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Consideraes sobre Harmnicas

Raymond Schmitz

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SP Maio 2015

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Sistema com inversor

Transformador Inversor Motor

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Sistema com Inversor

Transformador Inversor Motor

Corrente harmnicas de rede

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Harmnicas -Tpicos
Definio.
Efeitos das correntes harmnicas
Medindo as harmnicas (onde ?)
Porque os inversores produzem harmnicas ?
Entendendo a IEEE-519
Variao das harmnicas em funo da carga
Efeito das harmnicas sobre o fator de potncia
Como minimizar as harmnicas
Ferramenta para estimar as harmnicas
Concluso

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Definio
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De maneira facil e didtica podemos dizer que...

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A RSS da FFT
deve atender
a THD e a TDD
Recomendado pela IEEE no
PCC

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O que so Harmnicas ?
Harmnicas so correntes parasitarias que vo se somar na corrente
fundamental.

Harmnicas causam a distoro de uma forma de onda puramente senoidal.

Harmnicas so multiplos inteiros da frequncia fundamental de um sistema.


para um sistema em 50Hz , 5a. 250Hz, 7a. 350 Hz
para um sistema em 60Hz, 5a. 300Hz, 7a. 420 Hz

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) a maneira de quantificar a distoro total de


uma forma de onda.

Todos os retificadores (cargas no lineares) produzem correntes harmnicas que


realimentam o sistema de potncia.

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Quem causa Harmnica ?

Qualquer carga no-linear.


Numa carga no-linear, a corrente no proporcional na
tenso aplicada.
Carga Linear: Corrente e Tenso Carga no Linear: Corrente e Tenso
so proporcionais. no so proporcionais.

IA IA
VAN
VAN

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Exemplos de Cargas lineares

Motores
Resistores de aquecimento
Transformadores ( apos energizao )
Lampadas encandescentes, etc.

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Exemplos de Cargas no-lineares

Lmpadas Fluorecentes
Fontes Chaveadas
Fornos a Arco
Retificadores, etc.

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Harmnicas em um Retificador Tpico
( 6 Pulsos )
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1a., 5a., 7a.

1a. + 5a. (-20%)

1a. + 5a. (-20%) + 7a. (-13%)

1a. + 5a. (-20%) + 7a. (-13%) +


11a. (9%) + 13a. (7%)

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Efeitos das Correntes Harmnicas

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Efeitos das Correntes Harmnicas
Correntes harmnicas fluindo em um sistema eltrico iro produzir
distores de tenso em vrios pontos de interligao com outras cargas.
A distoro depende da:
impedncia do sistema ;
amplitude das harmnicas injetadas no sistema ;
relao entre cargas lineares e cargas no-lineares ;
tipo de retificador utilizado (Ex : 6 Pulsos, 12 Pulsos, etc...)

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Causa raiz com outros equipamentos
PLC

Harmnicas de
EQUIPMENT

TELEPHONE
PCC EQUIPMENT

Corrente
DATA
PROCESSING
CENTER

IH

causam
HARMONIC SOURCE

Distoro de Tenso

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Efeito das correntes harmnicas
Problemas com harmnicas podem incluir :
Sobreaquecimento de componentes (motores, capacitores,
transformadores, etc) ;
Aumento da corrente total limitando futuras ampliaes do sistema eltrico
Mau funcionamento de equipamentos ;
Interferncias no sistema telefnico ;
Medies incorretas, mau funcionamento dos rels de proteo de
sobrecarga ;
Harmnicas causam correntes adicionais que no produzem trabalho ;
Distoro da tenso de alimentao ;

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Medindo as Harmnicas (Onde ?)

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Medindo as Harmnicas

Ponto de acoplamento comum (PCC)


Geralmente onde o usurio se conecta com a concessionria

DIAGRAMA UNIFILAR

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Porque os inversores produzem harmnicas ?

