Process Design A
Draft Report
GROUP
21
NUMBER
Groups Member
S. No Name Group Members
ID
1
Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 4
1.1 Shale Gas .............................................................................................................. 4
1.2 Hydraulic Fracturing ............................................................................................ 5
1.3 Reservoir Location ............................................................................................. 10
2. BLOCK DIAGRAM ................................................................................................. 12
2.1 Block Diagram Analysis .................................................................................... 12
3. PROCESS FLOW ..................................................................................................... 16
3.1 Process Description ............................................................................................ 16
4. MASS BALANCE .................................................................................................... 21
5 Energy Balance Analysis .......................................................................................... 34
6. Safety and Environmental Concerns ......................................................................... 43
References ......................................................................................................................... 47
INDIVIDUAL REPORT
2
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE TEAM MEMBERS
Name Student ID Content of contributions
towards group report
Mohamed Salman Introduction, Process Flow
H00229259 Diagram and Final
Mohamed Haniff
Compilation of the report
Samira binti Azman H00234956 Mass Balance Analysis
3
1. INTRODUCTION
Recently the development in drilling process, specifically the horizontal drilling
as well as the technology used in hydraulic fracturing has make the various countries
to develop larger reservoirs to untie the shale gas and make it available for various
use like processing power plant. Many industries in US have explored new
resources and have provided an opportunity for investments and growth. Studies
have shown that the shale gas comprises of primary methane, but some formations
also have substantial molecular amounts of the hydrocarbons along with other gases
like nitrogen and carbon dioxide. This project aims to provide detail analysis,
synthesis and integrated process design that is involved in shale gas processing
power plant.
Shale gas generally refers to natural gas which is trapped within shale
formations. At the earths surface levels and within bodies of water when the
sediments gets accumulated rocks are formed and these rocks are called
sedimentary rocks and sandstone, limestone and shale are some of the common
examples of sedimentary rocks (Fulbright, 2013). It is interesting to know that
shales have a laminate structure. The shale is a finegrained sedimentary mud
rocks which is made up of mostly flakes from various clay materials and also
from tiny fragments of quartz, calcite, other minerals and organic material. Shale
formations are characterized by very low permeability, low porosity and also by
breaks along thin laminated layers known facility (Andrews, 2013). Studies have
shown that the amount of carbonaceous material found in shale has a significant
feature. Especially the black shale, which has the virtue of a high degree of
reduced free carbon and this give the carbon its characteristic anthracite colour.
About 95% of all the organic matter to be found in sedimentary rocks makes up
shale and other mud rocks (Fulbright, 2013; Andrews, 2013).
In todays world the natural gas plays an important role in the society. The
thermo genic processing of carbonaceous material that is millions of years old
and found only at a significant depth in the Earths crust cause the formation of
natural gas. On account of high temperature and pressure at a significant depth
in the Earths crust, the carbonaceous materials transforms into gas. The main
component of natural gas is methane and it also contains other components such
as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and heavier hydrocarbons like ethane and propane.
However, the composition of methane in natural gas is usually more than 80%.
Additionally, the proportion of higher hydrocarbons is chiefly influenced by the
type of organic matter within the geologic formation from which the gas is
4
derived, as well as its thermal maturity levels. Natural gas is considered as a
great energy source for heating because of the high methane content (Selley,
2005; Andrews, 2013).
It is found that thermo genic gas will naturally seeks a pathway to lower
pressure environments as it is subjected to high pressures (Andrews, 2013).
Shale gas is said to be a gas which has been trapped in the replete of shale
formations with fissures arising from its laminate and fissile structures (see figure
1), further these pathways culminates in deadends owing to the classic
permeability and low porosity characteristics of shale formations (Fulbright, 2013;
Andrews, 2013).
The formation of shale in which thermo genic gas has been trapped
occurs 2 to 3 km below the Earths surface and this can vary depending on the
geological exigencies and influences. For example, in US shale gas are far
shallower than those found in South Africa (Karoo Basin) where the trap is
anticipated at 3 km. For this study, Central Britain location was chosen and
covers the BowlandHodder Shale study area. The area of BowlandHodder
Shale study includes cities such as Liverpool, Manchester, Derby, Nottingham,
Sheffield, Leeds, York, Hull and StokeonTrent. Furthermore, the shale
formations in this area are 2.9 km below the Earths surface.
5
stretch in narrow horizontal bands across the geological formations further
complicates the process. Thus, in order to attain optimal production it necessary
to adopt horizontal mining technique as shown in Figure 2. Studies have shown
that for more than 60 years the hydraulic fracturing technique developed in the
U.S. is used to unlock the gas trapped in shale fissures (Annual Energy Outlook
2011). In compliance with US regulatory body (State Oil and Gas Regulatory
Programmes) the hydraulic fracturing process has been developed with especial
emphasis to protect the groundwater (Fulbright, 2013; Kuuskra, et al. 2013).
1. A vertical well needs to be drilled at the just beneath the closest aquifer
layer below the surface. During this process of drilling the well bore is
pumped with mud (a mixture of water and additives). Mud is used to cool
the drillbit and flush the rock cuttings to the surface. The mud keeps the
well bore intact, as it cakes the sides of the well bore.
6
2. After the freshwater aquifer is penetrated the removal of drillpipe and bit
takes place. Further surface casing is place in to the well bore, which will
isolate the freshwater zone from the bore well and at the foot of the casing
the cement is pumped out through the shoe opening. The freshwater
aquifer can be totally sealed off from the well bore once the cement is
forced upward in between the casing sides and well bore walls. The seal
prevents the contamination of aquifer by pushed down the hydraulic
fracture fluids and this is the part of fracturing process. The seal also
prevents the contamination which may occur due to release of gas which
later flow up the well.
3. When the cement is set firm the drillpipe and bit are again lowered down
the well bore Further the drilling of the cement plug at the foot of the well
bore is done, and boring is carried on until the kickoff point, A horizontal
leg is planned and the kickoff point normally occurs 150m above the
shale formation. From here is where the drill curve starts and ultimately a
series of horizontally drilled bores will culminate (see Figure 3).
4. The drillpipe and bit are removed from the well bore once again, followed
by the same casing and cementing process. Then to start with the angle
drilling process, a downhole drilling motor along with an instruments
which has capability of measuring the direction and angle of drill are
lowered into the well bore. This process takes around 400m of angle
drilling from the kickoff point and it continues until the direction of drill
becomes horizontal. Lateral is the horizontal part of the well bore and
along the shale formation drilling takes places.
5. For the final time the drillpipe and bit are removed once the target
distance in the lateral is reached. After this the production casing in full
length along with lateral is implanted into the well bore. The cement is
pumped down the casing and it come out from the end of the lateral hole,
yet again cement is forced between casing and wall of the hole to filling
up the annulus. Annulus is the open space between well bore walls and
the production casing.
Penetrating the production casing at appropriate points along the lateral is the
first step in the hydraulic fracturing process. Another term used for penetrating is
also known as perforate or perf. Normally, there is perforating gun (often fired
7
electronically) which is loaded to the section targeted and down the well bore as
well as into the lateral. Since the gun set of the charge which shoots into the
small holes through the casing and sleeve of the cements as well as at the short
distance into the shale formation. After this step, the perforating gun is removed
from the well bore and this means the well is ready for hydraulic fracturing, the
fissures in the shale formation opens and it is ready for the trapped gas to be
released (Kuuskra, et al. 2013, Fulbright, 2013).
8
Figure 4: Additives in Fracfluid
(Source: http://www.nortonrosefulbright.com)
It is observed that some fracturing fluid may be lost in the shale formation.
However, most of it is recovered up the well bore. Throughout the duration of the
life of the well, fracturing fluid and mud will continue to flow up the well bore. A
permanent production wellhead is installed on the surface once gas is released
and is flowing up the well bore in feasible production quantities. This permanent
production well head is to regulate the production of gas flowing from the well.
Sequentially the sections of lateral are fractured and this begins far away
from the kickoff point and lateral target section end. After the sections are
perforated, the adjacent fractured formation as well as the gas pathway opening
sections is plugged. The next section undergoes the similar process along with
the lateral. It should be noted here that the whole of target section is processed
in similar manner and the cement plugs are bored out which allows the released
gas to flow up the well bore and up to the surface.
Fulbright (2013) discusses that the laterals from the vertical shaft can
augment up to 2 km in any directions. Similarly, the production platform can be
centred in an area with diameter of 4 km. This means that the surface fracturing
pads from where the well bore drilling activities and hydraulic fracturing
operation locations can be apart but within the range of 4 km. However, the on
going research and technological development provides options to for extending
these lengths.
9
1.3 Reservoir Location
As discussed earlier for this study the Central Britain was chosen to
examine the Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study and Figure 5 indicates the
map of the chosen location.
10
1. Upper postrift unit
2. Underlying synrift unit
The division was done with a purpose to estimate the resource volume
and it was estimated that a volume of 4.7 tcf (trillion cubic feet) of shale gas could
be yielded potentially from the Carboniferous Upper Bowland Shale, which is
equivalent to the Barnett shale of Texas. The marine shale in the Bowland
Hodder region have greater shale gas producing potential as when compared to
the shale oil., this is mainly because the marine shale are at great depth (i.e.
about 2.9 km). Thus it can be seen that the shale gas future depends on it is
controlled based on the amount and type of organic matter found in the shale
which may lead to thermal development and fracture spacing and orientation.
11
2. BLOCK DIAGRAM
One of the purposes of this project was to block diagram related to the
shale gas processing plant. The block diagram Figure 6 indicates the extraction
of raw shale gas as input to desired output which is methane. The raw natural
gas extracted from the gas wells are made of up of both light and heavy
hydrocarbons. In this case, the final product which is used as a sales gas is
methane. It should be noted here that the heavier hydrocarbons are not
processed further as NGLs, or natural gas liquid (although valuable in terms of
time and amount), the reason behind not processing the heavier hydrocarbons is
because it is a costly process when compared to the shale gas achieved in the
end and further the composition of these hydrocarbons are very small. Thus, the
processing plant for this project concentrates mainly on process extraction of
shale gas for the shale gas being mainly only methane. Furthermore the shale
gas is normally considered as a cheap gas which can replace coal in power
generation plants (Matthew and Adrian, 2015).
Block Diagram
The block diagram above shows the main processing plant for processing
shale gas. Raw natural gas extracted from these gas wells are not only made of
light hydrocarbons, but also heavier ones. In this case, only methane is wanted
as sales gas. Thus, heavier hydrocarbons, although valuable, but very minute in
amount, are not processed further as NGLs, or natural gas liquid. Another reason
to support the decision of not processing the heavier hydrocarbons is that most
definitely the cost of processing would be much more than the sales gas
achieved in the end as the composition of these hydrocarbons are very small.
Thus, the processing plant for this case mainly processes the shale gas for the
sales gas being mainly only methane.
The first process would be the separation process. In this process, there
would be high pressure separation and low pressure separation. It should be
known that the shale gas extracted from the gas wells consists of both water and
gas. This is because of fracking process, where high pressure water is used to
release the natural gas from the rocks (BBC 2015). Thus, water would also be
included in the composition feed. Therefore, separation which occurs at the
wellhead needs to be the first process, before the removal of any contaminants.
It is a known fact that contaminants will eventually corrode the pipes and thus, a
pipe that is resistant to any corrosion needs to be used. Choosing a pipe that is
more resistant to corrosion will in turn increase the overall cost. However,
removal of contaminants cannot be done before separation because as
mentioned earlier, there will be a lot of water in the feed along with the shale gas
12
due to fracking. Removal of contaminants from the feed with water in it is much
harder than removing it when the feed is just purely gas. Thus, separation needs
to be done first anyhow before any removal of contaminants can occur, Due to
this factor, it is a known fact that shale gas processing would be much more
expensive due to the pricier equipments compared to other gas processing.
Since gas is only required at the end of the process, a three way separator is
used for high pressure separator. The high pressure separator separates water
which is sent to the water treatment plant, gas which is sent to the next process,
and also condensate. The condensate mainly consists of the heavier
hydrocarbons which could not be separated into gas. This condensate then goes
into the low pressure separator which is a two way separator which further
separates it into condensate and gas. The condensate at the outlet would flow to
another refinery while the gas would flow into the same channel as the first
separator as feed to the second process.
The second process is the acid gas removal process, or fondly called as the
sweetening process. This process is needed and required as the composition
feed consists of Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon dioxide or normally called as sour
gas. Although in the mass balance later on, Hydrogen Sulfide is not present in
the feed, there is actually traces of Hydrogen Sulfide, only very small amounts of
it and therefore the mole fraction would not affect the calculations greatly and
therefore ignored. However, removal of both Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon
dioxide is needed as the sulfur is very dangerous and even presence of sour gas
can cause corroding (NaturalGas 2013). Sulfur recovery, Claus Process, is not
carried out for this process because as mentioned earlier, the percentage of
sulfur in the composition is too meager. The input cost of Claus Process would
probably be more than the sales outcome overall even though the production of
sulfur through this Claus Process is beneficial. Thus, it is much more economical
to simply ignore the Claus Process. The small amounts of Hydrogen Sulfur and
Carbon dioxide, since are not treated can probably be sold to other companies
needing these components rather than releasing it to the air for environmental
purposes.
The third process would be the dehydration process. Since fracking has
caused a lot of water to be present in the composition feed, dehydration needs to
be carried out to remove all the water as the main output of the whole process
should be methane gas. Thus, dehydration is needed and a simple separation
process to separate the natural gas from water cannot be carried out. The water
dehydrated can also be sent to the water treatment plant before releasing it.
Therefore, it can be more economical and environmentally friendly.
The Nitrogen Rejection Unit will generally be used to remove the nitrogen
from the natural gas. Nitrogen needs to be removed as once again, only methane
13
is the main outcome of this whole process. Disposal of nitrogen should not be a
problem as nitrogen is not a harmful gas and moreover an inert gas.
14
Figure 6: Block Diagram
15
3. PROCESS FLOW
With an aim to show how the steps in shale gas processing power plant takes
place, a process flow diagram is designed see Figure 7. The process flow diagram is
a useful to communicate how the processes of work will take place and also
indicates how a particular process needs to be done.
There are two main equipment in the separation unit. These are the high and
low pressure separators. The high pressure separator (V101) is a 3 phase separator
and the low pressure (V102) separator is a 2 phase separator. The shale gas is fed
into the high pressure separator at standard conditions (20 C and 1atm). The high
pressure separator operates at a pressure of 13MPa and a temperature of 391K.
The high pressure separator separates the shale gas into 3 phases which are vapour
phase, condensate and pure water. The pressure of the vapour is then decreased
from 13MPa to 3MPa by an expander (EXP101). The vapour is then heated from
118C to 251C by the heat exchanger E103. This vapour is then fed to the acid gas
removal unit. The inlet temperature of the acid gas removal unit is 251C.
After exiting the high pressure stream, the condensate is cooled by the two
coolers E101 and E102 from 118C to 3C which is the inlet the temperature of the
low pressure separator. The low pressure separator operates at a temperature of
38C. For each of the units, the outlet temperature of the unit is assumed to be its
operating temperature. In this case, the high pressure separator and the low
pressure separator are considered as two separate units. The low pressure
separator then separates the condensate into vapour and condensate. The
condensate is sent to the oil refinery and the vapour is compressed by the centrifugal
compressor, C101 in order to increase the pressure of the vapour from 0.5MPa to
3MPa. The vapour is then heated by the heater, E104 from 22C to 251C and fed
to the acid gas removal unit.
The pure water stream from the high pressure separator is sent straight to the
water treatment plant.
16
3.1.2 Acid gas removal unit
The purpose of the acid gas removal unit is to remove acidic gases such as
hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide from the process stream. The acid gas
removal unit operates at a temperature of 175C and a pressure of 3MPa.
The outlet products from the separation unit also known as sour gas is fed
into the adsorber, V103 and the product is sweet gas for further condensation. The
sweet gas released is free of hydrogen sulphide, H2S. The remaining gas is then
transferred to a flash tank and then to the cooler, E105 where it is cooled from
251C to 175C. Next, the process gas is transferred to a diethanol amine stripper,
V105. Diethanol amine is a solution used to remove acid gas from the stream.
Thus, the acid gases hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are removed from the
stream. The hydrogen sulphide is then transported to the sulfur plant. The process
gas is then fed into the dehydration unit. The compressor, C102 is increases the
pressure of the process stream from 3MPa to 5MPa and the cooler, E107 will cool
the process gas from 175C to 71C which is the operating temperature of the
dehydration unit.
The operating temperature of the nitrogen removal unit is 150 C and its
operating pressure is 0.1MPa. The nitrogen removal unit removes nitrogen from the
process gas stream in the form of nitrogen dioxide, NO2. The process gas stream is
now free of nitrogen and it is then sent to the compressor, C103 in order to
increase its pressure from 0.1MPa to 2.5MPa. The process stream gas is then
heated by the heater, E110 from 150C to 83C.
3.1.5 Demethanizer
17
Figure 7: Process Flow Diagram
V101 EXP101 E103 V116 V102 E104 V103 V104 V105
E105 CS101 V106 E106 E107 V107 V108 V109 V110
Highpressure separator Expander Heater Adsorber Lowpressure separator Heater Adsorber Flash tank Stripper
Cooler Condenser Flash tank Cooler Cooler Flash drum Glycol contractor Flash drum Still column
P104 E101 E102 E111 C103 C101 V113 EXP103 C105 Diethanol Amine (DEA) P102 E110 C102 V111 EXP102 P103 RB101
Centrifugal pump Cooler Cooler Cooler Centrifugal compressor Centrifugal compressor Cold separator Turboexpander Compressor P101 Reflux pump Heater Centrifugal compressor Adsorber Expander Centrifugal pump Reboiler
V114 Booster pump Nitrogen dioxide
C110 E113 E112 C104 V115 RB101 TK E109 F102
Gas compressor Cooler Cooler Gas compressor separator C106 Demethanizer Reboiler Storage tank Cooler Filter
F101 Gas compressor V112
C107 E108
Filter Centrifugal compressor Release Cooler
Nitrogen dioxide F103
Filter
33
CS101
Sweet gas 44
29
EXP101
V103
Shale gas
V106
10 11 12 20 26 E106
1 19 Fuel/Recycle 30 V110
E103
V109
V101 34
E104 21 32 41
V105
13 14 15 18 P102
E101 E102
V102 17 V104 23 31
38 43
C101
27 C102 35 RB102
16
40
Condensate to oil refinery 22 24 RB101 E107
E105 F102
28
36
2 25
V107
V108
P101 37 39
P103
F101
42
EXP102
46 45
Impurities 3 E109 E108
47 F103
7
P104
6
V116
Nitrogen dioxide
9 5
V112
C110 E113
V111
Pure water
8 4
EXP103 C106 49
C103 57
C104
58 E110
54
50 53
55 C105
51 52 48
56
V113
E111 E112
60
V114
62 63 TK
V115
C107
59
61
18
PFD SPECIFICATION TABLE
Stream Temperature(K) Pressure(kPa) Total molar Methane Ethane Propane Carbon Nitrogen iButane nButane iPentane nPentane Hexane Heptane Water
flow rate dioxide
(mol/s)
1 293.73 101.33 1538.5 0.597611 0.02022 0.00819 0.004355 0.003315 0.002405 0.00221 0.00117 0.000715 0.00104 0.008775 0.349999
2 391 13000 538.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
3 391 13000 538.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
4 391 13000 538.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
5 391 13000 538.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
6 391 3000 538.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
7 391 5553.8 538.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
8 6895 6894.8 538.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
9 6895 6894.8 538.46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
10 391 13000 831 0.998035 0.00115 0.000191 0.0000531 0.0000306 0.0000167 0.0000142 4.16E06 1.57E06 0.0000036 0.000501 0
11 391 500 831 0.998035 0.00115 0.000191 0.0000531 0.0000306 0.0000167 0.0000142 4.16E06 1.57E06 0.0000036 0.000501 0
12 524.31 500 831 0.998035 0.00115 0.000191 0.0000531 0.0000306 0.0000167 0.0000142 4.16E06 1.57E06 0.0000036 0.000501 0
13 391 13000 161.89 0.9314941 0.00268 0.00089 7.84057E05 1.227E06 0.00012769 0.0001299 7.914E05 3.216E05 0.000132 0.0643544 0
14 293 13000 161.89 0.9314941 0.00268 0.00089 7.84057E05 1.227E06 0.00012769 0.0001299 7.914E05 3.216E05 0.000132 0.0643544 0
15 276 500 161.89 0.9314941 0.00268 0.00089 7.84057E05 1.227E06 0.00012769 0.0001299 7.914E05 3.216E05 0.000132 0.0643544 0
16 311 500 27.707 0.673216 2.7E05 8.37E06 1.05492E08 7.556E13 3.27414E07 4.558E07 2.804E07 5.228E08 1.2E06 0.3267464 0
17 311 500 149.29 0.9995363 8E06 8.08E07 7.00453E09 1.739E12 1.45835E08 1.353E08 3.539E09 5.046E10 4.231E09 0.0004548 0
18 418 3000 149.29 0.9995363 8E06 8.08E07 7.00453E09 1.739E12 1.45835E08 1.353E08 3.539E09 5.046E10 4.231E09 0.0004548 0
19 524.31 3000 149.29 0.9995363 8E06 8.08E07 7.00453E09 1.739E12 1.45835E08 1.353E08 3.539E09 5.046E10 4.231E09 0.0004548 0
20 524.31 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
21 524.31 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
22 524.31 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
23 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
24 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
25 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
26 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
27 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
28 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
29 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
30 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
31 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
32 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
33 448 3000 980.31 0.9982635 0.00098 0.000162 0.00004504 2.593E05 0.00001414 1.202E05 3.529E06 1.328E06 3.051E06 0.0004944 0
34 344 3000 1518.7 0.6443616 0.00063 0.000104 0 1.674E05 9.12086E06 7.756E06 2.278E06 8.57E07 1.97E06 0.0003191 0.354547
35 380 5000 1518.7 0.6443616 0.00063 0.000104 0 1.674E05 9.12086E06 7.756E06 2.278E06 8.57E07 1.97E06 0.0003191 0.354547
36 344 5000 1518.7 0.6443616 0.00063 0.000104 0 1.674E05 9.12086E06 7.756E06 2.278E06 8.57E07 1.97E06 0.0003191 0.354547
37 344 5000 1518.7 0.6443616 0.00063 0.000104 0 1.674E05 9.12086E06 7.756E06 2.278E06 8.57E07 1.97E06 0.0003191 0.354547
38 344 5000 1518.7 0.6443616 0.00063 0.000104 0 1.674E05 9.12086E06 7.756E06 2.278E06 8.57E07 1.97E06 0.0003191 0.354547
39 344 5000 1518.7 0.6443616 0.00063 0.000104 0 1.674E05 9.12086E06 7.756E06 2.278E06 8.57E07 1.97E06 0.0003191 0.354547
40 344 5000 1518.7 0.6443616 0.00063 0.000104 0 1.674E05 9.12086E06 7.756E06 2.278E06 8.57E07 1.97E06 0.0003191 0.354547
41 344 5000 1518.7 0.998308 0.00098 0.000162 0 0.0000259 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
19
42 344 5000 980.27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
43 344 5000 1518.7 0.998308 0.00098 0.000162 0 0.0000259 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
44 344 5000 980.27 0.998308 0.00098 0.000162 0 0.0000259 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
45 313 5000 980.27 0.998308 0.00098 0.000162 0 0.0000259 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
46 123 100 980.27 0.998308 0.00098 0.000162 0 0.0000259 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
47 123 100 980.27 0.998308 0.00098 0.000162 0 0.0000259 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
48 123 100 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
49 356 100 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
50 356 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
51 293 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
52 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
53 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
54 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
55 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
56 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
57 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
58 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
59 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
60 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
61 190 2500 980.24 0.998334 0.00098 0.000162 0 0 0.0000141 0.000012 3.53E06 1.33E06 3.05E06 0.000494 0
62 190 2500 978.61 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
63 190 4000 978.61 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20
4. MASS BALANCE
4.1 Introduction
Mass balance, also known as material balance, is where the material quantities pass
through a specific processing operations. Thus, those balances are considered as a
conservation of mass, and the law of conservation of mass states that mass is
conserved where it is neither created nor destroyed. The main objective of mass
balance is based on the control of processing, particularly in controlling the output
products. In general, mass balance in charge of keeping track of all the sources of
the material that enter the system, the sinks material that leave the system, and the
storage material within the system.
