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Powder Technology 103 Ž1999.


Hydrodynamic characteristics of a rotating jet annular spouted bed

S. Devahastin , A.S. Mujumdar a , G.S.V. Raghavan b

Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill UniÕersity, 3610 UniÕersity Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill UniÕersity, Ste. Anne de BelleÕue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3V9
Received 2 June 1998; received in revised form 10 November 1998


A novel Rotating Jet Annular Spouted Bed ŽRJASB. dryer was developed for drying of particulates in the falling rate period. This
gas-particle contactor consists of one rotating spouting air jet in the annular region of a cylindrical vessel. Effects of the spouting jet
rotational speed, bed height, and nozzle diameter as well as particle size, shape and density on the minimum spouting velocity as well as
peak and steady spouting pressure drops were determined experimentally and correlated empirically. q 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All
rights reserved.

Keywords: Fictitious column diameter; Intermittent spouting; Spouting regimes

1. Introduction In this paper, the flow characteristics of the RJASB are

presented for different solid particulates. Empirical correla-
Since the conventional spouted bed ŽCSB. suffers from tions are presented for the prediction of the key hydrody-
several shortcomings w1x, many modified spouted bed de- namic parameters for this gas–solid contacting system.
signs have been proposed and studied w2x. Because the
rates of internal heatrmass transfer determine the overall
drying rate in the falling rate period, drying time will 2. Experimental setup, materials and procedures
increase only slightly if external convective heatrmass 2.1. Experimental setup
transfer is not supplied at high intensity continuously.
Therefore, Mujumdar w3x proposed supplying spouting air A schematic diagram of the experimental setup is shown
andror heating the air only intermittently for particulate in Fig. 1. The spouted bed consists of a cast acrylic vessel
materials drying in this period. This saves air consumption 45 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. A galvanized steel
as well as thermal energy, as demonstrated by the study of cylinder, 20 cm in diameter and 55 cm in height with the
Jumah et al. w4x on the Rotating Jet Spouted Bed ŽRJSB.. top 5 cm perforated Žto allow measurement of the down-
The Rotating Jet Annular Spouted Bed ŽRJASB. exam- stream pressure., is mounted centrally in the vessel in
ined in this work consists of a single rotating jet in the order to prevent dead space in the central region of the
annular region which provides an onroff operation over bed. Under the bed, supporting screen is placed an inlet air
the entire area of the bed annular region. A particular distributor plate with an orifice, located 18 cm from the
portion of the bed is thus spouted only periodically. In one center of the vessel, through which the spouting air is
complete rotation, the entire bed is spouted once. Com- supplied to the bed. The plate rotates slowly, resulting in a
pared with the RJSB, RJASB requires less air mass flowrate rotating spout in the annular bed. The shaded area in Fig. 1
for the onset of spouting at a fixed value of the spouting represents the locally spouted bed zone at any instant.
jet rotational speed Žsince the higher value of jet velocity is Please refer to Devahastin w5x for a detailed description
achieved at the same air mass flowrate., thus allowing a of the overall experimental setup and measurement
deeper bed of the material to be processed. methodology employed.
2.2. Materials
Corresponding author. Tel.: q1-514-398-4273; Fax: q1-514-398- Soft Spring wheat, corn and polystyrene pellets were
6678; E-mail: sakamon@chemeng.lan.mcgill.ca used as the test materials in this study. According to

0032-5910r99r$ - see front matter q 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 3 2 - 5 9 1 0 Ž 9 8 . 0 0 2 3 1 - 9
170 S. DeÕahastin et al.r Powder Technology 103 (1999) 169–174

Table 2
Physical properties of bed particles used in the experiments
Material rs rb Ar Ž – . Ut a ´ b Ž–.
Žkg my3 . Žkg my3 . Žm sy1 .
Polystyrene 1026.1 584.7 7.33=10 5 6.24 0.430
Wheat Žrewetted. 1182.0 719.1 6.90=10 5 5.34 0.392
Wheat Ždried. 1233.6 779.3 8.41=10 5 5.41 0.368
Corn 1227.5 764.6 8.52=10 6 8.53 0.377
Calculated values w8x.
´ s1yŽ r b r rs . w7x.

