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# ROEVER COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

## Elambalur, Perambalur 621 212.

DEPARTMENT OF METHAMATICS
QUESTION BANK
MA 2264 NUMERICAL METHODS
UNIT I
SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGEN VALUE PROBLEMS
PART A
1. What is the iterative formula of Newton Raphson Method?
2. What is the order of convergence and the convergence condition for Newtons Raphson method?
3. Derive a formula to find the value of N where N > 0, using Newton Raphson method.
4. Find an iterative formula to find the reciprocal of a given number N( N 0).
4. What are the merits of Newtons method of Iteration?
5. When should we not use Newton Raphson?
6. State the sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of fixed point iteration.
7. Write down the order of convergence and the condition for convergence of fixed point iteration method.
9. What do you mean by the order of convergence of an iterative method for finding the root of the equation f(x) = 0.
8. Give two direct methods to solve a system of linear equations.
9. What are the advantages of iterative methods over direct methods for solving a system of linear equations?
10. Give two indirect methods to solve a system of linear equations.
11. State any two difference between direct and iterative methods for solving system of equations.
12. State the principle used in Gauss Jordan method.
13. Compare Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan Methods in solving the linear system
A X B .
14. Compare Gauss - elimination with Gauss seidal method.
16. Solve the equations x + 2y = 1 and 3x 2y = 7 by Gauss Elimination method.
17. using Gauss elimination method solve: 5x + 4y = 15, 3x + 7y = 12.
15. Compare Gauss Jacobi & Gauss Seidal Methods.
16. Solve by GaussJordan Method the following system of equations 2x1 + x2 = 3, x1 + 2x2 = 3.
17. Find inverse of A
1 3 by Gauss Jordan Method.

2 7
18. Write the sufficient condition for Gauss seidal Method to converge.
19. Define eigen value and eigen vector.
20. State the basic principle involved for finding A-1 by Gauss Jordan Method?
21. How will you find the smallest eigenvalue of a square matrix A?
22. If the eigen values of A are 1, 3, 4 then the dominant eigenvalue of A is ------------.
23. The power Method will work satisfactorily only if A has a -------------eigen value.
25. What is the use fo Power method?

PART B
Method I NewtoNs RaphsoN:

## 1. Find the root of 4 x e x 0 that lies between 2 and 3 by Newtons Method.

2. *Find by Newtons iterative formula for the reciprocal of a number N and hence find the value of 1/23,
correct to five decimal places.
3. (i)Solve by Newton Raphson Method the Equation xsinx + cosx = 0, correct to four decimal
places. (ii) *Solve by N R method x log10 x 1.2 0 .
4. Find by Newtons Method, the real root of the equations (i)* 3x = cosx +1. And (ii) xe x cos x .
5. Establish the formula to find the square root of N, using Newton Raphson Method. Hence
find the square root of (i)15, (ii)11, (iii) 5 correct to 3 decimal places.
6. Prove the quadratic convergence of Newton Raphson Method. Find a +ve real root of
f(x) = x3 5x + 3 = 0, using this method.
7. Find the +ve real root of (i) x3 2x + 0.5 = 0 and (ii) x4 x 10 = 0using Newton Raphson Method correct
to 3 decimal places.
8. Obtain the +ve of 2x3 3x - 6 = 0 that lies between 1 and 2 by using Newton Raphson method.
9. Find by Newtons method, the root of ex = 4x near x = 2, correct to four decimal places.

## Method II FIXED POINT ITERATION :

1. Find a real root of the equation cosx = 3x 1 correct to 5 decimal places by fixed point iteration method.
2. *Solve e x 3 x 0 by the method of fixed point iteration.
3. Find the ve root of the equation x3 2x + 5 = 0.
4. Use the method of fixed point iteration to solve the equation 3x log10 x 6 .
5. Solve the following by iteration method.
(i) 3x cosx - 2 = 0.
(ii) 2 x log10 x 7 .

## 1. Using Gauss Jordan method, solve the following system of equations

(i) 2x y + 3z = 8, x + 2y + z = 4 , 3x + y z = 0 and (ii) 10x + y + z = 12, 2x + 10y + z = 13, x + y + 5z = 7.
2. Solve by Gauss Jordan Method the following system
(i) 10x + y z = 11.19 * (ii) 10x + y + z = 12
x + 10y + z = 20.08 x + 10y + z = 12
-x +y + 10z = 35.61. x + y + 10z = 12.
3. Solve the following equations by Gauss Jordan method.
(i) x + y + z = 9, 2x 3y + 4z = 13, 3x + 4y + 5z = 40.
(ii) 2x + y + 4z = 12, 8x 3y + 2z = 20, 4x + 11y z = 33.
(iii)5x y = 9; - x + 5y z = 4; - y + 5z = -6.

## 1. Solve the given system of equations by Gaussian elimination method

-x1 +x2 + 10x3 = 35.61
10x1 + x2 x3 = 11.19
x1 + 10x2 + x3 = 20.08.
2. Solve the system of equations by Gauss elimination method.
(i) 10x 2y + 3z = 23 (ii) 3.15x -1.96y + 3.85z = 12.95
2x + 10y 5z = -33 2.13x + 5.12y 2.89z = -8.61
3x 4y + 10z = 41. 5.92x + 3.05y +2.15z = 6.88.