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Topologia de um inversor de frequncia
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AC Drive

AC Motor Output
AC Line Input

Converter DC Inverter
AC to DC Bus DC to AC
Filter

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Retificador de entrada
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

VMan2
75hp, 480V Converter Llink
+

V Ldclink

VMan1 D1 D2 D3
+

ET1
La Va Lar

Va Lsource Lreactor
I0 := 0 + +
V VMab V VMac bus_cap Cbus Load
ET2
Lb Vb Lbr V0 := Vstart

Vb Lsource Lreactor load_cur


I0 := -(load_cur) I0 := -(load_cur)
ET3
Lc Vc Lcr

Vc Lsource Lreactor
I0 := load_cur I0 := load_cur

D4 D5 D6

FML_INIT2

Simplorer Student Version at www.ansoft.com

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Inversor sem reator no barramento CC
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
50.00m 62.50m 75.00m 87.50m 100.00m
800.0 VMab.V = f ...
La.I = f (t, b...
666.7 Cbus.V = f (...
VMac.V = f ...
VMan.V [V]...

333.3 333.3

0 0

-333.3 -333.3

-666.7 -666.7

-800.0 -800.0
50.00m 62.50m 75.00m 87.50m 100.00m

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Inversor sem reator no barramento CC
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
50.00m 62.50m 75.00m 87.50m 100.00m
800.0 VMab.V = f ...
La.I = f (t, b...
666.7 Cbus.V = f (...
VMac.V = f ...
VMan.V [V]...

333.3 333.3

0 0

-333.3 -333.3

-666.7 -666.7

-800.0 -800.0
50.00m 62.50m 75.00m 87.50m 100.00m

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Inversor sem reator no barramento CC
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
81.50m82.50m 85.00m 87.50m 90.00m 92.50m
93.50m
800.0 VMab.V = f ...
La.I = f (t, b...

Vab Vac Vbus


Cbus.V = f (...
VMac.V = f ...
VMan.V [V]...

600.0 600.0

400.0
Van 400.0

200.0
Ia 200.0

0 0

-100.0 -100.0
81.50m82.50m 85.00m 87.50m 90.00m 92.50m
93.50m

400A/ms
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Retificador de Entrada
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

VMan2
75hp, 480V Converter Llink
+

V Ldclink

VMan1 D1 D2 D3
+

ET1 Lar
La

Va Lsource Lreactor
I0 := 0 + +
V VMab V VMac bus_cap Cbus Load
ET2 V0 := Vstart
Lb Lbr

Vb Lsource Lreactor load_cur


I0 := -(load_cur) I0 := -(load_cur)
ET3
Lc Lcr

Vc Lsource Lreactor
I0 := load_cur I0 := load_cur

D4 D5 D6

FML_INIT2

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Inversor com reator no barramento CC
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
150.0m 162.5m 175.0m 187.5m 200.0m
800.0 VMab.V = f ...
La.I = f (t, b...
666.7 Cbus.V = f (...
VMac.V = f ...
VMan.V [V]...

333.3 333.3

0 0

-333.3 -333.3

-666.7 -666.7

-800.0 -800.0
150.0m 162.5m 175.0m 187.5m 200.0m

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Inversor com reator no barramento CC
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
181.5m182.5m 185.0m 187.5m 190.0m 192.5m
193.5m
800.0 VMab.V = f ...
La.I = f (t, b...
Vab Vac
Vbus Cbus.V = f (...
VMac.V = f ...
VMan.V [V]...

600.0 600.0

Van
400.0 400.0

200.0 200.0

Ia

0 0

-100.0 -100.0
181.5m182.5m 185.0m 187.5m 190.0m 192.5m
193.5m

80A/ms
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Importante

Harmnicas de corrente

criam

Distoro de tenso

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Entendendo a IEEE-519

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O que devemos fazer com as harmnicas?

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No nem econmico nem desejvel eliminar todas as harmnicas.


