obtain the design base shear. It

the Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) shaking, depends on the perceived seismic damage

shall be reduced to obtain the design lateral performance of the structure, characterized

force. by ductile or brittle deformations,

redundancy in the structure, or overstrength

inherent in the design process.

3.27 Response Spectrum 3.22 Response Spectrum It is the

The representation of the maximum response representation of maximum responses of a

of idealized single degree freedom systems spectrum of idealized single degree freedom

having certain period and damping, during systems of different natural periods but

earthquake ground motion. The maximum having the same damping, under the action

response is plotted against the undamped of the same earthquake ground motion at

natural period and for various damping their bases. The response referred to here can

values, and can be expressed in terms of be maximum absolute acceleration,

maximum absolute acceleration, maximum maximum relative velocity, or maximum

relative velocity, or maximum relative relative displacement

displacement.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

3.28 Seismic Mass 3.24 Seismic Mass of a Floor It is the

It is the seismic weight divided by seismic weight of the floor divided by

acceleration due to gravity. acceleration due to gravity.

3.25 Seismic Mass of a Structure It is the

seismic weight of a structure divided by

acceleration due to gravity

3.29 Seismic Weight (W) 3.26 Seismic Weight of a Floor (W) It is

It is the total dead load plus appropriate the sum of dead load of the floor, appropriate

amounts of specified imposed load contributions of weights of columns, walls

and any other permanent elements from the

storeys above and below, finishes and

services, and appropriate amounts of

specified imposed load on the floor.

3.27 Seismic Weight of a Structure (W) It

is the sum of seismic weights of all floors.

3.30 Structural Response Factors ( Sa/g ) 3.23 Response Acceleration Coefficient of a

It is a factor denoting the acceleration Structure (Sa/g) It is a factor denoting the

response spectrum of the structure subjected normalized design acceleration spectrum

to earthquake ground vibrations, and depends value to be considered for the

on natural period of vibration and damping of design of structures subjected to earthquake

the structure. ground shaking; this value depends on the

natural period of oscillation of the structure

and damping to be considered in the design

of the structure.

3.31 Tectonic Features

The nature of geological formation of the

bedrock in the earths crust revealing regions

characterized by structural features, such as

dislocation, distortion, faults, folding,

thrusts, volcanoes with their age of

formation, which are directly involved in the

earth movement or quake resulting in the

above consequences.

3.32 Time History Analysis 3.29 Time History Analysis It is an

It is an analysis of the dynamic response of analysis of the dynamic response of the

the structure at each increment of time, when structure at each instant of time, when its

its base is subjected to a specific ground base is subjected to a specific ground motion

motion time history. time history.

3.33 Zone Factor (Z) 3.28 Seismic Zone Factor (Z) It is the

It is a factor to obtain the design spectrum value of peak ground acceleration

depending on the perceived maximum considered by this standard for the design of

seismic risk characterized by Maximum structures located in each seismic zone.

Considered Earthquake (MCE) in the zone in

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

which the structure is located. The basic zone

factors included in this standard are

reasonable estimate of effective peak ground

acceleration.

3.34 Zero Period Acceleration ( ZPA )

It is the value of acceleration response

spectrum for period below 0.03 s

(frequencies above 33 Hz).

4 TERMINOLOGY FOR 4 SPECIAL TERMINOLOGY FOR

EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING OF BUILDINGS

BUILDINGS

4.1 For the purpose of earthquake resistant 4.1 The definitions given below shall apply

design of buildings in this standard, the for the purpose of earthquake resistant

following definitions shall apply. design of buildings, as enumerated in this

standard.

4.2 Base 4.2 Base It is the level at which inertia

It is the level at which inertia forces forces generated in the building are

generated in the structure are transferred to considered to be transferred to the ground

the foundation, which then transfers these through the foundation. For buildings with

forces to the ground. basements, it is considered at the

bottommost basement level. For buildings

resting on,

be at the top of pile cap;

of raft; and

top of the footing.

foundation, the base is considered as the

bottom-most level of the bases of the

constituent individual foundations as per

definitions above.

4.3 Base Dimensions (d) 4.3 Base Dimension (d) It is the

Base dimension of the building along a dimension (in metre) of the base of the

direction is the dimension at its base, in building along a direction of shaking

metre, along that direction.

4.4 Centre of Mass 4.4 Centre of Mass (CM) The point in the

floor of a building through which the

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

The point through which the resultant of the resultant of the inertia force of the floor is

masses of a system acts. This point considered to act during earthquake shaking.

corresponds to the centre of gravity of masses Unless otherwise stated, the inertia force

of system. considered is that associated with the

horizontal shaking of the building.

4.5 Centre of Stiffness 4.5 Centre of Resistance (CR)

The point through which the resultant of the 4.5.1 For Single Storey Buildings It is the

restoring forces of a system acts. point on the roof of a building through which

when the resultant internal resistance acts,

the building undergoes,

a) pure translation in the horizontal

direction; and

b) no twist about vertical axis passing

through the CR.

4.5.2 For Multi-Storey Buildings It is the

set of points on the horizontal floors of a

multi-storey building through which, when

the resultant incremental internal resistances

across those floors act, all floors of the

building undergo,

a) pure translation in the horizontal

direction; and

b) no twist about vertical axis passing

through the CR.

4.6 Design Eccentricity (edi) 4.6 Eccentricity

It is the value of eccentricity to be used at 4.6.1 Design Eccentricity (edi) It is the

floor i in torsion calculations for design. value of eccentricity to be used for floor i in

calculations of design torsion effects.

4.6.2 Static Eccentricity (esi) It is the

distance between centre of mass (CM) and

centre of resistance (CR) of floor i.

4.7 Design Seismic Base Shear ( VB) 4.7 Design Seismic Base Shear (VB) It is

It is the total design lateral force at the base the horizontal lateral force in the considered

of a structure. direction of earthquake shaking that the

structure shall be designed for.

4.8 Diaphragm 4.8 Diaphragm It is a horizontal or nearly

It is a horizontal, or nearly horizontal system, horizontal structural system (for example,

which transmits lateral forces to the vertical reinforced concrete floors and horizontal

resisting elements, for example, reinforced bracing systems), which transmits lateral

concrete floors and horizontal bracing forces to vertical elements connected to it.

systems.

4.9 Dual System

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Buildings with dual system consist of shear

walls (or braced frames) and moment

resisting frames such that:

a) The two systems are designed to resist the

total design lateral force in proportion to their

lateral stiffness considering the interaction

of the dual system at all floor levels; and

b) The moment resisting frames are designed

to independently resist at least 25 percent

of the design base shear

4.10 Height of Floor ( hi ) 4.9 Height of Floor (hi) It is the difference

It is the difference in levels between the base in vertical elevations (in metre) of the base

of the building and that of floor i. of the building and top of floor i of the

building.

4.11 Height of Structure(h) 4.10 Height of Building (h) It is the

It is the difference in levels, in metres, height of building (in metre) from its base to

between its base and its highest level. top of roof level,

storeys, if basement walls are

connected with the ground floor slab

or basement walls are fitted between

the building columns, but

basement storeys, if basement walls

are not connected with the ground

floor slab and basement walls are not

fitted between the building columns

In step-back buildings, it shall be

taken as the average of heights of all

steps from the base, weighted with

their corresponding floor areas. And,

in buildings founded on hill slopes, it

shall be taken as the height of the

roof from the top of the highest

footing level or pile cap level.

4.12 Horizontal Bracing System 4.11 Horizontal Bracing System It is a

It is a horizontal truss system that serves the horizontal truss system that serves the same

same function as a diaphragm. function as a diaphragm.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

4.13 Joint 4.12 Joints These are portions of columns

It is the portion of the column that is common that are common to beams/braces and

to other members, for example, beams, columns, which frame into columns

framing into it.

4.14 Lateral Force Resisting Element 4.13 Lateral Force Resisting System It is

It is part of the structural system assigned to part of the structural system, and consists of

resist lateral forces. all structural members that resist lateral

inertia forces induced in the building during

earthquake shaking

4.15 Moment-Resisting Frame 4.14 Moment-Resisting Frame It is an

It is a frame in which members and joints are assembly of beams and columns that resist

capable of resisting forces primarily by induced and externally applied forces

flexure. primarily by flexure.

4.15.1 Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame 4.14.1 Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame

It is a moment-resisting frame not meeting (OMRF) It is a moment-resisting frame

special detailing requirements for ductile designed and detailed as per IS 456 or IS

behaviour. 800, but not meeting special detailing

requirements for ductile behaviour as per IS

13920 or IS 800, respectively

4.15.2 Special Moment-Resisting Frame 4.14.2 Special Moment-Resisting Frame

It is a moment-resisting frame specially (SMRF) It is a moment-resisting frame

detailed to provide ductile behaviour and designed and detailed as per IS 456 or IS

comply with the requirements given in IS 800, and meeting special detailing

4326 or IS 13920 or SP6 (6). requirements for ductile behaviour as per IS

13920 or IS 800, respectively

4.16 Number of Storeys ( n ) 4.15 Number of Storeys (n) It is the

Number of storeys of a building is the number of levels of a building above the

number of levels above the base. This base at which mass is present in substantive

excludes the basement storeys, where amounts. This,

basement walls are connected with the a) excludes the basement storeys,

ground floor deck or fitted between the where basement walls are connected with

building columns. But, it includes the the ground floor deck or fitted between the

basement storeys, when they are not so building columns; and

connected. b) Includes the basement storeys, when

they are not so connected.

4.16 Core Structural Walls, Perimeter

Columns, Outriggers and Belt Truss System

It is a structural system comprising of a

core of structural walls and perimeter

columns, resisting the vertical and lateral

loads, with

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

a) the core structural walls connected to

select perimeter column element(s)

(often termed outrigged columns) by

deep beam elements, known as

outriggers, at discrete locations

along the height of the building; and

deep beam elements (often known as

belt truss), typically at the same level

as the outrigger elements.

enhanced lateral stiffness, wherein core

structural walls and perimeter columns are

mobilized to act with each other through the

outriggers, and the perimeter columns

themselves through the belt truss. The global

lateral stiffness is sensitive to: flexural

stiffness of the core element, the flexural

stiffness of the outrigger element(s), the

axial stiffness of the outrigged column(s),

and the flexural stiffness of the outrigger

elements connecting the core structural

walls to the perimeter columns.

4.17 Principal Axes 4.17 Principal Plan Axes These are two

Principal axes of a building are generally two mutually perpendicular horizontal directions

mutually perpendicular horizontal directions in plan of a building along which the

in plan of a building along which the geometry of the building is oriented.

geometry of the building is oriented.

4.18 P- Effect 4.18 P- Effect It is the secondary effect

It is the secondary effect on shears and on shear forces and bending moments of

moments of frame members due to action of lateral force resisting elements generated

the vertical loads, interacting with the lateral under the action of the vertical loads,

displacement of building resulting from interacting with the lateral displacement of

seismic forces. building resulting from seismic effects.

It is a wall designed to resist lateral forces designed to resist lateral forces acting in its

acting in its own plane. own plane.

4.19.1 Ordinary RC Structural Wall It is

a reinforced concrete (RC) structural wall

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

designed and detailed as per IS 456, but not

meeting special detailing requirements for

ductile behaviour as per IS 13920.

RC structural wall designed and detailed as

per IS 13920, and meeting special detailing

requirements for ductile behaviour as per IS

13920.

4.20 Soft Storey

It is one in which the lateral stiffness is less 4.20.1 Soft Storey It is one in which the

than 70 percent of that in the storey above or lateral stiffness is less than that in the storey

less than 80 percent of the average lateral above. The storey lateral stiffness is the total

stiffness of the three storeys above. stiffness of all seismic force resisting

elements resisting lateral earthquake shaking

effects in the considered direction.

4.21 Static Eccentricity ( esi)

It is the distance between centre of mass and

centre of rigidity of floor i.

4.22 Storey 4.20 Storey It is the space between two

It is the space between two adjacent floors. adjacent floors.

4.23 Storey Drift 4.21 Storey Drift It is the relative

It is the displacement of one level relative to displacement between the floors above

the other level above or below. and/or below the storey under consideration.

4.24 Storey Shear (Vi) 4.22 Storey Shear (Vi) It is the sum of

It is the sum of design lateral forces at all design lateral forces at all levels above the

levels above the storey under consideration. storey i under consideration

4.25 Weak Storey 4.20.2 Weak Storey It is one in which the

It is one in which the storey lateral strength is storey lateral strength [cumulative design

less than 80 percent of that in the storey shear strength of all structural members

above, The storey lateral strength is the total other than that of unreinforced masonry

strength of all seismic force resisting (URM) infills] is less than that in the storey

elements sharing the storey shear in the above. The storey lateral strength is the total

considered direction. strength of all seismic force resisting

elements sharing the lateral storey shear in

the considered direction.

4.23 Storey Lateral Shear Strength (Si) It

is the total lateral strength of all lateral force

resisting elements in the storey considered in

a principal plan direction of the building.

(Ki) It is the total lateral translational

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

stiffness of all lateral force resisting

elements in the storey considered in a

principal plan direction of the building.

It is the ratio of the cross-sectional area at

the plinth level of RC structural walls

resisting the lateral load and the plinth of the

building, expressed as a percentage.