An example of a process that can relate in daily life is sewage treatment, where the
water waste is generated from homes and it is then collected with the sewer system
and transported to a treatment plant. In the treatment process, once the pollutants
are removed, these pollutants are transferred from the water to the air, and then to
solid material known as biosolids. These waste products must be taken some
precautions in order to prevent any harm to the environment. Therefore, mass
balance method can be used to determine how much pollutant produces in each of
its various forms.
a. Type of Processes
The mass balance include processes mainly in separation unit and removal unit.
From those process units, each one has a specific type of processes.
3. Nitrogen Removal
4. Demethanizer
b. Chemical Components
The type of components, followed with the number of mole fraction of each
components in the shale gas processing plant is based on Oilfield Processing of
Petroleum: Natural Gas, Volume 1 [refer to the link below].
21
https://books.google.com.my/books?id=FnDp8V9TX9oC&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=Ka
asa+1978+allen+1952+unknown&source=bl&ots=TemZgxqY
i&sig=ANVk_EdEPb_qjXFpfiQO7rXaSZw&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q
=Kaasa%201978%20allen%201952%20unknown&f=false
c. Description
Separation Unit: Values that are need to be considered in mass balance under
separation unit include:
1. Mole fraction
2. Number of moles for inlet
3. Equilibrium ratio
4. VapourLiquid Equilibrium
5. Number of moles in liquid and vapour for outlet
22
Component Mole Fraction without Water, Zi Inlet: Number of Mole New Mole Fraction, Zi
In separation unit, the vapour refers to natural gas and liquid refers to water.
Gas: Liquid:
Ethane ipentane
Propane npentane
Nitrogen Heptane
Assumption:
The gas components of the inlet feed and its mole fraction are found from the book
entitled Oilfield Processing of Petroleum: Natural Gas, Volume 1, except for water
component.
For the number of moles of the gas composition, an assumption has been made
based on the highest value of mole fraction, which we assumed it to be 1000 moles
and the water occupied of the whole feed is assumed to be 35%. Therefore, out of
35%, 65% is the shale gas compositions.
The following is the calculation to determine the specific number of mole of water:
23
Step 2: By taking the assumption of the number of mole without water, which is 1000
moles divided by the number of mole fraction of gases to get the total inlet feed of
gas and water in the separation unit at high pressure separator.
Step 3: From the total of the inlet feed, the number of moles of water is determined.
VapourLiquid Equilibrium
Ki (P=13MPa, T=391K) V
As all of these components pass through the separator, they will undergo a
separation process at temperature of 319K and pressure of 13MPa. Thus, it shows
that this process has a phase change, which is then the vapourliquid equilibrium is
taken for consideration.
VapourLiquid Equilibrium Equation is used to determine the ratio of the liquid and
vapour.
F = L+V = 1
Where:
24
The VapourLiquid Equilibrium equation given below is to test the value of V.
After the value of V is determined as 1.0, the mole fraction of liquid and vapour is
calculated by using the equation as shown below.
Where:
Graph 1.1: DePriester Chart to determine the value of equilibrium ratio based on a
specific temperature and pressure
25
Outlet Outlet
Mole Fraction, Zi Mole Fraction, Zi
Number of Mole in Liquid Form Number of Mole in Vapour Form
150.7976857 0.931494093 829.3872711 0.998034829
0.434089844 0.002681421 0.954997657 0.001149187
0.144020322 0.00088963 0.158422354 0.000190636
0.012692938 7.84057E05 0.044152452 5.31304E05
0.000198584 1.22667E06 0.02541873 3.05874E05
0.020671534 0.00012769 0.013849928 1.66662E05
0.021030246 0.000129906 0.011776938 1.41717E05
0.012812116 7.91419E05 0.003459271 4.16268E06
0.005206165 3.21591E05 0.001301541 1.5662E06
0.021362197 0.000131957 0.002990708 3.59884E06
10.41819819 0.06435437 0.416727928 0.000501465
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
161.8879678 1 831.0203686 1
Molar Mass (g/mol) Molar Flow Rate (L) Mass Flow Rate (L) Molar Flow Rate (V) Mass Flow Rate (V)
Table 1.4: Mass Flow Rate for the High Pressure Separator
To determine the value of flow rate of the natural gas and water stream, mole
fraction equation is used in order to find the mole fraction for each stream.
26
Where: xi = Mass fraction of the component in liquid form
Calculation:
Methane
Total molar flow rate at the outlet stream in liquid phase: 161.88797 mol/s
Total molar flow rate at the outlet stream in vapour phase: 831.0204 mol/s
= 0.16402 x 161.88797
= 26.55286 mol/s
= 0.902096 x 831.02037
= 749.6602 mol/s
This calculation is repeated for the rest of the components until total molar flow rate
at the outlet stream in liquid and vapour phase is determined as shown above.
Since F1 = F2 + F3,
27
2. Low Pressure Separator
Table 2.1 and 2.2: For low pressure separator, the same concept and formulas are
applied as in high pressure separator.
28
Table 2.2 Vapour and Liquid Equilibrium Low pressure separator
Ki (P=500kPa, T=311K) V
Molar Mass (g/mol) Molar Flow Rate (L) Mass Flow Rate (L) Molar Flow Rate (V) Mass Flow Rate (V)
29
Calculation:
Methane
Total molar flow rate at the outlet stream in liquid phase: 27.70716 mol/s
Total molar flow rate at the outlet stream in vapour phase: 149.29245 mol/s
= 0.12369 x 27.70716
= 3.4271mol/s
= 0.98956 x 149.29245
= 147.7338 mol/s
This calculation is repeated for the rest of the components until total molar flow rate
at the outlet stream in liquid and vapour phase is determined as shown above.
Since F1 = F2 + F3,
30
Acid gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) are corrosive
when water molecules are present. This will lead to major source of maintenance
problems in pipelines. Thus, amine plants method is used for acid gas removal.
Table 3.2
Molar Mass (g/mol) Molar Flow Rate (mol/s) Mass Flow Rate (g/skg/s)
16.044 978.6105028 15700.82691
30.07 0.956191661 28.75268325
44.097 0.15854301 6.991271099
0 0 0
28.0134 0.02541873 0.712065063
58.12 0.013852105 0.805084361
58.12 0.011778958 0.684593059
72.15 0.0034598 0.249624547
72.15 0.001301617 0.093911644
86.17 0.002991339 0.257763702
100.21 0.484627037 48.56447538
0 0 0
18.02 538.46 9703.0492
583.1644 1518.728667 25490.98758
25.49098758
Calculation:
F1*X1 = F2*X2
F1 = 980.31282 mol/s
Flow rate of natural gas with water entering the dehydration unit
31
F2 = Flow rate of natural gas without water exiting the dehydration unit
X1 = Mole fraction of the component with water entering the dehydration unit
X2 = Mole fraction of the component without water exiting the dehydration unit
Therefore,
4. Dehydration
Water
For dehydration unit, Triethylene Glycol (TEG) Injection method is used to remove
water vapour from the natural gas stream in order to meet the pipeline quality
standards. This method is required to prevent hydrates formation at low temperature
or corrosion problems due to the presence of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulphide.
Table 4.1
Component Inlet: Number of Mole Outlet: After Removal of Water Mole Fraction, Zi
Methane , C1 978.6105028 978.6105028 0.998308459
Ethane , C2 0.956191661 0.956191661 0.000975438
Propane , C3 0.15854301 0.15854301 0.000161734
Carbon dioxide 0 0 0
Nitrogen 0.02541873 0.02541873 2.59304E05
iC4 0.013852105 0.013852105 1.41309E05
nC4 0.011778958 0.011778958 1.20161E05
iC5 0.0034598 0.0034598 3.52944E06
nC5 0.001301617 0.001301617 1.32782E06
C6 0.002991339 0.002991339 3.05155E06
C7+ 0.484627037 0.484627037 0.000494382
Hydrogen sulphide 0 0 0
Water 538.46 0 0
Total : 1518.728667 980.2686671 1
32
Table 4.2
Molar Mass (g/mol) Molar Flow Rate (mol/s) Mass Flow Rate (g/skg/s)
16.044 978.6105028 15700.82691
30.07 0.956191661 28.75268325
44.097 0.15854301 6.991271099
0 0 0
28.0134 0.02541873 0.712065063
58.12 0.013852105 0.805084361
58.12 0.011778958 0.684593059
72.15 0.0034598 0.249624547
72.15 0.001301617 0.093911644
86.17 0.002991339 0.257763702
100.21 0.484627037 48.56447538
0 0 0
18.02 0 0
583.1644 980.2686671 15787.93838
15.78793838
Calculation:
F1*X1 = F2*X2
F1 = 1518.7287 mol/s
Flow rate of natural gas with water entering the dehydration unit
F2 = Flow rate of natural gas without water exiting the dehydration unit
X1 = Mole fraction of the component with water entering the dehydration unit
X2 = Mole fraction of the component without water entering the dehydration unit
Therefore,
The same concept of calculation will be applied for the rest of the processes, which
are nitrogen removal and demethanizer.
33
5 Energy Balance Analysis
The energy balance analysis explained below focuses on process at the high
pressure separator. The energy balance concept is the same for all processes.
The first process, high pressure separator, is explained first. Concept of energy
balance for the low pressure separator is also exactly the same as for high pressure
separator and thus same technique explained for the high pressure separator can be
applied for the low pressure separator. Energy balance for this case focuses on
obtaining the inlet temperature. Inlet temperature of the stream for each process in
needed for design of heat exchangers in the next part of the project. Since the outlet
temperature, which is assumed to be operating temperature of the system, has
already been found, energy balance can be carried out to find the inlet temperature
of stream entering the system. To find this inlet temperature, this concept is applied
in the energy balance:
Q H out H in H R
Q = The heat exchanging between the system and surrounding.
In this case, adiabatic conditions are assumed for the whole system, thus making Q
equal to zero. Furthermore, there is no reaction in this whole process, thus the extent
of reaction is zero, making the last term to be zero as well. Thus, it can be seen that
enthalpy in is equal to enthalpy out. Equation of enthalpy is given by:
.
Enthalpy m C p dT
34
T=Temperature
Enthalpy out for each system is calculated first since outlet temperature is already
known. To find enthalpy out, molar flow rate, heat capacity and temperature values
are needed. The value for the molar flow rate and temperature are already known.
Thus, value of heat capacity must be calculated first. Since it is a three way
separator, there are three outlets to be considered, the vapour outlet, condensate
outlet and pure water outlet. This is efficiency for water separation is 100% and
therefore the enthalpy in for water will be equal to the enthalpy out for water. There
should also be only one inlet, which would be a vapour. Heat capacity for the vapour
outlet and also the condensate, which are mainly heavier hydrocarbons in the
stream, are very different as they use different formulas. Thus, the values of heat
capacities for both are different and must be calculated separately. The outlet
enthalpy for vapour is calculated first.
Calculating the heat capacity for vapour uses this equation from Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes, 3rd Edition (Felder, Rosseau 2005)
C p a bT cT 2 dT 3
Where a, b, c and d are constants and T is the temperature. Sub in the value of T
and the constants into the equation above to find the heat capacity value of each
component
An assumption made was that the constants in the heat capacity equation are same
for iPentane and also nPentane as they are isomers.
Heat capacity
Components a b c d value (kJ/mol
C)
Methane 3.43E02 5.47E05 3.66E09 1.10E11 4.08E02
Ethane 4.94E02 1.39E04 5.82E08 7.28E12 6.21E02
Propane 6.80E02 2.26E04 1.31E07 3.17E11 1.47E02
Carbon dioxide 3.61E02 4.23E05 2.89E08 7.46E12 1.80E03
Nitrogen 2.90E03 2.20E06 5.72E09 2.87E12 7.46E04
iButane 8.95E02 3.01E04 1.89E07 4.99E11 1.70E03
nButane 9.23E02 2.79E04 1.55E07 3.50E11 1.45E03
iPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 5.28E04
nPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.98E04
Hexane 1.37E01 4.09E04 2.39E07 5.77E11 5.46E04
Heptane 3.57 6.21E+04 1.95E+07 1.13E+11
Water 3.35E02 6.88E06 7.60E09 3.59E12 3.44E02
35
The heat capacity for each component is then multiplied with its molar flow rate to
find the enthalpy for each component. The summation of the enthalpy of each
component is th total outlet enthalpy for vapour.
= 1.13E+14 J/s C
Next, the outlet enthalpy for the liquid phase is calculated. Thus, another equation is
used for calculation of the heat capacity.
Two equations from Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 8th Edition (Green,
Perry 2007) are shown as below to find the value of heat capacity
1)
C p a bT cT 2
dT 3
eT 4
a2 c 2t 3 cdt 4 d 2t 5
2)
Cp b 2act adt
2
t 3 2 5
Where
T= Temperature
t= 1 Tr
36
Tr = T/Tc
Tc = Critical temperature
a,b,c,d,e = Constants
Equation 1 is used for calculating heat capacity values of Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen, i
Butane, nButane, iPentane, nPentane, Hexane and Water.
Equation 2 is used for calculating heat capacity values of methane, ethane, propane
and heptane
A note to remember is that when substituting the temperature values into the two
equation above, the unit of temperature must be in Kelvin. Values of heat capacity
calculated from the two equations above were also calculated in J/kmol K but
tabulated in J/mol K.An assumption made was that heat capacity constants for
isomers were the same.
The constants for the liquid and gas phase are also different, thus a different table
with the different value of constants are tabulated below.
= 391 K
Table 5.3
Compone a b c D Tc Tr t Heat
nt capacity
value (J/mol
K)
Heptane        
37
Table 5.4
Once the heat capacity for all components were found, the values of each heat
capacity was multiplied with its molar flow rate to obtain the value of enthalpy for
each component.
Table 5.5
The total enthalpy oulet for liquid can be found by summing the individual values of
enthalpy.
= 2.63E+04 J/ s C
38
Thus, the total outlet enthalpy for both gas oultet and liquid outlet can be found by
summing them both together
After the sum of outlet enthalpy is obtained, the inlet enthalpy is calculated. The inlet
of the high pressure separator is a gas, and thus the equation from Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes, 3rd Edition (Felder, Rosseau 2005) is used
where:
C p a bT cT 2 dT 3
a,b,c and d are constants and T is the inlet temperature of the high pressure
separator.
However, now one problem arises which is that the inlet temperature is not given.
Since inlet temperature is not given, inlet enthalpy cannot be calculated directly.
Thus, an assumption of the inlet temperature was made first. With the assumed inlet
temperature, inlet enthalpy can be calculated.
Table 5.6
Heat capacity
Components a B c d value (kJ/mol
C)
Methane 3.43E02 5.47E05 3.66E09 1.10E11 3.71E+01
Ethane 4.94E02 1.39E04 5.82E08 7.28E12 5.62E02
Propane 6.80E02 2.26E04 1.31E07 3.17E11 7.90E02
Carbon dioxide 3.61E02 4.23E05 2.89E08 7.46E12 3.82E02
Nitrogen 2.90E03 2.20E06 5.72E09 2.87E12 2.91E02
iButane 8.95E02 3.01E04 1.89E07 4.99E11 1.04E01
nButane 9.23E02 2.79E04 1.55E07 3.50E11 1.06E01
iPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.32E01
nPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.32E01
Hexane 1.37E01 4.09E04 2.39E07 5.77E11 1.57E01
Heptane 3.57 6.21E+04 1.95E+07 4.87E+10
Water 3.35E02 6.88E06 7.60E09 3.59E12 3.38E02
The heat capacity for each component is then multiplied with its molar flow rate to
find the enthalpy for each component. The summation of the enthalpy of each
component is th total inlet enthalpy of stream.
39
Table 5.7
= 6.58E+14 J/s C
Once inlet enthalpy is calculated, it can be seen clearly that the value of inlet
enthalpy and total outlet enthalpy is different although they should have the same
value as they are equal to each other from the equation stated earlier. Thus, goal
seek is used to calculate the correct inlet temperature. The value of inlet enthalpy is
set to be equal to value of outlet enthalpy by changing the inlet temperature. By
doing this, the accurate inlet temperature can be found.
When goal seek is used, the actual inlet temperature was found, with the real values
of heat capacity and enthalpy as shown in the tables below.
40
Table 5.8
Heat
capacity
Components a b c d
value (kJ/mol
C)
Methane 3.43E02 5.47E05 3.66E09 1.10E11 3.54E02
Ethane 4.94E02 1.39E04 5.82E08 7.28E12 5.22E02
Propane 6.80E02 2.26E04 1.31E07 3.17E11 7.27E02
Carbon dioxide 3.61E02 4.23E05 2.89E08 7.46E12 3.70E02
Nitrogen 2.90E03 2.20E06 5.72E09 2.87E12 2.90E02
iButane 8.95E02 3.01E04 1.89E07 4.99E11 9.56E02
nButane 9.23E02 2.79E04 1.55E07 3.50E11 9.80E02
iPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.22E01
nPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.22E01
Hexane 1.37E01 4.09E04 2.39E07 5.77E11 1.46E01
Heptane 3.57 6.21E+04 1.95E+07 8.37E+09
Water 3.35E02 6.88E06 7.60E09 3.59E12 3.36E02
The values of heat capacity is multiplied yet again with the molar flow rate to find the
correct enthalpy in.
Table 5.9
= 1.13E+14 J/s C
41
Thus, it can be seen that the total inlet enthalpy and total outlet enthalpy is the same,
which would make sense as the enthalpy in is equal to enthalpy out since system is
adiabatic and no reaction occurs. It can be concluded that the inlet temperature into
the high pressure separator is accurate.
The exact same procedure is done for the low pressure separator as there low
pressure separator also has one inlet and two outlets. As for the other processes,
which are acid gas removal, dehydration, nitrogen removal and demethanizer, they
all have one inlet and one outlet. The table below shows the type of stream going in
and out of each process so that the type of heat capacity equation can be identified.
Table .510
The process of calculating the heat capacity and enthalpy is done similarly like the
process above. The inlet temperature for all processes are calculated based on the
energy balance.
42
6. Safety and Environmental Concerns
In recent years, the concerns to protect the environment make made countries all
over the world to find a source of energy which protects only the current but also the
further generation. In line with this it can be said that among various natural gases,
shale gas could play a vital role in providing the nations with clean energy in the
future. Since shale gas has negative occurrence on the environment and the society,
companies involved in the shale gas industries have started to gain much attentions.
Some activities related to extraction of gases may lead to air pollution, earthquake
and contamination of water, the magnitudes of such damages on the environments
and the risk involved in the development of the plant is not known but prevention of
these happening is known. To prevent the damages caused during extraction
process the company needs adopt certain techniques during the gas extracting
process from the formations of shale and also needs to adopt the technique to
safeguard the interest of the stakeholders.
As discussed in earlier sections, the shale gas plant development must take into
fractures into consideration that occur during the fracturing operations, that is the
hydraulics presence in subsurface during the formations of shale may results in
groundwater to be polluted. Furthermore the fractures as well as the natural cracks
may occur along with the pore spaces that are interconnected with one another.
Hence it is suggested that while the process of fracturing is taking place the ground
water from this part needs to be collected in the aquifers in the formations of rocks.
But throughout the fracturing process, the contamination of the groundwater may
occur in different kinds of hazardous substances which come out during the
fracturing activities and the fluids may flow back before it is collected. Then in such
case it may cause a critical impact on the quality of drinking water as well as the
wetlands habitats. Similarly, the when the groundwater are exposed at the outside of
shale wells and well bore also raises a concern. From the previous explanation,
wellbores are considered several aquifers which been drilled. Therefore, the obvious
route for groundwater to be contaminated is the wellbore itself due to linkage
between the formation which have been targeted and the continuous physical
provided by the wellbore. In order to reduce the well itself from being continuously
contaminate, by installing the casings will cause the wall to be isolated from the
formations surrounding. A circulation method is used so that the entire space
between the wellbore and the casing is filled from the bottom of the surface casing to
the surface of the wellbore. The casings which have been installed is to defense
against the contaminated groundwater.