Guias prticos e anlises so utilizados e/ou necessrios para
determinar se ocorrero problemas criados pela introduo de
harmnicas em um sistema.
Normas e Recomendaes :
IEEE-519 (nos EUA e Amrica do Sul)
IEC-555 (Europa e algumas reas na Amrica do Sul)

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Quais so os limites da IEEE 519-1992 ?
Harmonic Voltage Limits Table 10.2

Low-Voltage Systems
Application Maximum THD (%)
Special Applications - hospitals and airports 3.0%
General System 5.0%
Dedicated System - exclusively converter load 10.0%
Current distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (120V through 69,000V)
Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of Iload
Isc/Iload <11 11<=h<17 17<=h<23 23<=h<35 35<=h TDD (% )
<20 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
20<50 7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
50<100 10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0
100<1000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
>1000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits above
Table 10.3
Isc=maximum short circuit current at PCC
Iload=maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC
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O objetivo da IEEE 519(Primeiro Mandamento)

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Quem seu vizinho ?
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Quem seu vizinho ?
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utility I(TDD) is measured at each metering point


transformer
Iharm Iharm A
PCC1 Customer
Other
A
Customer
Ifund Ifund A
2500kVA
5.75%Z Iharm B
480Vsec
Customer
Other
B
Customer
Ifund B
Goal is to
keep the V(THD) at Iharm C
PCC1 <= 5%, Customer
Other
C
Customer
Ifund C

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Olhando internamente o cliente A
300hp 6-P drives
Customer A 600hp linear loads

V(THD) <= 10%

113Arms
PCC1 V(THD) <= 5%

981Arms

Isc/Iload = 53.3 V(THD) <= 5%


V(THD) = 2.0%
I(TDD) = 11.5%

Atende a IEEE-519 no PCC1

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Atender a IEEE-519 no Inversor ???
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bom lembrar que a IEEE 519


uma recomendao
para sistemas de distribuio
e no
para equipamentos

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Variao das Harmnicas em funo da carga

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Efeito da corrente motor sobre I(THD) ?
6-Pulse
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. Buffered Drive Currents
100
90
80
% of Full Load Fund. Current

70 Iharm
Ifund
60 I(THD)
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 20 40 % Load 60 80 100
I(THD) aumenta a medida que a carga diminue ;
NOTA : I(fund) diminue a medida que a carga diminue ;
I(THD) = Iharm / Ifund I(harm) diminue a medida que a carga diminue.

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Efeito das Harmnicas no fator de potncia

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Fator de Potncia
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P.F. Total = Fator de Deslocamento (Displacement P.F.) x


Fator de Distoro (Distortion P.F.)

As concessionrias medem o Fator de Potncia Total.


A maioria dos fabricantes de inversores falam somente do
fator de deslocamento (Displacement Power Factor).

E o Fator de Distoro, e o Fator de Deslocamento, so importantes ?

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O que so Fatores de Distoro e
Deslocamento
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Distortion Power Factor


o no alinhamento da Tenso e Corrente devido a distoro das formas de Onda.
I1 1
DF
I rms 1 THD 2

Displacement Power Factor


Defasagem entre Tenso e Corrente na passagem por zero.
IDF cos 1

Ambos so importantes e igualmente afetam


o fator de potncia total !

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Como minimizar as harmnicas

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Relao entre Nmero de Pulsos dos
Retificadores e as Harmnicas
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As Harmnicas caractersticas (h) em relao ao nmero de pulsos (n)


de um retificador dado por :

h= k n 1

k = mltiplo do nmero de pulsos


Ex : 6 pulsos injeta 61= 5a. e 7a., 121 = 11a. e 13a.

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Relao entre Nmero de Pulsos dos
Retificadores e as Harmnicas

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A amplitude (A) de uma dada harmnica relacionada com o nmero de


pulsos por :

A = 1/h

quanto maior a ordem da harmnica, menor ser sua


amplitude.
Ex : 5a. harmnica 1/5 = 20%, 7a. harmnica 1/7 = 13%.