5 SYMBOLS 5 SYMBOLS

The symbols and notations given below The symbols and notations given below

apply to the provisions of this standard: apply to the provisions of this standard:

.4h Design horizontal seismic .4h Design horizontal earthquake

coefficient acceleration coefficient

Ak Design horizontal acceleration Ah Design horizontal earthquake

spectrum value for mode k of acceleration spectrum value for

vibration mode k of oscillation

th

bi i Floor plan dimension of the bi Plan dimension of floor i of the

building building, perpendicular to

perpendicular to the direction of direction of earthquake shaking

force

c Index for the closely-spaced modes c Index for the closely-spaced modes

d Base dimension of the building, in d Base dimension (in metres) of the

metres, in the direction in which building in the direction in which

the seismic force is considered. the earthquake shaking is

DL Response quantity due to dead load considered.

edl Design eccentricity to be used at DL Response quantity due to dead load

floor I calculated as per 7.8.2 edl Design eccentricity to be used at

esi Static eccentricity at floor i defined floor i calculated as per 7.8.2

as the distance between centre of e S1 Static eccentricity at floor i defined

mass and centre of rigidity as the distance between centre of

ELX Response quantity due to mass and centre

earthquake load for horizontal of resistance

shaking along x-direction ELX Response quantity due to

ELY Response quantity due to earthquake load

earthquake load for horizontal for horizontal shaking along x-

shaking along y-direction direction

ELZ Response quantity due to ELY Response quantity due to

earthquake load for vertical earthquake load

shaking along z-direction for horizontal shaking along y-

Froof Design lateral forces at the roof due direction

to all modes considered

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Fi Design lateral forces at the floor i ELZ Response quantity due to

due to all modes considered earthquake load

g Acceleration due to gravity for vertical shaking along z-

h Height of structure, in metres direction

hi Height measured from the base of

the building to floor i

I Importance factor

IL Response quantity due to imposed

load Froo Design lateral forces at the roof due

Mk Modal mass of mode k f to all modes considered

n Number of storeys Fi Design lateral forces at the floor i

N SPT value for soil due to all modes considered

Pk Modal participation factor of mode g Acceleration due to gravity

k h Height of structure, in metres

Qi Lateral force at floor i hi Height measured from the base of

Qik Design lateral force at floor i in the building to floor i

mode k I Importance factor

r Number of modes to be considered IL Response quantity due to imposed

as per 7.8.4.2 load

R Response reduction factor Ki Lateral translational stiffness of

Sa/g Average response acceleration storey i

coefficient for rock or soil sites as L Dimension of a building ina

given by Fig. 2 and Table 3 based considered direction

on appropriate natural periods and Mk Modal mass of mode k

damping of the structure n Number of storeys or floors

T Undamped natural period of N Corrected SPT value for soil

vibration of the structure (in Pk Modal participation factor of mode

second ) k

Ta Approximate fundamental period Q, Lateral force at floor i

(in seconds ) Q~~ Design lateral force at floor i in

Tk Undamped natural period of mode mode k

k of vibration (in second ) Nm Number of modes to be considered

T1 Fundamental natural period of as per

vibration (in second) 7.8.4.2

VB Design seismic base shear R Response reduction factor

Sa/g Design / response acceleration

VB Design base shear calculated using

coefficient

the approximate fundamental

for rock or soil sites as given by

period T,

Fig. 2 and 6.4.2 based on

Vi Peak storey shear force in storey i appropriate natural

due to all modes considered period.

Vik Shear force in storey i in mode k

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Vroof Peak storey shear force at the roof T Undamped natural period of

due to all modes considered Oscillation of the structure (in

W Seismic weight of the structure second )

Wi Seismic weight of floor i Ta Approximate fundamental period (

Z Zone factor in

ik Mode shape coefficient at floor i in seconds )

mode k Tk Undamped natural period of mode

Peak response (for example k of osillation (in second )

member forces, displacements, T1 Fundamental natural period of

storey forces, storey shears or base mode k of oscillation (in second )

reactions) due to all modes VB Design seismic base shear

considered VB( Design base shear calculated using

k Absolute value of maximum bar) the

response in mode k approximate fimdamental period

c Absolute value of maximum Ta

response in mode c, where mode c Peak storey shear force in storey i due

is a closely-spaced mode. Vi to all modes considered

c Peak response due to the closely- Vik Shear force in storey i in mode k

spaced modes only q Peak storey shear force in storey i

ij Coefficient used in the Complete due to

Quadratic Combination (CQC) all modes considered

method while combining responses qk Shear force in storey i in mode k

of modes i and j vroo Peak storey shear force at the top

i Circular frequency in rad/second in f storey due to all modes considered

the ith mode W Seismic weight of the structure

Wi Seismic weight of floor i

z Zone factor

ik Mode shape coefficient at floor i in

mode k

Peak response (for example

member forces,

displacements, storey forces,

storey shears

or base reactions ) due to all modes

considered

Lami Absolute value of maximum

d response in

a(k) mode k

Absolute value of maximum

response in mode c, where mode c

is a closely-spaced mode.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

A* Peak response due to the closely-

spaced

modes only

Pij Coefficient used in the Complete

Quadratic Combination ( CQC )

method while

combining responses of modes i

andj

wi Circular frequency in rad/second in

the

iti mode

DESIGN CRITERIA CRITERIA

6.1 General Principles 6.1 General Principles

6.1.1 Ground Motion The characteristics (intensity, duration,

The characteristics (intensity, duration, etc.) frequency content, etc) of seismic ground

of seismic ground vibrations expected at any vibrations expected at any site depend on

location depends upon the magnitude of magnitude of earthquake, its focal depth,

earthquake, its depth of focus, distance from epicentral distance, characteristics of the

the epicentre, characteristics of the path path through which the seismic waves travel,

through which the seismic waves travel, and and soil strata on which the structure is

the soil strata on which the structure stands. founded. The random earthquake ground

The random earthquake ground motions, motions, which cause the structure to

which cause the structure to vibrate, can be oscillate, can be resolved in any three

resolved in any three mutually perpendicular mutually perpendicular directions. The

directions. The predominant direction of predominant direction of ground vibration is

ground vibration is usually horizontal. usually horizontal.

Earthquake-generated vertical inertia forces Effects of earthquake-induced vertical

are to be considered in design unless checked shaking can be significant for overall

and proven by specimen calculations to be stability analysis of structures, especially in

not significant. Vertical acceleration should structures (a) with large spans, and

be considered in structures with large spans, (b) those in which stability is a criterion for

those in which stability is a criterion for design. Reduction in gravity force due to

design, or for overall stability analysis of vertical ground motions can be

structures. Reduction in gravity force due to detrimental particularly in prestressed

vertical component of ground motions can be horizontal members, cantilevered

particularly detrimental in cases of members and gravity structures. Hence,

prestressed horizontal members and of special attention shall be paid to effects

cantilevered members. Hence, special of vertical ground motion on prestressed

attention should be paid to the effect of or cantilevered beams, girders and slabs.

vertical component of the ground motion on

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

prestressed or cantilevered beams, girders

and slabs.

6.1.2 The response of a structure to ground 6.1.2 The response of a structure to ground

vibrations is a function of the nature of vibrations depends on (a) type of foundation;

foundation soil; materials, form, size and (b) materials, form, size and mode of

mode of construction of structures; and the construction of structures; and duration and

duration and characteristics of ground characteristics of ground motion. This

motion. This standard specifies design forces standard specifies design forces for

for structures standing on rocks or soils structures founded on rocks or soils, which

which do not settle, liquefy or slide due to do not settle, liquefy or slide due to loss of

loss of strength during ground vibrations. strength during earthquake ground

vibrations.

6.1.3 The design approach adopted in this 6.1.3 Actual forces that appear on structures

standard is to ensure that structures possess at during earthquakes are much higher than the

least a minimum strength to withstand minor design forces specified in the standard.

earthquakes (<DBE), which occur Ductility arising from inelastic material

frequently, without damage; resist moderate behaviour with appropriate design and

earthquakes ( DBE ) without significant detailing, and overstrength resulting from

structural damage though some non- the additional reserve strength in structures

structural damage may occur and aims that over and above the design strength are relied

structures withstand a major earthquake upon for the deficit in actual and design

(MCE) without collapse, Actual forces that lateral loads. In other words, earthquake

appear on structures during earthquakes are resistant design as per this standard relies on

much greater than the design forces specified inelastic behaviour of structures. But, the

in this standard. However, ductility, arising maximum ductility that can be realized in

from inelastic material behaviour and structures is limited. Therefore, structures

detailing, and overstrength, arising from the shall be designed for at least the minimum

additional reserve strength in structures over design lateral force specified in this

and above the design strength, are relied upon standard.

to account for this difference in actual and

design lateral loads.

Reinforced and prestressed concrete 6.1.4 Members and connections of

members shall be suitably designed to ensure reinforced and prestressed concrete

that premature failure due to shear or bond structures shall be designed (as per IS 456

does not occur, subject to the provisions of IS and IS 1343) such that premature failure

456 and IS 1343. Provisions for appropriate does not occur due to shear or bond. Some

ductile detailing of reinforced concrete provisions for appropriate ductile detailing

members are given in IS 13920 of RC members are given in IS 13920.

Members and their connections of steel

structures should be so proportioned that

high ductility is obtained in the structure,

avoiding premature failure due to elastic or

inelastic buckling of any type. Some

31

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

provisions for appropriate ductile detailing

of steel members are given in IS 800.

In steel structures, members and their

connections should be so proportioned that

high ductility is obtained, vide SP 6 (Part 6),

avoiding premature failure due to elastic or

inelastic buckling of any type.

The specified earthquake loads are based

upon post elastic energy dissipation in the

structure and because of this fact, the

provision of this standard for design,

detailing and construction shall be satisfied

even for structures and members for which

load combinations that do not contain the

earthquake effect indicate larger demands

than combinations including earthquake.

6.1.4 Soil-Structure Interaction 6.1.5 The soil-structure interaction refers to

The soil-structure interaction refers to the effects of the flexibility of supporting soil-

effects of the supporting foundation medium foundation system on the response of

on the motion of structure. The soil-structure structure. Soil-structure interaction may not

interaction may not be considered in the be considered in the seismic analysis of

seismic analysis for structures supported on structures supported on rock or rock-like

rock or rock-like material. material at shallow depth

6.1.5 The design lateral force specified in this 6.1.6 Equipment and other systems, which

standard shall be considered in each of the are supported at various floor levels of a

two orthogonal horizontal directions of the structure, will be subjected to different

structure. For structures which have lateral motions at their support points. In such

force resisting elements in the two orthogonal cases, it may be necessary to obtain floor

directions only, the design lateral force shall response spectra for design of equipment

be considered along one direction at a time, and its supports. For details, reference may

and not in both directions simultaneously. be made to IS 1893 (Part 4).

Structures, having lateral force resisting

elements (for example frames, shear walls) in

directions other than the two orthogonal

directions, shall be analysed considering the

load combinations specified in 6.3.2.

Where both horizontal and vertical seismic

forces are taken into account, load

combinations specified in 6.3.3 shall be

considered.

6.1.6 Equipment and other systems, which

are supported at various floor levels of the

structure, will be subjected to motions

32

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

corresponding to vibration at their support

points. In important cases, it may be

necessary to obtain floor response spectra for

design of equipment supports. For detail

reference be made to IS 1893 (Part 4).

6.1.7 Additions to Existing Structures 6.1.7 Additions to Existing Structures

Additions shall be made to existing structures Additions shall be made to existing

only as follows: structures only as follows:

a) An addition that is structurally a) An addition that is structurally

independent from an existing structures independent from an existing

shall be designed and constructed in structure shall be designed and

accordance with the seismic requirements constructed in accordance with the

for new structures seismic requirements for new

b) An addition that is not structurally structures.

independent from an existing structure b) An addition that is

shall be designed and constructed such structurally connected to an existing

that the entire structure conforms to the structure shall be designed and

seismic force resistance requirements for constructed such that the entire

new structures unless the following three structure conforms to the seismic

conditions are complied with: force resistance requirements for

1. The addition shall comply with the new structures, unless the following

requirements for new structures, three conditions are complied with:

2. The addition shall not increase the 1) Addition shall comply with the

seismic forces in any structural requirements for new structures,

elements of the existing structure by 2) Addition shall not increase the

more than 5 percent unless the capacity seismic forces in any structural element of

of the element subject to the increased the existing structures by more than 5

force is still in compliance with this percent, unless the capacity of the element

standard, and subject to the increased force is still in

3. The addition shall not decrease the compliance with this standard, and

seismic resistance of any structural 3) Addition shall not decrease the

element of the existing structure unless seismic resistance of any

reduced resistance is equal to or greater structural element of the existing

than that required for new structures. structure unless reduced

resistance is equal to or greater

than that required for new

structures.

6.1.8 Change in Occupancy 6.1.8 Change in Occupancy

When a change of occupancy results in a When a change of occupancy results in a

structure being re-classified to a higher structure being re-classified to a higher

importance factor (I), the structure shall importance factor (I), the structure shall

conform to the seismic requirements for a conform to seismic requirements laid down

33

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

new structure with the higher importance for new structures with the higher

factor. importance factor.

6.2 Assumptions 6.2 Assumptions

The following assumptions shall be made in The following assumptions shall be made in

the earthquake resistant design of structures: the earthquake resistant design of structures:

a) Earthquake causes impulsive ground a. Earthquake ground motions are

motions, which are complex and irregular complex and irregular, consisting of several

in character, changing in period and frequencies and of varying amplitudes each

amplitude each lasting for a small lasting for a small duration. Therefore,

duration. Therefore, resonance of the type usually, resonance of the type as visualized

as visualized under steady-state under steady-state sinusoidal excitations will

sinusoidal excitations, will not occur as it not occur, as it would need time to build up

would need time to build up such such amplitudes. But, there are exceptions

amplitudes. where resonance-like conditions have been

seen to occur between long distance waves

and tall structures founded on deep soft soils

NOTE However, there are exceptions where

resonance-like conditions have been seen to occur

between long distance waves and tall structures

founded on deep soft soils.

b) Earthquake is not likely to Earthquake is not likely to occur

occur simultaneously with wind or simultaneously with high wind, maximum

maximum flood or maximum sea flood or maximum sea waves.

waves,

b) The value of elastic modulus The values of elastic modulus of materials,

of materials, wherever required, may wherever required, will be taken as for static

be taken as for static analysis unless a analysis, unless more definite values are

more definite value is available for available for use in dynamic conditions [see

use in such condition (see IS 456, IS IS 456, IS 800, IS 1343, IS 1905 and IS 2974

1343 and IS 800) (Parts 1 to 5)].

6.3 Load Combination and Increase in 6.3 Load Combinations and Increase in

Permissible Stresses Permissible Stresses

6.3.1 Load Combinations 6.3.1 Load Combinations

When earthquake forces are considered on a The load combinations shall be considered as

structure, these shall be combined as per specified in respective standards due to all

6.3.1.1 and 6.3.1.2 where the terms DL, IL load effects mentioned therein. In addition,

and EL stand for the response quantities due those specified in this standard shall be

to dead load, imposed load and designated applicable, which include earthquake

earthquake load respectively. effects.

