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A STUDY ON WASTE MANAGEMENT IN AKG MEMORIAL CO-OPERATIVE

HOSPITAL

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

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1.1 INTRODUCTION

Wastes are unwanted or unusable materials Examples include municipal


solid waste(household trash/refuse), hazardous waste, wastewater (such as sewage, which
contains bodily wastes(feces and urine) and surface runoff), radioactive waste, and others..

Hospital waste is Any waste which is generated in the diagnosis, treatment or


immunization of human beings or animals or in research in a hospital. Hospital Waste
Management means the management of waste produced by hospitals using such techniques
that will help to check the spread of diseases through.

Hospital waste management is a part of hospital hygiene and maintenance activities. In


fact only 15% of hospital waste i.e. bio medical waste is hazardous not the complete. But
when the hazardous waste is not segregated at the source of generation and mixed with
hazardous waste then 100% of waste becomes hazardous. Hence it is an important duty of
hospital authorities to safely dispose and manage the whole wastes in hospital. If hospital
waste is not properly managed and disposed of, it can result in injury by contaminated sharps
and infection with hepatitis B,C and HIV. It also results in environment pollution also.

Biomedical waste management has recently emerged as an issue of hospitals, nursing


home authorities but also to the environment. The biomedical waste generated from
healthcare unites defend upon a number of factors such as waste management methods, type
of health care units, specialization of health care unite, ratio of reusable items in use,
availability of infrastructure and resources etc. The proper management of biomedical waste
has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today. Although hazards of poor management of
biomedical waste have aroused the concern world over, especially in the light of its far
reaching effects on human, health and environment.

Now it is well established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the
environment including human beings which are caused by the Hospital waste generated
during patient care, The problems of the waste disposal have become issues of increasing
concern

The study was undertaken at AKG Memorial Co-Operative Hospital Kannur. On the topic
a study on waste disposal and management The duration of the study was two months. The
study was fully based on well defined objectives. The data collection is purely based on both
primary and secondary data.
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The main purpose of this project is to study the current practices of waste disposal in
AKG Co-Operative hospital and to understand patience perception towards waste
management also.

Over the past two decades, health care wastes has been identified as one of the major
problems that negatively impact both human health and the environment when improperly
stored, transported and disposed. For many years, the World Health Organization has
advocated that medical waste be regarded as special waste and it is now commonly
acknowledged that certain categories of health care waste are among the most hazardous and
potentially dangerous of all waste arising in communities. There are many institutions which
pollute the environmental but recently the ignored field which produce the pollution by way
of health care wastes and attracts the attention of the environmentalists are the hospitals,
dispensaries, medical shops, medical clinics of doctors and other paramedical staff. Hospital
waste is defined as any type of waste generated by health care institutions, including
hospitals, medical laboratories, animal experimentation units, and clinics. Hospital waste is
not only hazardous and pollute the environment but dangerous for human beings, animals and
plants by other ways also. Every day, the countries numerous hospitals and other medical
institutions churn out millions of tons of waste. An alarming percentage of the waste lies on
open space creating environmental problems. Health care wastes are hazardous in nature.
These damage the environment even at low concentration. Hence it is necessary to take
precautionary measures so that hazardous components in the waste are rendered harmless
through proper treatment by technology and safe disposal methods. The problem of health
care waste has acquired gargantuan proportion in today's cities. About 1.50 kg of waste was
produced per head/per day of the total hospital waste, which was contaminated with disease
carry pathogens. If we take an example if a patient lying in the hospital for treatment and a
normal man live in the society. A patient in the hospital needs more and more hygienic and
pollution free environment. He needs oxygen. But the environment of hospitals, especially of
Government hospitals was so polluted by the hospital wastes that it becomes very difficult
even for a normal man to go in the hospitals and give a visit to his concerned patient. Most of
the hospital they are dumping the hospital waste to open place or municipal solid waste its
affect the environmental and human health. The wastes generated from health care units are
generally classified as infectious and non infectious. The infectious health care wastes are
termed as hospital wastes and are considered to be potentially hazardous in nature. The
disposal of untreated health care wastes mixed with non infectious hospital wastes or other

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general municipal wastes poses an environmental threat and public health risk. Indiscriminate
disposal of untreated health care waste is often the cause for the spread of several infectious
diseases. It was also responsible for the nosocomial diseases i.e. the hospital acquired
diseases to the health care personnel who handle these wastes at the point of generation.
Moreover, this is equally harmful to persons involved in the health care waste management
i.e. segregation, storage, transport, treatment and disposal. Apart from the above, a good
amount of health care wastes such as disposable syringes, saline bottles, I.V. fluid bottles etc.
are picked up by rag pickers and are recycled back into the market without any disinfection.
It is imperative, therefore, to adopt an appropriate environmentally safe method for the
disposal of the health care wastes

TYPES OF HOSPITAL CARE WASTES:

These are of two types, infectious wastes and non infectious wastes ,

1. Infectious Hospital Wastes: Human anatomical or surgical waste, Animal waste,


Pathological waste including tissues, organs, blood and body fluids, microbiological cultures,
Cotton, Swabs etc. Used Syringes, tubes, Blood bags and other items contaminated with
blood and body fluids. Items such as plaster, casts and bandages, when contaminated by
blood and pus. Waste from isolation wards. The amount of infectious waste is near about 15
to 20 per cent of the total wastes generated from the health care establishment.

2. Non Infectious Hospital Waste: Non infectious waste is broadly classified as kitchen waste
and office wastes. It is similar to household waste. Non infectious wastes constitute nearly
about85% to 80% of the total wastes generated from a health care unit. In absence of proper
segregation, the non infectious waste becomes infectious and poses environmental threat to
the society. 3. BIO MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES, 1998 (Amended in 2000
and 2003) Under the Environmental Protection Act, the bio medical waste management rules
were introduced. These rules are directly relevant to the health sector. The salient features of
these rules are as follows: Bio medical wastes means waste that is generated during the
diagnosis, treatment or immunizations of human beings or animals or in research activities
pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biological. It is the duty of every occupier
of an institution generating bio medical waste which includes a hospital, nursing home, clinic,
dispensary, veterinary institution, animal house, pathological laboratory and blood bank by
whatever name called to take all steps to ensure that such waste is handled without any

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adverse effect to human health and the environment, policies, legislation and regulations
policy framework, March 2007.

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CHAPTER -II

INDUSTRY PROFILE AND COMPANY PROFILE

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2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE

EVOLUTION OF CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT

Co-operative movement owes its origin to England. The great philosopher Robert
Owen gave the idea of self-help through mutual help to mitigate the sufferings of the
exploited class in the wake of the industrial revolution. Many experience created by him had
the impact on making prudent and helped them in brooding ideas on co-operation.