## Method IV Inverse of the matrix:

4 1 2 3 1 1 8 1 3
1. Find the inverse of (i) A 2 3 1 , (ii) * A 15 6 5 , (iii) A 5 1
2 using Gauss -

1 2 2 5 10 1 4
2 2
Jordan method.
2. Using Gauss Jordan Method find the inverse of the following matrices
1 1 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 6
(iii) (iv) *

i A 1 3 3 ii A 2 3 1 A 2 3 1 A 2 6 6
2 4 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 4 8 8

1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 0 1 2 1 2 6
(ix)
(v) A 4 3 1 (vi ) A 1 2 3 (vii) A 4 1 0
. , (viii) A 1 2 3 A 2 5 15
3 5 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 3 1 1 6 15 46

## 1. Solve by Gauss Jacobi Method, the following equation

(i) 4x1 + x2 + x3 = 6 (ii) **8x -3y +2z = 20
x1 + 4x2 + x3 = 6 4x + 11y z = 33
x1 + x2 + 4x3 = 6. 6x + 3y + 12z = 35

## 2. Solve by Gauss Jacobi method the equations

20x + y 2z = 17, 3x + 20y z = -18, 2x 3y + 20z = 25.

## 1. Solve the following system of equations by Gauss Seidal method

(i) *4x + 2y +z = 14, x + 5y z = 10, x + y + 8z = 20.
(ii) 2x + 10y + z = 13, 10x + y + z = 12, x + y + 5z = 7.
(iii)* 20x + y 2z = 17, 3x + 20y z = -18, 2x 3y + 20z = 25.
(iv)* x + y + 54z = 110, 27x + 6y z = 85, 6x + 15y + 2z = 72.
(v) 8x -3y +2z = 20, 4x + 11y z = 33, 6x + 3y + 12z = 35.
(vi)9x y + 2z = 9, x + 10y 2z = 15, 2x 2y - 13z = -17.
(vii) **10x + 2y + z = 9, x + 10y z = -22, -2x + 3y + 10z = 22.
2. Solve by Gauss Seidal method
(i) 6x 3y + z = 11 (ii) 28x + 4y z = 32 (iii) 6x -3y + z = 1 (iv) 28x + 4y z = 32
x + 3y + 10z = 24 2x + y 8z = -15 2x + y -8z = -15 x + 3y + 10z = 24
2x + 17y + 4z = 35 x 7y + z = 10. x 7y + z = 10. 2x + 17y + 4z = 35
3. Using Gauss Seidal Method, solve the following system start with x = 1, y = -2, z = 3
x + 3y + 52z = 173.61
x 27y + 2z = 71.81
41x 2y + 3z = 65.46
4. Solve by Gauss Seidal iteration the given system of equations starting with (0, 0, 0) as solution. Do 5
iteration only 4x x2 x3 = 2, - x1 + 4x2 x4 = 2, -x1 + 4x3 x4 = 1, - x2 x3 + 4x4 = 1.

## Method VII EIGEN VALUE OF A MATRIX BY Power method

5 0 1
1. **Find the Largest eigenvalues of by power method.
A 0 2 0
1 0 5

2. Determine the Largest eigen value and the corresponding eigenvector of the matrix using the power
2 1 0
A 1 2 1
method .
0 1 2

1 6 1
3. Find the dominant Eigen value and the corresponding Eigen vector of A 1 2 0

0 0 3

1
Using power method with the initial Eigen vector X 1 .
0
1

1 1 3
4. Solve by power method to find the dominant Eigen value for the matrix 1 5 1 .

3 1 1

5. Find the numerically largest eigenvalues and the corresponding Eigen vector using power method, given
5 4 3 1 3 1
(i) , (ii) * . Starting vector is ( 1, 1, 1)T.
A 10 8 6 A 3 2 4
20 4 22 1 4 10

6. Obtain by the power method, the dominant eigen value and the corresponding eigen vector Correct to two
decimal places for the matrix 2 2 2

1 as the initial approximation to the eigen vector.

2 / 3 5 / 3 5 / 3 taking 0
1 5 / 2 11/ 2 0

7. *Find the numerically largest eigenvalues and the corresponding Eigen vector using power method, given
25 1 2
. Starting vector is ( 1, 0, 0)T.
A 1 3 0
2 0 4

8. Find the numerically largest eigenvalues and the corresponding Eigen vector using power method, given
1 2 3 15 4 3
(i)
A 0 4 2 , (ii)
A 10 12 6
0 7 20 4 2
0
Method VIII EIGEN VALUE OF A MATRIX BY JACOBI method
1. Find all the Eigen values and Eigen vectors of the following matrix by using Jacobi method.
1 2 2 2 0 1 5 0 1 4 1 1
, (ii) A 1 1 2
(i) (iii) (iv) (v)
A 2 3 2 A 0 2 0 A 0 2 0
1 0 2 1 0 5 1 2 1
2 2 1