Besides that, not only the groundwater is contaminated throughout the activities of
shale gas is carried out, the surface water and the land also will be contaminated as
well. One of the factors these two environmental and safety hazards occurs is that
the spillage happened due to the poor construction. Not only that, the concentrated
fracturing fluids is spilled during the transfer and final mixing operation occurs due to
either the error of the operator or the failure of the pipework itself. Lastly, the
containment of store flow back fluid is lost due to the operators error that caused the
lagoons to be overfilled. From these three examples are consider well known and
identified from the other industrial processes. Therefore, many ways and action is
taken so that such events can be reduced from happening.
43
On the other hand, visual and noise impacts may have considered as one of the
issues been discussed when carrying out the hydraulic fracturing. The table shown
below shows the summary activities which are required for production at well pads.
Table 6.1
Furthermore, storage pits, tanks, drilling equipment, trucks, etc. might be comprised
by the construction of well pads and thus causing the difficulties of installing which
result a sympathetic development surrounding landscapes. The requirement to
deliver 9bcm/year of shale gas is 300 well pads by assuming 10 wells per pad. The
constructed of 40 well pads in the medium scenario is indicated by the Cuadrillas
commercialization at a local level. Reducing the levels visuals of intrusion, truck
movements and also noise is done by a little but however it will result the greatest
restriction towards the development in the UK.
44
700011000 visits. The impacts of traffic problem likely to be significantly where in a
locality due to the multiple constructions of pads carried out.
Seismicity would be one of the problems would occur caused by the hydraulic
fracturing activities. Seismic activity can be induced by the hydraulic fracturing in two
ways: microseismic events are created in the rocks by the energy released in
fracturing which are only detectable by using a sensitive monitoring equipment.
Secondly, is a felt event where humans can detect the event on the ground surface.
In the UK, hydraulic fracturing was halted at the Cuadrilla Resources Preese Hall
exploratory site after a magnitude 1.5 earthquake on 27 May in the Blackpool area
and in the light of a preceding magnitude 2.3 earthquake on 1 April 2011. (Broderick
et el, November 2011, p.93). A structural damage on the surface would be caused
unlikely event at such a depth. However, the damage does not effect that much
towards the wellbore and the integrity loss of the well.
According to the report it stated the fact that The Preese Hall 1 well was deformed
from a circular shape to an oval shape from approximately 2,580m to 2,630m down
the wellbore after the second of six hydraulic fracturing stages in April 2011.
(Broderick et el, November 2011, p.93). By referring to the report, no significantly
deformation occur to the above and below casing respectively. The deformation of
the casing was determined that it did not affect the overall integrity of the wellbore
and to any shallow groundwater zones, there is no present risk.
From the previous briefing, it clearly shows that the hydraulic fracturing can cause
seismic events but these produce a sufficient of magnitude to cause damage on the
surface so the affect would be less. However, for the wellbore it would have a little
structural damage.
Conclusion:
Thus, it can be concluded that this processing plant fulfills the requirement of the
question, which is to produce 50mmscf/month of methane gas. This processing
plant, which is situated in the United Kingdom, should be effective in processing
shale gas as much precaution and steps were taken in consideration to produce the
maximum sales gas required with maximum efficiency. Other measures like safety
and cost, were also taken into consideration very seriously. Methane gas is
essentially a very useful and important source as it can be used as fuel, a resource
that is very much important in this 21st century. In this processing plant, only
methane gas is wanted as sales gas as the percentage is well over 90% at the end
feed. Another argument to solidify this selection is because even if there are other
valuable hydrocarbons in the feed, like ethane and propane, the percentage is so
minute. Setting a depropanizer or deethanizer would probably cost more than the
end sales. Therefore, they are sent to another oil refinery where it is further
processed. This method ensures that the hydrocarbons extracted do not go to waste
and also reduce potential risks of profit loss for this processing plant. This design of
the processing plant, although is pricier, it is much more safe and environmentally
friendly. The removal of contaminants done after the separation really increases the
pricing of the equipments needed to be used, thus increasing total cost of
production. However in the long run, production cost would turn out to be much
lesser as the removal of contaminants after separation can be done much easier and
less power would be required. This also directly affects the safety measures needed
45
to be taken. An example would be to use an anticorrosive pipe for the pipelines in
the processing plant due to the presence of these contaminants. Besides that a more
safer handling of these contaminants when they are removed needs to be carried out
for the sake of the environment and also safety of the workers. As a conclusion, this
processing plant would be excellent in processing shale gas, as this design of the
plant projects the most effective method, with a reasonable cost and also having a
very safe and ecofriendly management.
46
References:
Allen, D.T., Torres, V.M., Thomas, J., Sullivan, D.W., Harrison, M., Hendler, A.,
Herndon, S.C., Kolb, C.E., Fraser, M.P., Hill, A.D. and Lamb, B.K., 2013.
Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United
States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(44), pp.17768
17773.
Andrews, I.J. 2013. The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and
resource estimation. British Geological Survey for Department of Energy and Climate
Change, London, UK.
Broderick. J., et al: 2011, Shale gas: an updated assessment of environmental and
climate change impacts. A report commissioned by The Cooperative and
undertaken by researchers at the Tyndall Centre, University of Manchester
[Accessed 1 Apr. 2016]
Kuuskra, V., Stevens, S., van Leeuwen, T. and Moodhe, K., (2013). World Shale
Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions outside the United States.
Advanced Resources International.
Matthew Last and Adrian Finn. (2015). UK Shale gas processing, retrieved 5
February 2016, from http://costain.com/media/596863/he_may2015locked.pdf.
Selley, R.C. 2005. UK shalegas resources. In: Dor, A.G. & Vining, B.A. (eds.)
Petroleum Geology: NorthWest Europe and Global Perspectives Proceedings of
the 6th Petroleum Geology Conference. Geological Society. London. 707714.
47
HEAT EXCHANGER
AND COMPRESSOR
DESIGN
48
DESIGN
OF
HEAT EXCHANGER
49
Purpose:
In the shale gas processing plant, the feed goes through two separators, the high
pressure separator and also the low pressure separator. For the first separator, the
high pressure separator, it is a three way separator and separates the condensate,
gas and pure water from the feed. Essentially, methane gas is wanted as the sales
gas and thus the condensate from the first separator is transported to the low
pressure separator to be further separated into gas and liquid. The condensate from
the first separator is actually a mixture of gas and liquids but heavier hydrocarbons
are present in that feed stream. Thus, the low pressure separator would separate the
condensate and also the gas, making it a two way separator. The condensate would
be sent to another refinery, whereas both the gas outlet streams from the high
pressure separator and low pressure separator would combine and be sent to the
acid gas removal.
The heat exchanger that is being designed is E101. The reason why there are
two heat exchangers, E101 and E102 at the same stream is because of the
temperature inlet of the low pressure separator. The temperature inlet of the low
pressure separator is 3C, which is way below the inlet temperature of the cooling
water specified in the question which is 10C. Since inlet temperature of the cold
50
stream is 10C, there is no way that the hot stream can be cooled down to 3C as the
maximum cooling down can only be done till 10C. Thus, a second cooler will be
placed after the first heat exchanger to cool the stream down further to 3C. The
second cooler, E102 would not be designed and only E101 would be designed.
Thus, second cooler can use a cooling water with a lower temperature as it is not
being designed. Therefore, the low temperature of 3C can be achieved. The
diagram below shows the flow diagram of the process related to this heat exchanger
being designed.
E

1
0
1
E

1
0
2
51
Summary of Material and Energy Balance:
Material Balance
Since the heat exchanger is located at the outlet of the high pressure separator,
before the low pressure separator, the molar flow rate of the stream follows the liquid
outlet of the high pressure separator. The value of the molar flow rate can be
calculated from mass balance by making an initial feed assumption. The table below
shows the simplified version of calculation of molar flow rate using the Flash
Equation as method is already discussed previously in mass balance analysis.
52
Since the liquid outlet is the one going into the low pressure separation for further
separation, only the moles of the liquid outlet is taken into consideration. The total
moles at the liquid outlet is the value needed for molar flow rate.
Energy Balance
Since the molar flow rate of each component and the total streams flow rate has
already been found in mass balance, energy balance is used to calculate the
temperature inlet of each component. Through energy balance, the number of heat
exchangers and the temperature different in the process and also in between
streams can be figured out. The whole process of calculating this inlet temperaure
has already been explained thoroughly in the energy balance analysis and thus only
a simplified concept will be explained below.
53
Method:
The method used was adapted from Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering
Series: Chemical Engineering Design, Fourth Edition, Vol. 6. Specifically from
chapter 12 where heat exchangers and calculations regarding heat exchangers were
discussed.
A countercurrent shell and tube heat exchanger was designed using Kerns method
with references from the examples given in the handbook stated above like Example
12.3 which was referenced from mainly.The following list displays the overall
dimension and properties of the shell and tube heat exchanger
Proposed design:
300 carbon steel tubes, 3.66 m long, 16 mm o.d., 13.6 mm i.d., triangular pitch, pitch
20 mm
Shell internal diameter 454.196 mm, baffle spacing 90.839 mm, 25% cut
The first step is to list all properties of the stream and also the cooling water. Values
from the mean temperature of each stream are used for calculations
54
Shale gas(Hot stream)
Temperature(C) 118 69 20
Temperature(C) 10 30 50
55
The second step is to calculate the overall heat transfer, Q of the hot stream
which would be the feed using the equation
Q mC p dT
Q=Heat transfer
=161.89 mol/s
T1 = 118C
T2 = 20C
Q= 608 kW
56
The third step is to calculate the molar flow rate of the cooling water
An assumption that the heat transfer from the hot stream will be equal to the heat
absorbed by the cold stream would have to be made. Thus it can be seen that
Qstream Qcoolingwater
Q = Heat transfer
Once, again, since inlet temperature of the cooling water is only known, the outlet
temperature needs to be assumed. Assumption needs to be relevant once again as
outlet temperature of cooling water obviously cannot be higher than the inlet
temperature of the feed.
T1 = 10C
T2 = 50C
Cp = 0.0752 kJ/mol C
= 202.007289 mol/s
57
Once flow rate of the cooling water is calculated, the fourth step is to calculate
the heat transfer area
Q UATm
TLM is not used and instead Tm is used instead because the flow is not pure
countercurrent and therefore TLM cannot be used alone. Instead, a correction
factor is multiplied with TLM which can also be written as Tm.
To find the correction factor from the temperature correction factor chart, R and S
values are found first. R and S equations are given below where
T1 T2 t1 t 2
R S
t1 t 2 T1 t1
T1= 118C
T2= 20C
t1= 10 C
t2= 50C
R = 2.45
S = 0.37
58
Once R and S are identified, The graph below from Coulson & Richardson can be
referred to obtain the temperature correction value, FT. The temperature correction
value is then multiplied with the log mean temperature to obtain the mean
temperature which would be used in the equation to find the heat transfer area.
Thus, from the graph, the intersection of R and S values give the value of the
correction factor, FT
FT = 0.75
Once correction factor is found, the value of log mean temperature can be calculated
next to find the mean temperature.To find the log mean temperature, a temperature
profile diagram for a pure counter current system is shown as below to aid with the
calculations. As mentioned earlier, the log mean temperature is used to calculate
cases for when the system is pure counter current. Since this heat exchanger is not
of pure counter current, correction factor needs to be multiplied with the calculated
log mean temperature to find the mean temperature which its value will be used
59
instead of the log mean temperature. Thus, it can be concluded that the actual
temperature profile diagram of this heat exchanger does not look like the below
temperature profile diagram.
The temperature profile diagram can be seen below. This temperature profile
diagram depiction of a pure counter current system is solely for calculation for the log
mean temperature
The above diagram aids the calculation of the log mean temperature as the equation
is given below
T1 T2
TLM
T
ln( 1 )
T2
T1= 11850
= 68C
T2 = 2010
= 10C
TLM = 30.2568292 C
Since the values of log mean temperature and correction factor has been found, the
mean temperature can now be calculated by using the formula below
60
Tm FT * TLM
TLM = 30.2568292 C
FT = 0.75
Tm = 22.6926219 C
Value of U is still missing. Thus, value of U, the heat transfer coefficient is estimated
based on the graph below. The type of cold stream and hot stream used need to be
specified to find the overall estimated U value. The overall U value will be calculated
later to confirm this estimated U value. The process fluid selected was condensation
organic vapours.
Values for U, Tm and Q are present and therefore, the heat transfer area can be
calculated directly.
61
Q UATm
U = Heat transfer coefficient
Q= Heat transfer
U = 550 W/m2 C
Q= 608 kW
Tm = 22.6926219 C
A = 48.6852615 m2
The fifth step would be to set dimensions of the shell and calculate the number
of tubes needed
Before any calculation, the type of stream to be put in the tubes and shell
respectively needs to be specified first. To clarify this, the fouling coefficients of each
stream is observed first.
Since the feed has a higher fouling coefficient, it is deemed as the dirtier fluid and
therefore the hot stream which is the feed is let into the tubes and the cooling water
into the shell. The reason due to this arrangement is because tubes are much easier
to clean compared to shell and therefore if the fouling coefficient is higher, most
definitely dirt would occur easier. Thus, tube should be selected for the dirtier fluid as
tubes can be cleaned easier and more effectively than shell.
62
Size specifications
1) Outside diameter 16 mm
4) Triangular pitch 20 mm
The dimensions shown above were not the initial dimensions set. This is because
the dimensions are not fixed and range over a wide set of data to be picked from as
shown below in the table from Coulson & Richardson. Thus, after many trial and
errors, a set of size specifications for the tubes were picked out which satisfies the
overall design of this heat exchanger. A triangular pitch was chosen because of it
having a better heat transfer when compared to a square pitch.
63
Next, to find the number of tubes in the heat exchanger, the heat transfer are for one
tube needs to be known. The equation of the heat transfer area of one tube is given
as
A d ol
where,
L=Length of tube
do = 0.016 m
L = 3.66 m
A = 0.18397167 m2
Thus, to find number of tubes needed for heat transfer, the total area of heat transfer
found earlier is simply divided by the area of heat transfer for one tube. Total area =
48.6852615 m2
Since tube has two passes, number of tubes for one pass = 150 tubes
The number of tubes is rounded up. For example, in this case, a total of 264 tubes
are needed and thus it is rounded up to 300. For this heat exchanger, a two pass
tube is chosen. This would be the general option as with a two pass tube, the heat
exchange would be higher compared to a single pass tube, thus confirming higher
efficiency of heat transfer for the two pass. However, a higher number of pass can
also be chosen as long as the other design sections of the heat exchanger are
satisfied. Later in the design, it would be discussed on how the number of passes
would affect the whole design and calculations. Thus, after a number of trial and
64
errors, the appropriate number of passes for this heat exchanger is two. As this has
two passes, we can also determine how many tubes there are in one pass. The
answer is simply the total number of tubes divided by two. Whatever number of pass
is chosen, the tubes per pass can be found by dividing the total number of tubes with
the number of passes.
The sixth step would be to calculate the velocity of stream in the tube
Firstly though, the area of tube per pass needs to be calculated. To find this value,
each cross sectional area of the tube can be found first with the equation:
d i2
A
4
Where A = cross sectional areadi = Internal diameter
di = 0.0136 m
A = 0.000145267 m2
Hence, area of tubes per pass would be the cross sectional area of one tube
multiplied by number of tubes in one pass, which was found earlier as 150 tubes
Next, using the value of area of tubes per pass, velocity of the feed stream in the
tubes can be calculated too as the equation of the velocity is:
.
V
v
Area pp
v = Velocity
.
V = Volumetric flow rate
65
Areapp = Area of tubes per pass
.
. m
V
Where = Molar flow rate
= Molar density
The values of molar flow rate and molar density were found from Aspen HYSYS
= 582.8 kmol/hr
= 8.437 kmol/m3
= 0.019187968 m3/s
Thus, given the volumetric flow rate and area of tubes per pass, velocity in tubes can
be calculated given the equation stated above.
The velocity of the stream, which is a liquid, is a bit low, but still acceptable. To justify
this, the feed mainly consists of hydrocarbons, with a range from lighter to heavier
hydrocarbons. Since this feed also consists of those heavier hydrocarbons, it would
make sense for the velocity to be a bit slower.
As expected, the first trial of designing the heat exchanger, the velocity was also not
appropriate. Thus, changes were made to the dimensions of the tube and also the
number of passes were taken into consideration. This is because as the number of
passes in the tube increases, the velocity also increases. The reason why the numer
66
of passes remain at two for this case is simply because other factors were taken into
consideration like the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient. Thus, the set of the
dimensions and the number of passes stated above was altered till all conditions
were satisfied and reasonable.
A bundle is basically a set of tubes together and they are called tube bundle. It is
important to calculate the tube bundle as it would determine the total size of the
whole heat exchanger. The shell diameter also depends on the bundle diameter and
the bundle diameter would have to depend on the tubes diameter. To find the
diameter of the tube bundle, the equation used would be :
N T 1/ n
Dbundle d o ( )
K1
K1 = Constant
n = Constant
K1 and n are constants that vary according to the number of passes and also the
type of pitch used.
67
Based on the two tube passes and with a triangular pitch,
do = 0.016 m
NT= 300
K1 = 0.249
n = 2.207
A split ring floating heat exchanger is chosen as cleaning of tubes can be done much
easier. Thus, the typical shell clearance is 56 mm. Clearance is basically the space
between the tubes and it is important as there is definitely a limit on the capability of
the tubes to withstand the pressure in the shell. It can be considered as a safety
distance.Thus, to find the diameter of shell, the shell clearance is added to the
diameter of the tube bundle.
Shell clearance = 56 mm
Heat transfer coefficient for tube side needs to be calculated as the value is needed
to be substituted into the equation for overall heat transfer coefficient later on.
0.14
Nu jh * Re* Pr1/ 3 * ( )
w
Based on this correlation above, the heat transfer coefficient of the tube can be
calculated through a series of substitutions. One note is that the viscosity correlation
at the end of the equation is ignored as apparently the value is nearly 1 which would
make sense to ignore the value.
68
Nu = Nusselts number
Re = Reynolds number
Pr = Prandtls number
= Viscosity
The three equations below can be substituted into the correlation to find the heat
transfer coefficient
hd i d i u Cp
Nu , Re , Pr
k k
di = 13.6 mm
u= 0.88058247m/s
= 528.5 kg/m3
69
= 0.000144 Pa s
Re = 44100
Cp = 2553 J/kg C
= 0.000144 Pa s
k = 0.0909 W/m C
Pr = 4.03
The heat transfer factor can be found from the table below
The value of L/D and Reynolds number is needed to find the value of heat transfer
factor from the graph.
L = length
D = Internal diameter
70
L= 3.66 m
D=0.0136 m
L/D = 269.118
Re = 44100
jh = 0.0035
Once values in the correlation are already calculated, the value of Nu can be
calculated as well.
jh = 0.0035
Re = 44100
Pr = 4.03
Nu =245.641602
hd i
Nu
k
With the value of Nu, the equation above can be equated to the value of Nu to find
the value of h, heat transfer coefficient of tube side
di = 13.6 mm
k = 0.0909 W/m C
Nu =245.641602
htube = 1642.36698W/m2 C
Since step 8 was to find the heat transfer coefficient for tube side, step 9 is
now to find the heat transfer coefficient for shell side
The heat transfer coefficient for shell side is also needed for substitution in
calculations regarding the total heat transfer coefficient, U, later on.
71
The shell diameter, Ds was found earlier as = 454.1963599 mm
Baffles are placed as baffles help direct flow in the heat exchanger. The typical baffle
spacing is 1/5 of the shell diameter. This arrangement is chosen as it has good heat
transfer with an appropriate pressure drop.
To find the area of cross flow in the shell, the equation is given by
( pt d o ) Ds I B
As
pt
pt = Tube pitch
Ds = Shell diameter
IB = Baffle spacing
pt = 20 mm
do = 16 mm
Ds = 454.1963599mm
IB = 90.83927198 mm
As = 8251.773334 mm2
= 0.008251773334 m2
Next, the shell side equivalent diameter or known as hydraulic diameter. The
hydraulic diameter is needed for calculation of the heat transfer coefficient for shell.
For a triangular pitch, the equation for the equivalent diameter would be:
72
1.10 2
de ( pt 0.917 d o2 )
do
pt = Tube pitch
pt = 20 mm
do = 16 mm
de = 11.3608mm
Next, velocity of the shell side is needed to be substituted into Reynolds Number
equation later. As usual, the velocity is found from the equation,
. .
V . m
v V
AS where the
.
V = Volumetric flow rate of water
= Density of water
Molar flow rate of water which was found earlier, = 202.007289 mol/s
Thus, the heat transfer coefficient of the shell side can be calculated using the same
equation used as the tube side
73
0.14
Nu jh * Re* Pr1/ 3 * ( )
w
Nu = Nusselts number
Re = Reynolds number
Pr = Prandtls number
= Viscosity
where the three equations below are substituted yet again to find the heat transfer
coefficient for shell side.
hd e d u Cp
Nu Re e Pr
k k
de= 11.3608 mm
u = 0.440648503m/s
74
= 995.7 kg/m3
= 0.0007978 Pa s
Re=6247.92329
= 0.0007978 Pa s
k = 0.58 W/m C
Pr = 5.76276
To find the heat transfer factor, the type of baffles needs to be chosen. Thus,
segmental baffles with 25% cut was chosen to give a reasonable heat transfer
coefficient without a big pressure drop (Sinnott 2005)
75
From the graph above, the heat transfer factor would be = 0.007
To find the Nu, the values are substituted into the correlation. The viscosity
correlation is ignored yet again for the same reason stated above.
Re=6247.92329
Pr = 5.76276
jh = 0.007
Nu = 78.4110384
To find the value of the heat transfer coefficient for shell side, h, the values of Nu,
along with all the other values required are substituted into the equation
hd e
Nu
k
Nu = 78.4110384
de= 11.3608 mm
k = 0.58 W/m C
h =4003.09857 W/ m2 C
The calculation of U for heat exchangers are normally based on outside area.
do
d o ln( )
1 d 1 d 1 di 1 1
( o) ( o)
U d i htube d i htubefouling 2k hshell hshellfouling
76
do = Outer diameter of tube
do = 16 mm
di = 13.6 mm
k = 45 W/ m C
hshell = 4003.098574W/m2 C
The U calculated, which is the value calculated above, is compared to the theoretical
U which was estimated from the graph.