Disciples of Robert Owen, Dr. William King and other pleaded for the cause of co-
operation with its back ground on 24th October 1988, 28 persons including a lady disciple of
the town of Rockdale came forward with the new schemes of self help and the Rockdale
pioneers, co-operatives society was registered. This laid the foundation of the great and
magnificent system in England known as the consumer co-operative movement in the
beginning , the co-operative idea was applied more to the consumer business. Later it came
to be applied to all the field of national activity. Today there are co-operative housing
societies, co-operative stores, co-operative industrial undertakings etc..,. In Germany the
famous Raiffeisen movement started the co-operative activities in the field of agricultural
credit in 1986. The beginning of modern co-operative movement are usually associated with
the name of Robert Owen . Owen appears to have been the first to apply the term co-
operative to these activities. So Owen may be accepted as the actual progenitor of the co-
operative movement.

EVOLUTION OF CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT IN INDIA

Unlike European countries, Co-operative movement was introduced as a state policy.


It was formally inaugurated by the enactment of co-operative credit societies Act of 1904 by
the British Government. In the early stage of India, due to prolonged British rule, the
economic position of the villages was completely shattered. British exploited Indian by
exporting manufactured from England. As a result, the local cottage and small scale
industries had a set back and they gradually vanished. The people who were engaged in such
industries had no other alternative but to fully depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Thus
aspect added to pressure on land people were trotted by indebtedness.

In Indian organizers of the movement had experience and knowledge of the borrowed
idea of co-operation. Their task was made even more difficult by the fact that they had to

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spread a new idea in the minds of the uneducated rural people. The Act of 1904 provided for
the organization of primary societies and stores was laid on the promotion of agricultural
credit societies only. Local officers were introduced that this organization of rural credit
societies should be their first concern. One of the special features of the societies during the
period was that this Government was the prime moves of the movement. The movement was
not only initiated by the Government but was also supported by the Government loans. As a
result in 1909 the Government was formed 52% of the working capital of societies

The achievement made through the Act 1904, gave great explanations to the
Government. The Act was of 1904 was found insufficient to cope with the expanding
movement . It was however realized that this Act had one short coming in the sense that, it
did not provide any legal protection to these societies organized for the purposes other than
credit or to the second co-operative societies Act 1912. Important changes brought about this
new Act were, this Act 1912 recognized the formulation of non-credit societies and central
co-operative organization.

Under the Act of 1919, co-operation becomes a transferred subject under the changes
of a Minister. In each province during the early years, co-operation made a rapid progress in
various provinces. The central and provincial banking enquiry committee made suggestions
for the improvement of working co-operative societies.

After independence the construction of our country laid down the establishment of a
co-operative common wealth. The first five year plan aimed at changing the economy of the
country from the individualistic to co-operatives. During the second plan period co-operatives
was assigned social rules for the organization of villages . Co-operation was recognized as a
powerful instrument of efficiency improvement in the economic life of the people. During the
subsequent plan periods, special emphasis was given on building up strong and viable co-
operative sector. At the end of 2000, India has 525310 co-operatives altogether with the
membership of 213.978 million at all levels with a total share capital of 115088.60 million of
the village covered by co-operation is 100%.

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EVOLUTION OF CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT IN KERALA

The Kerala state came in to existence in November 1956. Its geographical area
consists of three parts, namely the former Travancore and cochin princely states and Malabar
area of the former Madras province. These three parts had their own co-operative societies
Act 1912.

The first co-operative legislation in the former Travancore state was the Travancore
co-operative societies when Kerala state was organized in 1956. Two different co-operative
laws were in operation. ie, the Travancore cochin societies Act of 1951. In the Travancore
cochin area and the Madras co-operative Act of 1932 in the Malabar area. Hence the
necessity for a uniform legislation covering the whole of Kerala was felt accordingly Kerala
co-operative Act was passed in 1969.

In the Kerala state co-operative societies Act, there is provisions for the state
partnership and Government nomination of the management of co-operative union and state
co-operative union were formed. Although necessary amendments are made in the Act, there
is a demurring on the part of co-operators for the enactment of a new co-operative societies
Act to suit the changed economic and social conditions in the state.

EVOLUTION OF CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT IN KANNUR

The Co-operative movement in Kannur is old as the co-operative movement in India.


The history of co-operative in Kannur began since 1914. It was A.R Brown a foreigner, who
started the first co-operative society in Kannur. He initiated the society of Anjarakkandy with
its members and with a capital of 27. The society was registered askatam vayppa sangam
credit society. During its growth the society was known functioning from as Anjarakkandy
farmers service co-operative bank. Now Kannur is having one district bank, 125 primary
agricultural credit societies , 10 co-operative rural banks, 7 co-operative urban banks and 3
primary agricultural rural development banks. Compared to all other co-operative bank in the
state, Kannur district co-operative bank is the highest bidder of agricultural loans and it is the
second leading bank in the state in terms of business and profit next to Ernakulum district co-
operative bank. Weavers co-operative bank also played a very crucial role in the economic
development of the district. Though presently the weavers societies are facing serious threats

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from various corners its distribution to the distinct economy to many decades may not be left
an noticed. RAIDCO and RUBCO are the best institutions in the industrial fold of the state
are operating from Kannur Dinesh Beedi co-operative society established under the industrial
development is also a major footstep in the history of co-operative society establishment
under the industrial development is also a major foot step in the history of co-operative
movement of Kannur with the adoption of diversification, it has been a rural model for all co-
operative organizations.

AKG Hospitals Kannur, co-operative hospital Thalasseri etc.., are the hospitals
working in co-operative sector successfully in Kannur. So many other societies like
consumer, educational, housing milk, printing, labour contract societies are also functioning
in Kannur district. Recently co-operative sector in Kannur has entered in to tourism sector
through Malabar tourism co-operative apart from setting foot in the courier service. Thus, in
all respect Kannur is growing through co-operatives.

INDIAN HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY

Health care in India features a universal healthcare system run by the constituent
states and territories of India. The constitution charges every state with raising of the level of
nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as
among its primary duties The national health policy was endorsed by the parliament of India
in 1983 and update in 2002.

In the year 1991 India constituted about 22400 primary health centers, 11200
hospitals, and 27400 dispensaries. Such facilities were the part of a tired health care system
which funnels more difficult cases into urban hospitals while attempting to provide routine
medical care to vast majority in the country side.

Indian health care industry growth story is moving ahead neck to neck with the
pharmaceutical industry and the software industry of the nation. There has been much done in
the health care sector for bringing the improvement like till date, approximately 12% of the
scope offered by the industry has been trapped. In the year to come the health care industry in
India is reckoned to be the engine of the Indian economy. Today the health care industry in
India is worth $17 billion and there are anticipation and expectation of it to grow by 13%
every year. The health care sector consists of health care instruments, health care in the retail
market, hospital enrolled to the hospital network etc.