6.3.1.1 Even when load combinations that do

not contain earthquake effects, indicate

larger demands than combinations including

them, the provisions shall be adopted related

34

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

to design, ductile detailing and construction

relevant for earthquake conditions, which

are given in this standard, IS 13920 and IS

800.

6.3.1.1 Load factors for plastic design of steel

Structures

In the plastic design of steel structures, the

following load combinations shall be

accounted for:

1) 1.7( DL+IL )

2) 1.7( DLEL)

3) 1.3( DL+lLEL)

6.3.1.2 Partial safety factors for limit state

design of reinforced concrete and prestressed

concrete structures

In the limit state design of reinforced and

prestressed concrete structures, the following

load combinations shall be accounted for:

1) 1.5( DL+IL)

2) 1.2( DL+ILEL)

3) 1.5( DLEL)

4) 0.9DL1.5EL

6.3.2 Design Horizontal Earthquake Load 6.3.2 Design Horizontal Earthquake Load

6.3.2.1 When the lateral load resisting 6.3.2.1 When lateral load resisting elements

elements are oriented along orthogonal are oriented along two mutually orthogonal

horizontal direction, the structure shall be horizontal directions, structure shall be

designed for the effects due to till design designed for effects due to full design

earthquake load in one horizontal direction at earthquake load in one horizontal direction

time. at a time, and not in both directions

simultaneously.

6.3.2.2 When the lateral load resisting 6.3.2.2 When lateral load resisting elements

elements are not oriented along the are not oriented along mutually orthogonal

orthogonal horizontal directions, the horizontal directions [as per 7.1 and Table

structure shall be designed for the effects due 5(e)], structure shall be designed for the

to full design earthquake load in one simultaneous effects due to full design

horizontal direction plus 30 percent of the earthquake load in one horizontal direction

design earthquake load in the other direction. plus 30 percent of design earthquake load

along the other horizontal direction. Thus,

structure should be designed for the

following sets of combinations of earthquake

effects:

NOTE For instance, the building should be a) ELX 0.3 ELY, and

designed for (ELx0.3ELy) as well as

35

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

(0.3ELxELy), where x and y are two orthogonal b) 0.3 ELX ELY,

horizontal directions, EL in 6.3.1.1 and 6.3.1,2 shall

be replaced by (ELx0.3ELy ) or (ELy0.3ELx ).

where X and Y are two orthogonal horizontal

plan directions. Thus, EL in the load

combinations given in 6.3.1 shall be replaced

by (ELX 0.3ELY) or (ELY0.3 ELX). Hence,

the sets of load combinations to be

considered shall be as given below:

1) 1.2[DL+IL(ELX0.3ELY)]

1.2[DL+IL(ELY0.3ELX)];

2) 1.5 [DL (ELX 0.3 ELY)] and

1.5 [DL (ELY 0.3 ELX)]; and

3) 0.9 DL 1.5 (ELX 0.3 ELY)

0.9 DL 1.5 (ELY 0.3 ELX)

6.3.3 Design Vertical Earthquake Load 6.3.3 Design Vertical Earthquake Effects

When effects due to vertical earthquake loads 6.3.3.1 Effects due to vertical earthquake

are to be considered, the design vertical force shaking shall be considered when any of the

shall be calculated in accordance with 6.4.5 following conditions apply:

a) Structure is located in Seismic Zone IV

or V;

b) Structure has vertical or plan

irregularities;

c) Structure is rested on soft soil;

d) Bridges;

e) Structure has long spans; or

f) Structure has large horizontal

overhangs of structural members or

sub-systems.

6.3.3.2 When effects due to vertical

earthquake shaking are to be considered, the

design vertical force shall be calculated for

vertical ground motion as detailed in 6.4.6.

6.3.3.3 Where both horizontal and vertical

seismic forces are taken into account, load

combination specified in 6.3.4 shall be

considered.

6.3.4 Combination for Two or Three 6.3.4 Combinations to Account for Three

Component Motion Directional Earthquake Ground Shaking

6.3.4.1 When responses from the three 6.3.4.1 When responses from the three

earthquake components are to be considered, earthquake components are to be

the responses due to each component may be considered, the responses due to each

combined using the assumption that when the component may be combined using the

maximum response from one component assumption that when the maximum

36

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

occurs, the responses from the other two response from one component occurs, the

component are 30 percent of their maximum. responses from the other two components

All possible combinations of the three are 30 percent each of their maximum. All

components (ELx, ELy and ELz) including possible combinations of three components

variations in sign ( plus or minus ) shall be (ELX, ELY and ELZ) including variations in

considered, Thus, the response due sign (plus or minus) shall be considered.

earthquake force (EL) is the maximum of the Thus, the structure should be designed for

following three cases: the following sets of combinations of

earthquake load effects:

1) ELx0.3ELy0.3ELz a) ELX 0.3 ELY 0.3 ELZ,

2) 0.3ELxELy0.3ELz b) ELY 0.3 ELZ 0.3 ELX, and

3) 0.3ELx0.3ELyELz c) ELZ 0.3 ELX 0.3 ELY,

where x and y are two orthogonal directions where X and Y are orthogonal plan

and z is vertical direction directions and Z vertical direction. Thus, EL

in the above referred load combinations

shall be replaced by (ELX 0.3 ELY

0.3 ELZ), (ELY 0.3 ELZ 0.3 ELX) or (ELZ

0.3 ELX 0.3 ELY,). This implies that the

sets of load combinations involving

earthquake effects to be considered shall be

as given below:

1) 1.2 [DL + IL (ELX 0.3 ELY 0.3

ELZ)] and 1.2 [DL + IL (ELY 0.3

ELX 0.3 ELZ)];

2) 1.5 [DL (ELX 0.3 ELY 0.3 ELZ)]

and

1.5 [DL (ELY 0.3 ELX 0.3

ELZ)]; and

3) 0.9 DL 1.5 (ELX 0.3 ELY 0.3

ELZ) and 0.9 DL 1.5 (ELY 0.3 ELX

0.3 ELZ).

6.3.4.2 As an alternative to the procedure in 6.3.4.2 As an alternative to the procedure in

6.3.4.1, the response (EL) due to the 6.3.4.1, the net response (EL) due to the

combined effect of the three components can combined effect of the three components can

be obtained on the basis of square root of the be obtained by:

sum of the square (SRSS) that is EL ( ELx) 2 ( ELy) 2 ( ELz ) 2

EL ( ELx) 2 ( ELy) 2 ( ELz ) 2

NOTE The combination procedure of Caution may be exercised on loss of sign

6.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.2 apply to the same especially of the axial force, shear force and

response quantity (say, moment in a column bending moment quantities, when this

about its major axis, or storey shear in a procedure is used; it can lead to grossly

uneconomical design of structures.

37

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

frame) due to different components of the

ground motion.

6.3.4.3 Procedure for combining shaking

effects given by 6.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.2 apply to

the same response quantity (say, bending

moment in a column about its major axis, or

storey shear force in a frame) due to different

components of the ground motion.

6.3.4.3 When two component motions (say 6.3.4.4 When components corresponding to

one horizontal and one vertical, or only two only two ground motion components (say

horizontal) are combined, the equations in one horizontal and one vertical, or only two

6.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.2 should be modified by horizontal) are combined, the equations in

deleting the term representing the response 6.3.4.1 and 6.3.4.2 should be modified by

due to the component of motion not being deleting the term representing the response

considered. due to the component of motion not being

considered.

6.3.5 Increase in Permissible Stresses 6.3.5 Increase in Net Pressure on Soils in

Design of Foundations

6.3.5.1 In the design of foundations,

unfactored loads shall be combined in line

with IS 2974, while assessing the bearing

pressure in soils.

6.3.5.1 Increase impermissible stresses in 6.3.5.2 When earthquake forces are

materials included, net bearing pressure in soils can be

When earthquake forces are considered along increased as per Table 1, depending on type

with other normal design forces, the of foundation and type of soil. For

permissible stresses in material, in the elastic determining the type of soil for this purpose,

method of design, maybe increased by one- soils shall be classified in four types as given

third. However, for steels having a definite in Table 2.In soft soils, no increase shall be

yield stress, the stress be limited to the yield applied in bearing pressure, because

stress; for steels without a definite yield settlements cannot be restricted by

point, the stress will be limited to 80 percent increasing bearing pressure.

of the ultimate strength or 0.2 percent proof

stress, whichever is smaller; and that in

prestressed concrete members, the tensile

stress in the extreme fibers of the concrete

may be permitted so as not to exceed two-

thirds of the modulus of rupture of concrete.

6.3.5.2 Increase in allowable pressure in soils 6.3.5.3 In soil deposits consisting of

When earthquake forces are included, the submerged loose sands and soils falling

allowable bearing pressure in soils shall be under classification SP with corrected

increased as per Table 1, depending upon standard penetration test values N, less than

15 in Seismic Zones III, IV and V, and less

38

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

type of foundation of the structure and the than 10 in Seismic Zone II, the shaking

type of soil. caused by earthquake ground motion may

In soil deposits consisting of submerged cause liquefaction or excessive total and

loose sands and soils falling under differential settlements. Such sites should be

classification SP with standard penetration avoided preferably for locating new

N-values less than 15 in seismic Zones III, structures, and should be avoided for

IV, V and less than 10 in seismic Zone II, the locating structures of important projects.

vibration caused by earthquake may cause Otherwise, settlements need to be

liquefaction or excessive total and investigated, and appropriate methods

differential settlements. Such sites should adopted of compaction or stabilization to

preferably be avoided while locating new achieve N values indicated in Note 4 of

settlements or important projects. Otherwise, Table 1. Alternatively, deep pile foundations

this aspect of the problem needs to be may be adopted and anchored at depths well

investigated and appropriate methods of below the underlying soil layers, which are

compaction or stabilization adopted to likely to liquefy or undergo excessive

achieve suitable N-values as indicated in settlements.

Note 3 under Table 1. Alternatively, deep pile

foundation may be provided and taken to Also, marine clay layers and other sensitive

depths well into the layer which is not likely clay layers are known to liquefy, undergo

to liquefy. Marine clays and other sensitive excessive settlements or even collapse,

clays are also known to liquefy due to owing to low shear strength of the said soil;

collapse of soil structure and will need such soils will need special treatment

special treatment according to site condition. according to site condition (see Table 2).

evaluation of liquefaction potential.

NOTE Specialist literature may be referred for

determining liquefaction potential of a site.

6.4 Design Spectrum 6.4 Design Acceleration Spectrum

6.4.1 For the purpose of determining seismic 6.4.1 For the purpose of determining design

forces, the country is classified into four seismic force, the country is classified into

seismic zones as shown in Fig. 1. four seismic zones as shown in Fig. 1.

6.4.2 The design horizontal seismic 6.4.2 The design horizontal seismic

coefficient Ah for a structure shall be coefficient Ah for a structure shall be

determined by the following expression: determined by

Z I Sa Z I Sa

Ah Ah

2R g 2R g

Provided that for any structure with T <0.1 s,

the value of Ah will not be taken less than Z/2

whatever be the value of I/R

Where Where

Z = Zone factor given in Table 2, is z. = seismic zone factor given in

for the Maximum Considered Table 3;

39

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Earthquake (MCE) and service I = importance factor given in IS

life of structure in a zone. The 1893 (Parts 1 to 5) for the

factor 2 in the denominator of Z corresponding structures; when

is used so as to reduce the not specified, the minimum

Maximum Considered values of I shall be,

Earthquake (MCE) zone factor a) 1.5 for critical and

to the factor for Design Basis lifeline structures;

Earthquake (DBE).

I = Importance factor, depending b) 1.2 for business

upon the functional use of the continuity

structures, characterised by structures; and

hazardous consequences of its

failure, post-earthquake c) 1.0 for the rest.

functional needs, historical

value, or economic importance

(Table 6).

R = Response reduction factor,

depending on the perceived

seismic damage performance of R = response reduction factor given

the structure, characterised by in IS 1893 (Parts 1 to 5) for the

ductile or brittle deformations. corresponding structure and

However, the ratio (I/R) shall

not be greater than 1.0 (Table7). Sa = Design accerlation coefficient

The values of R for buildings g for different soil types,

are given in Table 7. normalized with peak ground

Sa = Average response acceleration acceleration, corresponding to

g coefficient for rock or soil sites natural period T of structure

as given by Fig. 2 and Table 3 (considering soil-structure

based on appropriate natural interaction, if required). It shall

periods and damping of the be as given in Parts 1 to 5 of IS

structure. These curves 1893 for the corresponding

represent free field ground structures; when not specified,

motion. it shall be taken as that

corresponding to 5 percent

damping, given by expressions

below:

For es A

For response spectram

6.4.2.1 For determining the correct spectrum

to be used in the estimate of (Sa/g), the type

of soil on which the structure is placed shall

40

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

be identified by the classification given in

Table 4, as:

and

the weighted average of N of soil layers from

the existing ground level to 30 m below the

existing ground level; here, the N values of

individual layers shall be the corrected

values.

Importance Factor I, Response Reduction Factor R,

and damping values are given in the respective parts

of this standard. The method (empirical or otherwise)

to calculate the natural periods of the structure to be

adopted for evaluating Sa/g is also given in the

respective parts of this standard.

Table 1 Percentage of Permissible Increase in Allowable Bearing Pressure or Resistance of

Soils

(Clause 6.3.5.2)

S1 No. Foundation Type of Soil Mainly Constituting the Foundation

Hard Soil : Medium Soils: Soils: All soils

W having )@ All soils with N other than SPJ

above 30, between 10 and with N< 10

where 30, and poorly

N is the graded sands or

standard gravelly sands

penetration with little or no

valueell graded fines ( SP1~)

gravel and sand with N> 15

gravel mixtures

with or without

clay binder, and

clayey sands

poorly graded

41

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

or sand clay

mixtures ( GB,

CW, SB, SW,

and SC )1

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

I Piles passing through 50 50 50

any soil but resting on

soil type I

item i

3 Raft foundations 50 50 50

4 Combined isolated RCC 50 25 25

footing with tie beams

without tie beams, or

unreinforced strip

foundations

6 Well foundations 50 25 25

As per 1893:2016

Table 1 Percentage Increase in Net Bearing Pressure and Skin Friction of Soils (Clause

6.3.5.2)

Sl.no Type of Soil Percentage Increase Allowable

NOTES Notes

1. The allowable bearing pressure shall be 1. The net bearing pressure shall be

determined in accordance with IS 6403 or determined in accordance with IS 6403 or IS

IS 1888. 1888.