Calculated U = 639.5283039W/m2 C
The percentage difference of the two should not exceed 30% and the equation to
calculate this percentage difference is given below
77
U calculated U estimated
x100%
U estimated
This percentage difference is below 30% and thus, value of the calculated U is
acceptable.
Step 11 is to calculate both pressure drop in the tube side and also the shell
side
The calculation of pressure drop for tube and shell side is important as a high
pressure drop is not favored and it must be below a certain range. If pressure drop is
too high thus the heat transfer rate would also not be as efficient as it should be.
Therefore, calculations to assure pressure drop is not too high must be done.
L m ut2
Pt N P (8 j f ( )( ) 2.5)( )
di w 2
The viscosity correlation is ignored yet again to the same reason stated previously
L = Length of tube
78
ut = Velocity of stream in tube side
To find the jf, the graph below is referred to and the value of Re for tube side needs
to be known.
Thus, jf = 0.0025
NP = 2 passes
jf = 0.0025
L = 3.66 m
di = 13.6 mm
= 528.5 kg/m3
ut = 0.880582471 m/s
Pt = 3230.285744 Pa
79
Next, pressure drop for shell side is calculated.
Ds L u s2
Ps 8 j f ( )( )( )
de I B 2
jf = Friction factor
Ds = Shell diameter
L =Length of tube
IB = Baffle spacing
To find the friction factor, Re of shell side needs to be known and then the graph
below can be used to find the friction factor.
80
Figure 9 (Sinnott 2005) p.674
Re = 6247.92
Thus, jf = 0.053
jf = 0.053
Ds = 0.4542 m
de = 0.01136 m
L = 3.66 m
IB = 0.09084
= 995.7 kg/m3
us = 0.44065 m/s
Ps= 66022.4 Pa
81
The total pressure drop for shell side is also well below 0.8 bar. Thus, the pressure
for the tube and shell side is acceptable.
The first is to check the velocity of the stream in the tube. It is 0.88058 m/s for the
fluid. It is rather low, but still an acceptable result as the justification was made
earlier.
The second is to check the aspect ratio which is the ratio of length of tube against
diameter of shell. The appropriate ratio would be of value 5 to 10. The aspect ratio
calculated for this design is 8.1, which is acceptable. The importance of this aspect
ratio is that it helps to check whether the heat exchanger would be able to remain
stable as heat exchanging occurs.
The third thing is to check the percentage difference between the estimated U value
and calculated U value. It should be below 30% and since from the calculations
above, the value was 16.2779% and thus, it is appropriate too.
The last thing is to check for the pressure drop on both shell and tube side. Total
pressure drop in shell and tube should be below 0.8 bar, or 80000 Pa. The pressure
drop for both is 69252.66 Pa and thus, can be accepted.
Since all requirements are fulfilled, the specifications for the design of the heat
exchanger makes sense and thus this overall design of the heat exchanger is an
acceptable design.
82
Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet
Duty Specifications
Overall U W/m2 K 639.528 Duty MW 0.608
Area m2 48.685 Mean temperature K 342
Process Operating Conditions
Tube side Shell side
IN OUT IN OUT
Temperature K 391 293 Temperature K 283 323
Fluid Type Condensation Fluid type Cooling tower water
organic vapours
Mass flow kg/s 8.742 8.742 Mass flow kg/s 3.636 3.636
Enthalpy kJ/kg 2423 2615 Enthalpy kJ/kg 15900 15770
Density kg/m3 0.6624 681.8 Density kg/m3 999.8 988
Viscosity Pa s 0.0146 0.4109 Viscosity Pa s 1.308 0.5471
Thermal W/mK 0.0449 0.1217 Thermal W/m K 0.58 0.58
conductivity conductivity
Spcific heat capacitykJ/kg 2.375 2.106 Spcific heat cpcity kJ/kg 0.004192 0.004182
K K
Stream No Stream no.
Mechanical Layout
Tube side Shell side
Design Pressure Pa 14300000 Design Pressure Pa 14300000
No. Of Tubes 300 Arrangement Floating head
Tube arrangement Triangular pitch Baffle spacing m 0.090839
Pitch m 0.02 Internal Diameter m 0.4542
Internal Diameter m 0.0136 Corrosion Allowance mm 3
Outer Diameter m 0.016 Fluid Velocity m/s 0.44065
Thickness m 0.0012 Heat Transfer Coeffcient 4003.098574
Length m 3.66 W/m2K
Corrosion Allowance mm 3 Pressure drop Pa 66022.4
Fluid Velocity m/s 0.880582471
Heat Transfer Coefficient 1642.366975
W/m2K
Pressure drop Pa 3230.29
Material of Construction
Tube side Shell side
Tubes Carbon Shell Carbon
Shell ends Carbon
83
References:
Nath S. (2014) Why is a counter current flow heat exchanger better than a parallel
flow heat exchanger? [online], available: https://www.quora.com/Whyisacounter
flowheatexchangerbetterthanaparallelflowheatexchanger [accessed 22 May
2016]
84
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2xNtfJLGsLwQXlmaWVRTmxZYVE/view [accessed
26 May 2016]
Figure 6.Sinnott R K (2005) Tubeside Heat Transfer Coefficient and Pressure Drop
(Single phase) [online]. Oxford:Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, available:
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2xNtfJLGsLwQXlmaWVRTmxZYVE/view [accessed
26 May 2016]
Figure 7.Sinnott R K (2005) Shellside Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop (Single
phase) [online]. Oxford:Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, available:
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2xNtfJLGsLwQXlmaWVRTmxZYVE/view [accessed
26 May 2016]
Figure 9.Sinnott R K (2005) Shellside Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop (Single
phase) [online]. Oxford:Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, available:
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2xNtfJLGsLwQXlmaWVRTmxZYVE/view [accessed
27 May 2016]
85
DESIGN OF
COMPRESSOR
86
Compressor Design Report
Purpose
In the shale gas processing plant, the low pressure separator, which is a two way
separator, separates condensate and also vapour. The condensate will be
transmitted to another oil refinery and the vapour to the next process in the shale gas
processing plant, which would be acid gas removal. The high pressure separator too,
has a vapour outlet and this outlet would also be sent to the acid gas removal. Both
vapour outlet streams from both separators would be connected to the same stream
before going into the acid gas removal process and therefore, there would only be
one stream going into it. Thus, both streams should have the same pressure, which
would the be operating pressure of the acid gas removal before actually entering the
acid gas removal. Thus, a compressor is needed between stream 17 and stream 18
to increase the pressure by decreasing its volume to match the acid gas removals
operating pressure. Thus, this report is about designing the compressor at C101,
where the pressure is increasing from 0.5 MPa to 3MPa, or 72.52 psia to 435.11
psia, which would give a pressure ratio of 6. The compressor designed is a
polytropic centrifugal compressor as it caters to the requirements needed. A
centifugal compressor requires a lower maintenance than a reciprocating
compressor and a centrifugal compressor is also suitable for a low pressure ratio
compression. The ratio is normally below 6 or equal to 6 which certainly caters to the
pressure ratio for this compression and therefore a centrifugal compressor is chosen.
Polytropic conditions is used for this case as in most real life situations, only
polytropic efficiency can be achieved and not isothermal, since there is bound to be
heat losses or any form of energy losses along the way. The isothermal condition is
not possible as when the volume decreases, the particles of the gas move faster at
random in the reduced volume. This causes an increase in temperature.
87
Stre
am
18
C

1
0
1 Str
ea
m
17
Method:
The method used for designing the compressor is based on the method used in
Pipelines Rules of Thumb Handbook, 5th Edition (McAllister 2002). A centrifugal
compressor is chosen for this design. The following list compiles the design aspect
of the compressor.
88
Proposed design
Pressure ratio is 6
Since the feed is not an ideal gas, the compressibilty factor needs to be identified. To
find the compressibility factor from the graph, two values are needed, which is the
reduced pressure and reduced temperature. The equations for both are given below.
P1 T1
PR TR
PC TC
Where,
P1 = Inlet pressure
PC = Critical pressure
TR = Reduced temperature
89
T1 = Inlet temperature
TC = Critical temperature
To find the total critical pressure of the stream, the mole fraction of each component
is multiplied with its own critical pressure. The sum of all the multiplication would give
the total reduced pressure of the feed stream. The table below shows the complete
calculation of the feeds critical pressure.
Water 0 2.21E+07 0
= 672.975 psia
90
The same table is done to calculate the feeds critical temperature and finally to find
the reduced temperature
Water 0 647.1 0
= 343.7278 R
Thus, with the value of reduced pressure and temperature already being calculated,
the compressibility factor can be obtained from the graph below
91
Figure 1.1 (Chegg n.d.)
Inlet Z = 0.98
The second step is to calculate the inlet volume flow into the compressor
92
. Z1 RGCT1
Q m( )
144 P1
Where,
Q = Inlet volume flow
= Mass flow rate
Z1 = Inlet compressibility factor
RGC= Universal gas constant (1545/Average molar mass)
T1 = Inlet temperature
P1 = Inlet pressure
To find the value of RGC, the feeds molar mass needs to be calculated first. To find
this, simply take the average of all the components molar mass. The molar mass of
water is not included as mole fraction of water in feed is zero.
Thus, substitute all the values into the equation to find the inlet volume flow
= 1066.16 lbm/min
RGC= 28.61(ftlbf)/lbmR
Z1 = 0.98
T1 = 560 R
93
P1 = 72.52 psia
Q = 1603.064 ICFM
The third step is to select the compressor frame from the centrifugal
compressor frame data
Since the inlet volume flow has now been found, the value obtained can be used to
choose which frame is suitable to be chosen as a base for the design of this
compressor. The table below was extracted from the handbook, Pipeline Rules of
Thumb, 5th Edition.
Based on the inlet volume flow, it can be seen from the table that that Frame A
would be suitable for the design of this compressor.
94
The next step, which is the fourth step is to determine the pressure ratio
P2
R
P1
P2=Outlet pressure
P1=Inlet pressure
P2 = 435.11 psia
P1 = 72.52 psia
R=6
The fifth step would be to determine the polytropic index at the inlet of the
compressor
k 1 n 1
x( Efficiency)
k n
Both sides on the equation above represent the polytropic index. Thus, both
equation can be used. However, since value of k is known, the term on the right
hand side is used to find the polytropic index.
k = 1.308
Efficiency = 0.76
95
n 1
Thus, it can also be shown that 0.178960245 since (n1)/n is also the
n
polytropic index.
Across the compressor, not only there will be a change in pressure but also in
temperature as they are dependent on each other. Since only inlet temperature is
given and not the outlet temperature, the polytropic index can be used to find the
outlet temperature. As mentioned earlier, polytropic index is used since in most real
life compressors because isothermal conditions cannot be achieved easily. Thus, the
equation below can be used to estimate the outlet temperature based on these
polytropic conditions.
n 1
T2 T1 ( R) n
T2 = Outlet temperature
T1 = Inlet temperature
R = Pressure ratio
T1 = 560R
R=6
T2 = 771.693 R
Since outlet temperature have already been found, the outlet compressibility
factorcan be determined and thus the average value of the compressibilty factor can
be determined to calculate the polytropic head later on. An assumption made here
was that the critical temperature and pressure found earlier for the inlet remained the
96
same for the outlet as they should have a minute difference only. Thus the same
equations were used again to calculate the outlet compressibility factor where
P2 T2
PR TR
PC TC
Where,
P2 = Outlet pressure
PC = Critical pressure
TR = Reduced temperature
T2 = Outlet temperature
TC = Critical temperature
Z2 = 0.99
Zaverage = 0.985
97
Figure 1.1 (Chegg n.d.)
Step 8 would be to determine the polytropic index at the outlet and also the
average value of polytropic index
The equation used to calculate the polytopic index at the inlet is used once again.
The polytropic efficiency remains the same but the k value now differs.
k 1
x( Efficiency)
k
98
k = specific heat ratio, (Cp/Cv)
k = 1.25
Efficiency = 0.76
n 1
n P
H P ( Z average RGCT1 )( )[( 2 ) n
1]
n 1 P1
HP = Polytropic head
T1 = Inlet temperature
P2 = Outlet pressure
P1=Inlet pressure
Since all values have been obtained, they can be substituted directly into the
equation above.
99
Zaverage = 0.985
RGC= 28.61(ftlbf)/lbmR
T1 = 560 R
n/(n1) = 6.043
P2 = 435.11 psia
P1=72.52 psia
(n1)/n = 0.165480122
26.1MW 0.5
[ ]
k1Z1T1
The equation above calculates value of . With that value, the maximum polytropic
head per stage graph can be referred to below to find the maximum polytropic head
per stage.
T1 =Inlet temperature
MW= 54g/mol
100
k1 = 1.308
Z1= 0.98
T1 =560 R
= 1.4012
101
Thus, from the equation below, the number of stages optimum for this compression i
particular can be determined directly. A note to rememer is that the number of stages
is always rounded up.
HP
N N nom ( ) 0.5
H Pnom xNo.stages
HP = Polytropic head
Values of nominal rotational speed, polytropic head, nominal polytropic head and
number of stages were all found earlier, thus values can be substituted directly into
the equation to find the required rotation speed
HP = 32915.935 ftlbf/lbm
HPnom = 10000ftlbf/lbm
102
No.stages = 4
N = 9978.512 RPM
.
m HP
PWRgas
33000 xEfficiency
HP = Polytropic head
= 1066.16 lbm/min
HP = 32915.935 ftlbf/lbm
Efficiency = 0.76
PWRgas = 1399.268491 hp
The mechanical losses can be determined based on the table below by using the
value of gas power requirement found in the last step.
03000 3
30006000 2.5
600010000 2
10000+ 1.5
103
Since, gas power requirement calculated was 1399.268491 hp, the mechanical loss,
Lm can be found by multiplying the percentage loss with the value of the gas power
requirement
= 41.97805473 hp
Thus, the last step is to calculate the overall shaft work needed for the
compressor to compress the initial pressure to the final pressure
PWRshaft PWRgas Lm
PWRshaft = Shaft work
Lm = Mechanical loss
PWRgas = 1399.268491 hp
Lm = 41.97805473 hp
= 1074.74 kW
n 1
T2 T1 ( R) n
104
T2 = Outlet temperature
T1 = Inlet temperature
R = Pressure ratio
T1 = 560 R
R=6
(n1)/n = 0.165480122
T2 = 753.2774028 R
= 418.52 K
105
References:
Figure 1.2. McAllister E.W. (2002) Centrifugal Compressor Data [online]. United
States of America:Gulf Professional Publishing, available:
http://www.petrodanesh.com/Virtual%20Education/Piping/Ebook/Pipeline%20Rules
%20of%20Thumb.pdf [accessed 29 May 2016]
Figure 1.3. McAllister E.W. (2002) Centrifugal Compressor Data [online]. United
States of America:Gulf Professional Publishing, available:
http://www.petrodanesh.com/Virtual%20Education/Piping/Ebook/Pipeline%20Rules
%20of%20Thumb.pdf [accessed 30 May 2016]
106
HeriotWatt University
Process Design A
Individual Report
STUDENT ID H00229259
HEAT EXCHANGER(E103)
&
COMPRESSOR DESIGN (C102)
107
HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN (E103)
Sweet gas
EXP101
V103
11 12 20
E103
1. Description
The heat exchanger E103 which is placed in between the separation and acid gas
removal process is used to heat the shale gas passing through the heat exchanger.
The shale gas is required to be heated from a temperature of 118C to a
temperature of 251.308C.
The separation process involves high pressure separation and low pressure
separation due to the fact that the shale gas extracted from the gas wells consists of
water and gas. The acid gas removal process or sweeting unit is used to remove the
sour gas (H2S and CO2) from the shale gas. From the figure above it can be seen
that the inlet of the heat exchanger is actually the outlet of the high pressure
separator and the outlet of the heat exchanger is the inlet of the acid gas removal
process.
The main purpose of the heat exchanger E103 is to increase the temperature of the
shale gas from the separation process to the required inlet temperature for the acid
gas removal process.
In order to determine the properties of the hot fluid the standard utilities available on
site are used. Some assumptions were made in order to carry out the design
calculations. The steps mentioned in the Coulson & Richardson vol.6 4 th edition were
followed in order to design the heat exchanger.
108
2. Mass Balance
The table above shows the simplified mass balance for the heat exchanger E103.
The inlet no of mole is the vapour outlet of the high pressure separator and the outlet
no. of mole is the inlet for acid gas removal.
3. Energy Balance
The tables below shows energy balance for inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger E
103. The formula which is used to calculate the specific heat capacity is:
109
Inlet temperature: 118C
Table 1.2: Energy Balance table for inlet of E103
Components a B c d cp(t1) Molar flow rate
Methane 3.43E02 5.47E05 3.66E09 1.10E11 4.08E02 8.29E+02
Ethane 4.94E02 1.39E04 5.82E08 7.28E12 6.50E02 9.55E01
Propane 6.80E02 2.26E04 1.31E07 3.17E11 9.29E02 1.58E01
Carbon dioxide 3.61E02 4.23E05 2.89E08 7.46E12 4.07E02 4.42E02
Nitrogen 2.90E02 2.20E06 5.72E09 2.87E12 2.93E02 2.54E02
iButane 8.95E02 3.01E04 1.89E07 4.99E11 1.22E01 1.38E02
nButane 9.23E02 2.79E04 1.55E07 3.50E11 1.23E01 1.18E02
iPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.53E01 3.46E03
nPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.52E01 1.30E03
Hexane 1.37E01 4.09E04 2.39E07 5.77E11 1.82E01 2.99E03
Heptane 3.57E+00 6.21E+04 1.95E+07  2.71E+11 4.17E01
Water 3.35E02 6.88E06 7.60E09 3.59E12 3.44E02 0.00E+00
1.04E+00 8.31E+02
110
Outlet temperature: 251.308C
111
To calculate the enthalpy for the separation and acid gas removal process we use,
Hence,
4. Design Procedure
112
Table 1.4: Heat Capacity of the feed components
Components A b c d cp(tavg)
Methane 3.43E02 5.47E05 3.66E09 1.10E11 4.45E02
Ethane 4.94E02 1.39E04 5.82E08 7.28E12 7.31E02
Propane 6.80E02 2.26E04 1.31E07 3.17E11 1.05E01
Carbon dioxide 3.61E02 4.23E05 2.89E08 7.46E12 4.30E02
Nitrogen 2.90E02 2.20E06 5.72E09 2.87E12 2.96E02
iButane 8.95E02 3.01E04 1.89E07 4.99E11 1.39E01
nButane 9.23E02 2.79E04 1.55E07 3.50E11 1.39E01
iPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.72E01
nPentane 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E07 4.23E11 1.72E01
Hexane 1.37E01 4.09E04 2.39E07 5.77E11 2.05E01
Heptane 3.57E+00 6.21E+04 1.95E+07  6.64E+11
Water 3.35E02 6.88E06 7.60E09 3.59E12 3.50E02
4.45E02
Components Mole Fraction RAM Molar Flow Rate Mass Flow Rate
Methane 9.98E01 16 8.29E+02 1.33E+01
Ethane 1.15E03 30 9.55E01 2.86E02
Propane 1.91E04 44 1.58E01 6.97E03
Carbon dioxide 5.31E05 44 4.42E02 1.94E03
Nitrogen 3.06E05 28 2.54E02 7.12E04
iButane 1.67E05 58 1.38E02 8.03E04
nButane 1.42E05 58 1.18E02 6.83E04
iPentane 4.16E06 72 3.46E03 2.49E04
nPentane 1.57E06 72 1.30E03 9.37E05
Hexane 3.60E06 86 2.30E03 1.98E04
Heptane 5.01E04 100 4.17E01 4.17E02
Water 0.00E+00 18 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
1.00E+00 526 8.31E+02 1.33E+01
113
Table 1.6 Temperatures at shell and tube side
4.1 Specifications:
114
4.2 Duty:
In order to find the duty of the heat exchanger we use the formula,
Where,
Q  duty/rate of heat transfer (kW)
 Molar flow rate of feed (mol/s)
Cp mix heat capacity of the mixture at tavg (kJ/molC)
T temperature difference of the inlet and outlet temperatures of heat exchanger
(C)
The inlet and outlet temperature (t1, t2) respectively for the heat exchanger is,
t1=118C t2=251.308C
Hence,
= 830.603 mol/s
cp mix(tavg) = 4.45E02 kJ/molC
T = 133.308 C
Since the heat transfer rate of the heat exchanger is calculated we can find the mass
flow rate of the steam used to heat the fluid. The relationship between heat transfer
rate and mass flow rate is,
Rearranging we get,
The pressure of saturated steam available on the site is 150 bar. We can find using
the steam tables.
115
Figure 2: Steam table values when pressure is 150 bar
From the figure above the value of was found to be 1000.2 kJ/kg
Hence,
= 1000.2 kJ/kg
Q = 4926.230 kJ/s
The physical properties such as the heat capacity, thermal conductivity, viscosity,
and density was found out using ASPEN hysys software.
116
4.5 Overall Coefficient:
Since the process fluid for the heat exchanger E103 is condensation organic vapour
and the service fluid is river, well, sea water the range of the estimated overall
coefficient (Uo,est) is found to be between 450700 W/m2C.
Hence the estimated overall coefficient is taken to be 450 W/m2C.
Therefore, Uo,est=450 W/m2C
The heat exchanger selected is a shell and tube heat exchanger with counter current
flow arrangement.
The fluid in the tube side of the heat exchanger follows a path in which it flows to and
fro the tube, the number of times the fluid flows to and fro is known as passes. The
number of passes in tube side of a heat exchanger range from 1 pass to 16 passes.
However an even number of passes is preferred because it reduces the pipeworks.
117
The number of passes in shell side is determined using the TEMA standards, usually
a single pass is used for the shell side.
In the heat exchanger E103 we initially use two passes for the tube side and a
single pass for the shell side.