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` Indian health care industries include system like ayurveda and homeopathy which are
increasingly gaining prominence overseas. Another major area for investment in India is the
research industry of the health care, in India there is tremendous prospects with a huge talent
pool and the rise of biotechnology and bioinformatics. Revenues from the health care sector
account for 5.2 percent of the GDP, making it the third largest growth segment in India.

The healthcare is one of the most challenging and fastest growing sectors in India.
Revenues from the health care sector accounts for 5.2 percent of the GDP making it the third
largest growth segment in India.

KERALA HEALTH CARE

Kerala has a long history of organized health care. As per documents by the time the
state was formed in 1956, the foundation for a medical care system accessible to all citizens
was already laid. The easy accessibility and coverage of medical care facilities has played a
dominant role in shaping the health statues of Kerala some of the hospitals in Kerala are more
than 50 years old. The annual growth rate of government health care expenditure has been
showing a steady increase. Indias first ever human development report published in 2002,
placed the southern state of Kerala on top of all the other statues of India, because of easy
accessibility and coverage of medical care facilities.

HOSPITAL

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff


and equipment today; hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health
organizations, health insurance companies or charities, including direct charitable donations.
Type of specialized hospital include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, and hospitals for
dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems, childrens hospitals etc.,

HISTORY OF CO-OPERATIVE HEALTH MOVEMENT IN INDIA

Co-operative hospitals figure prominently in co-operative complex of Kerala state


the main objective of these hospitals are to provide employment and to distribute medical
facilities in their areas of operation. The hospitals are also expected to conduct special clinic

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such as planning clinics, welfare clinics, and health insurance scheme in the community and
nutrition program.

The role of co-operation in family is recognized to be an important factor in the


assessment of countries resources for economic development. Proper medical care is one of
the important means for maintaining health, besides the supply of pure water, good sanitation,
adequate nutrition, proper housing and health education. In view of the meager service and
medical and to the rural population on the one hand, and the over crowding of medical
practitioners in the urban areas on the other. It was decided to organize co-operative public
health and medical aid societies in the rural areas with the help of some subsidies from the
Government in certain provinces as early in 1930s. the benefit which occurred to the rural
population from such societies were so much that they soon won great popularity and their
number rapidly increased from eight in 1938-39 in Punjab to 120 in 1945. The RBI in its
review of co-operative movement of 1939-46 reported that in a few provinces, notably in
Bengal and Punjab, attempts have been made to form public health and medical aid co-
operative societies.

Extremely useful work as done in Bengal for the control of malaria through
such societies in 1939-40, but later on their working becomes somewhat in different. There
were 1048 such societies in Bengal in 1945-46 as against 1091 as clearing gingles,
keratinization of tasks and distributing genuine medicine with a considerable degree of
success. The Panjab public health and medical aid societies have increased from 8 in 1938-39
to 129 by 1945-46 and their membership from 863 to 17171. Financed by subscription and
grants from local boards as well as Government. They have been able to do work in
maintaining dispensaries and first aid posts, despite as acute shortage of doctors with the
return of the medical personnel from the defense service it has expected that their activities
will be expanded further.

Co-operative planning committee recommended the state should help voluntarily the
efforts organized on co-operative lines for such purpose which excludes prevention of
treatment of disease and suggested that the state should provide them ample assistance by
way of grants and subsidies.

However with the establishment of primary health centers under the community
development programme, the co-operative health centers received some set back. But looking

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to the advantage of such societies. The services rendered by them under the supervision of
local leaders are much.

The review of 1978-8 observes, Kerala continued to have the largest number of such
societies. At the end of June 1982, there in Kerala with the membership of 18973. In Punjab,
there were 46 medical and public health co-operative societies and some of the societies
where defunctand some were under winding up process. The societies were also operating in
Haryana, Karnataka, Orissa, Maharashtra Tamilnadu etc..,. At the end of March 2000, there
are 156 co-operative hospital in India with 108499 members generating an employment
potential to 1203

CO-OPERATIVE HOSPITALS IN KERALA

Though the co-operative movement has made deep in roads in to several sectors of the
Indian economy, their presence in social sectors like health is notably low. An exception is
Kerala were co-operative societies have some unique features too. Unlike others, which have
grown as a Government program, propped up by a number of concessions and subsidies,
these co-operative hospitals have achieved organic growth arising out of locally felt need and
initiative shown by the local leadership.

The first co-operative society in the health sector in India as founded in Bombay
known as sushrusha hospital in the late 1960s. However, proliferation of such institutions
can only be found in Kerala. The foundation was laid in 1969 in Trissur. It was the brain child
of few students who were undergoing diploma course in co-operation. They conceived the
venture as a source of employment for some of them. The idea was pursued and few doctors
and legal professionals volunteered to pin them initial problems were formidable. When they
approached the registrar of co-operatives, registration was refused on the apprehension that
the department may have to deal with the problem of death cases once such societies were
established.

However their persistent pleading yielded results and registration was offered on the
condition of depositing rupees10000/-with district co-operative bank Trissur. Thus the first
co-operative hospital in Kerala came in to being on May 14, 1909 it established in a rented
premise. It continued till 1978, when the same site was purchased and the society planned a
major expansion on it. The Government of Kerala also came out with certain promotional
schemes for the formation of hospitals in the co-operative sector. However while seeing the

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overall picture of co-operative movement in Kerala, the role of co-operative hospitals and
dispensaries is very limited.

CO-OPERATIVE HOSPITALS IN KANNUR

There are many co-operative hospitals, situated in Kannur. Some of them are Indira
Gandhi co-operative Hospital, Taliparamba co-operative hospital, Payyannur co-operative
hospital, P.T Chako Hospital, PR Ramavarma Raja Memorial co-operative hospital, Academy
of Medical sciences (Pariyaram Medical College) and AKG Co-operative hospital

Pariyaram Medical College is the biggest co-operative hospital in the world.

1 HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY

The health care industry incorporates several sectors that are dedicated to providing
health care services and products. As a basic frame work for defining the sector, the United
Nations international standard industrial classification categorizes health care as generally
consisting of hospitals activities, medical and dental care activities and other human care
activities. The last class involves activities of, or under the supervision of nurses, midwives,
physiotherapists, scientific or diagnostic laboratories, pathology, residential health facilities,
or other allied health professions.

The management and administration of health care is another sector vital to the
delivery of health care services in particular, the practice of health professionals and
operation of health care institution is typically regulated by national or state provincial
authorities through appropriate regulatory babies for purpose of quality assurance.