6 2 2 3 1 1 1 0 0

A 2 3 1
(vi)
A 1 5 1
(vii)
A 0 3 1
2 1 3 1 1 3 0 1 3

UNIT II
INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATIONS
PART A
1. State Lagranges interpolation formula.
2. What is the assumption we make when Lagranges formuls is used?
3. Use Lagranges formula, to find the quadratic polynomial that takes these values.
X: 0 1 3
Y: 0 1 0 Then find y(2).
4. Explain briefly interpolation.
5. State the order of convergence of cubic spline.
6. State the properties of cubic spline.
7.* Derive Newtons forward and backward difference formula. (OR) State Gregory Newton forward
difference interpolation formula.
8. State Newtons forward difference formula for equal intervals.
8. Obtain the divided difference table for the following data
x -1 0 2 3
f(x) -8 3 1 12
9. Fit a polynomial which takes the following values:
x 0 1 2
Y 1 2 1
x 0 1 3
10. Using Lagranges formula, find the polynomial to the given data. Y 5 6 50
10. What do you understand by inverse interpolation?
11. What is the nature of nth divided differences of a polynomial of nth degree?
12. Find the second divided difference with arguments a, b, c if f(x) = 1/x.
13. Form the divided difference table for the data (0, 1), (1, 4), (3, 40) and (4, 85).
14. **Define a cubic spline S(x) which is commonly used for interpolation.
15. If y(x) = y, I = 0, 1, , n write down the formula for the cubic spline polynomial y(x), valid in xi-1< x < xi.
16. What is meant by Natural cubic spline?
17. What in the error in Newtons forward interpolation formula?
18. When to use Newtons forward interpolation and when to use Newtons backward interpolation?
19. Find the divided difference of f(x) = x2 + x + 2 for the arguments 1, 3, 6, 11.
20. Find the divided difference of f(x) = x3 x2 + 3x + 8 for the arguments 0, 1, 4, 5.
21. Find the second divided difference with arguments a, b, c if f(x) = 1/x.
1 1

3
20. Show that .
bcd a abcd
21. What is inverse interpolation?
PART B

## 1. Using Lagranges interpolation formula, find x corresponding to x 2 5 8 14

y = 85 given y 94.8 87.9 81.3 68.7

## 2. Given the values x 5 7 11 13 17

f(x) 150 392 1452 2366 5202
Evaluate f(9), using (i) Lagranges formula (ii) Newtons divided difference formula.
3. Find f(x) as a polynomial in x from the given data and find f(8) and f(6).
x 3 7 9 10
f(x) 168 120 72 63

4. **Find y(40) from the following data using Lagranges interpolation formula y(30) = 148, y(35) = 96,
y(45) = 68 and y(55) = 34.
5. Fit a Lagranges interpolating polynomial y = f(x) and find f(5). x 1 3 4 6
y=f(x) -3 0 30 132
6. Find the polynomial f(x) by using Lagranges formula and hence find f(3).
x 0 1 2 3
f(x) 2 3 12 147

## 7. ***Given the values Find f(27) by using Lagranges interpolation formula.

x 14 17 31 35
f(x) 68.5 64 44 39.5

8. Using Lagranges interpolation formula fit a polynomial to the following data: And hence find y at
x = 1.5 x -1 0 2 3
y -8 3 1 12

9. The following table gives certain corresponding values of x and log10x. Compute the value of
log10323.5, by using Lagranges interpolation formula.
x 321.0 322.8 324.2 325.0
Log10x 2.50651 2.50893 2.51081 2.51188

10. Use Lagranges interpolating formula to fit a polynomial to the given data f(-1) = -8, f(0) = 3,
f(2) = 1 and f(3) = 12. Hence find the value of f(1).
11. Use Lagranges method to find log10656, given that log10654 = 2.8156, log10658 = 2.8182, log10659 = 2.8189
and log10661 = 2.8202.

## Method II - NewtoNs divided diffeReNce method:

x 4 5 7 10 11 13
1. **Using Newtons divided difference formula, find f(8) for the given
y 48 100 294 900 1210 2028
data:
2. Determine f(x) as a polynomial in x for the following data, using Newtons
x -4 -1 0 2 5
divided difference formula. Also find f(2).
f(x) 1245 33 5 9 1335
3. Using Newtons divided difference formula find the equation y = f(x) of
least degree and passing through the points (-1, -21), (1, 15), (2, 12), (3, 3). Find also y at x = 0.
4. From the following table find f(x), by Newtons divided difference x 0 2 3 4 6 7
interpolation formula. y 0 8 0 -72 0 1008

5. Use Newtons divided difference formula, find u(3) given u(1) = -26, u(2) = 12, u(4) = 256,
u(6) = 844.
6. Given the values x 5 7 11 13 17
y 150 392 1452 2366 5202
Evaluate f(9) using Newtons divided difference formula
7. If f(0) = f(1) = f(2) = -12, f(4) = 0, f(5) = 600 and f(7) = 7308, find a polynomial that satisfies this
data using Newtons divided difference interpolation formula. Hence, find f(6).
x 3 7 9 10
f(x) 168 120 72 63
8. Using divided difference, find f(x) as a polynomial in x from the given data:
9. Use Newtons divided difference formula to find f(5) from the following data: x 0 2 3 4 7
f(x) 4 26 58 112 466