The equation used to find the logarithmic mean temperature difference is,
Where,
TLM logarithmic mean temperature difference (C)
T1 inlet temperature of the fluid in shell side (C)
T2 outlet temperature of fluid in shell side (C)
t1 inlet temperature of the fluid in tube side (C)
t2 outlet temperature of the fluid in tube side (C)
Hence,
T1=T2= 342.3C
t1=118C t2=251.308C
118
and S is the ratio of the temperature difference of the outlet and inlet temperature of
tube side fluid to the temperature difference of the inlet temperature of shell side fluid
and inlet temperature of tube side fluid.
T1=T2= 342.3C
t1=118C t2=251.308C
Substituting the values we get,
Hence,
Rearranging we get,
119
Where,
Tm true temperature difference (C)
TLM logarithmic mean temperature difference (C)
FT temperature correction factor
Hence,
TLM=147.5C
FT=1
Rearranging we get,
Where,
A heat transfer area (m2)
Q  duty/rate of heat transfer (kW)
Uo overall coefficient (W/m2C)
Tm true mean temperature difference (C)
Hence,
Q=4926.23 kW
TM=147.75C
Uo=450 W/m2C
120
4.11 Layout and Tube size:
A splitring floating head is chosen for the shell and tube heat exchanger E103. The
split ring floating head increases the efficiency and also is easier to clean. Hence it is
found to be most suitable for the heat exchanger E103.
Triangular pattern is chosen for arrangement of the tubes in the heat exchanger E
103 in order to achieve higher heat transfer rate.
The feed of the heat exchanger which is shale gas contains sour gases such as H 2S
and CO2 which are corrosive in nature but the amount of H2S and CO2 is very
minimal. Therefore steel is selected to be the material used for the shell and tubes.
Steel is widely used in the construction of heat exchangers and it is more economical
compared to other materials.
The shale gas is passed to the tube side of the heat exchanger as it is dirtier than
the steam. Hence steam is passed to the shell side of the heat exchanger. It is due
to the fact that it is easier to clean the tube side of the heat exchanger compared to
the shell side.
In order to decide the tube size the standard tube diameter and preferred length
were referred from Coulson & Richardson vol.6 4th edition.
From the two figures above the dimension of the tube side and preferred length of
tubes were chosen to be,
121
Table 1.9 Tube size specification
Outside diameter 50 mm = 0.05 m
Wall Thickness 2.6 mm = 0.0026 m
Inside diameter 44.8 mm = 0.0448 m
Length of tube 2.44 M
In order to find the number of tubes we need to find out the area of one tube. To find
area of one tube we use the surface area formula.
Where,
do outer diameter (m)
L length of the tube (m)
Hence,
do=0.05m
L=2.44m
Hence,
Hence,
Number of passes=2
122
The tube cross sectional area can be found using,
Where,
di inner diameter (m)
Hence,
di=0.026m
The area per pass can be found using tube cross sectional area and the number of
tubes,
Hence,
In order to find the tube side velocity we need the values of volumetric flow rate and
area per pass for the fluid in tube side.
Volumetric flow rate can be found out using,
Where,
 volumetric flow rate of fluid in tube side (m3/s)
 mass flow rate of fluid in tube side (kg/s)
 density of the fluid in tube side (kg/m3)
Hence,
= 1.33E+01 kg/s
= 12.79 kg/m3 (found using hysys)
123
The equation used to find the tube side velocity is,
Where,
ut tube side velocity (m/s)
Hence,
The tube side velocity was found to be acceptable as it was in range for the velocity
for gases with high pressure which is between 510 m/s.
Where,
Dbundle bundle diameter (m)
do outside tube diameter (m)
NT Number of tubes
k1 , n1 constants
The k and n constants are obtained from the figure shown above. Since we are using
2 passes with a triangular pitch the values of k1 and n1 are 0.249 and 2.207
respectively.
124
Hence,
do = 50 mm
NT (No of
= 194 tubes
tubes)
k1 = 0.249 constants for 2
pass triangular
n1 = 2.207 pitch
Where,
Dshell shell diameter (m)
125
4.16 Tube side heat transfer coefficient:
In order to determine the tube side heat transfer coefficient we need to first find
Reynolds number, prandlts number and nusselt number.
In order to find Reynolds number for the tube side fluid we use the equation,
Where,
Re Reynolds number
di inside tube diameter (m)
ut tube side velocity (m/s)
t density of the fluid in tube side (kg/m3)
t viscosity of the fluid in tube side (kg/ms)
Hence,
di = 0.0448 M
ut = 6.817898767 m/s
t = 12.79 kg/m3
t = 0.00001629 kg/ms
di=0.0448 m
L=2.44 m
Since we know the value of the Reynolds number we can find the heat transfer factor
(jh) for the tube side fluid using the graph shown in the figure below.
126
Figure 8: Graph used to find the heat transfer factor for tube side
Figure 9: Graph used to find the friction factor for tube side
127
Where,
Pr prandlts number
cp heat capacity of the fluid in tube side (J/kgC)
t viscosity of the fluid in tube side (kg/ms)
kt thermal conductivity of fluid in tube side (W/mC)
Hence,
cp = 2797 J/kgC
t = 0.00001629 kg/ms
kt = 0.06089 W/mC
Now the next step would be to find the nusselt number for which we use the
equation,
Where,
Nu nusslet number
Jh heat transfer factor
Re reynolds number
Pr prandlts number
 viscosity of the fluid in tube side (kg/ms)
w viscosity of the fluid at the tube side wall (kg/ms)
The ratio of viscosity of the fluid in the tube side to the viscosity of the fluid at the
tube side wall is negligible. Hence, =1
Therefore,
Jh=2.30E03
Re=2.40E+05
Pr= 0.7482
/ w=1
128
The relation between nusselt number and the heat transfer is given by,
Rearranging we get,
Where,
hi tube side heat transfer coefficient
Nu nusslet number
kt thermal conductivity of fluid in tube side (W/mC)
di inside diameter of the tube (m)
Hence,
Nu=500.758
kt=0.06089 W/mC
di=0.0448 m
Where,
Pt pressure drop in tube side (Pa)
Np number of passes
jf friction factor
L length of the tube
di inside diameter of the tube (m)
 viscosity of the fluid in tube side (kg/ms)
w viscosity of the fluid at the tube side wall (kg/ms)
t density of the fluid in tube side (kg/m3)
ut tube side velocity (m/s)
129
Hence,
Np = 2 passes
jf = 2.40E03 (graph)
L = 2.44 M
di = 0.0448 M
t = 12.79 kg/m3
ut = 6.817 m/s
The pressure loss in the tube side was found to be acceptable and within the range.
Where,
Dbundle bundle diameter (m)
pt tube pitch (m)
Hence,
Dbundle=1.0213 m
pt=0.0625 m
Approximating we get,
Where,
130
As area for cross flow (m2)
pt tube pitch (m)
do outside diameter of the tube (m)
Dshell shell diameter (m)
IB baffle spacing (m)
Hence,
Dshell = 1.0933296 M
Baffle
= 0.21866592 M (Baffle Spacing=Dshell/5)
Spacing, IB
do = 0.05 M
pt = 0.0625 M (pt=1.25xdo)
Where,
Gs shell side mass velocity (kg/m2s)
Ws mass flow rate of the fluid in shell side (kg/s)
As area for cross flow (m2)
Hence,
Ws= 4.9252 kg/s
As=0.0478 m2
The relation between shell side mass fluid and shell side linear velocity is given by,
Where,
us shell side linear velocity (m/s)
Gs shell side mass velocity (kg/m2s)
s density of the fluid in shell side (kg/m3)
Hence,
131
Gs=103.006 kg/m2s
s= 89.84 kg/m3
Where,
de hydraulic diameter (m)
pt tube pitch (m)
do outside diameter of the tube (m)
Hence,
pt=0.0625 m (pt=1.25xdo)
do=0.05m
The equation used to calculate Reynolds number for the shell side fluid is,
Where,
Re Reynolds number
Gs shell side mass velocity (kg/m2s)
de hydraulic diameter (m)
t viscosity of the fluid in shell side (kg/ms)
Hence,
Gs = 103.006 kg/m2s
de = 0.0355 M
s = 0.00003682 kg/ms
132
di=0.0448 m
L=2.44 m
The heat transfer factor (jh) for the shell side fluid can be found from the Reynolds
number and using baffle with 25% cut. The jh is calculated using the graph shown in
the figure below.
Figure 10 Graph used to find the heat transfer factor for shell side
The friction factor for the shell side fluid can also be found since the Reynolds
number is already calculated. The graph used to find the friction factor is shown in
the figure below we used baffles with 25% cuts.
133
Figure 11 Graph used to find the friction factor for shell side
Where,
Pr prandlts number
cp heat capacity of the fluid in tube side (J/kgC)
s viscosity of the fluid in tube side (kg/ms)
kw thermal conductivity of material (W/mC)
The value of kw can be found using the table shown in the figure below. From the
table below the kw value was found to be 36W/mC
Hence,
cp = 5947 J/kgC
s = 0.00003682 kg/ms
Kw = 36 W/mC
134
Figure 12: Table to find the thermal conductivity of the material.
Where,
Nu nusslet number
Jh heat transfer factor
Re reynolds number
Pr prandlts number
 viscosity of the fluid in shell side (kg/ms)
w viscosity of the fluid at the shell side wall (kg/ms)
The ratio of viscosity of the fluid in the shell side to the viscosity of the fluid at the
shell side wall is very small. Hence, the value can be negligible =1
Therefore,
Jh=2.00E03
Re=9.93E+04
Pr=0.00608
/ w=1
The relation between nusselt number and the heat transfer is given by,
135
Rearranging we get,
Where,
ho shell side heat transfer coefficient (W/m2C)
Nu nusslet number
kw thermal conductivity of material (W/mC)
de hydraulic diameter (m)
Hence,
Nu=36.260
kw=36 W/mC
de=0.0355m
Where,
Pspressure loss in shell side (Pa)
jf friction factor
L length of the tube
de hydraulic diameter (m)
 viscosity of the fluid in shell side (kg/ms)
w viscosity of the fluid at the shell side wall (kg/ms)
s density of the fluid in shell side (kg/m3)
us shell side velocity (m/s)
136
Hence,
jf = 2.20E03 (graph)
Ds = 1.0933 M
de = 0.0355 M
L = 2.44 M
lB = 0.2186 M
s = 89.84 kg/m3
us = 1.1465 m/s
The pressure loss in the shell side was found to be acceptable and within the range.
The total pressure loss across the heat exchanger can be calculated by just adding
the pressure loss in shell side and the pressure loss in tube side.
Where,
P total pressure loss (Pa)
Pspressure drop in shell side (Pa)
Ptpressure drop in tube side (Pa)
Hence,
Ps= 6117.337 Pa
Pt=2108.023 Pa
The pressure loss across the heat exchanger was found to acceptable as it was in
the range of the maximum allowable pressure loss. The overall pressure drop range
is P<0.8 bar.
The actual overall coefficient for the heat exchanger can be now calculated using the
various values we found above.
137
In order to find the actual overall coefficient we use the equation,
Where,
Uo the actual overall coefficient (W/m2C)
ho shell side heat transfer coefficient (W/m2C)
hod shell side fluid dirt coefficient (W/m2C)
do outside diameter of the tube (m)
di inside diameter of the tube (m)
kw thermal conductivity of material (W/mC)
hid tube side fluid dirt coefficient (W/m2C)
hi tube side heat transfer coefficient (W/m2C)
The values of the dirt coefficients can be found from the table shown in the figure
below. Since the fluid in the shell side is steam condensate the value of h od is taken
to be 5000 W/m2C and for the fluid in tube side which is organic vapour the value of
hid is taken to be 5000 W/m2C also.
138
Hence,
do = 0.05 M
di = 0.0448 M
ho = 38151.365 W/m2C
hod = 5000 W/m2C
hi = 680.606 W/m2C
hid = 5000 W/m2C
kw = 36 W/mC
Where,
Uo the percentage difference between actual and estimated overall coefficient (%)
Uo the actual overall coefficient (W/m2C)
Uo,est the estimated overall coefficient (W/m2C)
Hence,
Uo= 461.786 W/m2C
Uo,est= 450 W/m2C
Hence the percentage difference between actual and estimated overall coefficient is
found to be acceptable and in the range. The range for the percentage difference is
0%< Uo<30%.
139
5 Proposed Design:
6 Conclusion:
Hence the final design proposed is found be quite accurate from the calculations
shown above. Care should be taken while handling the heat exchanger E103 as the
heat exchanger deals with high pressure and high temperature conditions. In order
to prevent leakage the tube can be insulated.
The base cost of counter flow heat exchanger is approximately 2200$ (U.S.D).The
maintenance and operation cost of the heat exchanger would be around 1400$
(U.S.D)
Hence the overall cost of the heat exchanger is estimated to be 3600$ (U.S.D). The
above cost is an estimate with taking the life span of the heat exchanger to be 5
years.
140
Heat Exchanger Data Sheet Equipment No. E103
Function Increases the temperature of the
process fluid from 118C to 251.308C
Duty Specifications
Overall U (W/m2K) 461.786 Duty (kW) 4926.230
Area (m2) 74.089 Mean Temperature (C) 184.654
Process Operating Conditions
Tube Side Shell Side
In Out In Out
Temperature (K) 391.15 524.458 Temperature (K) 615.45 615.45
Fluid Type Gas Gas Fluid Type Gas Gas
Mass Flow (kg/s) 13.333 13.333 Mass Flow (kg/s) 4.925 4.925
Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Enthalpy (kJ/kg)
Density (kg/m3) 15.19 11.1 Density (kg/m3) 89.84 89.84
2 2
Viscosity (Ns/m ) Viscosity (Ns/m )
Thermal Conductivity 5.00E02 7.24E02 Thermal Conductivity 4.81E02 4.81E02
(W/m K) (W/m K)
Specific Heat Capacity 2.602 3.023 Specific Heat Capacity 5.947 5.947
(kJ/kg K) (kJ/kg K)
Stream No. Stream No.
Mechanical Layout
Tube Side Shell Side
2
Design Pressure 3.00E+06 Design Pressure (N/m ) 3.00E+06
(N/m2)
No. of Tubes 194 Arrangement Floating split head
Tube Arrangement Triangular pitch Baffle Spacing (m) 0.214
Pitch (m) 0.0625
Internal Diameter (m) 0.0448 Hydraulic Diameter (m) 0.0355
Outer Diameter (m) 0.05 Shell Diameter (m) 1.0733
Thickness (m) 0.0026
Length (m) 2.44
Corrosive Allowance 2 Corrosive Allowance 2
(mm) (mm)
Fluid Velocity (m/s) 6.817 Fluid Velocity (m/s) 1.189
Heat Transfer 680.606 Heat Transfer 38151.365
Coefficient Coefficient
(W/m K) (W/m K)
Pressure Drop (N/m2) 2108.023 Pressure Drop (N/m2) 6117.337
Materials of Construction
Tube Side Shell Side
Tubes Steel Shell Steel
Shell Ends Steel
141
COMPRESSOR DESIGN (C102)
34
C102 35
E107
36
V107
1 Description:
The compressor C102 that is placed in between the acid gas removal and
dehydration process is used to increase the pressure of the shale gas passing
through it. The pressure of the shale gas is to be increased from 3MPa to 5MPa.
The acid gas removal process or sweeting unit is used to remove the sour gas (H 2S
and CO2) from the shale gas. The dehydration process is used to remove the left
over water component from the feed. Usually glycol dehydration is used to remove
the water components from the natural gas feed and in this case triethylene glycol.
The figure above shows the region where the compressor is placed and it can be
seen that the inlet for the compressor is the outlet of the acid gas removal and the
outlet of the compressor is the inlet of the dehydration process.
The function of the compressor C102 is to increase the pressure of the shale gas
coming out from the acid gas removal process in order to meet the required inlet
pressure condition for the dehydration process.
142
The followed in order to design the compressor were referred from pipelines rules of
thumb handbook.
2 Design Procedure:
A centrifugal compressor is chosen because the pressure ratio in this case is low
and generally a centrifugal compressor is used for low pressure ratio. Centrifugal
compressor is economical and can be maintained easily.
The table below shows the inlet properties of the feed which is shale gas from the
acid gas removal that enters the compressor C102.
Table 2.1: Inlet properties of C102
Inlet Properties
Temperature(T1) = 619.470 R
Pressure(P1) = 435.113 psia
In order to find the critical pressure for the process fluid we first need to find the
critical pressure of each component present and then multiply it with the mole
fraction of the respective component. The critical pressure of the process fluid is the
sum of the above mentioned values.
143
Table 2.3 Critical pressure of the feed
Components Mole Fraction(Yi) Critical Pressure Pc(Pa) YiPc
Methane 9.98E01 4.64E+06 4.63E+06
Ethane 9.75E04 4.88E+06 4.76E+03
Propane 1.62E04 4.23E+06 6.84E+02
Carbon dioxide 0.00E+00 7.39E+06 0.00E+00
Nitrogen 2.59E05 3.40E+06 8.82E+01
iButane 1.41E05 3.80E+06 5.37E+01
nButane 1.20E05 3.80E+06 4.57E+01
iPentane 3.53E06 3.36E+06 1.19E+01
nPentane 1.33E06 3.36E+06 4.46E+00
Hexane 3.05E06 3.02E+06 9.22E+00
Heptane 4.94E04 2.74E+06 1.35E+03
Water 0.00E+00 2.21E+07 0.00E+00
1.00E+00 4.64E+06
From the table above it can be seen that the critical pressure (Pc) of the process fluid
was found to be 4.64E+06 Pa.
Therefore,
The method to find the critical temperature of the process fluid is very similar to
finding the critical pressure of the process fluid. To find the critical temperature of the
process fluid we add the values obtained from multiplying the mole fraction of each
component with its respective critical temperature.
Table 2.4 Critical temperature of the process fluid
Mole Critical Temperature
Components Yi x Tc
Fraction(Yi) Tc(K)
Methane 9.98E01 190.8 1.90E+02
Ethane 9.75E04 305.6 2.98E01
Propane 1.62E04 370 5.98E02
Carbon dioxide 0.00E+00 304.25 0.00E+00
Nitrogen 2.59E05 126.15 3.27E03
iButane 1.41E05 425.4 6.01E03
nButane 1.20E05 425.4 5.11E03
iPentane 3.53E06 469.8 1.66E03
nPentane 1.33E06 469.8 6.24E04
Hexane 3.05E06 507.6 1.55E03
Heptane 4.94E04 540.1 2.67E01
Water 0.00E+00 647.1 0.00E+00
1.00E+00 1.91E+02
Hence the critical temperature (Tc) of the process fluid was found to be 1.91E+02 K.
144
Therefore,
Where,
PR reduced pressure
P1 inlet pressure (psia)
Pc critical pressure of the process fluid (psia)
Hence,
P1= 435.113 psia
PC=672.975 psia
Where,
TR reduced temperature
T1 inlet temperature (R)
Tc critical temperature of the process fluid (R)
Hence,
T1=619.470 R
TC=343.8 R
145
The compressibility factor can be found using the graph shown below in the figure.
Hence, from the graph the value of inlet compressibility factor (z1) is found to be
0.98.
The inlet flow volume for the compressor can be calculated using the equation,
Where,
Q inlet flow volume (ICFM)
 mass flow rate (lbm/min)
z1 inlet compressibility factor
Runiversal gas constant (1545/avg molecular weight) (ftlbf/lbmR)
T1 inlet temperature (R)
P1 inlet pressure (psia)
146
The universal gas constant can be found by dividing the avg molecular weight by
1545. The molecular weight of water is not considered because the mole fraction of
water in the process fluid is 0.
Therefore,
= 26.4845321 kg/s
= 3503.303 lbm/min
z1 = 0.98
(1545/avg molecular
R = 29.561
weight)
T1 = 619.470 R
P1 = 435.113 psia
Hence the specifications of the compressor C102 is given in the table below.
147
Table 2.5 Specifications of the compressor C102
Polytropic Efficiency = 76 %
Polytropic Efficiency = 0.76
Nominal Polytropic Head = 10000 ftlbf/lbm
Nominal Rotational Speed(RPM) = 11000 RPM
Where,
Rp pressure ratio
P2 outlet pressure (psia)
P1 inlet pressure (psia)
Therefore,
P2=725.188 psia
P1=435.113 psia
Where,
polytropic index at the inlet
 ratio of cp/cv
Efficiency nominal polytropic efficiency
Therefore,
=1.343 (from ASPEN hysys)
Efficiency=0.76
148
Hence the polytropic index at the inlet is found to be 0.194.
Where,
T2,approx. approximate discharge temperature (R)
T1 inlet temperature (R)
Rp pressure ratio
polytropic index at the inlet
Therefore,
T1=619.470 R
Rp=1.666
=0.194
Where,
PR reduced pressure
P2 outlet pressure (psia)
Pc critical pressure of the process fluid (psia)
149
Hence,
P2=725.188 psia
PC=672.975 psia
Where,
TR reduced temperature
T2,approx approximate outlet temperature (R)
Tc critical temperature of the process fluid (R)
Hence,
T2,approx= 684.04 R
TC=343.8 R
Once again we use the graph shown in the figure below to calculate the
compressibility factor.
150
From the graph shown in the figure above the value of outlet compressibility factor
(z2) is found to be 0.98.
Where,
z average compressibility factor
z1 inlet compressibility factor
z2 outlet compressibility factor
Where,
polytropic index at the outlet
 ratio of cp/cv
Efficiency nominal polytropic efficiency
All the values to be substituted remain the same except for value.
Therefore,
=1.341 (from ASPEN hysys)
Efficiency=0.76
151
Where,
Where,
Hp polytropic head (ftlbf/lbm)
z Average compressibility factor
R Universal gas constant (ftlbf/lbmR)
T1 inlet temperature (R)
Therefore,
T1 = 619.47 R
Zavg = 0.98
R = 29.561 ftlbf/lbmR
n1/n = 0.1936
n/n1 = 5.163
Rp=P2/P1 = 1.666
152
Where,
 value to find the maximum polytropic head
MW molecular weight
k1 ratio of cp/cv
z1 inlet compressibility factor
T1 inlet temperature (R)
Therefore,
MW = 52.264 g/mol
k1 = 1.343
Z1 = 0.98
T1 = 619.47 R
The maximum polytropic head can be found from the graph shown in the figure
below,
Hence, from the graph the maximum polytropic head was found to be 12,000 ft
lbf/lbm.