Co-operative means as an autonomous association of person untilled voluntarily to


mean their common economic, social and cultural need and aspiration through a jointly
owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Co-operative hospital is an institution which
is operated by person voluntarily associate together as human being for medical, surgical and
for obstetrical care of the patients and which is treated as a hospital by the central/ state
government/ local body or licensed by the appropriate authority. The profit made by the co-
operative hospital is distributed among the member or co-operative.

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2.2 COMPANY PROFILE


The northern Malabar Region of Kerala State is comparatively less developed and
lacks in advanced medical facilities through Kerala take the pride of place in health care in
India. People of this area now depend the hospital situated in Manipal, Vellur etc.., in other
state for which they have to incur heavy expenditure . In order to provide advanced facilities
in this area and to create an institution of excellence for people, a modern hospital complex in
the co-operative sector is to be setup at Kannur which facilitates for service, education,
training and research. The hospital under Cannanore Co-operative Hospital Society Limited,
No. C 834 was called A.K.G Memorial Co-operative Hospital Society Limited.

The establishment of the Super Specialty Hospital established by the Cannanore Co-
operative Hospital Society Limited , which is a co-operative society registered as per the co-
operative societies Act and started functioning on 09-05-1980. It is now a 500 bedded Super
Specialty Hospital. The hospital is famous for its unique characteristics of providing health
care facilities to all strata of the society, at very reasonable charges. The hospital is a boon to
the common man in general and weaker sections in particular since it has been allowing 40%
concessions in Medicare charges . The public find it as an alternative to the Government
Hospital in Kannur District.

AKG Memorial Co-operative hospital is a super specialty medical institution


committed to providing quality healthcare that is accessible and affordable to people in all
walks of life. Established in 1980with 22 beds, it has now grown to one of the premier
hospitals in North Kerala with 5 wings and 500 beds . The hospital has 15 departments with
all the modern state of the art equipments. Highly experience and qualified doctors along
with professionally qualified and motivated staff nurses and technicians provide 24 hours
medical care help to the patients. Equipped with most modern MRI Scan, CT Scan and Ultra
Sound Scan machines. New born baby care help of most modern equipment and efficient 24

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hour accident and trauma-care Centre for emergency treatment. Although the hospital has
grown in stature over the years, its primary aim is to provide people who are economically
backward.

As the hospital could not provide accommodation to all patients who come to the
hospital as in-patients, the managing committee built a new fourth floor block in the hospital,
which increases the strength 350 to 400. The new block is ready for occupation by the end of
August 2004.

The hospital has 26 departments with 46 doctors including specialty doctors and 1
visiting consultants, the hospital is having 6 super specialty departments namely Neurology,
Cardiology, Urology, nephrology, neuro surgery, oncology, plastic surgery etc..,

Objectives and Mission

Provide outstanding treatment facilities for common people at affordable cost.


Put up a multi specialty hospital with all advanced medical capabilities
Set up advanced research and development hubs.
Set up satellite medical centers, auxiliary units and mobile medical units.
Start immunity programs.
To run Medical and Para medical courses like Nursing school, Pharmacy , college,
Lab-Technician courses, X-ray technician courses, Optometric course, Physiotherapy
courses.
To open Mobile Hospital unit and Mobile pharmacy unit.
To adopt prevention of diseases.
To open Diseases Treatment Centre , Research Centre for treatment, Medicine
Manufacturing Unit, Manufacture Medical equipment.
To run ambulance services for the service of the patients.
To run Home Nursing Courses for giving care and service to home.
To run medicine production unit, Printing paper for hospital. Canteen, fax which
Telephone booth etc.., for the convenience of the hospital.
To run blood bank, eye ban etc..,

Assets of the organization

AKG Co-operative Hospital is having two 500 MA X-ray machines and one portable
machine in the X-Ray Department, handled by 4 radiographers with 24 hours cover

The clinical laboratory Microbiology department and Pathology department functions


round the clock with a modern auto analyzer capable of doing 128 different bio-chemistry
hematology tests.

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The hospital is having fledged ICCU WITH 14 BEDS AND A COMPUTERIZED


Tread Mill, Color Doppler and Computerized Cardiac Monitor for each bed.

The hospital is having fully fledged 24 hours working blood bank under the control of
Pathologist.

The hospital having a Whole Body Spiral CT Scan a newly modern MRI Uit in
surgery department of the hospital there is a Upper GI Endoscopy and Laparoscopy machine.

The Orthopedic department of the hospital has Arthroscopy and interlocking


procedure of all long bones and one C Arm machine.

In Dental department there is work includes Orthodontia, Cosmetic and Maxillofacial


surgery.

In Nephrology unit the hospital has six Dialysis units and recently they are starting
Kidney Transplantation Unit.

There is also College of Nursing and Nursing school in the hospital and the college of nursing
and nursing school is recognized by the state Government as well as Central Government.

There are one Chimney for waste treatment and water treatment plant for liquid waste
for waste treatment.

LOCATION:

AKG Co-operative Hospital is located at Talap, in Kannur district, Kerala stated. It is


nearly one kilometer from Kannur town. This hospital provides Medical treatment to the
people of Kannur, as well as the neighboring district of Kasaragod, Wayanad, and Calicut.

COMPETITORS INFORMATION

AKG Memorial Co-operative hospital is situated in Talap, Kannur district. The main
competitors of the hospital are Koyili specialty hospital, which was situated just opposite of
the AKG Hospital and others are AKG Hospital, Ashoka hospital , Fathima Hospital etc..,

COMPONENTS

AKG Hospital has 450 bedded super specialty hospital in Kannur. The hospital
provide (170 beds) in special room, (30 beds) in special ward and (250beds) in general beds.

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The hospital has different departments for advanced treatments for advanced treatment such
as:

SURGERY

GENERAL MEDICINE

GYNACOLOGY

ENT

OPTHALMOLOGY

ORTHOPEDIC

PEDIATRIC

SKIN & VD

CARDIOLOGY

UROLOGY

NEUROSURGERY

JNEUROLOGY

NEPHROLOGY

ANASTHESIA

GANSTRO ENTROLOGY

SONOLOGY (RADIOLOGY)

PHYCHOLOGY

PSYCHIATRY

PLASTIC SURGERY

ONCOLOGY

PATHOLOGY

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SPEECH THERAPY

PHYSIOTHERAPY

RAIOLOGY

OTHER FACILITIES

24 HOURS AMBULANCE

PORTABLE MORTURY

PHARMACY

24 HOURS CASUALITY

24 HOURS OT

X-RAY

ICU

LABORATORY

WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

FEATURES OF AKG HOSPITAL

1. Most recent equipments like Body Spiral CT Scan, well established Blood bank, fully
automatic laboratory , latest X-Ray machines C-arm, ventilator, portable mortuary,
ambulance and well equipped department.