2. If any increase in bearing pressure has 2. Only corrected values of N shall be used.

already been permitted for forces other 3. If any increase in net bearing pressure has

than seismic forces, the total increase in already been permitted for forces other than

42

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

allowable bearing pressure when seismic seismic forces, the increase in allowable

force is also included shall not exceed the bearing pressure, when seismic force is also

limits specified above. included, shall not exceed the limits

3. Desirable minimum field values of N specified above.

if soils of smaller N-values are met,

compacting may be adopted to achieve 4.The desirable minimum corrected field

these values or deep pile foundations values of N shall be as specified below:

going to stronger strata should be used.

4. The values of N (corrected values ) are at

the founding level and the allowable

bearing pressure shall be determined in

accordance with IS 6403 or IS 1888.

Seismic Depth N- Remark Seismic Depth N- Remark

Zone Below Valu Zone (m) Val

level (in Groun es Below ues

metres ) d Ground

III, IV 5 15 For values of III, IV 5 15 For values of

and V l0 25 depths and V l0 25 depths

II (for 5 15 between 5 m II (for 5 15 between 5 m

important l0 20 and 10 m, important l0 20 and 10 m,

structures linear structures linear

only) interpolation is only) interpolation is

recommended recommended

If soils of lower N values are encountered

than those specified in the table above, then

suitable ground improvement techniques

shall be adopted to achieve these values.

Alternately, deep pile foundations should be

used, which are anchored in stronger strata,

underlying the soil layers that do not meet

the requirement.

5. The piles should be designed for lateral 5. Piles should be designed for lateral loads

loads neglecting lateral resistance of soil neglecting lateral resistance of those soil

layers liable to liquefy. layers (if any), which are liable to liquefy.

6. IS 1498 and IS 2131 may also be 6. Indian Standards IS 1498 and IS 2131 may

referred. be referred for soil notation, and corrected N

7. Isolated R, C.C. footing without tie values shall be determined by applying

beams, or unreinforced strip foundation correction factor CN for effective

shall not be permitted in soft soils with

N<10. overburden pressure 'vo using

relation N C N N1 ,

43

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

where CN Pa 'vo 1.7 ,

Pa is the

atmospheric

value for soil.

be considered shall be determined as

below:

average of N of soil layers from depth

of founding, to depth of founding

plus twice the breadth of footing;

average of N of soil layers from

depth of founding, to depth of

founding plus twice the breadth of

raft;

of N of soil layers from depth of

bottom tip of pile, to depth of bottom

tip of pile plus twice the diameter of

pile;

average of N of soil layers from

depth of bottom tip of pile group, to

depth of bottom tip of pile group plus

twice the width of pile group; and

average of N of soil layers from

depth of bottom tip of well, to depth

of bottom tip of well plus twice the

width of well.

for Determining Percentage Increase in

Net Bearing Pressure and Skin Friction

44

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

(Clause 6.3.5.2)

Sl Soil Remarks

No. Type (3)

(1) (2)

i) Type Well graded gravel (GW)

A or well graded sand (SW)

Rock both with less than 5

or percent passing 75 mm

hard sieve (Fines) Well graded

soils gravel sand mixtures

with or without fines

(GW-SW) Poorly-graded

sand (SP) or Clayey sand

(SC), all having N above

30 Stiff to hard clays

having N above 30, where

N is corrected standard

penetration test value

ii) Type B Poorly graded sands or

B poorly graded sands with

Medi gravel (SP) with little or

um or no fines having N between

stiff 10 and 30 Stiff to medium

soils stiff fine-grained soils,

like silts of low

compressibility (ML) or

clays of low

compressibility (CL)

having N between 10 and

30

iii) Type All soft soils other than SP

C with N<10. The various

Soft possible soils are:

soils Silts of intermediate

compressibility (Ml); Silts

of high compressibility

(MH); Clays of

intermediate

compressibility (CI);

Clays of high

compressibility (CH);

Silts and clays of

45

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

intermediate to high

compressibility (MI-MH

or CI-CH); Silt with clay

of intermediate

compressibility (MI-CI);

and Silt with clay of high

compressibility (MH-CH).

D study and special

Unsta treatment according to site

ble, condition (see 6.3.5.3)

collap

sible,

liquef

iable

soils

Determining the Spectrum to be Used to

Estimate Design Earthquake Force

(Clause 6.4.2.1)

Sl Soil

Remarks

No. Type

(3)

(1) (2)

i) I a) Well graded gravel (GW)

Rock or well graded sand (SW)

or both with less than 5

Hard percent passing 75 m

Soils sieve (Fines)

b) Well graded gravel-sand

mixtures with or without

fines (GW-SW)

c) Poorly graded sand (SP) or

clayey sand (SC), all

having N above 30

d) Stiff to hard clays having N

above 30, where N is

standard penetration test

value

46

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

ii) II a) Poorly graded sands or

Medi poorly graded sands with

um gravel (SP) with little or no

or fines having N between 10

Stiff and 30

soils b) Stiff to medium stiff fine-

grained soils, like silts of

low compressibility (ML)

or clays of low

compressibility (CL)

having N between 10 and

30

Soft N<10. The various possible soils

soils are:

a) Silts of intermediate

compressibility (Ml);

b) Silts of high

compressibility (MH);

c) Clays of intermediate

compressibility (CI);

d) Clays of high

compressibility (CH);

e) Silts and clays of

intermediate to high

compressibility (MI-MH

or CI-CH);

f) Silt with clay of

intermediate

compressibility (MI-CI);

and

g) Silt with clay of high

compressibility (MH-CH).

( Clause 6.4.2) (Clause 6.4.2)

Seism II III IV V Seismic Zone

II III IV V

ic Factor

(2) (3) (4) (5)

(1)

47

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Seism Low Mode severe Very 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3

Z

ic rate Sever 0 6 4 6

Intens e

ity

Z 0.1 0.16 0.24 0.36

applied on structures can be considered in

two ways, namely:

in three ways, namely:

Response Spectrum Method and Time

History Method are adopted. Equivalent

static method may be used for analysis of

regular structures with approximate natural

period Ta less than 0.4 s.

6.4.3.1 For structural analysis, the moment

of inertia shall be taken as:

a) In RC and masonry structures: 70

percent of Igross of columns, and 35 percent

of Igross of beams; and

b) In steel structures: Igross of both

beams and columns.

6.4.3 Where a number of modes are to be 6.4.4 Where a number of modes are to be

considered for dynamic analysis, the value of considered in response spectrum method, Ah

Ah as defined in 6.4.2 for each mode shall be as defined in 6.4.2 for each mode k shall be

determined using the natural period of determined using natural period Tk of

vibration of that mode. oscillation of that mode.

6.4.4 For underground structures and 6.4.5 For underground structures and

foundations at depths of 30 m or below, the buildings whose base is located at depths of

48

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

design horizontal acceleration spectrum 30 m or more, Ah at the base shall be taken

value shall be taken as half the value obtained as half the value obtained from 6.4.2. This

from 6.4.2. For structures and foundations reduced value shall be used only for

placed between the ground level and 30m estimating inertia effects due to masses at

depth, the design horizontal acceleration the corresponding levels below the ground;

spectrum value shall be linearly interpolated the inertia effects for the above ground

between Ah and 0.5Ah, where Ah is as portion of the building shall be estimated

specified in 6.4.2. based on the unreduced value of Ah. For

estimating inertia effects due to masses of

structures and foundations placed between

the ground level and 30 m depth, the design

horizontal acceleration spectrum value shall

be linearly interpolated between Ah and 0.5

Ah, where Ah is as specified in 6.4.2.

6.4.5 The design acceleration spectrum for 6.4.6 The design seismic acceleration

vertical motions, when required, may be spectral value Av or vertical motions shall be

taken as two-thirds of the design horizontal taken as:

acceleration spectrum specified in 6.4.2.

6.4.5 The design acceleration spectrum for The value of Sa/g shall be based on natural

vertical motions, when required, may be period T corresponding to the first vertical

taken as two-thirds of the design horizontal mode of oscillation, using 6.4.2

acceleration spectrum specified in 6.4.2.

49

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

sites for 5 Percent Damping

6.4.6 In case design spectrum is specifically 6.4.7 When design acceleration spectrum is

prepared for a structure at a particular project developed specific to a project site, the same

site, the same may be used for design at the may be used for design of structures of the

discretion of the project authorities project. In such cases, effects of the site-

specific spectrum shall not be less than those

arising out of the design spectrum specified

in this standard.

7 BUILDINGS 7 BUILDINGS

7.1 Regular and Irregular Configuration The four main desirable attributes of an

earthquake resistant building are:

50

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

To perform well in an earthquake, a building

should possess four main attributes, namely a) Robust structural configuration,

simple and regular configuration, and

adequate lateral strength, stiffness and b) At least a minimum elastic lateral

ductility. Buildings having simple regular stiffness,

geometry and uniformly distributed mass and

stiffness in plan as well as in elevation, suffer c) At least a minimum lateral strength,

much less damage than buildings with and

irregular configurations. A building shall be

considered as irregular for the purposes of d) Adequate ductility.

this standard, if at least one of the conditions

given in Tables 4 and 5 is applicable, 7.1 Regular and Irregular Configurations

uniformly distributed mass and stiffness in

plan and in elevation, suffer much less

damage, than buildings with irregular

configurations. All efforts shall be made to

eliminate irregularities by modifying

architectural planning and structural

configurations. A building shall be

considered to be irregular for the purposes of

this standard, even if any one of the

conditions given in Tables 5 and 6 is

applicable. Limits on irregularities for

Seismic Zones III, IV and V and special

requirements are laid out in Tables 5 and 6.

7.2 Importance Factor I and Response

Reduction Factor R

The minimum value of importance factor, I,

for different building systems shall be as

given in Table 6. The response reduction

factor, R, for different building systems shall

be as given in Table 7.

7.3 Design Imposed Loads for Earthquakes

Force Calculation

7.3.1 For various loading classes as specified

in IS 875(Part 2), the earthquake force shall

be calculated for the full dead load plus the

percentage of imposed load as given in Table

8.

51

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

7.3.2 For calculating the design seismic

forces of the structure, the imposed load on

roof need not be considered.

7.3.3 The percentage of imposed loads given

in 7.3.1 and 7.3.2 shall also be used for

Whole frame loaded condition in the load

combinations specified in 6.3.L 1 and 6.3.1.2

where the gravity loads are combined with

the earthquake loads [that is, in load

combinations (3) in 6.3.1.1, and (2) in

6.3.1.2]. No further reduction in the imposed

load will be used as envisaged in IS 875(Part

2) for number of storeys above the one under

consideration or for large spans of beams or

floors.

7.3.4 The proportions of imposed load

indicated above for calculating the lateral

design forces for earthquakes are applicable

to average conditions. Where the probable

loads at the time of earthquake are more

accurately assessed, the designer may alter

the proportions indicated or even replace the

entire imposed load proportions by the actual

assessed load. In such cases, where the

imposed load is not assessed as per 7.3.1 and

7.3.2 only that part of imposed load, which

possesses mass, shall be considered. Lateral

design force for earthquakes shall not be

calculated on contribution of impact effects

from imposed loads.

7.3.5 Other loads apart from those given

above (for example snow and permanent

equipment) shall be considered as

appropriate.

7.4 Seismic Weight

7.4.1 Seismic Weight of Floors

The seismic weight of each floor is its full

dead load plus appropriate amount of

imposed load, as specified in 7.3.1 and 7.3.2.

While computing the seismic weight of each

floor, the weight of columns and walls in any

storey shall be equally distributed to the

floors above and below the storey.

52

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

7.4.2 Seismic Weight of Building

The seismic weight of the whole building is

the sum of the seismic weights of all the

floors.

7.4.3 Any weight supported in between

storeys shall be distributed to the floors above

and below in inverse proportion to its

distance from the floors.

Table 3 Multiplying Factors for Obtaining Values for Other Damping

( Clause 6.4.2)

Plan Irregularities ( Fig. 3 ) Plan Irregularities (see Fig. 3) (Clause 7.1)

Irregularity Type and Description Type of Plan Irregularity

1. Torsion Irregularity i) Torsional Irregularity

To be considered when floor diaphragms are

rigid in their own plan in relation to the Usually, a well-proportioned

vertical structural elements that resist the building does not twist about its

lateral forces. Torsional irregularity to be vertical axis, when

considered to exist when the maximum

storey drift, computed with design a) the stiffness distribution of the

eccentricity, at one end of the structures vertical elements resisting

transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 times lateral loads is balanced in plan

the average of the storey drifts at the two ends according to the distribution of

of the structure mass in plan (at each storey

level); and

own plane (this happens when

its plan aspect ratio is

less than 3)

irregular, when,

53

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

1) the maximum horizontal

displacement of any floor in the

direction of the lateral force at

one end of the floor is more than

1.5 times its minimum

horizontal displacement at the

far end of the same floor in that

direction; and

corresponding to the

fundamental torsional mode of

oscillation is more than those of

the first two translational modes

of oscillation along each

principal plan directions

i) In torsionally irregular

buildings, when the ratio of

maximum horizontal

displacement at one end and

the minimum horizontal

displacement at the other end

is, in the range 1.5 2.0, (a)

the building configuration

shall be revised to ensure that

the natural period of the

fundamental torsional mode of

oscillation shall be smaller

than those of the first two

translational modes along

each of the principal plan

directions, and then (b) three

dimensional dynamic analysis

method shall be adopted; and

configuration shall be revised

Plan configurations of a structure and its

lateral force resisting system contain re- A building is said to have a re-

entrant corners, where both projections of the entrant corner in any plan direction,

structure beyond the re-entrant corner are when its structural configuration in

54

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

greater than 15 percent of its plan dimension plan has a projection of size greater

in the given direction. than 15 percent of its overall plan

dimension in that direction

dimensional dynamic analysis method shall

be adopted

3. Diaphragm Discontinuity 3.Floor Slabs having Excessive Cut-Outs or

Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or Openings

variations in stiffness, including those having

cut-out or open areas greater than 50 percent Openings in slabs result in flexible

of the gross enclosed diaphragm area, or diaphragm behaviour, and hence the

changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of lateral shear force is not shared by

more than 50 percent from one storey to the the frames and/or vertical members

next. in proportion to their lateral

translational stiffness. The problem

is particularly accentuated when the

opening is close to the edge of the

slab. A building is said to have

discontinuity in their in-plane

stiffness, when floor slabs have cut-

outs or openings of area more than

50 percent of the full area of the floor

slab

their in-plane stiffness, if the area of

the geometric cut-out is,

percent, the floor slab shall be

taken as rigid or flexible

depending on the location of

and size of openings; and

taken as flexible.