153
Where,
Hp,max maximum polytropic head (ftlbf/lbm)
Hp polytropic head (ftlbf/lbm)
Therefore,
Hp,max=12000 ftlbf/lbm
Hp =9636.117 ftlbf/lbm
Where,
N required rotational speed (RPM)
Nnom nominal rotational speed (RPM)
Hp polytropic head (ftlbf/lbm)
Hp,nominal nominal polytropic head (ftlbf/lbm)
Therefore,
Nnom = 11000 RPM
Hp = 9636.11 ftlbf/lbm
Hp,nom = 10000 ftlbf/lbm
Number of stages = 1
Where,
154
PWRgas required gas power (horse power)
 mass flow rate (lbm/min)
Hp polytropic head (ftlbf/lbm)
Efficiency nominal polytropic efficiency
Therefore,
= 3503.303 lbm/min
Hp = 9636.117 ftlbf/lbm
Efficiency = 0.76
From the table above the percentage mechanical loss is found to be 3%.
In order to calculate the mechanical loss in the compressor we use the equation,
Where,
Lm mechanical loss
PWRgas required gas power (horse power)
Lm(%) percentage mechanical loss (%)
Therefore,
PWRgas=1346.022 horse power
Lm(%)=3 %
155
2.16 Overall shaft work:
The overall shaft work can be calculated using the equation,
Where,
PWRshaft shaft work/power (horse power)
PWRgas required gas power (horse power)
Lm mechanical loss (horse power)
Therefore,
horse
PWRgas = 1346.022
power
horse
Lm = 40.380
power
Where,
T2. actual discharge temperature (R)
T1 inlet temperature (R)
Rp pressure ratio
average polytropic index at the inlet
Therefore,
T1=619.470 R
Rp=1.666
=0.1936
156
3 Proposed Design:
Centrifugal compressor, polytropic condition, single stage, with average
compressibility factor of 0.98
Inlet temperature of 619.470 R, Outlet temperature of 106.790 C
Inlet pressure of 435.113 psia, Outlet pressure of 725.188 psia with pressure
ratio of 1.66
Average polytropic head of 9636.117 ftlbf/lbm, maximum polytropic head of
12000 ftlbf/lbm
Required rotational speed of 10798.010 RPM, required gas power of
1346.022 horse power
Mechanical loss of 40.380 horse power, with required shaft work of 1386.403
horse power
Compressor Data Sheet Equipment No. C102
Function Increases the pressure
3MPa to 5MPa
Process Operating Conditions
Fluid Type Newtonian Phase Gas
Normal Capacity Design Capacity (m3/hr)
(m3/hr)
Suction Discharge
Temperature (C) 71.0003 Temperature (C) 106.79
Density (kg/m3) 13.51 Density (kg/m3) 13.51
Technical Design Data
Suction Pressure 3000000 Discharge Pressure (N/m2) 5000000
(N/m2)
Number of Stages 1 Impeller Type
Motor Type Centrifugal Mounting
Compressor Specifications
Actual Power (kW) 1019.697
Cost
Designed by Mohamed Salman Dept. Chemical & Petroleum Engineering
Mohamed Haniff HeriotWatt University, Malaysia 62200
(H00229259) Process Design A 2016
Date 08042016
157
References
Coulson, J.M., Richardson, J.F. and Peacock, D.G., 1994. Coulson &
Richardson's Chemical Engineering: Chemical & biochemical reactors &
process control (Vol. 3). Elsevier.
Jang, S.M., Cho, H.W. and Choi, S.K., 2007. Design and analysis of a high
speed brushless DC motor for centrifugal compressor. Magnetics, IEEE
Transactions on, 43(6), pp.25732575.
Linnhoff, B. and Hindmarsh, E., 1983. The pinch design method for heat
exchanger networks. Chemical Engineering Science, 38(5), pp.745763.
McAllister, E.W., 2013. Pipeline rules of thumb handbook: a manual of quick,
accurate solutions to everyday pipeline engineering problems. Gulf
Professional Publishing.
Shah, R.K. and Sekulic, D.P., 2003. Fundamentals of heat exchanger design.
John Wiley & Sons.
158
Individual report.
H00230825
Group 21
159
Heat Exchanger Design: Acid gas removal.
Objective: To reduce the temperature of the shale gas in order to remove harmful
gases, in the separator.
160
Steps of designing a Heat Exchanger.
161
1. Fluid Properties
Cold fluid in the heat exchanger
Physical Properties : Water Inlet Average Outlet Units
Temperature 283 303 323 (K)
Pressure 1 1 1 (bar)
Density, 994.04 (kg/m3)
Viscosity, 0.00072 (Pa.s)
Specific Isobaric Heat Capacity, Cp 4.179 (kJ/kg.K)
Thermal Conductivity, k 0.623 (W/m.K)
Table 1: The cold fluid is a utility fluid which is water at 283K / 10C
Hot fluid in the heat exchanger
Physical Properties : Shale Gas Inlet Outlet Units
Temperature 524.308 448 (K)
Pressure 3000 1500 (kPa)
Avg Density, 15.070 (kg/m3)
Avg Viscosity, 0.0195 (Pa.s)
Avg Specific Isobaric Heat Capacity, Cp 40.890 (kJ/kg.K)
Avg Thermal Conductivity, k 0.055 (W/m.K)
Table 2 : The hot fluid, shale gas.
Components Mole fraction
Methane , C1 0.6444
Ethane , C2 0.0006
Propane , C3 0.0001
Carbon dioxide 0
Nitrogen 1.67E05 0
iC4 9.12E06 0
nC4 7.76E06 0
iC5 2.28E06 0
nC5 8.57E07 0
C6 1.97E06 0
C7+ 0.0003
Hydrogen Sulfide 0
Water 0.3545
Total 1
Table 3: The hot fluid is shale gas consist of several gases. Obtained from Mass and
energy balance.
162
283 448 T2 165
Table 4: Temperature profile of fluids
)/2
Where,
The rate of heat transfer (W)
The mass flow rate (kg/s)
Specific Heat Capacity at constant pressure
Temperature difference in the direction of heat flow
The heat exchanger is divided by two due to the design of one of the heat exchanger
from two based on the PFD.
163
Initial assumption for U
In reference to Coulson and Richardsons Volume 6 (pg. 637), shale gas is under the
category of organic solvents. Therefore in the hot fluid is under organics, and the
cold fluid used is water.
164
This graph also assists in the assumption of the overall heat transfer coefficient. It is
crucial that the Utrial be in the logical and acceptable range in order to design the heat
exchanger to be as efficient as possible.
165
The initial assumption of the overall coefficients is 450 W/m2 C, based on the info
acquired from both the graph and the table.
Where,
Log mean temperature difference
Hot fluid temperature, inlet
Hot fluid temperature, outlet
Cold fluid temperature, inlet
Cold fluid temperature, outlet
R 1.908
S 0.166
*dimensionless value
Ft 1.36
166
Mean temperature difference, TM
Where,
The mean temperature difference
The temperature correction factor
Log mean temperature difference
TM 249.07K
Where,
Heat transferred per unit time, W
The overall heat transfer coefficients, W/m2 (using the initial trial U)
Area of heat transfer
The mean temperature difference
A 143.11m2
This conclude the initial phase to design a heat exchanger, which revolves around
the fluid properties and a few assumptions in temperature outlets and overall
coefficient.
167
2. Tube side : Hot gas
n 124.46
The triangular pitch was chosen due to its high heat transfer rate.
Therefore the approximate amount of tubes = 125
168
Type of pitch Triangular
Number of passes 1
K1 0.319
n1 2.142
Approximate number of tubes per pass,
Nt 125
Triangular pitch, pt 0.0625m
Where,
Volumetric flow rate m3/s
Mass flow Rate (kg/s)
Density
Where,
ID = Inner diameter of the steel tubes
Approximate number of tubes per pass
Atubes 0.21 m2
169
Velocity of tube side fluid
Where,
Volumetric flow rate of hot fluid
Area of tubes
Velocity 12.47m/s
Diameter of bundle
Where,
Diameter of tube bundle (m)
Outer diameter of steel tube (m)
Approximate number of tubes per pass
Constant from Coulson and Richardsons Volume 6 (page 649)
Constant from Coulson and Richardsons Volume 6 (page 649)
Diameter, Db 0.75m
170
Bundle diameter
clearance
DS 0.81m
171
The standard ratios for baffles spacing according to Coulson and Richardsons
Volume 6 (page 652)
Baffles spacing, LB
LB 0.41m
Where,
Effective diameter for tube
Velocity of fluid at tube side
Density of gas
Viscosity of gas
2. Prandtl Number, Pr
3. Nusselt Number, Nu
Where,
Reynolds Number
Prandtl Number
Heat transfer coefficient
Where,
172
Nusselt Number
Thermal Conductivity of Black Liquor
Effective diameter for tube
Where,
Tube side pressure drop N/m2 (Pa)
Number of tubeside passes
Velocity at tube side, m/s
Length of tube, m
Inner diameter, m
Thermal conductivity, k
Friction Factor
173
To find friction factor,
Tube side friction factor, Jf from Coulson and Richardsons Volume 6 (page 668)
6961.07 Pa
Ptube
0.07 bar
This concludes the tube side design. The crucial parts of the design is based on the
dimensions of tube, number of tubes, number of passes, Reynolds number,
coefficient of heat transfer and pressure loss. If any of those values exceeds the limit
or simply illogical, a change of the design needed to be done in order to find a better
and more efficient design.
174
3. Shell side : Cold fluid
Where,
Volumetric flow rate m2/s
Mass flow rate of water, kg/s
Density of water, Kg/m3
V 0.039m3/s
175
Area of shell side
As 0.066m2
Velocity of water
Where,
Volumetric flow rate m3/s
Area of the shell, m2
Vwater 0.6m/s
Where,
Outer diameter, m
Triangular pitch radius, m
176
Outer diameter, OD 0.05m
Triangular pitch radius, 0.0625m
de 0.084m
Shell side heat transfer factor table in Coulson and Richardson Volume 6 (page 673)
Where,
Friction Factor
177
Diameter of shell, m
Effective diameter at shell, m
Density of water, kg/m3
Velocity of water at shell side, m/s
Baffles spacing, m
Length of tube, m
With the aid of the graph from page 674, the value of Jf can be found. Thus the
pressure drop can be obtained.
1872.05 Pa
P
0.019 Bar
178
Where,
Length of the tube, m
Shell side heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K
Outer radius, m
Inner radius, m
Thermal conductivity of carbon steel,
Tube side heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K
Shell side coefficient, W/m2K
Tube side coefficient, W/m2K
Heat transfer area of heat exchanger, m2
179
In order to find the overall heat transfer coefficient, the fouling factor must first be
determined:
180
According to the Coulson and Richardson Volume 6 (page 662) different types of
metal have different conductivity. Thus by the aid of the table below, the value can
be acquired.
Area, Ao 1.15m2
181
After all the values are calculated, the overall heat coefficients, Uo can be acquired
Uo 549.55 W/m2K
182
References
J.M. Coulson and J.F Richardson, 2005. Chemical Engineering Design. Fourth ed. Jordon
Hill: Coulson and Richardson.
183
Pump design: Water processing
Objective: To increase the flow rate of the water that needs to be removed after
being processed.
184
Fluid Properties: Water.
Q
Where Q = volumetric flow rate
= mass flowrate
= density
Pipe characteristics
External diameter 0.508 m
Internal diameter 0.477 m
Crossarea 0.179 m2
The pipe used is a carbon steel pipe which commonly applied in oil and gas
industries and plants. The table above describes the characteristics of the pipe used
for this particular design. The pipe will be more than sufficient for the fluid to flow
through under pressure and relatively high flow rate.
185
Fluid conditions
Velocity 0.089 m/s
Reynolds Number 77052.47 Turbulent
These values was obtained by using the following formulas with reference to the
previous values.
Velocity
Where,
Volumetric flow rate m3/s
Cross sectional area of pipe, m2
Reynolds number
Where,
Inner diameter for tube
Velocity of fluid
Density of fluid
Viscosity of fluid
186
Pressure loss across the length of pipe.
P (across length of pipe)
Absolute roughness 0.00003 m
Relative roughness 0.000063
Coefficient of friction 0.018
P 355.68 Pa
*the absolute roughness is a constant value for the carbon steel.
Relative Roughness
Relative roughness =
Coefficient of fraction
The value of the coefficient of friction was obtained by referring to the moody
diagram as shown below.
The friction factor was found from the moody chart, f = 0.018
Pressure loss from pipes (friction)
Pf =
Where, f = friction factor
d = inner diameter
= density
187
u = velocity
l = length of pipe
Calculations:
8f 0.144
L 300
u2 0.007902
L/d 314.4654
u2/2 3.927305
Pf 355.68 Pa
*The length was assumed to be 300m
The equivalent length of the bends and fittings were chosen, assuming there are two
90 elbow from the previous process.
Bends: 90 elbow (40) x 2 = 80m
The calculations is exactly the same as the pressure loss, but instead of using the
length of pipe, the equivalent length of the bends and fittings were used.
The same formula was used, and the pressure loss is as shown in the table above.
188
Suction side
Assumptions:
1. pressure at the suction side is 6000kPa
2. Length of pipe is around 200m
3. Two 90 elbow bends.
Pf =
Where, f = friction factor
d = inner diameter
= density
u = velocity
ltotal = length at suction side (les + ls)
les = bends and fittings length x inner diameter
Ps at suction
Length of pipe at suction 200 m
l/d bends & fittings 80
les 38.16 m
ltotal 238.16 m
l/d 499.2872
Ps 282.3628 Pa
Discharge side
Similar assumptions were made and the same formula was used to fine the pressure
loss as shown below.
Pd at discharge
Length of pipe at discharge 100 m
l/d bends & fittings 80
les 38.16 m
ltotal 138.16 m
l/d 289.6436
Pd 163.8027 Pa
NPSHavailable =
Where, P = pressure at discharge side
H = elevation (assumed = 12m)
Ps = pressure drop as suction
Pv = vapour pressure
189
NPSH
Vapour pressure 4243 Pa
Ps 282.3628 Pa
NPSH 13.02148 m
190
Static head and dynamic head
Pump selection
Based on the graph, the most suitable pump to be used is the single stage 3500
rpm.
Thus, a centrifugal pump with the following characteristics can be used for this
system.
191
References
J.M. Coulson and J.F Richardson, 2005. Chemical Engineering Design. Fourth ed. Jordon
Hill: Coulson and Richardson.
192
HeriotWatt University
Student ID H00199999
Group Number 21
193
194
Introduction:
Each group members were assigned to design heat exchanger and pumps or
compressors based on their respective specific section for this project. For this
section, the demethanizer is where the separation of natural gas liquids from the
pipeline will be injected into the lines of transmission. Further separation of the
natural gas liquids will occur where it will separate into high value C5+, propane,
butane, and ethane stream. The quantities of the produced gas will affect the
extension of the natural gas liquids separation and the gas need to be remove as to
meet the requirements of the pipeline specifications.
For the demethanizer process, the cooling water is required to cool the shale gas
from the temperature of 83.3 C to 20 C.
However, the cooling water is supplied at the temperature of 10 C. Therefore, heat
exchanger and gas compressor are designed to produce the ideal temperature for
the shale gas to be transport to the next process.
195
A centrifugal compressor is considered as a dynamic machine or an invention. It
consists of a fluid which is a continuous flow where it receives energy from the
impellers of the integral shafts. The energy that it has received will transform itself
into pressure in impellers which is partly across of it and partly in the stator section.
For example, in the diffusers. This compressor is consisting of an outer casing(A)
which contains a stator part also known as the diaphragm bundle(B). A shaft(C), one
or more impellers(D), a balance drum(E)and thrust collar(F) which forms a rotor
196
(centrifugal compressor)
Source: http://abcoilrefining.blogspot.my/2012/03/howcentrifugalcompressors
operate.html
(reciprocating compressor)
Source: http://www.machinerylubrication.com/Read/775/reciprocating
compressor
197
(rotary screw compressor)
Source: https://www.aircompressorguide.com/learn/compressortypes/rotary
screwcompressor
198
The process fluid involved in the process is shale gas which consists of many
components with their respective properties that is shown below in a table:
Components Mole Fraction Molar Flow Mass flow
rate(mol/s) rate(g/s)
Methane , C1 0 978.6105028 15696.91246
Ethane , C2 0.585634225 0.956191661 28.75268325
Propane , C3 0.097102094 0.15854301 6.991746741
Carbon dioxide 0 0 0
Nitrogen 0 0 0
iC4 0.008483934 0.013852105 0.805084343
nC4 0.007214203 0.011778958 0.684593039
iC5 0.002119007 0.0034598 0.24962457
nC5 0.000797195 0.001301617 0.093911667
C6 0.001832092 0.002991339 0.257779715
C7+ 0.29681725 0.484627073 48.56447899
Mercury 0 0 0
Hydrogen Sulfide 0 0 0
Water 0 0 0
In order to choose the right specification of gas compressor, steps are shown below:
Firstly, the total of molecular weight , total of heat capacity , total of critical
pressure and the total of critical temperature is calculate. The calculation is
shown below:
199
Calculating the total molecular weight.
 Molecular Weight
 Total molecular weight.
Based on the equation above, total of the molecular weight is obtained by summing
all the components weight together and the result is shown in the table.
 Heat Capacity
 Total molar heat capacity
200
Components Molar Heat Capacity
(J/mol K)
Methane , C1 35.69
Ethane , C2 52.49
Propane , C3 73.6
Carbon dioxide 28.9
Nitrogen 20.8
iC4 89
nC4 91.1
iC5 164.85
nC5 944.71
C6 142.6
C7+ 224.64
Mercury 28.3
Hydrogen Sulfide 26
Water 33.88
Total Molar Heat Capacity(J/mol 1956.56
K)
Based on the equation above, the total of molar heat capacity is obtained by
summing all the weights of the components and the result is shown in table.
Determining the total critical pressure.
 Critical pressure.
 Total critical pressure
201
1 Total of 4.17E+06 Pa
critical
pressure
6.04E+02 Psia
By referring to the equation above, the total critical pressure is obtained by firstly
multiply the critical pressure with the mole fraction for each components available.
The value of Yi X Pc is obtained for each component, then summing all the value to
obtain the following result shown in the table. Once the value for total critical
pressure is calculated, then convert its unit Pascal (pa) to Psia (per square inch
absolute).
 Critical temperature
 Total critical temperature.
Based on the equation above, in order to obtain the total critical temperature, the
mole fraction is multiply with the critical temperature for each components. Next, by
summing all the value of Yi X Tc for each component to obtain the result. Then the
total value for critical temperatures unit is convert from Kelvin / K to Rankin scale /
R.
202
Expression to find specific capacity
 Heat Capacity
 Flow Coefficient
 Gas Constant
= 163.046667 8.314
= 154.7326667
= 0.320703125
To obtain the adiabatic exponent value, , firstly the value for heat capacity is
obtained by summing all the value for each component and average it. To obtain the
value, the is subtract with the gas constant to obtain the result. Then the value
for is calculated by dividing the value of and .
PR Reduced Pressure
P1  Pressure Inlet
Pc  Critical Pressure
203
P1 14.503774 psia
Pc 6.04E+02 psia
PR 2.40E02
The value for PR is obtained by dividing the value of pressure inlet / P 1 with the
critical pressure / Pc.
TR Reduced temperature
T1 Inlet temperature
Tc  Critical temperature
T1 221.67 R
Tc 691.2 R
TR 0.320703125
The value for TR is obtained by dividing the value of inlet temperature / T 1 with the
critical temperature / TR.
Z1 = 0.98
204
From the compressibility factor chart the value for Z1 can be obtained based on the
value PR and TR obtained previously.
2087.77485 lbm/min
T1 221.67 R
P1 14.503774 psia
R(1545/Molecular weight) 27.89913093
Q 6058.481939 ICFM
In order to obtain the inlet volumetric flow rate, firstly the mass flow rate is
obtained by multiply each molar flow rate with their molecular mass each of them.
Secondly, convert the unit of mass flow rate from kg/s to lbm/min Next, the value
R is obtained by dividing the value 1545 with the average value of the molecular
mass for the whole components. Then the Q is calculated by multiplying the
value with Z1, R(1545/M) and T1. Finally, the previous obtained value is divide
with the value of 144 multiplied with the value P1.
Polytropic efficiency : 76 %
0.76
Nominal polytropic head 10000 ftlbf/lbm
Nominal rotational speed 7700 RPM
205
Based on the Q value that were obtained previously, compressor B is chosen with
the following specifications shown in the table above.
Determining the pressure ratio:
R Pressure ratio
P2  Outlet Pressure
P1 Inlet Pressure
P1 14.503774 Psia
P2 362.5943 Psia
R(Pressure ratio) 24.99999655
To determine the pressure ratio, R, the value of outlet pressure P2 is divided with the
value of inlet pressure P1.
 adiabatic exponent
 polytropic
efficiency
1.053731382
0.76
Polytropic index 0.038753567
To calculate the polytropic index value, firstly the value of adiabatic exponent is
subtracted with 1 and the obtained answer is divided with the value of adiabatic
exponent. Then, the obtained value is multiplied with the polytropic efficiency.
T2 Discharge temperature
T1 Inlet Temperature
R Pressure ratio
 Polytrophic Index
T1 221.67 R
R 24.99999655
206
Polytropic index 0.038753567
T2 251.1204503 R
PR Reduced Pressure
P2  Pressure Outlet
Pc  Critical Pressure
P2 362.5943 psia
Pc 6.04E+02 psia
PR 6.00E01
TR Reduced temperature.
T2 Outlet temperature.
Tc Critical temperature.
T2 251.1204503 R
TC 691.2 R
TR 0.363310837
To obtain the reduced temperature, TR, the following expression shown above is
followed and the result is shown in the table.
Z2 0.95
207
 average value for Z
Z2 Outlet compressibility
Z1 Inlet compressibility
To calculate the average Z value is by summing both value of outlet and inlet
compressibility and divide it by 2.
Efficiency 0.76
1.332225596
To obtain the value of adiabatic exponent for outlet is by following the expression
shown above to obtain the value.
208
By using the expression shown above, the average for polytropic index can be
obtain.
 Polytropic
head
 Average value for compressibility.