2. 24 hours working operation theatre, accident trauma care unit, Physiotherapy


department etc..,

3. The Neuro Surgery Department which effectively treats all kinds of aliments for
brain, spine etc.,

4. Cardiology department working under senior cardiologist with daily service.

5. Diagnosis and treatment of heart disease using most modern equipment like
Treadmill, hotler color Doppler etc..,

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6. 24 hours snake bite treatment center under full time nephrologists.

7. Well equipped economical analysis unit.

8. Urology & Anchology department which employees start and of the art equipment for
the treatment of Uterine and sexual diseases.

9. 24 hours Casualty service for the urgent and accident cases.

OBJECTIVES OF THE HOSPITAL

1. Provide outstanding treatment facilities for common people at affordable cost.


2. Put up a multi specialty hospital with all advanced medical capabilities.
3. Set up satellite medical centers, auxiliary units and mobile medical units.
4. Establish advanced research and development units.
5. Start immunity programs.
6. Start first aid centers, research centers and laboratory
7. Provide ultra modern treatment facilities
8. Start charitable trusts to help poor people to get advanced treatments.
9. Initiate awareness campaign to educate people

DEPARTMENTS

Cardiology
Dermatology
ENT
Gastroenterology
General medicine
Gynecology
Neurosurgery
Ophthalmology
Orthopedics
Pediatrics
Plastic surgery
RMO
Surgery
Urology
Ultrasound scanning

CARDIOLOGY

Modern well equipped ten bedded care unit with computerized central monitoring,
multipart monitoring computerized treadmill testing

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Holter monitoring

DENTISTRY

General dentistry
Root canal treatment
Fixed dentures
Fillings
Gum surgery

PHYSIOTHERAPY AND REHABILITATION

Neurorehabilitation
Sports injury rehabilitation
Anti-natal rehabilitation
Pain relief services

DERMATOLOGY AND COSMETOLOGY

Dermatology consultation
Skin surgery
patch skin grafting
Cosmetology clinic

NEUROLOGY

Acute stroke management


ICU with latest monitoring
CT scan and other neurological facilities

PEDIATRIC SURGERY

General pediatric surgery


Consultation
Immunization
Pediatric ICU

PLASTIC MICRO VASCULAR SURGERY

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Well equipped for all vascular procedures


Hand surgery
Replantation of severed extremities and fingers
Management of burns patients

PEDIATRIC AND NEONATOLOGY

10 bedded level NICU with well trained staff and equipped with incubator, monitors
Immunization services
Exchange transfusions

ENT

Nasal endoscopy rhinoplasty


Microscopic ear surgeries
Micro laryngoscope

LAPROSCOPIC SURGERY

All general surgical procedures including gastrointestinal, hepto binary and pancreatic
surgeries
Cancer surgeries
All emergency general surgery procedures

RADIOLOGY AND IMAGING

Whole body CT scan


Ultrasound scaning
USG thyroid
mobile and fixed X-ray units

TRAUMA CARE UNIT AND EMERGENCIES

24 hours medical and surgical emergencies


Accident and trauma
Eye, ENT, orthopedics emergencies
Snake bite
Heart attack
Stroke etc.

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PHARMACY

The pharmacy provides 24 hour services. There are 2 pharmacies in the hospital. The
main pharmacy is at the entrance of the hospital which can be used by the outsiders

CANTEEN

The canteen services provided are on contract basis it provides goods at subsidized
rates. The canteen facilities are extended to the patients attendants and the outpatients.

OTHER FACILITES

Treatment under ECHS


Labor rooms
Bio medical waste disposal through IMAGE and hospital waste water management.
Well furnished patient rooms with 24 hours water and electricity
Mortuary

OTHER DEPARTMENTS

HOUSE KEEPING DEPARTMENT

AKG hospital manages the house keeping department. There is a house keeping
department. There is a house keeping department is mainly divided into ward boy, sweepers
and security. This department working from 8.00 AM to 6.00 PM it is managed by 1 nursing
assistant. The department plays a vital role in making hospital neat and clean from all kinds
of waste and pollutions, It ensures that the hospital environment is always safe for patients
and helps achieving maximum efficiency possible care and comfort of the patients.

WATER TERATMENT PLANT

A waste water treatment plant is an industrial structure designed to remove biological


or chemical waste products from water, thereby permitting the treated water to be used for
other purpose.

The treatment plant in the hospital removes the waste from the water mainly sewage
waste and salvage waste. This plant is cleaning water through chemical treatment. This plant
is working in 24 hours and managed by 4 staff.

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The treatment plant in AKG Hospital used chemicals for removing wastes from water.
The chemicals used are ferric Alum powder, Activated Carbon, Poly Electrode, Sodium
Hypochlorite and Hydrated lime power etc.

SERVICE OFFERED BY THE HOSPITAL

MEDICAL CAMPS

The hospital conducts medical camps in remote areas of the district where the medical
facilities are difficult to access due to the absence of hospital or required doctor. The
specialist doctors will be present at the medical camps, providing medical checkups and also
suggesting treatment if needed. The patients will be given free medicines and clinical tests
will be done without any charges.

BLOOD BANK

The hospital has 24 hours operational blood bank. The increasing vehicle accidents,
surgeries etc. are few lessons that blood is required at short notice people from even far off
places depend upon the blood bank. The blood bank is not able to keep up to this demand at
times. So the blood bank is looking forward to help from cultural groups, organizations etc.
So they frequently arrange free blood group identification and blood donation camps in
around Kannur city.

CLINICAL LABORATORY

The well equipped clinical laboratory, which can conduct most modern type of blood
and various other tests including lapro spiral antibody analysis Test. This helps to identify
diseases including different types of fevers which are on the rise now and provide timely
medical care and thus save lives. A micro- biology units is also functioning next to the
clinical laboratory of the hospital. The hospital has a team of technicians, bio-technicians, a
micro- biologist, and supporting staff working in the laboratory.

The X-ray unit is equipped with 2X-ray machines with 500MA set unit and is the only
one in the district. The unit is able to take X-Ray image of any positions of the patients. The

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unit also has a portable X-ray unit, which can be moved to the patients who are not able to
move from their bed. This division supported by a team of 2 radiologist and assistant X-ray
technicians.

24 HOURS PHARMACY

The hospital has pharmacy which is open at all times and well stocked with all the
modern medicines, with 6 counters and 24 hours operation, It caters to need of the patients
and the public at any hour, four pharmacists, Three assistants and other supporting staffs are
working round the clock in the pharmacy.

AMBULANCE SERVICE

The hospital owns 2 ambulances, which are operational 24 hours a day. Two ambulances
drivers posted in the hospital and present at all times in case of emergency.

