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CRYOGENICS

QUESTION BANK

BY:
G.S SHASHIDHARA., DME, BE, AMIE(I), (MBA)
Email : gsshashidhar1@gmail.com
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UNIT 1
INTRODUCTION TO CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS:
Important Questions:
1. What is cryogenics. Explain briefly ? Explain briefly
applications areas of cryogenic engineering.
2. What is cryogen? Explain different types of cryogens and their
properties.
3. Write a note on low temperature properties of Engineering
materials.
4. Explain low temperature properties of engineering materials
i) Mechanical properties
ii) Thermal properties
iii) Electrical properties
5. Explain briefly production of low temperatures.
6. Explain briefly Joule Thompson effect. Explain the function of
J-T valve in cryogenics with sketch.
7. Explain Adiabatic expansion.
8. With the help of schematic and T-S diagrams obtain an
expression for ideal work requirements per kg of liquid.
9. Explain the meaning of cryogenics. List the various areas
involving cryogenics. (5 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)
10. Explain with proper reasoning and graph, the effect of
low temperature on two mechanical and two thermal

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properties of engineering materials. (10 Marks) (VTU


May/June 2010)
11. Discuss Joule-Thomson effect for the production of low
temperature. (5 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)
12. Define the figure of merit of a liquefaction system.
Explain the thermodynamically ideal gas liquefaction system
and obtain an expression for the work requirement for the
above system. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
13. Explain with the proper reasoning and graph, the effect
of low temperature on the thermal properties of engineering
materials. (5 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
14. What do you understand by cryogenics? Explain briefly
any four applications areas of cryogenics. (10 Marks) (VTU
Dec 2014/Jan 2015).
15. Explain working principle of thermodynamically ideal
system with suitable sketches and derive equations for all
system performance parameters. (10Marks) (VTU Dec
2014/Jan 2015)
16. What is cryogenics? Mention the few areas involving
cryogenic engineering (6 Marks) (VTU Jan 2014)
17. Discuss the effects of low temperature on the following
properties of engineering materials: i) Yield strength ii)
Thermal conductivity (6 Marks) (VTU Jan 2014) (VTU Dec
2016)

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18. Explain thermodynamically ideal gas liquefaction system


with sketch and obtain an expression for the work
requirement. (8 Marks) (VTU Jan 2014)
19. Explain the meaning of cryogenics, List the various areas
involving cryogenics. (5 Marks) (VTU June 2010)
20. Discuss the effect of low temperatures on the following
properties of Engineering materials
i) Fatigue strength.
ii) Electrical resistivity. With reasoning and graph. (8
Marks) (VTU Dec 2015 / Jan 2016)
21. Define Joule Thomson (J-T) coefficient. Explain role of
J-T valve in cryogenics. (4 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015 / Jan 2016)
22. Explain with schematic and T-S diagrams the
thermodynamically ideal gas liquefaction system. Obtain an
expression for ideal work requirement. (8 Marks) (VTU Dec
2015 / Jan 2016)
23. List the various areas of applications of cryogenics. (5
Marks) (VTU May 2017) (VTU Dec 2010)
24. Explain with graphs, the effect of low temperatures on
mechanical properties of engineering materials. (10 Marks)
(VTU May 2017)
25. How do you achieve low temperatures by Joule-
Thomson effect? Briefly explain. (5 Marks) (VTU May 2017)

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UNIT 2
GAS LIQUIFICATION SYSTEMS:
Important Questions:
1. What is Gas liquification?
2. Explain briefly Linde hampson system with a neat sketch.
3. Explain briefly Claude system with a neat sketch.
4. Explain briefly Heylndt system with a neat sketch.
5. Explain briefly Dual pressure system with a neat sketch.
6. Explain briefly liquefication cycle Kapitza system with a neat
sketch.
7. Comparison of liquefication cycles for hydrogen, helium and
Neon.
8. Explain critical components of liquefaction systems.
9. With a schematic and T-S diagrams explain simple Linde-
Hampson system and obtain figure of merit (FOM).
10. Explain with schematic and T-S diagrams dual-pressure
Claude system.
11. With a neat sketch, explain the working of Claude
system used for liquefaction of air. Represent the process on
the T-S diagram. (10 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)
12. Explain the working of Simon Helium liquefaction
system, with a neat diagram and represent the process on the
T-S diagram. (10 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)