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Retificador de 6 pulsos
5a e 7a Harmnicas
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Retificador

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Como atingir um maior nmero de pulsos ?

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Atravs de um transformador alimentador com multiplos secundrios.


O deslocamento de fase dos secundrios obtido por :

60
phase _ shift
number _ of _ sec ondary _ windings

para um retificador de 12 pulsos, o deslocamento de fase deve ser 60/2=30 (Ex : enrolamentos em
no secundrio e Y no tercirio).
para um retificador de 18 pulsos, o deslocamento de fase entre enrolamentos do secundrio sero de
20, 0 e -20 (Ex : configurao dos enrolamentos em delta ou estrela).

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Retificador de 12 pulsos
11a e 13a Harmnicas
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Rectificador de
12 Pulsos

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Retificador de 18 pulsos
17a e 19a Harmnicas
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Retificador AFE (Active Front End)
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Regenerative AC Drive

AC Motor Output
AC Line Input

Converter DC Inverter
AC to DC Bus DC to AC
Filter

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THD tpico em funo do retificador
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Tcnicas de Reduo de Harmnicas
Reator no Barramento CC do inversor (PowerFlex) ;
Reator de Entrada ;
Utilizao de Filtros Ativos ou Passivos de Harmnicas ;
Utilizar inversores com entrada ativa (Entrada AFE/PWM) ;
Aumentar o nmero de pulsos do retificador. Ex : 12 ou 18 pulsos ;
No caso de ter um nmero par de inversores de mesma potncia e com
mesmo perfil de carga adotar um arranjo pseudo 12 pulsos colocando
metade da carga num secundario em estrela e outra metade num
secundario em triangulo ;
Aumentar as cargas lineares em relao s no-lineares, etc.

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Reator no barramento CC e/ou Reator de entrada
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VMan2
75hp, 480V Converter Llink
+

V Ldclink

VMan1 D1 D2 D3
+

ET1 Lar
La

Va Lsource Lreactor
I0 := 0 + +
V VMab V VMac bus_cap Cbus Load
ET2 V0 := Vstart
Lb Lbr

Vb Lsource Lreactor load_cur


I0 := -(load_cur) I0 := -(load_cur)
ET3
Lc Lcr

Vc Lsource Lreactor
I0 := load_cur I0 := load_cur

D4 D5 D6

FML_INIT2

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Filtros Passivos
Drive
Transformer DC Link
xfmr Choke

I(THD) de 4 at 7% %Z AC DC

DC AC

M
hp
-25.00m -20.00m -10.00m 0 10.00m Passive Filter
20.00m 24.90m
150.0 Ia = f( S,...
Motor
100.0 100.0 Load

50.0 50.0

0 0

-50.0 -50.0

-100.0 -100.0

-150.0 -150.0
-25.00m -20.00m -10.00m 0 10.00m 20.00m 24.90m

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Filtros Ativos

Drive
Transformer DC Link
xfmr Choke
I(THD) tpico de 3 6% %Z Ifund Ifund + Iharm AC DC

DC AC

Iharm AC

DC
M
hp
-25.00m -20.00m -10.00m 0 10.00m 20.00m 24.90m
150.0 Ia = f( S,... Active Filter
Motor
100.0 100.0
Load
50.0 50.0

0 0

-50.0 -50.0

-100.0 -100.0

-150.0 -150.0
-25.00m -20.00m -10.00m 0 10.00m 20.00m 24.90m

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Estrela-Tringulo (pseudo 12-Pulsos)
Drive
Transformer
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. DC Link
xfmr Choke
%Z AC DC

DC AC
M
or
Soluo para dois inversores. reactor
Drive
Proporciona uma boa diminuio DC Link
Choke
do contedo harmnico. AC DC