A plot of the bed pressure drop versus superficial air

velocity Žbased on the equivalent cylindrical column diam-
eter, Dce , which is calculated from the empty area of the
column. was obtained by gradually increasing the air
flowrate until a spout was visibly formed. After steady
spouting, the air flowrate was gradually reduced until the
spout just collapsed. The air flowrate at this point was
noted as the minimum spouting flowrate, Q ms . The flowrate
was then further reduced in steps to zero. The bed pressure
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the overall experimental apparatus. 1, drop was calculated according to the method of Mathur
screen; 2, distributor cover plate; 3, air distributor; 4, ball bearing; 5,
and Epstein w9x as follows:
V-belt; 6, motorqgear box; 7, motor controller; 8, pullery; 9, vessel; 10,
central cylinder; 11, cover plate; 12, Žshaded area. locally spouted bed
zone at any instant.
D P bed s (Ž D P 2 2
tot y D Pemp . Ž 1.
The minimum spouting velocities based on the equiva-
lent cylindrical column and nozzle diameters were calcu-
Geldart’s classification w6x all particles used in this work lated from the total air flowrate, Q ms , using the following
belong to group D Žspoutable, large and dense particles.. expressions:
Dimensions and physical properties Žaverage values. of the 4Q ms
particles tested are given in Tables 1 and 2. Two hundred Umsce s Ž 2.
particles were measured for each type of material. p Dce2
2.3. Procedure Umsn s Ž 3.
p Dn2
The bed of test particles was prepared in a standardized where Dce and Dn are the equivalent cylindrical column
manner before the start of each experiment. This procedure and nozzle diameters, respectively.
involved loading an estimated quantity of the selected The ranges of experimental conditions employed were:
material into the vessel, spouting for 5 min at a distributor N s 0–10 rpm; H s 10–20 cm; Dn s 2–3 cm; air superfi-
rotational speed of 5 rpm and then increasing the rotational cial velocitys 0–0.64 m sy1 . The dependent variables
speed until the new flow regime was established. The measured were pressure drop versus superficial velocity
airflow was then shut off. For the purpose of the hydrody- characteristics; minimum spouting velocity ŽUms .; peak
namic study only one inlet air temperature, 408C, was used pressure drop Ž D PM . and steady spouting pressure drop
throughout. Ž D PS .. To investigate the reproducibility of the results,

Table 1
Dimensions of particles used in the experiments
a Ž b
Material L Žmm. B Žmm. Z Žmm. Dpe mm. Dpgm Žmm. Dpc Žmm. f d Ž–.
Polystyrene 3.331 3.004 2.296 3.527 2.842 3.009 0.853
Wheat Žrewetted. 5.863 3.056 2.639 4.486 3.616 2.763 0.616
Wheat Ždried. 5.295 3.158 2.732 4.435 3.575 2.994 0.675
Corn 10.567 7.985 4.770 9.160 7.383 6.400 0.698
Equivalent spherical diameter.
Geometric particle diameters Ž L = B = Z .1r 3 w7x.
Effective particle diameters Dpe = f w7x.
Sphericitys Dpgm rL w7x.
S. DeÕahastin et al.r Powder Technology 103 (1999) 169–174 171

replicates were made of randomly selected experiments. ing jet has great influence on the onset of spouting; it
From these tests, the reproducibility values for Ums , D PS , lowers the peak pressure drop values by about 30% as
D P M were within "6.0%, 8.2% and 12.8%, respectively. compared to stationary spouting. This can be ascribed to
The relatively high nonreproducibility in D P M is related the pulsating action within the bed, which loosens the
to the fact that the peak pressure drop is bed history-depen- packed structure and hence facilitates spout development.
dent w9x. Observations from these two figures show that, as the
rotational speed of the spout is increased, the air flowrate
required to maintain the minimum spouting condition in-
3. Results and discussion creases since the spout has a higher angular velocity
component at a higher rotational speed, and hence deviates
3.1. Spouting features more from the vertical as rotational speed increases. Since
only the vertical velocity component sustains the spout by
Fig. 2a,b shows typical plots of D P bed versus Un for offsetting the gravitational effect a higher air flowrate is
rewetted wheat particles for N s 0 and 5 rpm, respectively. needed at higher rotational speeds.
The plots also show the reverse process, i.e., the collapse
of spout on decreasing the gas flowrate. Both superficial 3.2. Empirical correlations
and jet velocities are indicated, since the latter governs the
spouting phenomenon. These data reveal that the spouting
Using the Buckingham theorem w10x, multiple nonlinear
features of the RJASB are similar to those observed in a
regression analysis for evaluation of the correlation coeffi-
conventional spouted bed. However, rotation of the spout-
cients based on the Marquardt–Lavenberg method was
performed using the SigmaPlot 1.02’s Curve Fitter. The
following empirical correlations for the dimensionless min-
imum spouting velocity, peak and steady spouting pressure
drops were obtained:
2.5540 y1.5930
H Dn
Re msno s 0.2448
ž / ž /
Dce Dce
Ar 0.5502 ;