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13. With a neat sketch, explain the Linde dual pressure


system for liquefying gas other than Neon, Helium and
Hydrogen. Develop an expression for liquid yield and the work
requirement. Represent the process on a T-S diagram. (10
Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
14. With a neat sketch, explain the precooled Linde-
Hampson syatem for Liquefaction of Neon and Hydrogen
gases. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
15. With a neat sketch and T-S diagram, explain Linde dual
pressure system for the liquification of air and write the
expression for liquid yield and work requirement per unit
mass of air compressed. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013/Jan 2014)
16. Explain the working of Simon helium liquification
system with a neat sketch and represent the processes on T-
S diagram. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013/Jan 2014)
17. Explain working principle of gas liquefaction system used
for air having 3 heat exchangers, expander and J.T. valve with
suitable sketches. Derive equations for all system
performance parameters. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2014/Jan
2015)
18. Give comparison of liquefaction cycles. (8 Marks) (VTU
Dec 2014/Jan 2015)
19. With a schematic and T-S diagrams, explain how low
temperatures are produced in Claude system. Deduce an

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expression for liquid yield and net work requirement per unit
mass of compressed air. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015/Jan 2016)
20. Identify the critical components in the liquefaction
system and explain briefly any two of the components. (10
Marks) (VTU Dec 2015/Jan 2016)
21. With a neat sketch and T-S diagram, explain Linde dual
pressure system for the liquification of air and write the
expression for liquid yield and work requirement per unit
mass of air compressed. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
22. Explain the working of Simon Helium liquification
system with a neat sketch and represent the processes on T-
S diagram. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
23. Explain with neat sketch Linde Hampson cycle used in
liquefaction of gases. (10 Marks) (VTU May 2017)
24. Explain briefly about the critical components of
liquefaction system. (10 Marks) (VTU May 2017)

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UNIT 3
GAS CYCLE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS:
Important Questions:
1. What is cryocoolers ? Classify cryocoolers.
2. Explain briefly Stirling cycle cryo refrigerators.
3. Explain briefly working principle of ideal cycle.
4. E plai riefl S h idts a al sis of Stirling cycle.
5. Explain briefly various configurations of stirling cycle
refrigerators.
6. Explain briefly Integral piston stirling cryo-cooler.
7. Explain briefly Free displacer split type Stirling Cryo coolers.
8. Explain briefly Gifford Mcmahon Cryo refrigerator.
9. Explain briefly Pulse tube refrigerator.
10. Explain briefly Solvay cycle refrigerator.
11. Explain briefly Vuillimier refrigerator.
12. Explain briefly Cryogenic regenerators.
13. Explain Stirling cycle cryo-refrigerator and various
configurations of Stirling cycle refrigerators. (10 Marks) (VTU
May/June 2010)
14. Explain the following with neat sketches:
i) Vullimier refrigerator.
ii) Pulse tube refrigerator. (10 Marks) (VTU May/June
2010)

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15. How are the cryo coolers classified? write a note on


Stirling cycle cryo refrigerators and the various configurations
of stirling cycle refrigerators. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
16. Explain the following, with neat sketches:
i) Gifford-McMahon refrigerator.
ii) Solvay cycle refrigerator. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
17. How the cryocoolers are classified? Explain stirling cycle
cryo refrigerator, with neat sketch and write the cop for
same. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013/Jan 2014)
18. Explain with neat sketch and T-S diagram the working of
Solvay cycle refrigerator. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013/Jan 2014)
19. Briefly explain the following with suitable sketches:
a. Solvay cycle refrigerator.
b. Gifford McMahon cryo-refrigerator.
c. Pulse tube refrigerator. (20 Marks) (VTU Dec 2014 / Jan
2015)
20. Classify the cryo coolers. With a neat sketch, explain
stirling cycle cryo refrigerator cyclic processes. Derive COP.
(10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015 / Jan 2016)
21. Explain Gifford McMahon cryo refrigerator, cyclic
processes. Indicate all the components of the refrigerator.
Derive an equation for net work requirement. (10 Marks)
(VTU Dec 2015 / Jan 2016)

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22. How the cryo coolers are classified? explain stirling cycle
cryo refrigerator, with neat sketch and write the COP for
same. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
23. Explain with neat sketch and T-S diagram the working of
Solvay cycle refrigerator. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
24. State the classification of cryocoolers. Write a note on
Gifford McMohan cryo refrigerator.
25. Explain the following with sketches:
(i) Solvay cycle refrigerator.
(ii) Pulse tube refrigerator. (10 Marks) (VTU May 2017)