I(THD) de 30% para 15%. DC AC


M

1000.0
150.0m 162.5m 175.0m 187.5m 200.0m
La1.I = f... Carga : 50% em cada trafo.
500.0 500.0
(A corrente mostrada ao lado foi medida
com 100% de carga aplicada no
0 0
inversor superior e 25% de carga
-500.0 -500.0
aplicada no inversor inferior)
-1000.0 -1000.0
150.0m 162.5m 175.0m 187.5m 200.0m

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Custos das tcnicas de reduo de
harmnicas

Relative Installed Cost, %


0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Basic Drive without dc link choke


Addition of dc link choke
Addition of 3% line reactor
Addition of passive filter
12 pulse auto transformer
18 pulse auto transformer
Active filter
Synchronous converter

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Custos das tcnicas de reduo de
harmnicas

$90,000
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$80,000 Active Filter


Passive Filter
$70,000
18-Pulse
$60,000
Active Front-End
$50,000
$40,000
$30,000
$20,000
$10,000
$0
10 HP

25 HP

50 HP

75 HP

100 HP

150 HP

200 HP

250 HP

300 HP

400 HP

500 HP

800 HP
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Custos das tcnicas de reduo de harmnicas -
2010
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Aumentando as Cargas Lineares

Iharm, A 20 20 20 20
Ifund, A 10 20 100 1000
Itotal, A 22.4 28.3 102.0 1000.2
I(THD) 200% 100% 20% 2%
Lembre-se : I(THD) = Iharm/Ifund

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Exemplo IEEE-519
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Recomendao : 5% de distoro harmnica de tenso.

Transformador de 250KVA c/ 6% de impedncia alimentando um inversor


de 150HP.

Inversor sem reator no barramento CC : 6,55 % de distoro harmnica


(Acima do recomendado pela IEEE).

Inversor com Reator no Barramento CC : 4,87% de distoro harmnica


(Abaixo do recomendado pela IEEE).

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Tendncias do mercado
12/18 Pulsos - muito bem aceitas no mercado
Geralmente pr-especificados ;
Tecnologia madura e simples ;
Soluo mais barata acima de 150/ 200HP.
Filtros passivos
Soluo competitiva para Inversores <150/200 HP ;
Tecnologia bem dominada.
Filtros ativos
Comeando a aparecer nas especificaes ;
Alto custo de aquisio.
AFE (Active Front End Retificador ativo na entrada)
Muito bem aceito na Europa ;
Problema de custo na America do Norte e America Latina.

Obs : O preo do cobre e do ao silicio est aumentando muito e preo da eletrnica de


potncia est diminuindo.
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Ferramentas para avaliar sua THD

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PUBLIC - 5058-CO900H Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 64
Como atender a IEEE519
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Identificar o PCC e aplicar a tcnica mais apropriada (barata) ;

Adicionar reatores AC (ou reator CC se possvel) para inversores com


retificadores de 6 pulsos ;

Considerar o uso de filtros ativos para sistemas com mltiplos


inversores ;

No caso de existir um nmero par de inversores de mesma potncia e


com mesmo perfil de carga, adotar um arranjo pseudo 12 pulsos
colocando metade da carga no secundrio em estrela e a outra
metade no secundrio em tringulo ;

Tentar separar os sistemas de alimentao para as cargas lineares e


no-lineares e ter assim limites de THD de tenso diferentes (5% e
10%).
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Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
PUBLIC
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
PUBLIC
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Internet
Copyright 2005 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Internet :

http://www.ab.com : Drives, Get Support, Softwares (Harmonic Calculator,


Energy Comparison, etc...), na mesma pgina tem tambem : Informaes Tcnicas
(Technical Inf), Artigos Tcnicos (Technical Articles), etc...

http://www.rockwellautomation.com

http://www.rockwellautomation.com.br

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Seguindo estas recomendaes, voc dever
atingir um THD aceitvel para sua operao !

Muito obrigado!

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