ORANIZATION STRUCTURE

Elected board of directors

President

Secretary

Administrative Officer Nursing Superintended Medical director

Chief accountant Nursing staff Doctors

Office staff

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Paramedical staff

Wardboys, sweepers,
security staff

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CHAPTER -III

RESEARCH METHADOLOGY AND STATEMENT OF THE


PROBLEM

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STATEMENTS OF THE PROBLEM

The research has been conducted on the topic entitled a study on waste disposal and
management by AKG memorial co-operative hospital Kannur

Hospital waste management constitutes special category of wastes because they contain
potentially harmful materials. The collection storage and disposal of medical solid wastes are
a growing environmental problem in Indian cities which need immediate attention before it
goes out of hand. While the Govt. of India is making effort to expand medical services by
allowing private hospitals in the country, the management of medical waste has received little
attention despite their potential environmental hazards and public health risks.This research
discusses the results of a study on management of wastes in AKG Memorial Co-operative
Hospital

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are :

To understand the techniques of waste management in the hospital


To study about the waste disposal system followed by AKG memorial co-
operative hospital Kannur
Review the existing conditions which will reduce amount of waste in hospital
To study about the patients perception and opinion about waste management in the
hospital.
To identify whether is there is any relationship between collection and disposal
period and overall satisfaction of waste disposal
To identify whether there is any relationship environment policy of hospital and
pollution free environment to the public

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study focus on the waste management in AKG Hospital. The scope of the study
encompass waste management in AKG Memorial co-operative hospital,techniques used in
waste management including solid and waste water treatment. The scope of the study limited
to AKG Hospital in Kannur district

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RFSEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research design is the conceptual structure with in which research is conducted. The
research design used in this study is descriptive and empirical in nature

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Convenience sampling technique have been used in the data collection

SOURCE OF DATA

Both primary and secondary data were examined to know the waste disposal and
management in hospital.

PRIMARY DATA

In order to collect data from staffs and patients, following data gathering method
was used

QUSTIONNAIRE

Once the participants had been selected they were given a questionnaire to
complete. A questionnaire is a pre- structured from with questions the participate is asked to
answer honestly and completely and does not require the researcher to be present a benefit of
using the questionnaire is that, as they are not completed anonymously, participants usually
answer honestly. The sample size for this study is 100. The questionnaire provided to staffs
and other hospital employees consists of 20 questions and the questionnaire given to patients
includes 10 questions.

SECONDARY DATA

Secondary data is obtained through

1. Company bye-law
2. Company magazines
3. Websites.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

A detailed study is not possible due to short period of the study


Accuracy of the study depends on the details given by the organization.
The information given by few respondent may not accurate.
It was difficult to get information because the authorities of AKG hospital had a little
time to spend because of busy schedule.

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CHAPTER-IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

INTRODUCTION

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The chapter tries to attempt to analysis about the waste disposal of AKG hospital in
Kannur district for analyzing the data.

4.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Table 4.1

Table showing cleanliness of hospital

Items Respondents Percentage

Strongly agree 73 73

Agree 25 25

Neutral 2 2

Disagree 0 0

Strongly Disagree 0 0

Total 100 100


Source: questionnaire

Object 3

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It could be observed that 73 percentage of staff are strongly agreed that the hospital
daily ensures cleanliness. 25 percentage of staff agreed and only 2 percentages gave a neutral
option

4.2 WASTE COLLECTION

Table 4.2

Table showing collection of waste by hospital

ITEM RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Daily 90 90

Weekly 7 7

Monthly 3 3

Total 100 100

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Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 5

It could be observed that the hospital collects and disposes its wastes daily. 90
percentage are agreed and 7% are said that collections of wastes are on weekly basic. only
3% are said that it is on monthly basis

4.3 DISPOSAL OF GENERAL WASTES

Table 4.3

Table showing disposal of waste by hospital

Items Respondents Percentage

Strongly agree 50 50
Agree 40 40

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Neutral 8 8

Disagree 2 2

Strongly Disagree 0 0

Total 100 100


Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 7

It could be observed from the data that only 50% of staff are strongly agree that the
general wastes are properly disposed 40% agree that the wastes are properly managed. Only
8% of staff were given a neutral opinion and 2% were disagreeing.

4.4 DISPOSAL OF GENERAL WASTES

Table 4.4

Table showing disposal of waste from wards in hospital

Items Respondents Percentage


Strongly agree 75 75
Agree 20 20

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Neutral 5 5
Disagree 0 0
Strongly Disagree 0 0
Total 100 100
Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 9

From the above diagram It is clear that the hospitalization waste (wards) are properly
disposing, Because 75% were strongly agreed. Only 5% of staff given a neutral opinion.
None of them disagreed to the statement.

4.5 WASTE FROM OUT PATIENT ROOM AND EMERGENCY

Table 4.5

Table showing disposal of waste from out patient room and emergency

Items Respondents Percentage

Strongly agree 68 68

Agree 20 20

Neutral 10 10

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Disagree 2 2

Strongly Disagree 0 0

Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 11

It could be observed from the above data that 68% of respondents strongly agreed that wastes
from outpatient and emergency room is properly disposed. 10% of people give a neutral
opinion and 2% were disagreed.

4.6 DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM DRESSING ROOM

Table 4.6

Table showing disposal of waste from dressing room

Items Respondents Percentage

Strongly agree 55 55

Agree 25 25

Neutral 18 18

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Disagree 1 1

Strongly Disagree 1 1

Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 13

It could be understood that 55% of respondents said that waste from dressing room are
properly disposed. 25% agreed and 18% of respondents gave a neutral opinion. only 1% of
respondent disagreed and other 1% is also strongly disagreed.

4.7 DISPOSAL OF LABORATORY WASTE

Table 4.7

Table showing disposal of waste arising in laboratory

Items Respondents Percentage

Strongly agree 80 80
Agree 15 15

Neutral 5 5

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Disagree 0 0
Strongly Disagree 0 0

Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 15

From the above data it is clear that 80% of respondents said that laboratory wastes are
properly managed and disposed. 15% of respondents agree and only 5 % given a neutral
opinion.

4.8DISPOSAL OF WAREHOUSE WASTE

Table 4.8

Table showing disposal of warehouse waste

Items Respondents Percentage

Strongly agree 57 57

Agree 32 32

Neutral 8 8

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Disagree 2 2

Strongly Disagree 1 1

Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 17

From the above data it is dear that 57% of respondents said that waste from
warehouse is properly disposes, 32% of respondent agree to the statement. Only 2% of
respondents disagreed and 1% of strongly disagrees.