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UNIT 4
GAS SEPARATION AND GAS PURIFICATION SYSTEMS:
Important Questions:
1. What is gas separation and gas purification systems?
2. Explain briefly Thermodynamic ideal separation system.
3. Explain briefly properties of mixtures.
4. Explain briefly principle of gas separation.
5. With a neat sketch, explain Linde-single column gas
separation system. (10 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)
6. Explain with a neat sketch, adsorption purifier along with
refrigeration purifier. (10 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)
7. With a neat sketch, explain the working of double column
(Linde system) air separation system. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec
2010)
8. With a neat sketch, explain the Argon separation system. (10
Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
9. With a neat sketch, explain Linde single column gas
separation system. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013/Jan 2014)
10. Explain the operation of Linde double column air
separation system with a neat sketch.
11. What are the gas purification methods? Explain with
neat sketch, adsorption purifier along with refrigeration
purifier. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013/Jan 2014)

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12. With a neat flow diagram, explain Linde double column


air separation system. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2014/Jan 2015)
13. With a neat sketch explain Argon-separation recovery
subsystem. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2014/Jan 2015)
14. Classify gas purification methods. Explain any two
methods in detail. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015/Jan 2016)
15. How Linde, double column gas separation system,
separates the mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Explain with
neat sketch. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015/Jan 2016)
16. With a neat sketch, explain Linde single column gas
separation system. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
17. What are the gas purification methods? Explain with
neat sketch, adsorption purifier along with refrigeration
purifier. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
18. What are the drawbacks of Linde single column air
separation system? Explain with neat sketch Linde double
column air separation system. (10 Marks) (VTU May 2017)
19. Write a note on the following:
(i) Properties of mixture.
(ii) Adsorption process. (10 Marks) (VTU May 2017)
20. Explain briefly Argon and Neon separation.
21. Explain briefly Adsorption process.
22. Explain briefly PSA systems.
23. Explain the principles of ideal gas rectification. Estimate
ideal work requirement for separation of gases.

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24. Explain with a neat sketch how crude Argon is purified in


adsorption traps.
25. Discuss with a neat sketch, the principle of gas
rectification and also estimate the Murphee efficiency.

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UNIT 5
ULTRA LOW TEMPERATURE CRYO REFRIGERATORS:
Important Questions:
1. Explain briefly Magneto Caloric Refrigerator.
2. Explain with a neat sketch, any one cryo-refrigerator, used for
the production of ultra low temperature. (10 Marks) (VTU
May/June 2010)
3. Sketch and explain the following:
i) Vapour pressure thermometer.
ii) Resistance thermometer.
iii) Electric-resistance gauge for liquid level measurement.
(10 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)
4. With a neat sketch, explain the magnetic refrigeration
system. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
5. What are the different temperature measurement devices, at
low temperature? Explain any one type of device. (10 Marks)
(VTU Dec 2010)
6. With a neat sketch, explain any one type of liquid level
measurement device for low temperature. (10 Marks) (VTU
Dec 2010)
7. Explain 3He 4He Dilution Refrigerator, with the sketch
indicating all the parts. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013/Jan 2014)
8. Sketch and explain the following:
i) constant volume gas thermometer.

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ii) Electrical resistance liquid level gauge. (10 Marks) (VTU


Dec 2013/Jan 2014)
9. Explain the following measurement systems for low
temperatures:
a. Constant volume gas thermometer.
b. Thermoelectric thermometers.
c. Hydrostatic liquid load gauge. (20 Marks) (VTU Dec
2014/Jan 2015)
10. How cooling is taking place in Magnetocaloric
refrigerator? Explain with a neat sketch all the processes
involved. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015/Jan 2016)
11. Classify liquid level sensors. Explain any two types, with
a neat sketch. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015/Jan 2016)
12. Explain 3He 4He Dilution Refrigerator, with the sketch
indicating all the parts. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
13. Sketch and explain the following:
i) Constant volume gas thermometer.
ii) Electrical resistance liquid level gauge. (10 Marks) (VTU
Dec 2016)
14. Explain magneto-caloric refrigeration system used for
producing ultra low temperatures. (10 Marks) (VTU May
2017)
15. Sketch and explain working principles of following low
temperature measurement systems:
(i) Resistance thermometer.