10. *Use Newtons divided difference formula to find f(x) from the following data and hence find f(4).
x 0 1 2 5
f(x) 2 3 12 147

11. Use Newtons divided difference formula to find f(x) from the following data
x 1 2 7 8
y 1 5 5 4

## Method III Cubic spline approximation:

x -1 0 1 2
1. ****Find the cubic spline approximation for the function y = f(x) from the data, y -1 1 3 35
given that y0 y3 0 .
'' ''
i 0 1 2 3
x 1 2 3 4
2. Fit the 4 points by the cubic splines, using the conditions y0 '' y3'' 0 .
y 1 5 11 8

## 3. Find the natureal cubic spline to fit the data.

x 0 1 2
f(x) -1 3 29
Hence find f(0.5) and f(1.5). x 0 1 2 3
4. Fit a natural cubic spline for the following data y 1 4 0 -2

'
5. Fit a cubic spline curve for the points (2, 11), (3, 49) and (4, 123). Hence find y(2.5) and y (3.5) , assume that
y '' (2) 0 and y '' (4) 0 .
x 1 2 3
6. Fit the cubic spline for the data: Hence evaluate y(1.5)
y -6 -1 16

7. The following values of x and y are given: Find the cubic splines and evaluate x 1 2 3 4
y(1.5) . y 1 2 5 11
8. Fit the straight line for the data.
x 0 1 2 3
y 1 2 9 28

x 1 2 3
y -8 -1 18

## 1. Find y at x = 84 using backward difference for the given data. x 40 50 60 70 80 90

y 184 204 226 250 276 304

2. The following are data from the steam table. Find the pressure at temperature t = 1750C and t = 1420C.
Using Newtons Backward and Forward difference Formula.
Temp0C 140 150 160 170 180
Pressure Kgf/cm2 3.685 4.854 6.302 8.076 10.225

3. From the following table find the interpolating polynomial for y by Newtons Forward and Backward
interpolation formulae. x 1 3 5 7
y 3 12 30 60
4. Estimate the value of f(22) from the following using Newton forward
interpolation formula.
x 20 25 30 35 40 45
5. From the following table, find the value of tan 45 15 by f 354 332 291 260 231 204
Newtons forward interpolation formula.
x 45 46 47 48 49 50
Tanx: 1.00000 1.03553 1.07237 1.11061 1.15037 1.19175
6. Use Newtons Backward difference formula to construct an interpolating polynomial of degree 3 for the data
f(-0.75) = -0.07181250, f(-0.5) = -0.024750, f(-0.25) = 0.33493750, f(0) = 1.10100. Hence find f(-1/3).
7. *Using Newtons forward interpolation formula, find the polynomial f(x) x 4 6 8 10
Satisfying the following data. Hence evaluate y at x = 5. y 1 3 8 16

8. Using Newtons forward interpolation formula, find the polynomial f(x) satisfying the following Data. Hence
find f(2).
x 0 5 10 15
y 14 379 1444 3584

9. *Using Newtons forward interpolation formula find the cubic Polynomial which takes places the
following values: Evaluate f(4) using Newtons backward formula. Is it the same as obtained from
the cubic Polynomial found above.
x 0 1 2 3
y(x) 1 2 1 10

10. Find e-1.1 using Newtons forward interpolation x 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00
Formula. e-x 0.3679 0.2865 0.2231 0.1738 0.1353

UNIT III
NUMERICAL DIFFERENTION AND INTEGRATION
PART A
1. Using Newtons backward difference formula, write the formulae for the first and second order
derivatives at the end value x = xn upto the fourth order difference term.
2. State Newtons formula to find f ' ( x) using the forward difference.
dy d2y
3. State Newtons forward difference formula to find and 2 .
dx x x0 dx x x 0
4. By differentiating Newtons backward difference formula, find the first derivative of the function f(x).
5. Why is Trapezoidal rule so called?
1
dx
6. Evaluate
1 x
by Trapezoidal rule, dividing the range into 4 equal parts.

2
7. State Simpsons rule. (Or) State Simpsons one third rule. (or) Write down the formula for Simpsons
1/3 and 3/8 rule
8. When does Simpsons rule give exact result?
9. What is the order of errors in Trapezoidal rule and Simpsons formula.
x6

10. Six sets of values of x and y are given write the formula to get ydy .
x1
11. What are the errors in Trapezoidal and Simpsons rules of numerical integration.
xn

12. In order to evaluate ydy by Simpsons 1/3 rule as well as by Simpsons 3/8 rule what is the restriction
x0
on the number of intervals.