R 2 s 0.986 Ž 4.
0.8196 y0.8316
H Dn
Re msn s 2.0950
ž / ž /
Dce Dce
ž /
; R 2s0.988 Ž 5.

0.6139 0.2804
r b gH
s 2.3140
ž / ž /
Dce Dce
Ar 0.0450 ;

R 2 s 0.938 Ž 6.
0.7199 0.2827
r b gH
s 0.7513
ž / ž /
Dce Dce
Ar 0.1075 ;

R 2 s 0.978 Ž 7.
Vu s 2p RNr60 Ž 8.
Forty-five data points were used for each measured vari-
able in order to generate these correlations which are valid
Fig. 2. Ža. Spouting characteristics for rewetted wheat particles, H s15 over the following ranges: HrDce s 0.250–0.500; DnrDce
cm, Dn s 3 cm, N s 0 rpm. ŽA. peak pressure drop; ŽB. onset of s 0.050–0.075; Ar s 7.33 = 10 5 –8.52 = 10 6 ; VurUt s
spouting; ŽC. minimum spouting condition; ŽD. spout collapse. Žb. Spout-
ing characteristics for rewetted wheat particles, H s15 cm, Dn s 3 cm,
0.003–0.033. These correlations should be applicable also
N s 5 rpm. ŽA. peak pressure drop; ŽB. onset of spouting; ŽC. minimum for RJASB devices using multiple spouts, provided the
spouting condition; ŽD. spout collapse. spouts do not interact in the bed.
172 S. DeÕahastin et al.r Powder Technology 103 (1999) 169–174

Fig. 3. Effect of dimensionless bed height on Re ms , Dn r Dce s 0.075,

N s 5 rpm.

Fig. 5. Effect of Archimedes number on Re ms , Dn r Dce s 0.075, N s 5

Fig. 3 presents an example of the variation of Re ms with
dimensionless bed height for different particles. For all
particles, Ums and hence Re ms increase almost linearly as
the static bed height is increased. The deeper the bed, lower Ar. Larger and denser particles respond more slowly
higher the airflow Ži.e., Ums . needed to sustain spouting. to the change in fluid flowrate, while smaller and lighter
Similar observations are also reported in the literature for particles follow more closely the changes in fluid motion.
spouted beds of other designs w11,12x. Therefore, gravity is more significant than viscous forces
The effect of the dimensionless distributor rotational for the larger particles under spouting conditions.
speed, VurUt , on Re ms is presented in Fig. 4. An increase To investigate the effect of nozzle size on the value of
in rotational speed introduces resisting forces that tend to minimum spouting velocity, several experiments were per-
deviate the air jet from the vertical direction, thus requiring formed using two different nozzle diameters for different
higher air flowrate to maintain stable spouting. solid materials and air distributor rotational speeds. The
Additional information on the minimum spouting air results so obtained are shown in Fig. 6a as Re msce versus
flow requirement of RJASB is obtained by examining the dimensionless circumferential velocity with the dimension-
effect of particle properties viz. diameter, shape, and den- less nozzle diameter as a parameter. As observed from this
sity. These properties, along with the fluid properties figure, the value of Re msce increases as the dimensionless
Ždensity, viscosity., are often combined into a single pa-
nozzle diameter increases. However, as shown in Fig. 6b,
rameter, namely, the Archimedes number, Ar Žwhich rep- the plot of Re msn versus dimensionless circumferential
resents the ratio of the gravity force to viscous force.. The velocity shows an increase in the value of Re msn as the
effect of this parameter on Re ms is illustrated in Fig. 5 for dimensionless nozzle diameter decreases. This is due to the
different values of the dimensionless bed height. The main fact that as the nozzle diameter decreases, the length scale
trend is that Re ms increases with Ar. A possible explana- for the nozzle velocity calculation also decreases. This
tion is that a material with larger Ar, in this case corn, results in higher values of the nozzle Žor jet. velocity and
offers more resistance to flow than does a material with hence of Re msn . It should be noted that the effect is more
pronounced for materials with higher Ar, i.e., corn.
Correlations of the convective heatrmass transfer coef-
ficients require calculation of a particle Reynolds number,
which in turn requires definition of a characteristics length
scale to calculate the superficial velocity. In conventional
spouted beds, the column diameter is normally used to
calculate the superficial velocity w9,13x. In RJASB, since
the bed is only partially spouted at any instant, this defini-
tion does not hold.
From visual inspection, the active spouted zone in
RJASB Žshaded area in Fig. 1. is observed to be in a
diameter range such that the Mathur–Gishler correlation
w14x predicts the value of the minimum spouting velocity
within 20%. This observation is used to define a fictitious
Fig. 4. Effect of dimensionless circumferential velocity on Re ms , Dn r Dce column diameter to calculate the superficial velocity. Fur-
s 0.075, Hr Dce s 0.375. ther, the equation is modified to base the minimum spout-
S. DeÕahastin et al.r Powder Technology 103 (1999) 169–174 173