4. Out-of-Plane Offsets IV0 Out-of-Plane Offsets in Vertical

Discontinuities in a lateral force resistance Elements Out-of-plane offsets in vertical

path, such as out-of-plane offsets of vertical elements resisting lateral loads cause

elements discontinuities and detours in the load path,

which is known to be detrimental to the

earthquake safety of the building. A building

55

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

is said to have out-of-plane offset in vertical

elements, when structural walls or frames are

moved out of plane in any storey along the

height of the building

offsets in vertical elements,

referred for design of such a

building, if the building is located

in Seismic Zone II; and

be satisfied, if the building is

located in Seismic Zones III, IV

and V: 1) Lateral drift shall be less

than 0.2 percent in the storey

having the offset and in the

storeys

below; and

referred for removing the

irregularity arising due to out-

of-plane offsets in vertical

elements.

The vertical elements resisting the lateral

force are not parallel to or symmetric about Buildings undergo complex earthquake

the major orthogonal axes or the lateral force behaviour and hence damage, when they do

resisting elements not have lateral force resisting systems

oriented along two plan directions that are

orthogonal to each other. A building is said

to have non-parallel system when the

vertically oriented structural systems

resisting lateral forces are not oriented along

the two principal orthogonal axes in plan

force resisting system shall be

56

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

analyzed for load combinations

mentioned in 6.3.2.2 or 6.3.4.1.

Vertical Irregularities ( Fig. 4 ) Vertical Irregularities (see Fig. 4)

( Clause 7.1 ) (Clause 7.1)

Irregularity Type and Description Type of Vertical Irregularity

1. 1. Stiffness Irregularity (Soft Storey)

a) Stiffness Irregularity Soft Storey A soft storey is a storey whose lateral

A soft storey is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than that of the storey above.

stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the The structural plan density (SPD) shall be

storey above or less than 80 percent of the estimated when unreinforced masonry infills

average lateral stiffness of the three storeys are used. When SPD of masonry infills

above. exceeds 20 percent, the effect of URM infills

b) Stiffness Irregularity Extreme Soft shall be considered by explicitly modelling

Storey the same in structural analysis (as per 7.9).

A extreme soft storey is one in which the The design forces for RC members shall be

lateral stiffness is less than 60 percent of that larger of that obtained from analysis of:

in the storey above or less than 70 percent of a) Bare frame, and

the average stiffness of the three storeys b) Frames with URM infills, using 3D

above. For example, buildings on STILTS modelling of the structure. In buildings

will fall under this category, designed considering URM infills, the inter-

storey drift shall be limited to 0.2 percent in

the storey with stiffening and also in all

storeys below.

2. Mass Irregularity ii) Mass Irregularity

Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist

where the seismic weight of any storey is Mass irregularity shall be considered

more than 200 percent of that of its adjacent to exist, when the seismic weight (as

storeys. The irregularity need not be per 7.7) of any floor is more than 150

considered in case of roofs percent of that of the floors below.

and located in Seismic Zones III, IV

and V, the earthquake effects shall be

estimated by Dynamic Analysis

Method (as per 7.7).

57

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Vertical geometric irregularity shall be Vertical geometric irregularity shall

considered to exist where the horizontal be considered to exist, when the

dimension of the lateral force resisting horizontal dimension of the lateral

system in any storey is more than 150 percent force resisting system in any storey is

of that in its adjacent storey. more than 125 percent of the storey

below.

irregularity and located in Seismic

Zones III, IV and V, the earthquake

effects shall be estimated by

Dynamic Analysis Method (as per

7.7).

Elements Resisting Lateral Force Elements Resisting Lateral Force

A in-plane offset of the lateral force resisting

elements greater than the length of those In-plane discontinuity in vertical

elements elements which are resisting lateral

force shall be considered to exist,

when in-plane offset of the lateral

force resisting elements is greater

than 20 percent of the plan length of

those elements.

discontinuity and located in Seismic

Zones II, the lateral drift of the

building under the design lateral

force shall be limited to 0.2 percent

of the building height; in Seismic

Zones III, IV and V, buildings with

in-plane discontinuity shall not be

permitted.

5. Discontinuity in Capacity Weak Storey ii) Strength Irregularity (Weak Storey)

A weak storey is one in which the storey A weak storey is a storey whose

lateral strength is less than 80 percent of that lateral strength is less than that of the

in the storey above, The storey lateral storey above.

strength is the total strength of all seismic In such a case, buildings in Seismic

force resisting elements sharing the storey Zones III, IV and V shall be designed

shear in the considered direction. such that safety of the building is not

jeopardized; also, provisions of 7.10

shall be followed.

58

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

iii) Floating or Stub Columns

Such columns are likely to cause

concentrated damage in the structure.

This feature is undesirable, and

hence should be prohibited, if it is

part of or supporting the primary

lateral load resisting system.

iv) Irregular Modes of Oscillation in

Two Principal Plan Directions

braces and structural walls determine

the lateral stiffness of a building in

each principal plan direction. A

building is said to have lateral storey

irregularity in a principal plan

direction, if

a) the first three modes contribute

less than 65 percent mass

participation factor in each

principal plan direction, and

periods of the building in the two

principal plan directions are

closer to each other by 10 percent

of the larger value.

In buildings located in Seismic Zones II and

III, it shall be ensured that the first three

modes together contribute at least 65 percent

mass participation factor in each principal

plan direction. And, in buildings located in

Seismic Zones IV and V, it shall be ensured

that,

contribute at least 65 percent

mass participation factor in each

principal plan direction, and

natural periods of the building in the

two principal plan directions are

59

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

away from each other by at least 10

percent of the larger value

7.2 Lateral Force

lateral force

VB given by:

Vb=Ah*w

7.2.2 Minimum Design Lateral Force

designed and constructed to resist at least the

effects of design lateral force specified in

7.2.1. But, regardless of design earthquake

forces arrived at as per 7.3.1, buildings shall

have lateral load resisting systems capable of

resisting a horizontal force not less than

(VB)min given in Table 7.

Earthquake Horizontal Lateral

Force for Buildings

(Clause 7.2.2)

Sl No. Seismic Zone

Percent

(1) (2)

(3)

i) II 0.7

ii) III 1.1

iii) IV 1.6

iv) V 2.4

buildings as per 7.2.1, the importance factor

I of buildings shall be taken as per Table 8.

Table 6 Importance Factors, 1 Table 8 Importance Factor (I)

( Clause 6.4.2)

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

(Clause 7.2.3)

Structure Importance Table 8 Importance Factor (I)

Factor (Clause 7.2.3)

Important service and 1.5 Sl

Structure I

community buildings, such No.

(2) (3)

as hospitals; schools; (1)

monumental structures; i) Important service and 1.5

emergency buildings like community buildings or

telephone exchange, structures (for example,

television stations, radio critical governance

stations, railway stations, buildings, schools),

fire station buildings; large signature buildings,

community halls like monument buildings,

cinemas, assembly halls lifeline and emergency

and subway stations, power building (for example,

stations. hospital buildings,

ALL other buildings 1.0 telephone exchange

buildings, television

station buildings, radio

station buildings, bus

station buildings, metro

rail buildings and metro

rail station buildings),

railway stations,

airports, food storage

buildings (such as

warehouses), fuel

station buildings, power

station buildings, and

fire station buildings),

and large community

hall buildings (for

example, cinema halls,

shopping malls,

assembly halls and

subway stations)

ii) Residential or 1.2

commercial buildings

[other than those listed

in Sl No. (i)] with

occupancy more than

200 persons

iii) All other buildings 1.0

61

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

NOTES NOTES

1. The design engineer may choose values of 1. Owners and design engineers of

importance factor I greater than those mentioned

buildings or structures may choose

above.

2. Buildings not covered in SI No. (i) and (ii) above values of importance factor I more than

may be designed for higher value of Z, depending those mentioned above.

on economy, strategy considerations like multi- 2. Buildings or structures covered under Sl

storey buildings having several residential units. No. (iii) may be designed for higher

3. This does not apply to temporary structures like value of importance factor I, depending

excavations, scaffolding etc. of short duration.

on economy and strategy.

3. In Sl No. (ii), when a building is

composed of more than one structurally

independent unit, the occupancy size

shall be for each of the structurally

independent unit of the building.

In buildings with mixed occupancies,

wherein different I factors are applicable for

the respective occupancies, larger of the

importance factor I values shall be used for

estimating the design earthquake force of the

building.

7.2.4 Damping Ratio

The value of damping shall be taken as 5

percent of critical damping for the purposes

of estimating Ah in the design lateral force

VB of a building as per 7.2.1, irrespective of

the material of construction (namely steel,

reinforced concrete, masonry, or a

combination thereof of these three basic

materials) of its lateral load resisting system,

considering that buildings experience

inelastic deformations under design level

earthquake effects, resulting in much higher

energy dissipation than that due to initial

structural damping in buildings. This value

of damping shall be used, irrespective of the

method of the structural analysis employed,

namely Equivalent Static Method (as per

7.6) or Dynamic Analysis Method (as per

7.7).

7.2.5 Design Acceleration Spectrum

Design acceleration coefficient Sa/g

corresponding to 5 percent damping for

different soil types, normalized to peak

62

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

ground acceleration, corresponding to

natural period

T of structure considering soil-structure

interaction,

the structure. Sa/g shall be as given by

expressions in 6.4.2.

7.2.6 Response Reduction Factor (R)

damping during extreme shaking and

redundancy: (a) influences the nonlinear

behaviour of buildings during strong

earthquake shaking, and (b) accounts for

inherent system ductility, redundancy and

overstrength normally available in buildings,

if designed and detailed as per this standard

and the associated Indian Standards.

standard, response reduction factor R for

different building systems shall be as given

in Table 9. The values of R shall be used for

design of buildings with lateral load resisting

elements, and NOT for just the lateral load

resisting elements, which are built in

isolation.

moment resisting frames and structural walls

(or of moment resisting frames and bracings)

such that both of the following conditions are

valid:

total design lateral force in

proportion to their lateral stiffness,

considering interaction of two

systems at all floor levels; and

63

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

b) Moment resisting frames are

designed to resist independently at

least 25 percent of the design base

shear.

As per Is 1893:2002

Table 7 Response Reduction Factor l), R, for Building Systems.

( Clause 6.4.2)

S1 Lateral Load Resisting System R

No.

(1) (2) (3)

Building Frame Systems

Ordinary RC moment-resisting frame ( OMRF )2) 3.0

Special RC moment-resisting frame ( SMRF )3) 5.0

Steel frame with

a) Concentric braces 4

b) Eccentric braces 5

Steel moment resisting frame designed as per SP 6 ( 6 ) 5.0

Building with Shear Walls

Load bearing masonry wall buildings)

a) Unreinforced 1.5

b) Reinforced with horizontal RC bands 2.5

c) Reinforced with horizontal RC bands and vertical bars at 3.0

corners of rooms and

jambs of openings

Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls@ 3.0

Ductile shear walls7 4.0

Buildings with Dual Systemss)

Ordinary shear wall with OMRF 3.0

Ordinary shear wall with SMRF 4.0

Ductile shear wall with OMRF 4.5

Ductile shear wall with SMRF 5.0

1) The values of response reduction factors are to be used for buildings with lateral load

resisting elements, and not Just for the lateral load resisting elements built in

isolation.

2) OMRF are those designed and detailed as per IS 456 or Is 800 but not meeting

ductile detailing reqllirertleMllt per IS 13920 or SP 6 (6) respectively.

3) SMRF defined in 4.15.2.

4) Buildings with shear walls also include buildings having shear walls and frames, but

where:

a) frames are not designed to carry lateral loads, or

b) frames are designed to carry lateral loads but do not fulfil the requirements of dual

systems.

64

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

5) Reinforcement should be as per IS 4326.

6) Prohibited in zones IV and V.

7) Ductile shear walls are those designed and detailed as per IS 13920.

8) Buildings with dual systems consist of shear walls ( or braced frames ) and moment

resisting frames such that:

a) the two systems are designed to resist the total design force in proportion to their

lateral stiffness considering the interaction of the dual system at all floor levels,; and

b) the moment resisting frames are designed to independently resist at least 25

percent of the design seismic base shear.

As per IS 1893:2016

Table 9 Response Reduction Factor R for Building Systems

(Clause 7.2.6)

Sl

Lateral Load Resisting System R

No.