4.9 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Table 4.9

Table showing the result of does the hospital have an environmental policy that includes
recycling and waste prevention procedure

Items Respondents Percentage

Strongly agree 41 41

Agree 55 55

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Disagree 3 3

Strongly Disagree 1 1

Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 20

The data shows that the hospital has an environment policy because 40% of staff are
strongly agreed and 54% are agreed to the statement. Only 2% gave a neutral opinion and 1%
strongly disagreed.

4.10RESPONSIBILTY OF DEPARTMENT IN CASE OF SOLID WASTE

Table 4.10

Table showing responsibilty of department in case of solid waste

Items No. of Respondents Percentage


Yes 1 1
No 99 99
Total 100 100

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Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 23

It could be observed that there is no separate department for waste disposal. 99% are
said that there is no separate department in the hospital for disposing wastes.

4.11 RESPONSIBILITY OF SOLID WASTE

Table 4.11

Table showing who is responsible for solid waste management

Items Respondents Percentage


Shared with hospital and 20 20
private company
Hospital employees 70 70
Private company 10 10

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Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 25

From the above data it is clear that hospitals employees are responsible for the solid
waste management and 20% said that it is shared with hospital and private company. Only 10
% are said that responsibility of private company.

4.12 SEGREGATION OF SOLID WASTE

Table 4.12

Table showing is there any segregation of solid waste in hospitals

Items No. of Respondents Percentage


Yes 92 92
No 8 8
Total 100 100

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Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 27

It is clear that segregation of solid waste is there in the hospital 96% of staff said this
opinion

4.13 PLACE OF SEGREGATION

Table 4.13

Table showing place of segregation of wastes from operatory room and laboratory

Items Respondents Percentage

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Operating room 35 35
Laboratory 65 65
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 30

From the table 4.13 results data 35% of staff said that segregation of solid waste taken
place in the operation room and other 65 percentage said that the waste arising from
laboratory are segregate through another place.

4.14PRIMARY STORAGE OF WASTES

Table 4.14

Table showing the primary storage of wastes

Items Respondents Percentage


Container with plastics 88 88

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Container without plastics 12 12


Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 32

The study shows that the container with plastics is used for primary storage of waste.
Because 88 % agreed that and other were disagreed

4.15STORAGE OF SOLID WASTES

Table 4.15

Table showing the storage of solid wastes

Items Respondents Percentage


In a closed environment 60 60

Open to the air 6 6

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Open to the air with brick outskirt 34 34


Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 34

It could be observed that 60% of staff said that storage of solid wastes are in a closed
environment 6% said that it is open to the air. And 34% said that wastes are stored open to the
air with brick out skit.

4.16DISPOSAL OF WASTE WATER

Table 4.16

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Table showing the disposal of waste water

Items Respondents Percentage


Water treatment plant 95 95
Soakage pit 5 5
Open drain 0 0
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 36

It is clear that the hospital disposes its water through water treatment plant. And
only 5% said that disposal of waste water is through soakage pit they never use open drain for
this.

4.17TYPES OF WATER SUPPLY SOURCES

Table 4.17

Table showing different sources of water supply

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Items Respondents Percentage


Direct pumping form ground 75 75
Municipality water 25 25
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 38

The water supply source is direct pumping from ground. Only 25% said that they use
municipality water.

4.18WATER TESTING

Table 4.18

Table showing the time span of water testing

Items Respondents Percentage

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Quarterly 82 82
Half yearly 15 15
yearly 3 3
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 40

It could be understood that the water is tested on quarterly basis. Because majority
(82%) of staff agreed. 15% of staff said that the water is tested on half yearly basic and only
3% said that it on yearly basic.

4.19FINAL DISPOSAL OF WASTES

Table 4.19

Table showing the final disposal of wastes

Items Respondents Percentage


Sanitary land fill 35 35

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Open dumps 2 2
Open fire 3 3
Recycling plant 50 50
Buried near or hospital ground 10 10
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 42

It could be observed that 50% of staff said that they use recycling plant for disposing wastes.
But 35% said that sanitary land fill is also there. And 10 % said that the wastes buried near or
hospital ground. Only 3% and 2% of staffs said that it is through open fire and open dumps
respectively

4.20SATISFACTION REGARD TO DISPOSAL OF SHARPS

Table 4.20

Table showing the satisfaction regards to disposal of sharps

Items Respondents Percentage


Highly satisfied 70 70
Satisfied 29 29

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Neutral 1 1
Dissatisfied 0 0
Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 44

From the above data it is understood that 70% of staffs are highly satisfied with the
disposal of sharps 29% are satisfied. 1% of staff given a neutral opinion none of them
dissatisfied.

4.21SATISFACTION REGARDS TO DISPOSAL OFPATHOLOGICAL WASTE

Table 4.21

Table showing the satisfaction regards to pathological waste

Items Respondents Percentage


Highly satisfied 30 30
Satisfied 65 65
Neutral 4 4
Dissatisfied 1 1

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Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 100 100
Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 46

It could be observed from the above data is that 30% of staff are highly satisfied with
the disposal of pathological waste. 65% of staff are satisfied 4% of staffs given a neutral
opinion and only 1% was dissatisfied.

4.22SATISFACTION REGARD TODISPOSAL OFINFECTIOUS WASTE

Table 4.22

Table showing the satisfaction regards to infectious waste

Items Respondents Percentage


Highly satisfied 50 50
Satisfied 45 45
Neutral 5 5
Dissatisfied 0 0
Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 100 100

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Source of data: Questionnaire

Object 48

From the above data it is clear that 50% of staff are highly satisfied with the disposal
of infectious waste 45% of staff and only 5% were given a neutral opinion

4.23SATISFACTION REGARD TO DISPOSAL OF RATIO ACTIVE WASTE

Table 4.23

Table showing the satisfaction regards to disposal of ratio active waste

Items Respondents Percentage


Highly satisfied 25 25
Satisfied 60 60
Neutral 10 10
Dissatisfied 3 3
Highly dissatisfied 2 2
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire


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Object 50

From the above data it is clear that 60% of staff are highly satisfied with the disposal
of radioactive waste 25% are satisfied and 10% given a neutral opinion. only 3% are
dissatisfied and 2 % are highly dissatisfied.

4.24 SATISFACTION REGARD TO DISPOSAL OF CHEMICAL WASTE

Table 4.24

Table showing the satisfaction regards to disposal of chemical waste

Items Respondents Percentage


Highly satisfied 62 62
Satisfied 32 32
Neutral 5 5
Dissatisfied 1 1
Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

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Object 52

It could be observed from the above data is that 62% of staff are highly satisfied and 5
% were give a neutral opinion and 1% is dissatisfied.