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(ii) Liquid level sensors (any one). (10 Marks) (VTU May
2017)
16. Explain briefly Pomeranchuk cooling.
17. Explain briefly Measurement systems for low
temperatures.
18. Explain briefly Temperature measurement at low
temperatures.
19. Explain briefly Resistance Thermometers.
20. Explain briefly Thermocouples.
21. Explain briefly Thermistors.
22. Explain briefly Gas Thermometry.
23. Explain briefly Liquid level sensors.

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UNIT 6
VACUUM TECHNOLOGY:
Important Questions:
1. What is Vacuum Technology?
2. Explain briefly fundamental principles of vacuum technology.
3. Explain briefly production of high vacuum.
4. Explain briefly Mechanical vacuum pumps.
5. Explain briefly Diffussion pumps.
6. Explain briefly Cryo - pumping.
7. Explain briefly measurement of high vacuum level.
8. Explain briefly cryogenic insulation.
9. Explain briefly heat transfer due to conduction.
10. Explain briefly Evacuated porous insulation powder.
11. Explain briefly Fibers opacified powder insulation.
12. Explain briefly gas filled powders.
13. Explain briefly fibrous materials multi layer super
insulation.
14. Explain briefly composite insulation.
15. With a schematic diagram, explain the basic elements of
a typical vacuum system. (5 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)
16. Explain the principle and working of diffusion pump,
with a neat sketch. (5 Marks) (VTU May/June 2010)

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17. Briefly explain any five types of insulations used in


cryogenic equipments, stating advantages of each. (5 Marks)
(VTU May/June 2010)
18. With a neat sketch, explain any one of the vacuum
pump, used in the cryogenics. (6 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
19. How are the degrees of vacuum specified? (4 Marks)
(VTU Dec 2010)
20. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
insulations, used in cryogenic systems. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec
2010)
21. How the degrees of vaccum is specified? (4 Marks) (VTU
Dec 2013 / Jan 2014)
22. With a neat sketch, explain the working of mechanical
vaccum pump. (8 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013 / Jan 2014)
23. Explain any four types of insulation that can be used in
cryogenic equipment. (8 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013 / Jan 2014)
24. Explain basic elements of a typical vacuum system with
a sketch and show operating range for various vacuum
pumps. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2014 / Jan 2015)
25. List several types of insulation which can be used in
cryogenic equipment and explain briefly any three types of
insulations. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2014 / Jan 2015)
26. Specify the range of pressures included in vacuum
technology. Indicate areas of application. Classify various

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types of instruments used to measure vacuum. (10 Marks)


(VTU Dec 2015 / Jan 2016)
27. Classify insulators used in cryogenic applications. List
their advantages and disadvantages relatively. (10 Marks)
(VTU Dec 2015 / Jan 2016)
28. How the degrees of vaccum is specified? (4 Marks) (VTU
Dec 2016)
29. With a neat sketch, explain the working of mechanical
vaccum pump. (8 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
30. Explain any four types of insulation that can be used in
cryogenic equipment. (8 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
31. Mention the essential elements of a typical vacuum
system and explain the working of diffusion pumps. (10
Marks) (VTU May 2017)
32. List the different insulations used in cryogenic
equipment and explain any two types of insulations. (10
Marks) (VTU May 2017)

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UNIT 7
CRYOGENIC FLUID STORAGE AND TRANSFER SYSTEMS:
Important Questions:
1. What is Cryogenic Fluid storage and Transfer systems.
2. Explain briefly Design of cryogenic fluid storage vessels.
3. Explain briefly design of inner vessel.
4. Explain briefly outer insulation.
5. Explain briefly Suspension system.
6. Explain briefly Fill and drain lines.
7. Explain briefly Cryogenic fluid transfer.
8. Explain briefly pressurization.
9. Explain briefly Self pressurization.
10. Explain briefly Transfer pump.
11. What is the significance of cryogenic fluid transfer
system? Explain any two systems. (10 Marks) (VTU May/June
2010)
12. Sketch and name the parts of Dewar cryogenic fluid
storage vessel. (8 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
13. Write a note on the suspension systems adopted in
cryogenic engineering. (6 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)
14. What are the systems adopted to transfer the cryogenic
fluid? Explain them in brief. (6 Marks) (VTU Dec 2010)