(2) (3)

(1)

i) Moment Frame Systems

a) RC buildings with ordinary moment resisting frame (OMRF) 3.0

(see Note 1) 5.0

b) RC buildings with special moment resisting frame (SMRF) 3.0

c) Steel buildings with ordinary moment resisting frame (OMRF) 5.0

(see Note 1)

d) Steel buildings with special moment resisting frame (SMRF)

ii) Braced Frame Systems (see Note 2)

a) Buildings with ordinary braced frame (OBF) having concentric 4.0

braces 4.5

b) Buildings with special braced frame (SBF) having concentric 5.0

braces

c) Buildings with special braced frame (SBF) having eccentric

braces

iii) Structural Wall Systems (see Note 3)

a) Load bearing masonry buildings

1) Unreinforced masonry (designed as per IS 1905) 1.5

without horizontal RC seismic bands (see Note 1)

2) Unreinforced masonry (designed as per IS 1905) 2.0

with horizontal RC seismic bands

3) Unreinforced masonry (designed as per IS 1905) 2.5

with horizontal RC seismic bands and vertical

reinforcing bars at corners of rooms and jambs of

openings (with reinforcement as per IS 4326)

4) Reinforced masonry [see SP 7 (Part 6) Section 4] 3.0

5) Confined masonry 3.0

b) Buildings with ordinary RC structural walls (see Note 1) 3.0

65

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

c) Buildings with ductile RC structural walls 4.0

iv) Dual Systems (see Note 3)

a) Buildings with ordinary RC structural walls and RC OMRFs 3.0

(see Note 1)

b) Buildings with ordinary RC structural walls and RC SMRFs 4.0

(see Note 1

c) Buildings with ductile RC structural walls with RC OMRFs 4.0

(see Note 1)

d) Buildings with ductile RC structural walls with RC SMRFs 5.0

v) Flat Slab Structural Wall Systems (see Note 4)

RC building with the three features given below: 3.0

a) Ductile RC structural walls (which are designed to resist 100

percent of the design lateral force),

b) Perimeter RC SMRFs (which are designed to independently

resist 25 percent of the design lateral force), and preferably

c) An outrigger and belt truss system connecting the core ductile

RC structural walls and the perimeter RC SMRFs (see Note 1).

NOTES

1. RC and steel structures in Seismic Zones III, IV and V shall be designed to be

ductile. Hence, this system is not allowed in these seismic zones.

2. Eccentric braces shall be used only with SBFs.

3. Buildings with structural walls also include buildings having structural walls and

moment frames, but where,

a. frames are not designed to carry design lateral loads, or

b. frames are designed to carry design lateral loads, but do not fulfill the

requirements of Dual Systems.

4. In these buildings, (a) punching shear failure shall be avoided, and (b) lateral drift

at the roof under design lateral force shall not exceed 0.1 percent.

7.3 Design Imposed Loads for Earthquake

Force Calculation

in IS 875 (Part 2), design seismic force shall

be estimated using full dead load plus

percentage of imposed load as given in

Table 10. The same shall be used in the

three-dimensional dynamic analysis of

buildings also.

of buildings, imposed load on roof need not

be considered. But, weights of equipment

66

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

and other permanently fixed facilities should

be considered; in such a case, the reductions

of imposed loads mentioned in Table 10 are

not applicable to that part of the load

Considered in Seismic Weight Calculation Considered in Calculation of Seismic

(Clause 7.3.1 Weight

(Clause 7.3.1)

Imposed Percentage of Sl Imposed uniformly

Percentage of

Uniformity Imposed No Distributed Floor

Imposed Load

Distributed Floor Load . Loads

Loads ( kN/ m2 ) kN/m2

(3)

(1) (2) (1) (2)

Upto and including 25 Up to and including

i) 25

3.0 3.0

Above 3.0 50 ii) Above 3.0 50

7.3.3 Imposed load values indicated in Table

10 for calculating design earthquake lateral

forces are applicable to normal conditions.

When loads during earthquakes are more

accurately assessed, designers may alter

imposed load values indicated or even

replace the entire imposed load given in

Table 10 with actual assessed load values,

subject to the values given in Table 7 as the

minimum values. Where imposed load is not

assessed as per 7.3.1 and 7.3.2,

possesses mass, shall be considered;

and

not be calculated on contribution of

impact effects from imposed loads.

example, snow and permanent equipment)

shall be considered appropriately.

7.3.5 In regions of severe snow loads and

sand storms exceeding intensity of 1.5

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

kN/m2, 20 percent of uniform design snow

load or sand load, respectively shall be

included in the estimation of seismic weight.

In case the minimum values of seismic

weights corresponding to these load effects

given in IS 875 are higher, the higher values

shall be used.

7.3.6 In buildings that have interior

partitions, the weight of these partitions on

floors shall be included in the estimation of

seismic weight; this value shall not be less

than 0.5 kN/m2. In case the minimum values

of seismic weights corresponding to

partitions given in parts of IS 875 are higher,

the higher values shall be used. It shall be

ensured that the weights of these partitions

shall be considered only in estimating

inertial effects of the building.

7.5.1 Buildings and portions there of shall be 7.2.1 Design Lateral Force

designed and constructed, to resist the effects

of design lateral force specified in 7.5.3 as a Buildings shall be designed for the design

minimum. lateral force

VB given by:

VB=Ah*w

where Ah shall be estimated as per 6.4.2, and

W as per 7.4.

7.2.2 Minimum Design Lateral Force

designed and constructed to resist at least the

effects of design lateral force specified in

7.2.1. But, regardless of design earthquake

forces arrived at as per 7.3.1, buildings shall

have lateral load resisting systems capable of

resisting a horizontal force not less than

(VB)min given in Table 7

Table 7 Minimum Design

Earthquake Horizontal Lateral

Force for Buildings

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

(Clause 7.2.2)

Sl No. Seismic Zone

Percent

(1) (2)

(3)

i) II 0.7

ii) III 1.1

iii) IV 1.6

iv) V 2.4

7.4 Seismic Weight

7.4.1 Seismic Weight of Floors

load plus appropriate amount of imposed

load, as specified in 7.3. While computing

the seismic weight of each floor, the weight

of columns and walls in any storey shall be

appropriately apportioned to the floors

above and below the storey.

storeys shall be distributed to floors above

and below in inverse proportion to its

distance from the floors.

7.6 Equivalent Static Method

shear VB shall be computed for the building

as a whole. Then, this VB shall be distributed

to the various floor levels at the

corresponding centres of mass. And, finally,

this design seismic force at each floor level

shall be distributed to individual lateral load

resisting elements through structural

analysis considering the floor diaphragm

action. This method shall be applicable for

regular buildings with height less than 15 m

in Seismic Zone II.

computed for the building as a whole. This

design lateral force shall then be distributed

to the various floor levels. The overall design

69

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

seismic force thus obtained at each floor

level, shall then be distributed to individual

lateral load resisting elements depending on

the floor diaphragm action.

7.5.3 Design Seismic Base Shear 7.6.1 The design base shear VB along any

The total design lateral force or design principal direction of a building shall be

seismic base shear ( VB)along any principal determined by:

direction shall be determined by the

following expression:

VB = AhW VB = AhW

where where

Ah Design horizontal acceleration

spectrum value as per 6.4.2, using Ah = design horizontal acceleration

the fundamental natural period T, as coefficient value as per 6.4.2, using

per 7.6 in the considered direction of approximate fundamental natural

vibration, and period Ta as per 7.6.2 along the

W Seismic weight of the building as per considered direction of shaking; and

7.4.2.

W = seismic weight of the building as per

7.4

7.6 Fundamental Natural Period

7.6.1 The approximate fundamental natural 7.6.2 The approximate fundamental

period of vibration ( Ta ), in seconds, of a translational natural period Ta of oscillation,

moment-resisting frame building without in second, shall be estimated by the

brick infill panels may be estimated by the following expressions:

empirical expression:

Ta = 0.075 h0.75 for RC frame building

= 0.085 h0.75 for steel frame building a) Bare MRF buildings (without any

masonry infills):

T=0.075

0.08

0.08

Where where

h = Height of building, in m. This excludes

the basement storeys, where basement walls h =height (in m) of building (see Fig. 5). This

are connected with the ground floor deck or excludes the basement storeys, where

fitted between the building columns. But it basement storey, walls are connected with

includes the basement storeys, when they are the ground floor deck or fitted between the

not so connected. building columns, but includes the basement

storeys, when they are not so connected.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

b)Buildings with RC structural walls:

equation

where Aw is total effective area (m2)

of walls in the first storey of the

building given by:

N

w L 2

wi

Aw Awi

0.2

h

1

where

7.6.2(a), in m;

of wall i in first storey of

building, in m2;

in first storey in the considered

direction of lateral forces, in

m;

at the plinth level along the

considered direction of

earthquake shaking, in m; and

considered direction of

earthquake shaking.

equation shall not exceed 0.9.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

period of vibration (Ta), in seconds, of all

other buildings, including moment-resisting

frame buildings with brick infill panels, may

be estimated by the empirical expression:

Where Ta 0.09h

h=Height of building, in m as defined in7.6.l;

and d

d=Base dimension of the building at the where

plinth level, in m, along the considered

direction of the lateral force. h = height of building, as defined in

7.6.2(a), in m; and

the plinth level along the

considered direction of earthquake

shaking, in m.

7.7 Distribution of Design Force 7.6.3 The design base shear (VB) computed

7.7.1 Vertical Distribution of Base Shear to in 7.6.1 shall be distributed along the height

Different Floor Levels of the building and in plan at each floor level

The design base shear (VB) computed in 7.5.3 as below

shall be distributed along the height of the a) Vertical distribution of base shear to

building as per the following expression: different

Qi VB n VB computed in 7.6.1 shall be

W h

j 1

j

2

j distributed along the height of the

building as per the following

expression:

where

W

i = seismic weight of floor i;

hi = base;

and

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

where n = number of storeys in building,

Qi = Design lateral force at floor i, that is, number of levels at

Wi = Seismic weight of floor i, which masses are located.

hi = Height of floor i measured from base,

and

n = Number of storeys in the building is the

number of levels at which the masses are

located.

b)In-plan distribution of design lateral force

at floor i to different lateral force resisting

elements The design storey shear in any

storey shall be calculated by summing the

design lateral forces at all floor above that

storey. In buildings whose floors are capable

of providing rigid horizontal diaphragm

action in their own plane, the design storey

shear shall be distributed to the various

vertical elements of lateral force resisting

system in proportion to the lateral stiffness

of these vertical elements

7.7.2 Distribution of Horizontal Design

Lateral Force to Different Lateral Force

Resisting Elements

7.7.2.1 In case of buildings whose floors are

capable of providing rigid horizontal

diaphragm action, the total shear in any

horizontal plane shall be distributed to the

various vertical elements of lateral force

resisting system, assuming the floors to be

infinitely rigid in the horizontal plane.

7.7.2.2 In case of building whose floor

diaphragms can not be treated as infinitely

rigid in their own plane, the lateral shear at

each floor shall be distributed to the vertical

elements resisting the lateral forces,

considering the in-plane flexibility of the

diaphragms.

NOTES 7.6.4 Diaphragm

1) A floor diaphragm shall be considered to

be flexible, if it deforms such that the In buildings whose floor diaphragms cannot

maximum lateral displacement measured provide rigid horizontal diaphragm action in

from the chord of the deformed shape at their own plane, design storey shear shall be

any point of the diaphragm is more than distributed to the various vertical elements

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

1.5 times the average displacement of the of lateral force resisting system considering

entire diaphragm. the in-plane flexibility of the diaphragms.

2) Reinforced concrete monolithic slab-

beam floors or those consisting of A floor diaphragm shall be considered to be

prefabricated/precast elements with flexible, if it deforms such that the

topping reinforced screed can be taken a maximum lateral displacement measured

rigid diaphragms from the chord of the deformed shape at any

point of the diaphragm is more than 1.2

times the average displacement of the entire

diaphragm (see Fig. 6).

slab-beam floors or those consisting of

prefabricated or precast elements with

reasonable reinforced screed concrete (at

least a minimum of 50 mm on floors and of

75 mm on roof, with at least a minimum

reinforcement of 6 mm bars spaced at 150

mm centres) as topping, and of plan aspect

ratio less than 3, can be considered to be

providing rigid diaphragm action.

7.8 Dynamic Analysis 7.7 Dynamic Analysis Method

7.8.1 Dynamic analysis shall be performed to 7.7.1 Linear dynamic analysis shall be

obtain the design seismic force, and its performed to obtain the design lateral force

distribution to different levels along the (design seismic base shear, and its

height of the building and to the various distribution to different levels along the

lateral load resisting elements, for the height of the building, and to various lateral

following buildings: load resisting elements) for all buildings,

a) Regular buildings Those greater than other than regular buildings lower than 15 m

40 m in height in Zones IV and V, and those in Seismic Zone II.

greater than 90 m in height in Zones II and

111. Modelling as per 7.8.4.5 can be used. 7.7.2 The analytical model for dynamic

b) irregular buildings ( as defined in 7.1 ) analysis of buildings with unusual

All framed buildings higher than12 m in configuration should be such that it

Zones IV and V and those greater than 40 m adequately represents irregularities present

in height in Zones II and III. in the building configuration.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

The analytical model for dynamic analysis of

buildings with unusual configuration should

be such that it adequately models the types of

irregularities present in the building

configuration. Buildings with plan

irregularities, as defined in Table 4 (as per

7.1), cannot be modelled for dynamic

analysis by the method given in 7.8.4.5.

NOTE For irregular buildings, lesser than

40 m in height in Zones II and III, dynamic

analysis, even though not mandatory, is

recommended

7.8.2 Dynamic analysis may be performed 7.7.3 Dynamic analysis may be performed

either by the Time History Method or by the by either the Time History Method or the

Response Spectrum Method. However, in Response Spectrum Method. When either of

either method, the design base shear (VB) the methods is used, the design base shear

shall be compared with a base shear ( VB ) VB estimated shall not be less than the design

calculated using a fundamental period Ta,

where Ta is as per 7.6. Where VB is less than

base shear V B calculated using a

VB all the response quantities (for example

fundamental period Ta, where Ta is as per

member forces, displacements, storey forces, 7.6.2.

storey shears and base reactions) shall be

multiplied by VB / VB . When VB is less than V B , the force response

quantities (for example member stress

resultants, storey shear forces, and base

reactions) shall be multiplied by

considered along,

directions X and Y, separate

multiplying factors shall be

BY VBY, respectively; and

factor shall be taken as Max V BX VBX ;V

BY VBY

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

7.8.2.1 The value of damping for buildings Damping 5% for all materials

may be taken as 2 and 5 percent of the

critical, for the purposes of dynamic analysis

of steel and reinforced concrete buildings,

respectively.