4. Conclusions
A novel Rotating Jet Annular Spouted Bed ŽRJASB.
was developed for drying Geldart’s Class D particles in the
falling rate period. Empirical correlations are given to
predict the values of the key hydrodynamic parameters for
the purpose of design and scale-up.

5. List of symbols
B breadth Žm.
Dce equivalent cylindrical column diameter Žm.
Dcf fictitious column diameter Žm.
Dn nozzle diameter Žm.
Dp effective particle diameter Žm.
Dpe equivalent spherical diameter Žm.
Dpgm geometric particle diameter Žm.
g gravitational constant Žm sy2 .
H static bed height Žm.
L length Žm.
N rotational speed of the spout Žrpm.
D P bed bed pressure drop ŽkPa.
D Pemp empty vessel pressure drop ŽkPa.
D PM peak pressure drop ŽkPa.
D PS steady spouting pressure drop ŽkPa.
D Ptot total pressure drop ŽkPa.
Q ms total gas flowrate Žm3 sy1 .
R radial distance from center of the bed Žm.
R2 coefficient of determination Ž – .
Uce column superficial velocity Žm sy1 .
Umsce superficial minimum spouting velocity Žm sy1 .
Umsn nozzle minimum spouting velocity Žm sy1 .
Fig. 6. Ža. Effect of spouting nozzle diameter on Re ms ce , Hr Dce s 0.375.
ŽCircles: experiments with dried wheat, Ar s8.41=10 5 ; Squares: experi-
Ut particle terminal velocity Žm sy1 .
ments with corn, Ar s8.52=10 6 .. Žb. Effect of spouting nozzle diameter Vu circumferential velocity of the air nozzle Žm sy1 .
on Re msn , Hr Dce s 0.375. ŽCircles: experiments with dried wheat, Ar s Z thickness Žm.
8.41=10 5 ; Squares: experiments with corn, Ar s8.52=10 6 ..
Greek letters
´ voidage Ž – .
mg fluid viscosity Žkg my1 sy1 .
ing velocity on the nozzle diameter rather than the column rb bulk density Žkg my3 .
diameter. rg fluid density Žkg my3 .
Multiple nonlinear regression analysis of the experimen- rs particle density Žkg my3 .
tal results of Mathur and Gishler w14x leads to the follow- f sphericity Ž – .
ing expression: Subscripts and superscripts
y0 .191
2 gH Ž rs y rg .
0.500 c column
Umsn s 74.77
ž / ž / ž
Dc Dc rg / ce
equivalent cylindrical column
Ž 9. ms minimum spouting condition
msce equivalent column minimum spouting condition
Rearranging for Dc and denoting it as Dcf yields: msn nozzle minimum spouting condition
0.585 msno stationary
Dp1.223 2 gH Ž rs y rg .
Dcf s 156.36
1.170 ž rg / Ž 10 . M
This correlation should be employed to replace the Dimensionless groups
vessel diameter in calculations of convective transfer coef- Ar Archimedes number, w Dp3 rg Ž rs y rg . g xrmg2
ficients in the RJASB. Re Reynolds number, Dp Urgrmg
174 S. DeÕahastin et al.r Powder Technology 103 (1999) 169–174

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