13. Using Trapezoidal rule evaluate sin x dx by dividing the range into 6 equal parts.
0
6
14. Write down the Trapezoidal rule to evaluate f x dx with h = 0.5.
1
15. Compare Trapezoidal rule and Simpsons 1/3 rule for evaluating numerical integration.
1
16. State three point Gaussian quadrature formula. Evaluate f x dx .
1
6
17. State two point Gaussian quadrature formula to evaluate f x dx .
1
18. If the range is not (-1, 1) then what is the idea to solve the Gaussian quadrature problems.
1
dx
19. Apply Gauss two point formula to evaluate 1 x
1
2
.

b d
20. State Trapezoidal rule for evaluating f ( x, y )dxdy .
a c
b d
21. State Simpsons rule for evaluating f ( x, y )dxdy .
a c

PART B
Method I: DERIVATIVES FROM DIFFERENCE TABLES:

## x 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0

1. Find f ' 3 and f '' 3 for the following data f(x) -14 -10.032 -5.296 -0.256 6.672 14

2. Determine y(x) as a polynomial in x for x 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
the following data, using Newtons y(x) 7.989 8.403 8.781 9.129 9.451 9.75 10.031
divided difference formula. Given that
dy d2y
& 2
Find dx dx at x = 1.1.

3. Consider the following table of data x 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Find f 0.25 ) using Newtons formula
'
y 0.9798652 0.917771 0.8080348 0.6386093 0.3843735

'

## using Newtons Backward difference approximation.

4. The following data gives the velocity of a particle for 20 seconds at an interval of 5 seconds. Find
the initial acceleration using the entire data Time(sec) 0 5 10 15 20
Velocity(m/sec) 0 8 14 69 228
5. Find the maximum and minimum value of y tabulated below
x -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
y 2 -0.25 0 -0.25 2 15.75 56
x 0 52 3 4 7 9

6. Give the following data, find y ' 6 , y ' 5 and the maximum value
y 4 26 58 112 466 922

## 7. Find the first two derivatives

1
of x 3 at x = x 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 50 and x = 56,
y = x 1
3
3.6840 3.7084 3.7325 3.7563 3.7798 3.8030 3.8259
for the given table:

' ''
8. Find y and y at x = 1.25 for the data given
x 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30
y 1.00000 1.02470 1.04881 1.07238 1.09544 1.11803 1.14017

## 9. Compute f ' 0 and f '' 4 from the data x 0 1 2 3 4

y 1 2.718 7.381 20.086 54.598

10. Find at x = 1.5 and x = 4.0 from the following data using Newtons formulae for differentiation.
x 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
y 3.375 7.0 13.625 24.0 38.875 59.0

## Method II : tRapezoidaL aNd simpsoNs 1/3 aNd 3/8 RuLes:

1
dx
1. Using Trapezoidal rule, evaluate 1 x2
1
taking 8 intervals.

5
dx
2. Evaluate 4 x 5 by Simpsons one third rule and hence find the value of log
0
e 5 (n = 10).

3. By dividing the range into ten equal parts, evaluate sin x dx by Trapezoidal and Simpsons rule.
0
1

## xe dx taking 4 intervals. Compare your result with actual value.

x
4. Using Simpsons 1/3 rule evaluate
0
6
dx
5. 0 1 x2 by (i) Trapezoidal rule (ii) Simpsons rule. Also check up the results by actual integration.

1.4
6. Compute the value of (sin x log
0.2
e x e x ) dx taking h = 0.2 and using Trapezoidal rule,

## Simpsons 1/3 rule. Also compare with exact result.

rd
5.2
7. By dividing the range into six equal parts, evaluate log
4
e xdx using Simpsons rule.

1
dx
8. Evaluate 0 1 x2 using Trapezoidal rule with 10 subintervals. Hence approximate the value of .

## 9. The velocity of a particle at a distance S from a point on

S in meter 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
its path is given by the table below. Estimate the time
V m/sec 47 58 64 65 61 52 38
taken to travel 60 meters by using Simpsons one third
using Trapezoidal rule.
/2
10. Dividing the range into 10 equal parts, find the value of sin x dx by (i) Trapezoidal rule
0
(ii) Simpsons 1/3 rule and (iii)* Simpsons 3/8 rule(equal part is not mention).
rd

## Method III : RombeRgs method:

2
dx
1. Evaluate x
0
2
4
using Rombergs method. Hence obtain an approximate value for .

1
dx
2. Evaluate x 1 correct to 3 decimal places using Rombergs method. Hence find the value of loge 2.
0
1
dx
3. Compute x
0
2
1
by using Trapezoidal rule, taking h = 0.5 and h = 0.25. hence find one value of the above

## integration by Rombergs method.

1 1
dx dx
1. Using three point Gaussian quadrature formulas, evaluate (i) 1 x2 1 (ii) t
0
2
1
.

x2 2x 1
2
2. Evaluate 0 1 ( x 1)4 dx by Gaussian three point formula.
1
x 2 dx
3. Evaluate 4 by using three points Gauss quadratic.
1
x 1
1
dx
4. Using three point Gaussian quadrature, evaluate
0 x4 1
.

2
1
5. Evaluate 1 x
1
2
dx using Gauss three point formula.

3
1
6. Using Gaussian Two and Three formula, evaluate 1 xdx .
2

## Method V : doubLe iNtegRaLs usiNg tRapezoidaL aNd simpsoNs RuLe:

2 2 Y x 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
1. Evaluate f ( x, y )dxdy by Trapezoidal rule for the following data:
0 0
0
1
2
3
3
4
4
6
5
9
5
11
2 4 6 8 11 14
1 1
dxdy
2. Using Simpsons 1/3 rule evaluate 1 x y taking h = k = 0.5.
0 0
1 2
2 xy
3. Evaluate (1 x
0 1
2
)(1 y 2 )
dxdy by Trapezoidal rule with h = k =0.25.