 Specific gas constant
 Inlet temperature.
 1/Polytropic index
 Pressure ratio
Polytropic index
R (1545/MW) 27.89913093
T1 221.67 R
Z average 0.965
Polytropic index 0.114139808
1/Polytropic index 8.761185231
Pressure ratio 24.99999655
HP 75500.24646 ftlbf/lbm
The value of the polytropic head shown in the table is obtained by using the
expression above.
Calculating the maximum polytropic head per stage determining the value of :
 molecular weight
K1 adiabatic exponent
Z1 Inlet compressibility
T1 Inlet temperature
209
k1 1.053731382
T1 221.67
Z1 0.98
MW 55.37806909 g/mol
2.512798722
To obtain the value, the expression is followed and the result is shown in the table
above.
From the graph shown above, the maximum polytropic head per stage can be
obtained based on the value that have been calculated previously.
Hp Polytropic head
Maximum polytropic head per stage
210
No of stages 23.59382702
25
The number of stages calculated by using the expression above by dividing the
value of polytropic head with the value of maximum polytropic head per stage. The
obtained result is shown in the table.
N required
rotation speed
 Nominal
rotational speed from component data table.
 Polytropic head
 Nominal polytropic head from the component data table.
The value for the required rotation speed is calculated by using the
expression above and the obtained result is shown in the table above.
Gas power
required.
Mass flow rate.
 Polytropic head
Polytropic efficiency
m 2087.77485 lbm/min
HP 75500.24646 ftlbf/lbm
Efficiency 0.76
211
Power of Gas 6284.988665 hp
The value power of gas is calculated by using the expression shown above and the
results is available in the table.
Determining the mechanical loss based on the table shown below:
By referring to the table with specifications shown above, the mechanical loss value
is chosen based on the value of the gas power which have been calculated.
 Shaft power.
Gas power
Mechanical Loss
To obtain the shaft power value is by using the expression above where by summing
the value of mechanical loss and the value of gas power. Once the result is obtained,
then convert its unit from hp to kW. The following results is shown in the table.
Conclusion
In conclusion, based on the above calculation, due to the stability and capability on
handling high pressure and temperature of the fluids, the centrifugal compressor
meets the requirement to be used in the demethanizer process. By referring to the
shaft work which have been calculated, it can be accepted and to be use in the
industry. Therefore, this design meets the requirement.
Specification Sheet:
Equipment No. C4
Compressor
212
Specification Sheet Function Compressing
Line Data
Suction Discharge
Pipe Diameter 457.2 Pipe Diameter (mm) 457.2
(mm)
Equivalent Length 15.2 Equivalent Length Pipe 15.2
Pipe (m) (m)
Roughness (mm) 0.05 Roughness (mm) 0.05
Pump Specifications
Actual Power (W) 4769008
Efficiency (%) 76
213
Source: http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/2012/02/typicalpidarrangement
centrifugalcompressorsystems/
The driver motor is need to be taken care of where it is considered as the engine of
the compressor. If the motor is malfunction thus the whole operation will be stop.
Therefore, the it is important to always make sure the motor is working well.
In order to avoid undesirable for the compressors operation, the placement of the
flow controller is needed to be done. This instrument will help to control the process
fluid flow from the inlet and reducing it if it is needed.
214
Introduction: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger.
Basically heat exchanger is a transferring heat device which heat is transfer heat
between one or more fluids. A solid wall is used to prevent of mixing or the fluids will
be in direct contact with each other and thus the wall is separating the fluid from it.
For this design process, the flow profile of the heat exchanger will be a counter
current which will be use. Two streams flows which opposite to each other where the
average temperature difference along the heat exchanger will be higher and thus it
shows that a counter current heat exchanger is the most efficient one.
A shell and tube heat exchanger is basically one of a class of heat exchanger
designs. In oil refineries and other large chemical processes, it is the most common
heat exchanger which is normally used due to the suited of it handling high pressure
applications. Bundle of tubes surrounded by a shell which is consist by this type of
heat exchanger. In the tubes, one fluid runs inside it and the other fluids flows over
the tubes in order for heat transferring between the two fluids to occur. A tube bundle
is referred as a set of tubes and from the bundle itself, consists of different types of
tubes: longitudinally finned, plain, etc.
215
In the demethanizer process, the shell and tube heat exchanger plays a role where it
is in charge of cooling the temperature of the shale gas extracted from the 83.3 to
20 .
There are three types of heat exchanger that are normally used in the industries:
1. Shell and tube heat exchangers.
2. Compact heat exchangers.
3. Air cooled heat exchangers.
216
(Air cooled heat exchangers)
Source: http://www.gehaholland.nl/productsandservices.html
217
Process fluid components:
Component Inlet: Number of Mole Outlet: After Mole Fraction
Removal of
Methane
Methane , C1 978.6105028 0 0
Ethane , C2 0.956191661 0.956191661 0.585634225
Propane , C3 0.15854301 0.15854301 0.097102094
Carbon dioxide 0 0 0
Nitrogen 0 0 0
iC4 0.013852105 0.013852105 0.008483934
nC4 0.011778958 0.011778958 0.007214203
iC5 0.0034598 0.0034598 0.002119007
nC5 0.001301617 0.001301617 0.000797195
C6 0.002991339 0.002991339 0.001832092
C7+ 0.484627037 0.484627037 0.29681725
Mercury 0 0 0
Hydrogen Sulfide 0 0 0
Water 0 0 0
Total : 980.2432484 1.632745527 1
The table above shown each the components mole fraction and the summation of
the whole value of the components mole fraction is 1.
In order to choose the right specification of gas compressor, steps are shown based
on the list:
218
Step 1.
Tin 83.02973 C
734
Tout 83 C
219
Inlet
stream
Heat a b c d Molar
capacit flow
y rate
Cp 3.43E 5.47E05 3.66E 1.10E 978.61
methan 02 09 11 05028
e
Cp 4.94E 1.39E04 5.82E 7.28E 0.9561
ethane 02 08 12 91661
Cp 6.80E 2.26E04 1.31E 3.17E 0.1585
propan 02 07 11 4301
e
Cp Carbon dioxide 3.61E 4.23E05 2.89E 7.46E 0
02 08 12
Cp 2.90E 2.20E06 5.72E 2.87E 0
Nitroge 02 09 12
n
Cp i 8.95E 3.01E04 1.89E 4.99E 0.0138
Butane 02 07 11 52105
Cp n 9.23E 2.79E04 1.55E 3.50E 0.0117
Butane 02 07 11 78958
Cp i 1.15E 3.41E04 1.90E 4.23E 0.0034
Pentan 01 07 11 598
e
Cp n 1.15E 3.41E04 1.90E 4.23E 0.0013
Pentan 01 07 11 01617
e
Cp 1.37E 4.09E04 2.39E 5.77E 0.0029
Hexane 01 07 11 91339
Cp 3.57 6.21E+0  0.4846
Heptan 4 1.95E+0 27037
e+ 7
Cp 3.35E 6.88E06 7.60E 3.59E 0
Water 02 09 12
220
Outlet
stream
Heat a b c d Molar
capacit flow
y rate
Cp 3.43E02 5.47E05 3.66E 1.10E 0
methan 09 11
e
Cp 4.94E02 1.39E04 5.82E 7.28E 0.9561
ethane 08 12 91661
Cp 6.80E02 2.26E04 1.31E 3.17E 0.1585
propan 07 11 4301
e
Cp Carbon dioxide 3.61E02 4.23E05 2.89E 7.46E 0
08 12
Cp 2.90E02 2.20E06 5.72E 2.87E 0
Nitroge 09 12
n
Cp i 8.95E02 3.01E04 1.89E 4.99E 0.0138
Butane 07 11 52105
Cp n 9.23E02 2.79E04 1.55E 3.50E 0.0117
Butane 07 11 78958
Cp i 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E 4.23E 0.0034
Pentan 07 11 598
e
Cp n 1.15E01 3.41E04 1.90E 4.23E 0.0013
Pentan 07 11 01617
e
Cp 1.37E01 4.09E04 2.39E 5.77E 0.0029
Hexane 07 11 91339
Cp 3.57 6.21E+0  0.4846
Heptan 4 1.95E+0 27037
e+ 7
Cp 3.35E02 6.88E06 7.60E 3.59E 0
Water 09 12
From the tables shown above describes each of the components heat capacity either
at inlet or the outlet of the process. For every component, they have their own molar
flow rate. The table above also shows the temperature for the inlet and the outlet of
the demethanizer process.
221
Step 2.
Physical Properties.
1 Cold fluid in the
heat exchanger
Temperature 10 c/Inlet 60 c/Outlet
Pressure 1 bar/Inlet 1 bar/Outlet
Avg Density, 995.7 (kg/m3)
Avg Viscosity, 0.000797 (Pa.s)
8
Avg Specific Isobaric Heat 0.0752 (J/kg.K)
Capacity, Cp
Avg Thermal 0.09093 (W/m.K)
Conductivity, k
56847.42 mol/ Avg 65 C
517 s
Q 2.14E+05 KW
From the tables shown above, each fluid either hot or cold have similar properties.
For example, temperature, pressure, density, viscosity, specific isobaric heat
capacity, thermal conductivity, heat exchanger duty and mass flow rate. The
following properties for hot fluid is obtained by using the Aspen Hysys application.
While the following properties for cold fluid is obtained from Wikipedia.
Step 3.
Assuming the overall coefficient value for Uo.
222
Graph 1. Graph to determine the overall coefficient by referring the type of process
fluid for process and utility stream.
U 450 W/m2 C
From the table shown above, since the hot fluid is a shale gas whereas the cold fluid
is the cooling water, therefore the obtained overall coefficient, U value is 450 W/m2
oC.
Step 4.
Finding the log mean temperature, correction factor and mean temperature.
Temperature change profile :
Counter  current
Cold Fluid Hot Fluid Temperature Diff.
(T)
0 60 0 83.02974 T1 23.02974
5 10 5 20 T2 10
223
Graph 2. A graph of temperature difference profile for countercurrent flow type.
From the table shown, it consists of the inlet and outlet temperature for hot and cold
fluid respectively. The and is obtain by using the temperature for both fluids.
The counter current graph is plotted based on the inlet and the oulet temperature of
the fluid against the relative position.
T1 23.0297 C
T2 10 C
TLM 15.61940343 C
By using the following expression, the log mean temperature value can be obtaining
and the final results are in the table shown above.
R 1.260594
S 0.684652956
224
The following expression above is used to obtain the value R and S which is shown
inside the table.
Ft 0.7
Based on the graph shown above, the temperature correction factor, F t can be
obtained by using the following value R and S which have been calculated. The
value of Ft is 0.7.
The following expression shown above is used to calculated to find the value of
log mean temperature by using the value of log mean temperature and
temperature correction by multiplying both of the values and the final result is
shown inside the table.
Step 5.
Determining the required heat transfer area.
By using the formula above, the required area for heat transfer can be calculated.
225
Step 6.
Decision making for the type , tube size , material layout for fluid in shell and tube
side.
o
A Area of tube.
 Pie
do Outside diameter.
L Length of tube.
Outside Diameter 0.05 m
Wall thickness 0.0016 m
Inside Diameter 0.0468 m
Length of tube 7.32 m
Triangular Pitch 0.0625 m
Area of tube, A 1.149822911 m2
The tables above show the following properties of the tube where the value is
obtained by referring to the preferred length, outside diameter and the wall thickness
which is obtained from the Coulson Richardsons Chemical Engineering Volume 6
Chemical Engineering Design 4Th Edition book.
Step 7.
Calculating the number of tubes.
N Number of tubes
calculated.
Number of tubes 37.78267386 tubes
226
Nt Approximation number of tubes
Np Number of tube side passes.
By referring to the table above, the value of K1 and n1 can be obtained from the table
from the Coulson Richardsons Chemical Engineering Volume 6 Chemical
Engineering Design 4Th Edition book based on the number of tube passes which
have been set. The expression above is used to calculate the number of tubes per
pass, Nt.
By using the following expression, the volumetric flow rate can be calculated by
dividing the hot fluid mass flow rate and the hot fluids density.
227
By using the expression show above, the total area of the tubes per pass can be
calculated.
Triangular pitch.
 Outside diameter.
Type of pitch
Triangular
Higher heattransfer
rates
The formula above is used to calculate the amount of the triangular pitch.
In order to find the tube side velocity, the expression above is used and the following
result is shown in the table.
Step 8.
Calculating the shell diameter.
228
Graph 3. Graph of inner shell diameter (clearance) against bundle diameter.
Bundle diameter
(Clearance), m
0.065 m
From the above graph, the value of the bundle diameter (clearance) can be obtain by
referring to the tube bundle diameter.
Diameter of shell.
Diameter of bundle obtained from graph.
 Diameter of tube bundle.
The following expression is used to calculate the diameter of the shell by summing
up the value of the clearance diameter of bundle and the tube bundles diameter.
Step 9.
Estimating the heat transfer for tube side.
Re Reynolds Number.
d Inner diameter.
u Tube side velocity.
229
Density.
 Viscosity.
Pr Prandtl Number.
Specific isobaric heat capacity.
Viscosity
 Thermal Conductivity.
Nu Nusselt number.
jh Heat transfer factor.
Graph 4. Graph of friction factor against Reynolds number for tube side.
230
D/inner 0.0468 m
U 40.4529736 m/s
Density* 15.52 kg/m3
Viscosity* 2.4894E06 Pa s
Re 118325.24
Pr 0.002470517
Jf 0.00036
Nu 701.6688457
H 592.9701463 W/m2 C
Heat transfer coefficient 592.970146 W/m2K
3
The following expression shown above are used to calculate each of the following
criteria needed to find the heat transfer coefficient. Firstly, the Reynolds number is
calculated by using its formula then the Prandtl number is calculated using its
formula as well. Based on the graph shown above, the friction factor is obtained by
referring to the Reynolds number which have been calculated earlier. Once every
value is obtained, then the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated to find its
value.
Referring to the expression above is used to calculate the pressure drop for the tube
side by using the values which have been calculated earlier.
231
Step 10.
Estimating the heat transfer coefficient for shell side and baffle spacing.
 Baffle spacing.
Diameter of shell.
 0.3 to 0.5 times of shell diameter.
By using the expression shown above, the baffle spacing of the shell side can be
calculated by multiplying the diameter of shell which have been calculated earlier
with the standard ratio.
 Area of shell.
 Tube pitch.
Outside diameter.
 Diameter of shell.
 Baffle spacing.
The formula shown above is used to calculate the area of the shell side by using
the values which have been calculated earlier like the tube pitch, tube outside,
shell inside diameter and the baffle spacing.
232
s Area of shell side.
The following equation above shows that in order to find the velocity of the water is
by to calculate the volumetric flow rate. Then, the value of the volumetric flow rate is
use to calculate the velocity of water inside the shell.
de 0.0355025 m
The following expression is used to calculate the effective diameter of the shell side
and the result is shown inside the table.
 Nusselt number.
 Heat transfer factor.
Reynolds Number.
 Prandlt Number.
233
1
Re 2452.103732
Jh 0.306
Nu 654.5580803
H 1677.763124 W/ m2
C
In order to find the shell side heat transfer coefficient, firstly the Nusselt number must
calculated by using the values of Reynolds number, Prandtl Number and heat
transfer factor which have been calculated by using the same method as the tube
side. Then, the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated and the final answer which
have been calculated is shown above in the table.
The following expression shown above is used to calculate the pressure drop by
using the values which have been calculate earlier.
234
Thermal conductivity of wall:
copper steel 388 W/mC
(18/8)
The thermal conductivity value of wall is based on the material by referring to the
table shown above used and since the chosen wall is made out of copper, the
thermal conductivity is in the table.
The value of the heat transfer coefficient is obtained by referring to the table shown
above, where the fluid inside the tube is a gas which is a light hydrocarbon whereas
the fluid inside the shell is a cooling water. Both of the values of the heat transfer
coefficient is shown in the table.
L Length of tube.
Heat transfer
coefficient of shell side.
Outside radius.
Shell side fouling factor.
Inside radius.
Thermal conductivity of wall.
Tube side fouling factor.
235
Heat transfer coefficient of tube side.
A 1.149822911
0.023841268
0.013333333
0.000170463
0.008
0.072069468
0.002552883
391.7140034
450.4017358 W/m2K
236
By using the following equation shown above, the overall heat coefficient can be
calculated.
Step 11.
Calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient and the fouling factors.
U % difference 0.089274611 %
The expression above is used to calculate the percentage of the heat coefficient.
The percentage of U must be less than 30%. The obtained value is shown in the
table.
Step 12.
Estimating the tube and shell side pressure drop.
The formula above is used to calculate the total pressure drop by summing the
pressure drop for shell and tube side together. The following result is shown in the
table above.
Summary:
Based on the difference of percentage which have been calculated, the shell and
tube heat exchanger is the perfect design for the demethanizer process. The overall
pressure drop obtained for this heat exchanger design meets the requirement for a
heat exchanger specification. For the demethanizer process, 3 heat exchangers will
be required in order to meet the requirement of a unique design.
237
Specification sheet:
Heat Exchanger Data Sheet Equipment HE4
No.
Function Cooling
Duty Specifications
Overall U 450.40 Duty (kW) 213.75
(W/m2 K)
Area (m2) 43.44 Mean 10.93
Temperature
(C)
Process Operating Conditions
Tube Side Shell Side
In Out In Out
Temperature 83.03 83 Temperature 10 60
(C) (C)
Fluid Type Gas Gas Fluid Type Liquid Liquid
Mass Flow 86.4 86.4 Mass Flow 1024.12 1024.12
(kg/s) (kg/s)
Enthalpy 2802 2791 Enthalpy 42.12 75.64
(kJ/kg) (kJ/kg)
Density 30.52 28.63 Density (kg/m3) 995.7 998.5
(kg/m3)
Viscosity 4.36E6 4.19E6 Viscosity 0.007978 0.007978
(Ns/m2) (Ns/m2)
Thermal 0.0412 0.0403 Thermal 0.091 0.094
Conductivity Conductivity
(W/m K) (W/m K)
Specific Heat 3.4044 2.964 Specific Heat 4.195 4.182
Capacity Capacity (kJ/kg
(kJ/kg oC) C)
Stream No. P114 P115
Mechanical Layout
Tube Side Shell Side
Design 4 Design 1
Pressure (bar) Pressure (bar)
Length
(m) 7.32
Corrosive 1 Corrosive 1
238
Allowance Allowance (mm)
(mm)
Fluid Velocity 40.45 Fluid Velocity 55.34
(m/s) (m/s)
Heat Transfer 592.97 Heat Transfer 1677.76
Coefficient Coefficient
(W/m2 K) (W/m2 K)
Pressure Drop 0.0581 Pressure Drop 0.00013
(bar) (bar)
Materials of Construction
Tube Side Shell Side
Tubes Copper steel Shell Copper steel
Shell Ends Copper steel
Source: http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/2011/03/typicalpidarrangementheat
exchangers/
239
Instrument name Purpose
HE4
VENT Insert or remove the fluid
DRAIN Drain out fluid for cleaning purposes
UC/VENT Utility connections: cleaning purposes
UC/DRAIN Utility connections: drain any fouling
TT Temperature transmission: send
signals to temperature gauge for
monitoring
TI Temperature indicator: read the
temperature of the flow
PG Pressure gauges: read the pressure
of the process fluid
One of the aspects that we need to taking care off is the high pressurized gas. Since
the heat exchanger HE4 is operating at a high pressure, thus the placement of
pressure gauges and pressure release valves need to be done. The pressure of a
process fluid is read by referring to the pressure gauge and to maintain the desired
pressure, the pressure release valves will be used if the pressure is high. Split ring
floating head is designed so the cleaning, maintaining and preventing the pipe from
blockages will be easy.
Another aspect which need to be taken into account is the temperature. In order to
withstand high temperature of the fluid, a proper material must be chosen for the
heat exchanger design. The placement of the temperature controls equipment must
be done so that the temperature can be control and adjust to desire temperature. If
the temperature is either too low or too high, the signals from the gauge will indicate
of it with the help of temperature indicator.
Lastly, is maintaining the heat exchanger. The equipment of the terminal might be
started to break down and a lot of problems will occur due the improperly
maintenance of the heat exchanger. Since then, the vents and drains are placed
around the heat exchanger so that the draining and venting activity can be carry out
easily with the association of piping.
240
References:
241
HEAT EXCHANGER (E108)
DOCUMENTATION
GURPREET SINGH GILL
H00235769
1. Identification and purpose
The heat transfer across a surface is given by the equation below:
Where,
Q = Heat transferred per unit time, W
A = Heat transfer area, m2
Tm = Mean temperature difference, C
The main objective of this heat exchanger design is to determine the heat transfer area,
A for a specified heat duty, Q by using the provided temperature difference, T. The heat
exchanger that has been designed is a1/2 shell and tube heat exchanger. It is a cooler. The
purpose of this cooler is to cool the shale gas from 71C to 40C by using cooling water
at 10C. In this case, the shale gas will be the hot fluid and the cooling water will be the
cold fluid. The temperature profile for this countercurrent shell and tube heat exchanger is
given below:
Temperature C
71
Q 40
25
10
1 2
242
TO
NITROGEN
REMOVAL
UNIT (TIN = FROM
150C) DEHYDRATI
ON UNIT
(TOUT = 71C)
243
The streams are labeled once again with different stream numbers for easy identification
in this part of the documentation. Stream 1 (stream 44 in process flow diagram) is the
shale gas (hot fluid) and stream 2 (stream 45 of process flow diagram) is the outlet of the
shale gas. Stream 3 is the inlet of the cooling water (cold fluid) and stream 4 is the outlet
of the cooling water. The process stream is the shale gas stream and the utility stream is
the cooling water stream.
244
TABLE 1.3: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF UTILITY STREAMS AT INLET, MEAN AND
OUTLET TEMPERATURES
Cooling water Unit Inlet Mean Outlet
Temperature C 10 17.5 25
Specific heat, Cp J/kg C 4188 4183 4183
Thermal conductivity,k W/m C 0.58 0.5984 0.6072
Density, kg/m 3
999.7 998.2 997.04
2
Viscosity, N/sm 0.00136 0.001001 0.00089
The method shown above is once again used to calculate the mean temperature. The specific
heat, Cp, thermal conductivity, k and viscosity, of water at different temperatures were
obtained from steam tables.