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15. With a neat sketch, explain various elements of dewar


vessel for storage of cryogenic fluid. (8 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013
/ Jan 2014)
16. Write a note on suspension systems adopted in
cryogenic engineering. (6 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013 / Jan 2014)
17. What are the systems adopted to transfer the cryogenic
fluid? Explain any two. (6 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013 / Jan 2014)
18. Explain various methods of draining the cryogenic fluid
from the vessel. (6 Marks) (VTU Dec 2014 / Jan 2015)
19. List the factors (any eight) to be considered for the
design of cryogenic fluid storage vessels. (4 Marks) (VTU Dec
2014 / Jan 2015)
20. Design inner shell, heads thickness and stiffening rings
weight for 106 lox vessel. The inside diameter of the shell
and heads is 3.05 m. hemispherical heads are to be used. The
design internal pressure is 800 kPa and a 10% usage volume
is e ui ed. The inne shell is suppo ted at a point = 80 and
the stiffening rings are placed inside inner vessel. The
material for inner vessel is 304 stainless steel. Given:
allowable stress = 129.2 MPa and = % =
/ =7920 kg/ . (10 Marks) (VTU Dec
2014 / Jan 2015)
21. How cryogenic fluid storage systems are constructed for
storage and road rail transportation? Explain with suitable
sketches. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015 / Jan 2016)

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22. Explain Cryogenic fluid transfer lines for short and long
distances transfer the design features. Indicate material used
for construction of conduits. (10 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015 / Jan
2016)
23. With a neat sketch, explain various elements of dewar
vessel for storage of cryogenic fluid. (8 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
24. Write a note on suspension systems adopted in
cryogenic engineering. (6 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
25. What are the system adopted to transfer the cryogenic
fluid? Explain any two. (6 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
26. With the help of neat sketch, explain the construction of
a Dewar vessel for storing cryogenics. (10 Marks) (VTU May
2017)
27. Write a note on the following:
(i) Suspension system.
(ii) Transfer system. (10 Marks) (VTU May 2017)

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UNIT 8
APPLICATION OF CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS:
Important Questions:
1. Write short notes on the application of cryogenic system on:
(VTU June 2010, Dec 2010, Jan 2014, June 2014, Jan 2015,
June 2015, Jan 2016, Dec 2016, May 2017)
a) Space technology.
b) Super conducting devices (bearings, cryotrons).
c) Instant quick freezing techniques.
d) Super conducting bearings.
e) Cryotrons.
f) Food preservation.
g) Chemical rockets.
2. What is superconductivity ? explain its application in industry.
3. How the food is freezed quickly explain with a sketch.
4. Write short notes on Food preservation.
5. Write short notes on Instant Quick Freezing Techniques.
6. Write short notes on Super conducting devices.
7. Write short notes on Space Technology.
8. Write short notes on Chemical rockets.
9. Write short notes on Super conducting bearings.
10. Write short notes on Cryotrons.
11. Explain with a neat sketch use of cryogenic fluids for
space application.

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12. How the food is preserved by the application of


refrigeration.
13. Explain the methodology of quick freezing of food by use
of liquid nitrogen.
14. How superconductivity is achieved in metals explain its
applications.
15. Discuss the applications of cryogenic system for:
a. Space technology.
b. Food preservation.
c. Superconductive devices.
d. Instant quick freezing techniques. (20 Marks) (VTU
May/June 2010)
16. Write short notes on the applications of cryogenic
systems in:
a. Space technology.
b. Superconductive devices.
c. Food preservation.
d. Instant quick freezing technique. (20 Marks) (Dec 2010)
17. Write short notes on the application of cryogenic system
on:
a. Space technology.
b. Super conducting devices.
c. Instant quick freezing technique.
d. Food preservation. (20 Marks) (VTU Dec 2013/Jan 2014)

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18. Write short notes on the following with respect to


cryogenic applications:
a. Superconductive devices (bearings, cryotrons)
b. Food preservation.
c. Chemical rockets. (20 Marks) (VTU Dec 2014/Jan 2015)
19. How cryogenic systems are employed in the following
areas:
a. Food preservation.
b. Quick freezing techniques.
c. Space technology.
d. Super conductivity. (20 Marks) (VTU Dec 2015/Jan 2016)
20. Write short notes on the application of cryogenic system
on
a) Space technology.
b) Super conducting devices.
c) Instant quick freezing technique.
d) Food preservation. (20 Marks) (VTU Dec 2016)
21. Explain the applications of following cryogenic systems:
a. Instant quick freezing.
b. Cryotrons.
c. Chemical rockets.
e. Space simulation. (20 Marks) (VTU May 2017)

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