2.0 1.5
4. Using Trapezoidal rule evaluate I
1.4 1.0
n ( x 2 y )dxdy . Choosing x = 0.15 and y = 0.25.

1 1

e
x y
5. Evaluate dxdy using Simpsons and Trapezoidal rule.
0 0
1.4 2.4
1
6. Evaluate xy dxdy by Simpsons rule taking h = 0.1 and k = 0.1. verify your result by actual integration.
1 2
5 4
1
7. Evaluate x y dxdy by Trapezoidal rule in x direction with h = 1 and Simpsons 1/3 rule in y direction
1 1

with k = 1.
2.4 4.4
8. Evaluate xydxdy using Simpsons rule (h = k = 0.1).
2 4
2 1
9. *Evaluate 4xydxdy by using Simpsons rule taking h = and k = .
0 0

UNIT IV
INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
PART A
1. Write the Taylors series formula at y(x0) = y0.
2. Write the merits and demerits of the Taylor method of solution.
3. Which is better Taylors method or R-K method?
dy
4. Solve the differential equation x y xy, y 0 1 by Taylor series method to get the value
dx
of y at x = h.
5. What is meant by initial value problem and give an example for it.
dy
6. Find y(0.1) by Taylors series given 1 y, y (0) 1 .
dx
7. Write down the fourth order Taylor Algorithm.
8. State Modified Euler algorithm to solve y ' f x, y , y(x0) = y0, at x = x0 + h.
dy
9. Write down Euler algorithm to the differential equation f x, y .
dx
10. Find y(0.2) when y ' 2 xy 2 , y(0) = 1 and h = 0.2 by Eulers method.
dy
11. Solve 1 y , y(0) = 0, for x = 0.1 by Eulers method.
dx
dy
12. Solve y , y 0 1 to find y(0.01) using Euler method.
dx
13. Write the Runge Kutta algorithm of second order for solving y ' f x, y , y(x0) = y0.
dy
14. Write down the R K formula of 4th order to solve f x, y with y(x0) = y0.
dx
15. In the deviation of fourth order Runge Kutta formula, why it is called fourth order.
16. ** Write down the formula to solve 2nd order differential equation using Runge Kutta method of
4th Order.
" ' '

17. What are the values of k1 and l1 to solve y xy y 0 , y(0) = 1, y 0 0 by Runge
Kutta Method of 4th order?
18. Compare Taylors series and R K method.
19. Write Milnes predictor corrector formula.
20. What is the error term in Milnes corrector formula?
21. How many prior values are required predict the next value in Milnes method.
22. What is the error term in Milnes Predictor formula?
23. Predictor corrector methods are starting methods.
24. Write down Adams Bashforth predictor formula.
25. How many prior values are required predict the next value in Adams method?
26. What is a predictor corrector method of solving a differential equation?
27. What is the condition to apply Adams Bashforth method?
28. What do we mean by saying that a method is self starting? Not self starting.
29. Compare the Milnes predictor corrector and Adam Bashforth predictor corrector methods
For solving ordinary differential equations.
PART - B
Method I : Taylor series method:
1. ***Using Taylor series method find y(1.1) and y(1.2) correct to four decimal places given
dy
xy1/3 and y(1) = 1.
dx
dy
2. **Using Taylor series method, find y at x = 0.1 and x = 0.2 given 2 y 3e x , y(0) = 0.
dx
3. Using Taylor series method, compute the value of y(0.1), y(0.2), y(0.3) and y(0.4) correct to three decimal
dy
places from 1 2 xy given that y(0) = 0.
dx
dy
4. **Solve numerically x y (i) When y(0) = 1. Using Taylors series up to x = 0.1, 0.2 with h = 0.1.
dx
(ii)When y(1) = 0, find y(1.1).
dy
5. Using Taylor series method, find y at x = 0.2 and x = 0.4 given y 2 x 2 , y(0)=1
dx
dy 2
6. Using Taylor series method, find y at x = 0.1 given x y , y(0)=1,correct to 4 decimal places.
dx
dy 2
7. Using Taylor series method, find y at x = 1.1 and x = 1.2 given x 1 y , y(1)=1.
dx
Method II euLeR aNd modified euLeRs method:
dy
1. Using Eulers method find y(0.2) and y(0.4) from x y , y(0) = 1 with h = 0.2.
dx
dy
2. Using modified Eulers method, solve 1 y , y(0) = 0, for x = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3. compare your results with
dx
exact solutions.
dy 2x
3. Using modified Eulers method find y at x = 0.1 and x = 0.2 given y , y (0) 1.
dx y
dy
4. Solve log10 x y , y (0) 2 by Eulers Modified method and find the values of y(0.2), y(0.4),and
dx
y(0.6) take h = 0.2.
5. Using Modified Euler method find
a. y(0.1) and y(0.2) given y ' x 2 y 2 , y(0) = 1 with h = 0.1
b. y(0.2) and y(0.4) given y ' x 2 y 2 , y(0) = 1 with h = 0.2.
6. Find y(0.25) and y(0.5), using Modified Eulers Method with h = 0.25 given that y
'
3x 2 y ,
y(0) = 4. Compare the values with the exact solutions.
dy
7. **consider the initial value problem y x 2 1, y 0 0.5 using the modified Euler method,
dx
find y(0.2)
dy
8. *Using modified Eulers method, find y(4.1) and y(4.2) if 5x y 2 2 0, y 4 1 .
dx
Method III: 4th order R K method:
1. Find y(0.2) using R K method of order 4 from y' x y , y(0) = 1.
dy 2
2. Given x y x , y(0) = 1, using R K method of 4th order find y at x = 0.1.
dx
dy y 2 x 2
3. Compute y(0.2) given , y(0) = 1 by R K method.
dx y 2 x 2
4. Find y(0.8) given that y ' y x 2 , y(0.6) = 1.7379 by using R K method of order 4 with h = 0.1
dy
5. Using R.K. method of 4th order find y(0.1) given initial value problem x y 2 , y(0) = 1.
dx
Find y(0.2) and y(0.4) using R K method of order 4 from y x y , y(0) = 2.
' 3
6.
dy 1
7. Find y(0.1) using R K method of order 4 from , y(0) = 1.
dx x y
dy
8. Find y(0.2), given log x y , y(0) = 1 using R K method of 4th order, taking h = 0.1.
dx
Method IV : 2ND ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION USING R K METHOD OF 4TH ORDER:
1. **Using R K method of order 4, solve y" 2 y ' 2 y e 2 x sin x with y(0) = -0.4 y ' 0 0.6 .
2. Use R K 4th order method to find y(0.2) for the equation y
"
xy ' y 0 given that y(0) = 1,
y ' 0 0, takeh 0.2
3. **Given y" xy ' y 0 , y(0) = 1, y ' 0 0 . Find the value of y(0.1) by R K method of 4th order.
Method V : miLNes pRedictoR aNd coRRectoR method:
dy x y
1. * Using Milnes method find y(2) if y(x) is the solution of given y(0) = 2, y(0.5) = 2.636,
dx 2
y(1) = 3.8595 and y(1.5) = 4.968.