4.25SATISFACTION REGARD TO DISPOSAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE

Table 4.25

Table showing the satisfaction regards to disposal of pharmaceutical waste

Items Respondents Percentage

Highly satisfied 55 55

Satisfied 40 40

Neutral 5 5

Dissatisfied 0 0

Highly dissatisfied 0 0

Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

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Object 54

From the above data it is clear that 55% of respondents are highly satisfied with the
disposal of pharmaceutical waste. 40% are satisfied and 5% are gave a neutral opinion.

4.26SATISFACTION REGARD TO DISPOSAL OF TRANSPORTATION OF SOLID


WASTES

Table 4.26

Table showing the satisfaction regards to disposal of transportation of solid wastes

Items Respondents Percentage


Municipality 16 16
Containers 16 16
Hospital employees 68 68
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

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Object 56

From the above diagram it is clear that hospital employees are responsible for final
waste disposal (68%). 16% of people said that municipality is responsible and other 16% said
that they use containers.

4.27SATISFACTION REGARD TO DISPOSAL OF RECYCLING OF WASTE


WATER

Table 4.27

Table showing the satisfaction regards to disposal of recycling of waste water

Items Respondents Percentage


Yes 80 80
No 20 20
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

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Object 58

The above diagram shows that 80% of people thought about recycling of water and
other 20% were not.

4.28 E-WASTE RECYCLING

Table 4.28

Table showing result of E-Waste recycling is in AKG Memmorial Hospital

Items Respondents Percentage


Yes 2 2
No 98 98
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

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Object 60

From the above data it is clear that there is no e waste recycling because 98% of
people agreed that and other 2% were not.

TABLE 4.29

OVERALL SATISFACTION WITH THE WASTE DISPOSAL

Items Respondents Percentage


Highly satisfied 22 55
Satisfied 63 40
Neutral 12 5
Dissatisfied 3 0
Highly dissatisfied 0 0
Total 100 100

Source of data: Questionnaire

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Object 62

It could be observed from the above data is that 22% of staff are highly satisfied and
63% are satisfied 12% of people gave a neutral opinion 3% of respondents are dissatisfied.
None of them are highly dissatisfied.

CHAPTER-V

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FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

FINDINGS

75% of staff are strongly agreed that the hospital daily ensures cleanliness
90% of staffs are strongly agreed that the hospital collects and disposes its wastes
daily.
50% of staffs strongly agreed that the general waste are properly disposed
75% strongly agreed that hospitalization waste are properly disposed
68% strongly agreed that waste from outpatient emergency rooms is properly
disposed.
80% strongly agreed that laboratory wastes are properly disposed
40% of respondents strongly agreed that the hospitals has a clear environment policy
to follow
There is no separate department for waste disposal and management.
Hospital employees are responsible for the waste management

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96% respondents said that segregation of solid wastes are there


Laboratory and operating room are the places used in segregation of waste.
Container with plastics is used for covering wastes.
60% of respondents said that wastes are stored in a closed environment.
There is water treatment plant for waste water.
82% of respondents strongly agree that water tested on quarterly.

SUGGESTIONS

For covering the wastes the employees use plastics bags. So it is better to replace the
plastic bags with other materials
There is no separate department for waste management. Hence it is better to maintain
a separate department for this purpose. This will help in systematic and safe disposal
of wastes.
Conduct awareness among the hospital employees about the relevance of waste
management.
Find a good disposal technique for E waste recycling.

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CONCLUSION

From the study it could be observed that AKG memorial co-operative Hospital
provides clean and safe environment to public. They are trying to introduce new methods in
waste disposal like water treatment plant and all. They have a clean goodwill among the
general public because of their efficient service quality.

From the study it could be understand that there is a high positive correlation between
environment policy followed by the hospital and pollution free environment to the public. It
is clear that the hospital has a good environment policy so it provides pollution free
environment. This study also found that there is a relationship between collection time of
wastes and overall satisfaction of staffs

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BIBLOGRAPHY

BOOKS

Kothari CR, Research Methodology, New age international publishers, New Delhi,
Second Edition,2006
Ashwathappa, K, Human Resource and personnel management Tata MC grow
Hills, New Delhi, Second Edition, 2006

WEBSITES

www.wastemanagement.com
www.co-operatvehospital.com
www.co-operative.kerala.gov.com
www.wastemanagemanet hospital.com
www.icontrolpollution.com

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ANNEXURE

I. QUESTIONNAIRE

A study on waste disposal management and viable model for safe disposal with respect to
AKG, Memorial co-operative hospital

Name/type of hospital
Location: Rural, Small, Med, Large city
Years of establishment of hospital
Total no. of persons working in hospital
No. of medical personnel : lab technicians doctors nurse
Total no. of beds
Total no. of out patients
<100 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-500

Total no. of out patients


<100 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-500

1. Does the hospital daily ensure cleanliness?

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Strongly agree Agree neutral disagree


Strongly disagree

2. When does the hospital collect and disposes its wastes?

Daily Weekly Monthly

3. Hospital disposes the following wastes properly

Strongly Strongly
items Agree neutral disagree
agree disagree
General waste (office,
dining room, garden)

Hospitalization waste
(Wards)

Waste from outpatient


room and emergency

Waste from dressing room

Laboratory waste

Warehouse

4. Does the hospital have an environment policy that includes recycling and waste
prevention procedure?
Yes No

5. Is there a department responsible for the solid waste management in the hospital?
Yes No

6. Who is responsible for the solid waste management?


Shared with hospital and private company Hospital employees
Private Company
7. Is there is segregation of solid waste?
Yes No

8. If yes from where is the segregation is taking place?


Operating room Laboratory

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9. Primary storage of wastes


a) Container with plastic bags
b) Container without plastic bags
10. Storage of solid wastes
In a closed enviorment open to the air open to the air with brick
outskirt
11. Final disposal of waste water
Muncipal sewer Soakage pit open drain
12. Type of water supply source.
Direct pumbing from ground Muncipal water
13. Water testing
Quarterly Half yearly Yearly
14. How the hospital disposes its wasyes?
Sanitary land fill
Open drumps
Open fire
Buried near or within the hospital centre
Doesnt know
15. Rate your satisfaction with regard to the waste management of the following

Highly Strongly
items satisfie neutral dissatisfie
satisfie dissatisfie
d d
d d
Sharps

Pathological waste

Infectious waste

Radioactive waste

Chemical waste

Pharmaceutical waste

16. Transportation of solid wastes for final disposition?


Municipality Containers Hospital employees

17. Have you ever thought about recovering and recycling of water?
Yes No

18. Is there e-waste recycling


Yes No

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19. Are you aware of any legislation application to hospital waste?


Yes No

20. Is there any manual or guideline document on management of hospital wastes available
a) In the ministry of health Yes No
b) In your hospital Yes No

II. PHOTOGRAPHY RELATIONG TO WASTE MANAGEMENT

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SOLID WASTE TREATMENT IN AKG HOSPITAL

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