Time history method of analysis, when used, Time history method shall be based on an

shall be based on an appropriate ground appropriate ground motion (preferably

motion and shall be performed using compatible with the design acceleration

accepted principles of dynamics. spectrum in the desired range of natural

periods) and shall be performed using

accepted principles of earthquake structural

dynamics.

7.8.4 Response Spectrum Method 7.7.5 Response Spectrum Method

Response spectrum method of analysis shall

be performed using the design spectrum Response spectrum method may be

specified in 6.4.2, or by a site-specific design performed for any building using the design

spectrum mentioned in 6.4.6. acceleration spectrum specified in 6.4.2, or

by a site-specific design acceleration

spectrum mentioned in 6.4.7.

Undamped free vibration analysis of the

entire building shall be performed as per Undamped free vibration analysis of the

established methods of mechanics using the entire building shall be performed as per

appropriate masses and elastic stiffness of the established methods of structural dynamics

structural system, to obtain natural periods using appropriate mass and elastic stiffness

(T) and mode shapes { } of those of its

of the structural system, to obtain natural

periods Tk and mode shapes {}k of those of

modes of vibration that need to be considered its Nm modes of oscillation [k (1,Nm)] that

as per 7.8.4.2 need to be considered as per 7.7.5.2.

The number of modes to be used in the 7.7.5.2 Number of modes to be considered

analysis should be such that the sum total of

modal masses of all modes considered is at The number of modes Nm to be used in the

least 90 percent of the total seismic mass and analysis for earthquake shaking along a

missing mass correction beyond 33 percent. considered direction, should be such that the

If modes with natural frequency beyond33 sum total of modal masses of these modes

Hz are to be considered, modal combination considered is at least 90 percent of the total

shall be carried out only for modes upto 33 seismic mass.

76

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Hz. The effect of higher modes shall be

included by considering missing mass If modes with natural frequencies beyond 33

correction following well established Hz are to be considered, the modal

procedures. combination shall be carried out only for

modes with natural frequency less than

frequencies more than 33 Hz shall be

included by the missing mass correction

procedure following established principles

of structural dynamics. If justified by

rigorous analysis, designers may use a cut

off frequency other than 33 Hz.

design forces

The building may be analyzed by accepted

principles of mechanics for the design forces

considered as static forces.

7.8.4.4 Modal combination 7.7.5.3 Combination of modes

The peak response quantities (for example,

member forces, displacements, storey forces, The responses of different modes considered

storey shears and base reactions) shall be shall be combined by one of the two

combined as per Complete Quadratic methods given below:

Combination (CQC) method.

a) Peak response quantities (for

example, member forces,

displacements, storey forces, storey

shears, and base reactions) may be

combined as per Complete

Quadratic Combination (CQC)

method, as given below:

r r r r

i 1 j 1

i ij j

i 1 j 1

i ij j

Where Where

r = Number of modes being

considered

ij = Cross model coefficient

77

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

i = Response quality in mode i = estimate of peak response

(including sign) quantity;

j =`= Response

Response quality

quality inin mode

mode j i

(including

(includingsign)

sign) i = response quantity in mode

(1 2 ) 2 4 2 (1 ) 2

j = response quantity in mode

j (with sign);

= Modal damping ratio (in

fraction) as specified in 7.8.2.1, ij = cross-modal correlation co-

= Frequency ratio = j / i efficient

Nm= number of modes considered;

j = Circular frequency in jth mode.

= modal damping coefficient

ratio which shall be taken as

0.05;

j

= natural frequency ratio = i ;

mode j; and

i = circular natural frequency in

mode i.

Alternatively, the peak response quantities b) Alternatively, the peak response

may be combined as follows: quantities may be combined as

follows:

a)if the building does not have closely-spaced 1) If building does not have closely-

modes, then the peak response quantity () spaced modes, then net peak

due to all modes considered shall be obtained response quantity due to all

as modes considered shall be

r estimated as:

( )2 r

(

k

k 1 k )2

k 1

Where where

K Absolute value of quantity in mode

k, and k = peak response quantity in mode k, and

r Number of modes being considered

Nm= number of modes considered

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

b)if the building has a few closely spaced 2) If building has a few closely-

modes (see 3.2), then the peak response spaced modes, then net peak

quantity (*) due to these modes shall be response quantity due to these

obtained as closely space modes alone shall

r be obtained as:

c

*

r

c

'

*

c '

c

Where the summation is for the closely where

spaced modes only. This peak response

quantity due to the closely spaced modes (*)c = peak response quantity in closely spaced

is then combined with those of the remaining mode c. The summation is for closely spaced

well-separated modes by the method modes only. Then, this peak response

described in 7.8.4.4 (a). quantity due to closely spaced modes is

combined with those of remaining well-

separated modes by method described above

7.8.4.5 Buildings with regular, or nominally 7.7.5.4 Simplified method of dynamic

irregular plan configurations may be analysis of buildings

modelled as a system of masses lumped at the

floor levels with each mass having one Regular buildings may be analyzed as a

degree of freedom, that of lateral system of masses lumped at the floor levels

displacement in the direction under with each mass having one degree of

consideration. In such a case; the following freedom, that of lateral displacement in the

expressions shall hold in the computation of direction under consideration. In such a case,

the various quantities : the following expressions shall hold in the

computation of the various quantities:

The modal mass (Mk) of mode k is mode k is given by:

2

given by n

n

2

Wiik

Wiik M k in1

M k in1 g Wi (ik ) 2

g Wi (ik ) 2 i 1

i 1

Where where

g = Acceleration due to gravity

ik = Mode shape coefficient at floor i g = acceleration due to gravity,

in mode k, and

Wi = Seismic weight of floor i. ik = mode shape coefficient at floor

i in mode k,

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Wi = seismic weight of floor i of the

structure, and

b) Modal Participation Factors The Mode participation factor Mode

modal participation factor (Pk) of mode k is participation factor Pk of mode k is given by:

given by

n n

Wiik W i ik

Pk n

i 1

Pk n

i 1

Wi (ik ) 2

i 1

W (

i 1

i ik )2

c)Design Lateral force at each floor in each Design lateral force at each floor in each

Mode the peak lateral force(Qik) at floor I mode Peak lateral force Qik at floor i in

in mode k is given by mode k is given by Equation

Where Where

Ak = Design horizontal acceleration spectrum Ak = design horizontal acceleration spectrum

value as per 6.4.2 using the natural period of value as per 6.4.2 using natural period of

vibration (Tk) of mode k. oscillation Tk of mode k obtained from

dynamic analysis.

d)storey shear forces in each mode the peak Storey shear forces in each mode Peak

shear force (Vik) acting in storey I in mode k shear force Vik acting in storey i in mode k is

is given by given by:

n n

Vik Qik

j i 1

Vik Q

j i 1

ik

e)Storey Shear Forces due to All modes Storey shear force due to all modes

Considered The peak storey shear force considered Peak storey shear force Vi in

(Vi) in storey i due to all modes considered is storey i due to all modes considered, shall be

obtained by combining those due to each obtained by combining those due to each

mode in accordance with 7.8.4.4. mode in accordance with 7.7.5.3

f)Lateral forces at Each Storey Due to All Lateral forces at each storey due to all modes

Modes Considered The design lateral considered Design lateral forces Froof at

forces, Froof and Fi, at roof and at floor i; roof level and Fi at level of floor i shall be

Froof = V roof , and obtained as:

Fi = Vi Vi+1 Froof = V roof , and

Fi = Vi Vi+1

7.9 Torsion 7.8 Torsion

7.9.1 Provision shall be made in all buildings 7.8.1 Provision shall be made in all

for increase in shear forces on the lateral buildings for increase in shear forces on the

force resisting elements resulting from the lateral force resisting elements resulting

horizontal torsional moment arising due to from twisting about the vertical axis of the

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

eccentricity between the centre of mass and building, arising due to eccentricity between

centre of rigidity. The design forces the centre of mass and centre of resistance at

calculated as in 7,8.4.5 are to be applied at the the floor levels. The design forces calculated

centre of mass appropriately displaced so as as in 7.6 and 7.7.5, shall be applied at the

to cause design eccentricity ( 7.9.2 ) between displaced centre of mass so as to cause

the displaced centre of, mass and centre of design eccentricity (as given by 7.8.2)

rigidity. However, negative torsional shear between the displaced centre of mass and

shall be neglected. centre of resistance.

at floor i shall be taken a

Fhdhfh While performing structural analysis by the

Seismic Coefficient Method or the Response

whichever of these gives the more severe Spectrum Method, the design eccentricity edi

effect in the shear of any frame where to be used at floor i shall be taken as:

edi Static eccentricity at floor i defined

as the distance between centre of

mass and centre of rigidity, and

bi Floor plan dimension of floor i,

perpendicular to the direction of

force.

whichever gives the more severe effect on

lateral force resisting elements;

where

and centre of resistance, and

bi

= floor plan dimension of floor i,

perpendicular to the direction of force.

NOTE The factor 1.5 represents dynamic

The factor 1.5 represents dynamic amplification factor, and 0.05bi represents

amplification factor, while the factor 0.05 the extent of accidental eccentricity. The

represents the extent of accidental above amplification of 1.5 need not be used,

eccentricity. when performing structural analysis by the

Time History Method.

analysed according to 7.8.4.5, additive shears

will be superimposed for a statically applied

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

eccentricity of 0.05bi, with respect to the

centre of rigidity.

7.9 RC Frame Buildings with Unreinforced

Masonry Infill Walls

7.9.1 In RC buildings with moment resisting

frames and unreinforced masonry (URM)

infill walls, variation of storey stiffness and

storey strength shall be examined along the

height of the building considering in-plane

stiffness and strength of URM infill walls. If

storey stiffness and strength variations along

the height of the building render it to be

irregular as per Table 6, the irregularity shall

be corrected especially in Seismic Zones III,

IV and V.

7.9.2 The estimation of in-plane stiffness

and strength of URM infill walls shall be

based on provisions given hereunder.

7.9.2.1 The modulus of elasticity Em (in

MPa) of masonry infill wall shall be taken

as:

Em = 550 fm

where fm is the compressive strength of

masonry prism (in MPa) obtained as per IS

1905 or given by expression:

fm = 0.433fb0.64 fmo0.36

wher

e

fb = and

f

m compressive strength of mortar, in

o = MPa.

using equivalent diagonal struts as below:

considered to be pin-jointed to RC

frame;

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

b) For URM infill walls without any

opening, width

Fig. 7) shall be taken as:

where

h h 4 Emt

sin 2

4E I h

elasticity of the materials of the

URM infill and RC MRF, Ic the

moment of inertia of the adjoining

column, t the thickness of the infill

wall, and

with the horizontal;

no reduction in strut width is

required; and

strut shall be taken as thickness t of

original URM infill wall, provided

h/t < 12 and l/t < 12, where h is clear

height of URM infill wall between

the top beam and bottom floor slab,

and l clear length of the URM infill

wall between the vertical RC

elements (columns, walls or a

combination thereof) between which

it spans.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

7.10.1 RC moment resisting frame

buildings, which have open storey(s) at any

level, such as due to discontinuation of

unreinforced masonry (URM) infill walls or

of structural walls, are known to have

flexible and weak storeys as per Table 6. In

such buildings, suitable measures shall be

adopted, which increase both stiffness and

strength to the required level in the open

storey and the storeys below. These

measures shall be taken along both plan

directions as per requirements laid down

under 7.10.2 to 7.10.4. The said increase

may be achieved by providing measures,

like:

a) RC structural walls, or

building.

7.10.2 When the RC structural walls are

provided, they shall be,

foundations;

height of the building; and

c) connected preferably to the moment

resisting frame of the building.

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

7.10.3 When the RC structural walls are

provided, they shall be designed such that the

building does NOT have:

plan than that already present in the

building. In assessing this, lateral

stiffness shall be included of all

elements that resist lateral actions at

all levels of the building;

is less than 80 percent of that in the

storey above; and

is less than 90 percent of that in the

storey above.

7.10.4 When the RC structural walls are

provided, the RC structural wall plan density

sw of the building shall be at least 2 percent

along each principal direction in Seismic

Zones III, IV and V. These walls shall be

well distributed in the plan of the building

along each plan direction. RC structural

walls of this measure can be adopted even in

regular buildings that do not have open

storey(s).

7.10.5 RC structural walls in buildings

located in Seismic Zones III, IV and V shall

be designed and detailed to comply with all

requirements of IS 13920.

7.10 Buildings with Soft Storey

7.10.1 In case buildings with a flexible

storey, such as the ground storey consisting

of open spaces for parking that is Stilt

buildings, special arrangement needs to be

made to increase the lateral strength and

stiffness of the soft/open storey.

7.10.2 Dynamic analysis of building is

carried out including the strength and

stiffness effects of infills and inelastic

deformations in the members, particularly,

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IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

those in the soft storey, and the members

designed accordingly

7.10.3 Alternatively, the following design

criteria are to be adopted after carrying out

the earthquake analysis, neglecting the effect

of infill walls in other storeys:

a) the columns and beams of the soft storey

are to be designed for 2.5 times the storey

shears and moments calculated under seismic

loads specified in the other relevant clauses:

or.

b) besides the columns designed and detailed

for the calculated storey shears and moments,

shear walls placed symmetrically in both

directions of the building as far away from

the centre of the building as feasible; to be

designed exclusively for 1.5 times the lateral

storey shear force calculated as before,

7.11 Deformations 7.11 Deformation

7.11.1 Storev Drift Limitation Deformation of RC buildings shall be

The storey drift in any storey due to the obtained from structural analysis using a

minimum specified design lateral force, with structural model based on section properties

partial load factor of 1.0 shall not exceed given in 6.4.3.

0.004 times the storey height.

For the purposes of displacement 7.11.1 Storey Drift Limitation

requirements only (see 7.11.1,7.11.2 and

7.11.3 only), it is permissible to use seismic 7.11.1.1 Storey drift in any storey shall not

force obtained from the computed exceed 0.004 times the storey height, under

fundamental period (T) of the building the action of design base of shear VB with no

without the lower bound limit on design load factors mentioned in 6.3, that is, with

seismic force specified in 7.8.2. There shall partial safety factor for all loads taken as 1.0.

be no drift limit for single storey building

which has been designed to accommodate 7.11.1.2 Displacement estimates obtained

storey drift. from dynamic analysis methods shall not be

scaled as given in 7.7.3.