2. Using Milnes method , find y (4.4) given 2 xy ' y 2 2 0 , y(4) = 1, y(4.1) = 1.0049,
y(4.2) = 1.0097 and y(4.3) = 1.0143.
dy
3. ***Solve xy y 2 , y (0) 1 , using Milnes predictor corrector formula and find y(0.4).
dx
Using Taylor series method to find y(0,.1), y(0.2) and y(0.3).
dy
y x 2 , y (0) 1
4. Solve dx
(i) Find y(0.1) and y(0.2) by R K method of order 4.
(ii) Find y(0.3) by Eulers method
(iii) Find y(0.4) by Milnes predictor corrector method.
dy 2
5. Solve x y 2 2 , using Milnes predictor corrector method for x = 0.3,y(0) = 1. Evaluate
dx
the values of y for x = - 0.1, 0.1 and 0.2 using Taylors series.
6. **Using Milnes method find y(4.4) given 5 xy
'
y 2 2 0 given y(4) = 1, y(4.1)= 1.0049,
y(4.2) = 1.0097 and y(4.3) = 1.0143.

dy y 1 x
2 2

7. Given and y(0) = 1, y(0.1) = 1.06, y(0.2) = 1.12, y(0.3) = 1.21, evaluate y(0.4) by
dx 2
Milnes predictor corrector method.
dy
8. *Given that 1 y 2 ; y(0.6)= 0.6841, y(0.4) = 0.4228, y(0.2) = 0.2027, y(0) = 0, find y(-0.2) using Milnes
dx
method.
Method VI adams pRedictoR aNd coRRectoR methods:
dy 2
1. Given x 1 y , y(1) = 1, y(1.1) = 1.233, y(1.2) = 1.548, y(1.3) = 1.979, evaluate y(1.4) by Adams
dx
Bashforth method.
dy
2. Solve 1 y with the initial condition x = 0, y = 0, using Eulers algorithm and tabulate the solutions at x
dx
= 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4. using these remits find y(0.5) using Adams Bashforth predictor corrector method.
dy y 1
3. Using Adams Bashforth predictor corrector formulae, evaluate y(1.4). if y satisfies and y(1)
dx x x 2
= 1, y(1.1) = 0.996, y(1.2) = 0.986, y(1.3) = 0.972.
4. Find y(0.1), y(0.2,), y(0.3), from y
'
x2 y ,y(0) = 1 using Taylors series method and hence obtain y(0.4)
dy xy
5. By using Adams pc method find y when x = 0.4, given , y(0) = 1, y(0.1) = 1.01, y(0.2) = 1.022, y(0.3)
dx 2
= 1.023.
Method VII - Simultaneous differential equations:
dy dz
1. Solve for y(0.1) from the simultaneous differential equations 2 y z ; y 3 z ; y(0) = 0, z(0) =
dx dx
0.5 using Runge kutta method of the fourth order.

UNIT V
BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY
AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
PART A
1. Write an explicit formula to solve numerically the heat equation(parabolic equation) uxx aut = 0.
2. Write down the Crank Nicolson formula to solve ut = uxx.
3. Write down the implicit formula to solve one dimensional heat flow equation
4. What is the central difference approximation for y"
5. Write the difference scheme for solving the Poisson equation 2 u f ( x, y ) .
6. Write down the finite difference formula for y ' and y " .state the finite difference scheme to solve the
equation ytt a 2 y xx .
7. Classify the PDE y xx xu yy 0 .

8. Write down Bender Schmidts difference scheme in general form and using suitable value of , write the
scheme in simplified form.
9. State Standard Five Point Formula with relevant diagram.
10. Define a difference quotient.
11. State the SFPF in solving Laplace equation.
12. State the implicit scheme to solve the dimensional heat equation numerically.
13. Write the difference scheme quotients of uxx and uyy.
1
14. Write the finite difference scheme for the second order differential equation y" f ,h .
n
2u 2 u
2
15. State the explicit finite difference scheme for one dimensional wave equation .
t 2 x 2
16. Define SFPF and DFPF.
17. Define elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic type of partial differential equations.

PART B
METHOD I BENDER SCHMIDT METHOD:
2u u
1. Solve , subject to u(0, t) = u(1, t) = 0 and u(x, 0) = sinx, 0 < x < 1 using Bender Schmidt method.
x 2 t
2. Solve with the conditions u(0, t) = 0 = u(4, t), u(x, 0) = x(4 - x)
(1) Taking h = 1 employing Bender- Schmidt recurrence equation. Continue the solution through 10 time
steps
(2) Assume h = 1. Find the values of up to t = 5, using explicit method.
3. Solve with boundary conditions u(0, t) = 0, u(8, t) = 0, u(x, 0) = x(8 - x)/2up to t = , taking h = 1, k = 1/8.
2 f f
4. Given 0 , f(0, t) = f(5, t) = 0, f(x, 0) = x2(25 x2), find f in the range taking h = 1 and upto 5
x 2
t
seconds.
Method II:
2u 2u
1. Find the pivotal values of the equation 4 2 with given conditions u(0, t) = 0, u(4, t) = 0,
t 2 x
u ( x,0)
u(x, 0) = x(4 - x) and 0 by taking h = 1, for 4 time steps.
t
2. Evaluate the Pivotal values of the equation taking h = 1 and up to on half of the period of the oscillation 16uxx
utt = 0 given u(0, t) = u(5, t) = ut(x, 0) = 0and u(x, 0) = x2(5 - x).
3. Solve 25uxx utt = 0 for u at the Pivotal points given u(0, t) = u(5, t) = ut(x, 0) = 0 and u(x, 0) = 2x for 0
< x < 2.5 and = 10 2x for 2.5 < x <5 for one half period of vibrations.
2u 2u
4. Solve the equation , 0 < x < 1, t > 0 satisfying the conditions u(x, 0) = 0, u(0, t) = 0 and u(1, t) =
x 2 t 2
sint. Compute u(x, t) for 4 time steps by taking h = .
Method III:
1. Solve the equation y " x y with the boundary conditions y(0) = y(1) = 0.
2. Solve the finite difference method, the boundary value problem y "( x) y ( x) 0 , where y(0) = 0 and y(1)
= 1, taking h = 0.25.
3. Using the finite difference method, compute y(0.5), given y " 64 y 10 0 , x (0, 1), y(0) = y(1) = 0, sub
dividing the interval into (1) 4 equal parts (2) 2 equal parts.
4. Solve y " y 0 with the boundary conditions y(0) = 0 and y(1) = 1.
Method IV:
1. Solve the elliptic equation for the following square mesh with boundary values as shown

1000 1000
2000 2000
1000 1000

## 0 500 1000 500 0

2. Solve 2u 8 x 2 y 2 for square mesh given u = 0 on the boundaries dividing the square in to 16 sub squares
of length 1 unit.
3. *Solve uxx +uyy = -10(x2 +y2 + 10) over the square mesh with sides x = 0, y = 0, x = 3, y = 3 with u = 0, on the
boundary and mesh length 1 unit.
4. Solve u 0 over the square mesh of side 4 units, satisfying the boundary conditions.
2

## (a) u(0, y) = 0 for 0 < y < 4

(b) u(4, y) = 12 +y for 0 < y < 4
(c) u(x, 0) = 3x for 0 < x < 4
(d) u(x, 4) = x2 for 0 < x < 4.
5. Solve uxx +uyy = 0 in 0 x 4, 0 y 4. Given that u(0, y) = 0, u(4, y) = 8 + 2y; u(x, 0) = x2/2 and u(x, 4) = 2
taking h = k = 1. Obtain the result correct to one decimal.
6. Solve u 0 in the square region bounded by x = 0, x= 4, y = 0, y = 4 and with boundary conditions u(0, y)
2

= y2/2, u(4, y) = y2, u(x, 0) = 0and u(x, 4) = 8 +2x taking h = k = 1. (Perform 4 iterations)