Seismic Members Seismic Members

For building located in seismic Zones IV and

V it shall be ensured that the structural For buildings located in Seismic Zones III,

components, that are not a part of the seismic IV and V, it shall be ensured that structural

force resisting system in the direction under components, that are not a part of seismic

consideration, do not lose their vertical load- force resisting system in considered

86

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

carrying capacity under the induced moments direction of ground motion but are

resulting from storey deformations equal to R monolithically connected, do not lose their

times the storey displacements calculated as vertical load-carrying capacity under

per 7.11.1. Where R is specified in Table 7. induced net stress resultants, including

additional bending moments and shear

forces resulting from storey deformations

equal to R times storey displacements

calculated as per 7.11.1, where R is specified

in Table 9.

building in which lateral load resistance is

provided by shear walls. Since the lateral

load resistance of the slab-column system is

small. these are often designed only for the

gravity loads, while all the seismic force is

resisted by the shear walls. Even though the

slabs and columns are not required to share

the lateral forces, these deform with rest of

the structure under seismic force, The

concern is that under such deformations, the

slab-column system should not lose its

vertical load capacity.

7.11.3 Separation Between Adjacent Units 7.11.3 Separation between Adjacent Units

Two adjacent buildings or two adjacent units

of the same building with separation joint in Two adjacent buildings, or two adjacent

between shall be separated by a distance units of the same building with separation

equal to the amount R times the sum of the joint between them, shall be separated by a

calculated storey displacements as per 7.11.1 distance equal to R times sum of storey

of each of them, to avoid damaging contact displacements 1 and 2 calculated as per

when the two units deflect towards each 7.11.1 of the two buildings or two units of

other. When floor levels of two similar the same building, to avoid pounding as the

adjacent units or buildings are at the same two buildings or two units of the same

elevation levels, factor R in this requirement building oscillate towards each other.

may be replaced by R/2.

When floor levels of the adjacent units of a

building or buildings are at the same level,

the separation distance shall be calculated as

(R11 + R22), where R1 and 1 correspond

to building 1, and R2 and 2 to building 2.

7.12.1 Foundations 7.12.1 Foundations

87

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

The use of foundations vulnerable to

significant differential settlement due to Isolated RC footings without tie beams or

ground shaking shall be avoided for unreinforced strip foundations, shall not be

structures in seismic Zones III, IV and V In adopted in buildings rested on soft soils

seismic Zones IV and V, individual spread (with corrected N < 10) in any Seismic

footings or pile caps shall be interconnected Zone. Use of foundations vulnerable to

with ties, (see 5.3.4.1 of IS 4326) except significant differential settlement due to

when individual spread footings are directly ground shaking shall be avoided in buildings

supported on rock. All ties shall be capable of located in Seismic Zones III, IV and V.

carrying, in tension and in compression, an

axial force equal to Ah/4 times the larger of Individual spread footings or pile caps shall

the column or pile cap load, in addition to the be interconnected with ties (see 5.3.4.1 of IS

otherwise computed forces, Here, Ah is as per 4326), except when individual spread

6.4.2. footings are directly supported on rock, in

buildings located in Seismic Zones IV and

V. All ties shall be capable of carrying, in

tension and in compression, an axial force

equal to Ah/4 times the larger of the column

or pile cap load, in addition to the otherwise

computed forces, subject to a minimum of 5

percent of larger of column or pile cap loads.

Here, Ah is as per 6.4.2.

withstand maximum curvature imposed

(structural response) by earthquake ground

shaking. Design of anchorage of piles into

the pile cap shall consider combined effects,

including that of axial forces due to uplift

and bending

moments due to fixity to pile cap.

7.12.2.1 Vertical Projections 7.12.2.1 Vertical projections

Tower, tanks, parapets, smoke stacks

(chimneys) and other vertical cantilever Small-sized facilities (like towers, tanks,

projections attached to buildings and parapets, smoke stacks/chimneys) and other

projecting above the roof, shall be designed vertical cantilever projections attached to

and checked for stability for five times the buildings and projecting vertically above the

design horizontal seismic coefficient Ah roof, but not a part of the structural system

specified in 6.4.2. In the analysis of the of the building, shall be designed and

building, the weight of these projecting checked for stability for five times the design

horizontal seismic coefficient Ah specified

88

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

elements will be lumped with the roof in 6.4.2 for that building. In the analysis of

weight. the building, weights of these projecting

elements shall be lumped with the roof

weight.

All horizontal projections like cornices and All horizontal projections of buildings (like

balconies shall be designed and checked for cantilever structural members at the porch

stability for five times the design vertical level or higher) or attached to buildings (like

coefficient specified in 6.4.5 (that is = 10/3 brackets, cornices and balconies) shall be

Ah) designed for five times the design vertical

coefficient Av specified in 6.4.6 for that

building.

7.12.2.3 The increased design forces 7.12.2.3 The increased design forces

specified in 7.12.2.1 and 7.12.2.2 are only for specified in 7.12.2.1 and 7.12.2.2 are only

designing the projecting parts and their for designing the projecting parts and their

connections with the main structures. For the connections with the main structures, and

design of the main structure, such increase NOT for the design of the main structure.

need not be considered.

7.12.3 Compound Walls 7.12.3 Compound Walls

Compound walls shall be designed for the Compound walls shall be designed for the

design horizontal coefficient Ah with design horizontal coefficient Ah of 1.25Z,

importance factor I= 1.0 specified in 6.4.2. that is, Ah calculated using 6.4.2 with I = 1,

R = 1 and Sa/g = 2.5

7.12.4 Connections Between Parts 7.12.4 Connections between Parts

All parts of the building, except between the All small items and objects of a building

separation sections, shall be tied together to shall be tied to the building or to each other

act as integrated single unit. All connections to act as single unit, except those between

between different parts, such as beams to the separation joints and seismic joints.

columns and columns to their footings, These connections shall be made capable of

should be made capable of transmitting a transmitting the forces induced in them, but

force, in all possible directions, of magnitude not less than 0.05 times weight of total dead

(Qi/Wi) times but not less than 0.05 times the and imposed load reactions; frictional

weight of the smaller part or the total of dead resistance shall not be relied upon in these

and imposed load reaction. Frictional calculations.

resistance shall not be relied upon for

fulfilling these requirements.

89

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

ANNEX D

(Foreword and Clause 3.15) (Foreword and Clause 3.11)

Comprehensive intensity scale (MSK 64) MSK 1964 INTENSITY SCALE

The scale was discussed generally at the The following description shall be applicable

inter-governmental meeting convened by

UNESCO in April 1964. Though not finally

approved the scale is more comprehensive

and describes the intensity of earthquake

more precisely. The main definitions used

are followings;

a) Type of Structures (Buildings) -do-

Type A Building in field-stone, rural

structures, unburnt-brick

houses, clay houses.

Type B Ordinary brick buildings,

buildings of large block and

prefabricated type, half

timbered structures,

buildings in natural hewn

stone,

Type C Reinforced buildings, well

built wooden structures,

b)Definition of Quantity: -do-

Single, few About 5 percent

Many About 50 percent

Most About 75 percent

c)Classification of Damage to Buildings -do-

Grade 1 Slight Fine cracks in

Damage plaster: fall of

small pieces of

plaster

Grade 2 Moderate Small cracks in

damage plaster: fall of

fairly large

pieces of

plaster:

pantiles slip

off cracks in

chimneys parts

of chimney fall

down,

90

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Grade 3 Heavy Large and deep

damage cracks in

plaster: fall of

chimneys

Grade 4 Destruction Gaps in walls:

parts of

buildings may

collapse:

separate parts

of the buildings

lose their

cohesion: and

inner walls

collapse,

Grade 5 Total damage Total collapse

of the

buildings.

d) Intensity Scale D-2 MSK INTENSITY SCALE

D-2.1 The following introductory letters (i),

(ii) and

(iii) have been used throughout the intensity

scales (I to XII), describing the following:

i) Persons and surroundings,

ii) Structures of all kinds, and

Nature

1. Not noticeable The intensity of the -do-

vibration is below the limits of

sensibility: the tremor is detected and

recorded by seismograph only.

2. Scarcely noticeable (very slight)

Vibration is felt only by individual

people at rest in houses, especially on

upper floors of buildings.

3. Weak, partially observed only The

earthquake is felt indoors by a few

people, outdoors only in favourable

circumstances. The vibration is like that

due to the passing of a light truck.

Attentive observers notice a slight

swinging of hanging objects. somewhat

more heavily on upper floors.

91

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

4. Largelv observed The earthquake is

felt indoors by many people, outdoors by

few. Here and there people awake, but no

one is frightened. The vibration is like

that due to the passing of a heavily loaded

truck. Windows, doors, and dishes rattle.

Floors and walls crack. Furniture begins

to shake. Hanging objects swing slightly.

Liquid in open vessels are slightly

disturbed. In standing motor cars the

shock is noticeable.

5. Awakening

i) The earthquake is felt indoors by all,

outdoors by many. Many people awake.

A few run outdoors. Animals become

uneasy. Building tremble throughout.

Hanging objects swing considerably.

Pictures knock against walls or swing out

of place. Occasionally pendulum clocks

stop. Unstable objects overturn or shift.

Open doors and windows are thrust open

and slam back again. Liquids spill in

small amounts from well-filled open

containers. The sensation of vibration is

like that due to heavy objects falling

inside the buildings.

ii) Slight damages in buildings of Type A

are possible.

iii) Sometimes changes in flow of

springs.

6. Frightening

i) Felt by most indoors and outdoors.

Many people in buildings are frightened

and run outdoors. A few persons loose

their balance. Domestic animals run out

of their stalls. In few instances, dishes

and glassware may break, and books fall

down. Heavy furniture may possibly

move and small steeple bells may ring.

ii) Damage of Grade 1is sustained in

single buildings of Type B and in many

of Type A. Damage in few buildings of

Type A is of Grade 2.

92

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

iii) In few cases, cracks up to widths of

1cm possible in wet ground in mountains

occasional landslips: change in flow of

springs and in level of well water are

observed.

7. Damage of buildings

i) Most people are frightened and run

outdoors. Many find it difficult to stand.

The vibration is noticed by persons

driving motor cars. Large bells ring.

ii) In many buildings of Type C damage

of Grade 1 is caused: in many buildings

of Type B damage is of Grade 2. Most

buildings of Type A suffer damage of

Grade 3, few of Grade 4. In single

instances, landslides of roadway on steep

slopes: crack inroads; seams of pipelines

damaged; cracks in stone walls.

iii) Waves are formed on water, and is

made turbid by mud stirred up, Water

levels in wells change, and the flow of

springs changes. Some times dry springs

have their flow resorted and existing

springs stop flowing. In isolated

instances parts of sand and gravelly

banks slip off.

8. Destruction of buildings

i) Fright and panic; also persons driving

motor cars are disturbed, Here and there

branches of trees break off. Even heavy

furniture moves and partly overturns.

Hanging lamps are damaged in part.

ii) Most buildings of Type C suffer

damage of Grade 2, and few of Grade 3,

Most buildings of Type B suffer damage

of Grade 3. Most buildings of Type A

suffer damage of Grade 4. Occasional

breaking of pipe seams. Memorials and

monuments move and twist. Tombstones

overturn. Stone walls collapse.

iii) Small landslips in hollows and on

banked roads on steep slopes; cracks in

ground upto widths of several

93

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

centimetres. Water in lakes become

turbid. New reservoirs come into

existence. Dry wells refill and existing

wells become dry. In many cases, change

in flow and level of water is observed.

9. General damage of buildings

i) General panic; considerable damage to

furniture. Animals run to and fro in

confusion, and cry.

ii) Many buildings of Type C suffer

damage of Grade 3, and a few of Grade

4. Many buildings of Type B show a

damage of Grade 4 and a few of Grade 5.

Many buildings of Type A suffer damage

of Grade 5. Monuments and columns fall.

Considerable damage to reservoirs;

underground pipes partly broken, In

individual cases, railway lines are bent

and roadway damaged.

iii) On flat land overflow of water, sand

and mud is often observed. Ground

cracks to widths of up to 10 cm, on slopes

and river banks more than 10 cm.

Furthermore, a large number of slight

cracks in ground; falls of rock, many land

slides and earth flows; large waves in

water. Dry wells renew their flow and

existing wells dry up.

10. General destruction of building

i) Many buildings of Type C suffer

damage of Grade 4, and a few of Grade

5. Many buildings of Type B show

damage of Grade 5. Most of Type A have

destruction of Grade 5. Critical damage

to dykes and dams. Severe damage to

bridges. Railway lines are bent slightly.

Underground pipes are bent or broken.

Road paving and asphalt show waves.

ii) In ground, cracks up to widths of

several centimetres, sometimes up to 1m,

Parallel to water courses occur broad

fissures. Loose ground slides from steep

slopes. From river banks and steep

94

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

coasts, considerable landslides are

possible. In coastal areas, displacement

of sand and mud: change of water level

in wells; water from canals, lakes. rivers.

etc. thrown on land. New lakes occur.

11. Destruction

i) Severe damage even to well built

buildings. bridges, water dams and

railway lines. Highways become useless

Underground pipes destroyed.

ii) Ground considerably distorted by

broad cracks and fissures, as well as

movement in horizontal and vertical

directions. Numerous landslips and falls

of rocks. The intensity of the earthquake

requires to be investigated specifically.

12. Landscape changes

i) Practically all structures above and

below ground are greatly damaged or

destroyed.

ii) The surface of the ground is radically

changed. Considerable ground cracks

with extensive vertical and horizontal

movements are observed. Falling of rock

and slumping of river banks over wide

areas, lakes are dammed; waterfalls

appear and rivers are deflected. The

intensity of the earthquake requires to be

investigated specially.

95

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

ANNEX E

(Foreword)

List of some towns with population more than 3 lakhs (As per Census 2011) and their Seismic

Zone factor Z. Table is same for old and new codes.

96

IS 1893 (part 1) 2002 vs 2016

Jorhat V 0.36 Puducherry) II 0.10

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