The density of water at different temperatures was obtained from Wikipedia. The tables for
water physical properties are shown below:
TABLE 1.4 : WATER PROPERTIES FROM STEAM TABLES
245
TABLE 1.5:DENSITY OF WATER
It can be seen from the advantages of the shell and tube heat exchanger stated above that
the techniques used to construct and design it are wellestablished.
The shell and tube heat exchanger consists of a bundle of tubes in a cylindrical shell.
The ends of the tubes are fitted into tube sheets and this acts as a partition between the
shellside fluid and the tubeside fluid.. Baffles are also present in a shell and tube heat
exchanger to direct the fluid flow across the tubes and to increase the fluid velocity and
thus, the rate of transfer. Finally, support rods and spacers are added to hold the baffles
and tubes together.
A shell and tube heat exchanger with an internal floating head with clamp ring is
chosen. The reason this specific heat exchanger is chosen is because the tube bundle in
this type of heat exchanger can be removed. This allows the heat exchanger to be cleaned
easily. The clamp ring is installed into this heat exchanger to reduce the clearance
required.
246
4. Method
The shell and tube heat exchanger is designed according to the method outlined in
chapter 12 of the book Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume
6 by R.K. Sinnott.
This method involves simple calculations to obtain the actual overall heat transfer
coefficient. The method begins by defining the duty, flow rates and temperatures of the
process and utility streams. An assumption of the outlet temperature of the cold fluid
(cooling water) is made. Another assumption made is the overall heat transfer coefficient.
This assumed value of the overall heat transfer coefficient is used along with the mean
temperature change and heat duty to calculate the heat transfer area.
While calculating the mean temperature change, the following assumptions are made:
1. The heat transfer areas in each pass are equal
2. The overall heat transfer coefficient in each pass is constant
3. The shellside fluid temperature in any pass is constant across any crosssection
4. There are is no leakage of fluid between shell passes
However, the final assumption may be neglected as this shell and tube heat exchanger
design only involves one shell pass As mentioned before, the mean temperature
difference, heat duty and the assumed overall heat transfer coefficient are used to
calculate the heat transfer area. This heat transfer area is then used to calculate the other
variables required.
To determine the shellside velocity, shellside heat transfer coefficient and shellside
pressure drop, Kerns method is utilized. Kerns method provides a satisfactory heat
transfer coefficient value. However, the pressure drop is less satisfactory as pressure drop
is affected by leakage and bypassing whereas we have assumed no leakage occurs during
the heat transfer process.
The viscosity correction factor in the equations to determine shellside pressure drop
and tubeside pressure drop are neglected. This is because the shellside fluid and the
tubeside fluid are both low viscosity fluids.
The physical properties at the mean temperature of each fluid is taken when performing
heat exchanger calculations.
247
5. Design calculations
STEP 1: SPECIFICATIONS
Cold fluid is the shellside fluid and hot fluid is the tubeside fluid
because the cold fluid has a fouling coefficient of 3000 whereas the hot fluid has a fouling coefficient of 5000
The hot fluid is the process gas (shale gas) and the cold fluid is the cooling water.
Fouling coefficient of cold fluid 3000 W/m2C
Fouling coefficient of hot fluid 5000 W/m2C
For hot fluid:
15.78333 kg/s Th in 71 C
Cp 2584 J/kg C Th out 40 C
T 31 C
1264308 W
1264.308 kW
For cold fluid:
1264308 W Tc in 10 C
Cp 4183 J/kg C Tc out 25 C
T 15 C
20.14994 kg/s
The first step in the design process is specifying the heat transfer rate, Q, the flow rates
and the temperatures of the inlet and outlet streams of the hot and cold fluids. The mass
flow rate of the hot fluid is obtained from the energy balance. However, the energy
balance provided the flow rate in moles/second (mol/s). Thus, the molar flow rate of each
component is then multiplied by its molar mass to obtain its mass flow rate in
kilograms/second (kg/s). The mass flow rates of all the components are then summed up
to obtain the mass flow rate of the entire stream. The sample calculation is shown below:
Molar flow rate Molar mass (kg/mol) Mass flow rate
Methane 978.6105028 1.60E02 1.57E+01
Ethane 0.956191661 3.01E02 2.88E02
248
lines of the cold fluid and hot fluid in the temperature profile of the countercurrent heat
exchanger do not cross over one another. The assumption of the outlet temperature of the
cold fluid is 25C. In order to calculate the heat transfer rate, the mass flow rate of the hot
fluid is multiplied by the specific heat capacity of the hot fluid at the mean temperature of
the hot fluid and the difference between the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot fluid.
The heat transfer rate is then divided by the product of the specific heat capacity of the
cold fluid at the mean temperature of the cold fluid and the outlet and inlet temperature
difference of the cold fluid in order to calculate the mass flow rate of the cold fluid.The
sample calculation for the heat transfer rate, Q and the mass flow rate of the cold fluid is
shown below:
Q = 15.78333 2584 (7140) = 1264308 W
mc = Q / Cp (Tc out Tc in) = 1264308 / 4183 (2510) = 20.14994 kg/s
As shown in the embedded excel sheet above, the fouling coefficient of cooling water is
3000 W/m2 oC and the fouling coefficient of the shale gas is 6000 W/m2 oC. These values
are obtained from the table 12.2 of the book Coulson and Richardsons Chemical
Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. The table is shown below:
249
The next step in heat exchanger design is obtaining the physical properties at the inlet,
mean and outlet temperatures of each fluid. The physical properties of the hot fluid (shale
gas) are obtained from Aspen HYSYS. The physical properties of the cold fluid (cooling
water) are obtained through the tables from section 2 (Summary of material and energy
balance) of thiue report.
In order to determine the the shellside fluid and the tubeside fluid, the following
factors have to be taken into account:
1. High pressure fluid on the tube side
This is to reduce cost as the smaller tube diameter has a higher pressure rating
for the same metal thickness compared to the larger diameter shell. Thus, the
high pressure fluid which is shale gas, is placed on the tubeside. The shale
gas is at a pressure of 5000kPa whereas the cooling water is at atmospheric
pressure (101.325 kPa)
2. Higher fouling coefficient on the tube side
This is to make the cleaning process easier as it is easier to clean straight tubes
than a shell. Since, the shale gas has a fouling coefficient of 5000 W/m2 C
and the cooling water only has a fouling coefficient of 3000 W/m2 C, the
shale gas is placed on the tubeside.
3. Corrosive fluid on the tube side
The shale gas is assumed to be more corrosive than the cooling water. Thus,
the shale gas is placed on the tubeside.
4. High temperature fluid on the tube side
The shale gas is the hot fluid whereas the cooling water is the cold fluid. Thus,
the shale gas is placed on the tubeside.
5. High viscosity fluid on the shellside
If the fluid with higher viscosity is placed on the shellside, a greater overall
heat transfer coefficient is obtained provided that the flow is turbulent. Based
on the excel sheet embedded above, cooling water has a higher viscosity.
Thus, the cooling water is placed on the shellside.
250
Comparison, the cooling water has a lower allowable pressure drop than the
shale gas. Thus, the cooling water should be placed on the tube side.
7. Lower flow rate on the shellside
This factor is simply added to ensure the design is economical. Based on the
embedded excel sheet above, the shale gas has a lower flow rate than the
cooling water. Thus, the shale gas should be on the shellside.
We eventually come up with a conclusion that the shale gas is placed on the tubeside and
the cooling water is placed on the shellside because this selection obeys five out of the
seven factors listed above.
Since we are designing a cooler with cooling water as its cold fluid and shale gas as its
hot fluid, a value between 20 300 W/m2 C can be chosen as the assumed overall heat
transfer coefficient. Lets choose 200 W/m2 C.
After selecting a suitable overall heat transfer coefficient, the type of heat exchanger can
be selected. A shell and tube heat exchanger with an internal floating head with a
clamp ring is selected. This type of heat exchanger is easier to clean as the tube bundle
can be removed. A shell and tube heat exchanger means the heat exchanger has 1 shell
pass and 2 tube passes.
251
STEP 4: MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
To find the logarithmic mean temperature, TL M the formula below is used:
R 2.066667
S 0.245902
252
Based on the R and S values as well as the number of shell passes and tube passes, the
correction factor, Ft is determined through figure 12.19 in the book Coulson and
Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. The figure is
shown below:
Based on the chart above, the correction factor, Ft is 0.96. The mean temperature
difference is equal to the product of the correction factor and the log mean temperature
difference. Thus, the mean temperature difference is calculated as follows:
Tm = 0.96 37.4318 = 35.93453 C
STEP 5: HEAT TRANSFER AREA
The heat flow rate is related to the heat transfer area by the equation below:
2
Heat transfer area, A o 175.9183 m
Since, the rate of heat transfer, overall heat transfer coefficient and the mean
temperature difference have been determined, the heat transfer area can be calculated as
follows:
Ao = 1264308 / (200 35.93453) = 175.9183 m2
253
STEP 6: TUBE DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Tube dimensions and specifications
Steel tubes
Tube outside diameter, d o 0.025 m
Tube wall thickness 0.0032 m
Tube inside diameter, d i is given by the formula below:
We prefer 3.2 mm to be our wall thickness as this results in a smaller internal diameter
causing the velocity of the fluid in the tube to be greater and eventually causing the
overall heat transfer coefficient to increase. Also, high velocities reduce fouling. The tube
internal diameter is calculated as below:
di = (25/1000) ( 3.2/1000) = 0.0218 m
The tube length is chosen to be 4.88m which is one of the standard lengths chosen. Long
tubes are used as they reduce the shell diameter and this will reduce the construction cost
of the heat exchanger. A square tube arrangement is used as it results in a lower pressure
drop. The distance between the centres of two adjacent tube holes is known as the tube
254
pitch, Pt. The tube pitch is usually 1.25 times the outside diameter of the tube. The
calculation of the tube pitch is shown below:
Pt = 1.25 (25/1000) = 0.0315 m
The horizontal and vertical clearances are equal to the tube pitch for the square tube
arrangement.
Where
= the volumetric flow rate (m 3/s)
To determine the cross sectional area per tube, use the formula below:
The next step is determining the number of tubes and using this value to calculate the
tubeside velocity. We begin by calculating the area of one tube as follows:
Area of one tube = (25/1000) 4.88 = 0.383274 m2
The number of tubes is then calculated by using the heat transfer area and the area of
one tube:
Nt = 175.9183 / 0.383274 = 458.9879 460 tubes
The number of tubes per pass are then calculated by dividing the total number of tubes
by the number of tube passes selected:
Number of tubes per pass = 460 / 2 = 230 tubes
To determine the tubeside velocity, the volumetric flow rate of the tubeside fluid is
divided by the area per pass. However, the volumetric fluid is not provided. Therefore, it
has to be calculated by dividing the mass flow rate of the tubeside fluid by its density.
The density of shale gas at the mean temperature of 55.5 C is provided in step 2
(physical properties section). The area per pass is equal to the product of the cross
sectional area of one tube and the number of tubes per pass. The calculations to determine
255
the volumetric flow rate of the tubeside volumetric flow rate and the tubeside velocity is
shown below:
Volumetric flow rate = (15.78333 / 0.000132) = 0.498211 m3/s
ut = 0.498211 / [( ((0.0218)2/4) 230] = 5.8 m/s
This is well within the velocity range of a vapor which is between 5 to 10 m/s based on
the book Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K.
Sinnott.
STEP 8: BUNDLE AND SHELL
An alloy steel shell is used
The bundle diameter, Db can be found through the formula below:
Where,
K1 and n1 are constants obtained from table
For 2 tube passes,
K1 0.156
n1 2.291
The equation is broken down into a few parts to simplify calculations
1/n_1 0.436491
N_t/K_1 2948.718
(N_t/K_1 )^(1/n_1 ) 32.69357
Bundle diameter, Db 0.817339 m
Shell clearance obtained from graph 0.068 m
This step is basically determining the dimensions of the tube bundle and the shell. An
alloy steel shell is used. In order to calculate the shells internal diameter, Ds, the bundle
diameter, Db and the shell clearance has to be determined first. To calculate the bundle
diameter, Db, two constants K1 and n1 are required for two tube passes and a square pitch.
These constants can be obtained from table 12.4 from the book Coulson and Richardsons
Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. The table is shown below:
256
Based on the table 12.4, the values of the constants K1 and n1 for two tube passes and a
square pitch arrangement are 0.156 and 2.291 respectively. Thus, the bundle diameter, Db
is calculated through the equation shown in the step 8 embedded excel sheet. The sample
calculation is shown below:
Bundle diameter, Db = 0.025 [(460 / 0.156)]^(1 / 2.291) = 0.817339 m
Since the bundle diameter, Db is calculated, the shell clearance can be determined from
figure 12.10 in the book Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design
Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. The figure is shown below:
We have chosen a splitring floating head heat exchanger. Thus, based on the figure
above, a bundle diameter, Db of 0.82 m will result in a shell clearance (Shell inside
diameter bundle diameter) of 68 mm. The shell internal diameter, Ds is equal to the sum
of the bundle diameter, Db and the shell clearance. The calculation is shown below:
Ds = 0.817339 + 0.068 = 0.885339 m
The shell thickness is determined from the book Coulson and Richardsons Chemical
Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott as shown below:
Since the shell diameter is approximately 885 mm, the shell thickness will be 6.4 mm.
The tube length to shell diameter ratio is usually between 5 to 10 based on the book
Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott.
257
STEP 9: TUBESIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
Reynolds number, Re is calculated using the formula below:
L/di 223.8532
Heat transfer factor, j h (obtained from graph) 3.50E03
The correlation between Nusselt's number, Nu, Reynolds number, Re and Prandtl's number, Pr is as follows:
To determine the tubeside heat transfer coefficient, h i, use the equation below:
2
Tubeside heat transfer coefficient, h i 5812.937 W/m C
This step is the calculation of the tubeside heat transfer coefficient by using the
correlation between the dimensionless groups Nusselts number, Nu, Prandtls number, Pr
and the Reynolds number, Re. First, the Reynolds number is calculated by dividing the
product of the density of the tubeside fluid at its mean temperature, , the tube side
velocity, ut and the internal diameter of the tube, di by the tubeside fluid viscosity at the
mean temperature, . The calculation is shown below:
Re = [(31.68) (5.8) (0.0218)] / 0.000132 = 30386
L/di = 4.88 / 0.0218 = 223.8532
This values the of Reynolds number and L/di are used to determine the heat transfer
factor, jh from figure 12.23 in the book Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering
Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. The figure is shown below:
The value of heat transfer factor, jh obtained from the figure above is 3.5 103. Next,
the Prandtls number, Pr is calculated by dividing the product of the specific heat capacity
and the viscosity by the thermal conductivity. These are the physical properties of the hot
fluid at the mean temperature. The calculation is shown below:
Pr = (2584 00.000132) / 0.04228 = 8.061249
258
Using these values of Reynolds number, Re and Prandtls number, Pr along with the
heat transfer factor, jh, the Nusselts number, Nu is calculated through the correlation
shown on the excel sheet for step 9. The superscript of the Prandtls number, Pr is chosen
to be 0.33 as this is a cooling process whereas if it were a heating process it would be 0.4.
A sample calculation of the Nusselts number, Nu is shown below:
Nu = (0.0035) (30386) (8.061249)0.33 = 211.7681
Since ,where the diameter is the tube inner diameter, the tubeside heat transfer
coefficient can calculated. The calculation is shown below:
hi = (0.04228 211.7681) / 0.0218 = 5812.937 W/ m2 C
STEP 10: SHELLSIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
The baffle spacing, l B is calculated by using the formula below:
2
Area of crossflow, A s 0.031353 m
The shellside mass velocity, Gs and linear shellside velocity, u s are determined through the formulae below:
2
Mass velocity, Gs 642.6794 kg/m s
Linear shell side velocity, u s 0.643838 m/s
The shellside heat transfer coefficient, h s is claculated by using the equation below where the viscosity correction factor (/w)0.14 is neglected as the shellside fluid has a low viscosity:
2
Shellside heat transfer coefficient, h s 272.1444 W/m C
This step is the calculation of the shellside heat transfer coefficient, hs. Kerns method
is used for this part of the heat exchanger design. Kerns method is used to determine the
shellside heat transfer coefficient. This method begins by estimating the baffle spacing,
lB. The baffle spacing is estimated to be one fifth the shell diameter. The baffle spacing
estimation calculation is shown below:
lB = 0.885339 / 5 = 0.177068 m
Next the area of cross flow, As is calculated as shown below:
As = [(0.03125 0.025) / 0.03125] 0.885339 0.177068 = 0.031353 m2
Using this value of cross flow area, As, the shellside mass and linear velocities are
calculated. The mass velocity, Gs is calculated by dividing the mass flow rate of the cold
fluid by the cross flow area, As and this mass velocity, Gs value is then divided by the
density of the cold fluid at the mean temperature to obtain the linear velocity. The
calculations are shown below:
Gs = (20.14994) / 0.031353 = 642.7 kg / m2 s
us = 642.7 / 998.2 = 0.64 m/s
This shellside linear velocity is well within the range of velocities for liquids on the
shellside provided in the book Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design
Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. This rage is between 0.3 and 1 m/s.
259
The Reynolds number, Re and Prandtls number, Pr are calculated by using the same
method that was used for calculating these dimensionless groups for the tubeside. The
only difference is, instead of using the internal diameter the hydraulic diameter, de is used
as the shell has an annulus. To calculate the hydraulic diameter, de, the formula on the
embedded excel sheet for step 10 is used. This formula is used to calculate the hydraulic
diameter, de for a square pitch. A sample calculation of the hydraulic diameter, de, the
Reynolds number, Re and Prandtls number, Pr for the shellside is shown below:
de = (1.27 / 0.025) [(0.03125)2 (0.785 (0.025)2] = 0.024686 m
Re = (998.2 0.643838 0.024686) / 0.001001 = 15849.09
Pr = (4183 0.001001) / 0.5984 = 8.061249
The baffle cut is 25% as Kerns method is only applicable for this percentage of baffle
cuts based on http://web.iitd.ac.in/~pmvs/courses/mel709/SHTE.pdf. The baffle is also
segmental. Thus, the heat transfer factor, jh for the shellside can be determined from
figure 12.29 from Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6 by
R.K. Sinnott. The figure is shown below:
Based on the figure above, the shellside heat transfer factor, jh is 5 103. Thus, the
shellside heat transfer coefficient can now be calculated based on the equation provided
in the embedded excel sheet for step 10 where the viscosity correction factor, ( / w)0.14
is neglected because the shellside fluid is a low viscosity fluid. Thus, its value will not
make a significant difference in the heat transfer coefficient value. The shellside heat
transfer coefficient calculation is shown below:
hs = (0.5984/0.024686) (0.005) (15849.09) (8.061249)0.33 = 272.1444 W/m2 C
260
STEP 11: OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT, U o
An estimate of the temperature, tw is found from the formula below:
Where,
ho = outside fluid film coefficient, W/m2 C
hod = outside dirt (fouling) coefficient, W/m2 C
hid = inside dirt (fouling) coefficient, W/m2 C
hi = inside fluid film coefficient, W/m2 C
kw = Thermal conductivity of tube wall, W/m C
All the variables in the equation to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient, Uo
have been determined except for the thermal conductivity of the wall, kw. Thus, an
estimate temperature of the wall, tw is calculated by using the equation shown in the
embedded excel sheet for step 11. The sample calculation of the estimated wall
temperature, tw is shown below:
tw = [(200 (17.5 55.5))/5812.937] + 55.5 = 54.2 C
Thus, with the estimated value of the wall temperature, tw, the thermal conductivity of
the tube wall can be obtained from the table 12.6 of the book Coulson and Richardsons
Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. The table is shown below:
261
Based on the table, the thermal conductivity of steel between 0C to 100C is 45 W/m
C. Thus, the thermal conductivity of the tube wall, kw is 45 W/mC.
Now, the actual overall heat transfer coefficient can be calculated. The sample
calculation is shown below:
Uo = 1 / [(1 / 272.1444) + (1 / 3000) + [(0.025 ln(0.025 / 0.0218))/(2 45)] +
[(0.025/0.0218) (1/5000 + 5812.937) = 224 W/m2 C
The difference between the actual overall heat transfer coefficient and the assumed
overall heat transfer coefficient is equal to 12% of the assumed value of the overall heat
transfer coefficient. Thus, this actual overall heat transfer coefficient as the condition is
that 0 < (Uo, calc Uo, ass)/Uo, ass < 30%.
Where
jf is the friciton factor found from the friction factor against Re chart 3.80E03
m is 0.25 for turbulent flow and 0.14 for laminar flow
However, the viscosity correction factor, ( / _ )^( ) is neglected as it's value is insignificant because the fluid has a very low viscosity
Tubeside pressure drop, Pt 9928.272 Pa
0.099283 bar
Where,
jf is the friction factor obtained from the friction factor against Re chart 4.60E02
(L/l B) is the number of times flow crosses the tube bundles, N b+1 27.56006 times
Approximated to 28 times
Nb is the number of baffles 27 baffles
The viscosity correction factor is once again neglected
Shellside pressure drop, Ps 75254.89 Pa
0.752549 bar
The final step is to determine the pressure drops on the shell side and tube side. As
mentioned in step 2, the maximum allowable pressure drop for the tube side is 4.9 bar and
262
the maximum allowable pressure drop on the shellside is 0.8 bar. The friction factor, jf
for the tubeside is determined through figure 12.24 from the book Coulson and
Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. The table is
shown below:
Based on figure 12.24, the tubeside friction factor is 0.0038. Thus, the pressure drop on
the tubeside can be calculated by using the equation provided on the embedded excel
sheet for step 12. Once again, the viscosity correction factor is neglected as the tubeside
fluid is a fluid of low viscosity. The sample calculation for the tubeside pressure drop,
Pt is shown below:
Pt = 2 (8 0.0038 223.8532 +2.5) [(31.68 (5.803404)2)/2] = 9928.272 Pa =
0.09928bar (below 4.9 bar so it is acceptable)
The shell side friction factor, jf is determined from figure 12.30 of the book Coulson and
Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6 by R.K. Sinnott. The figure is
shown below:
263
Based on figure 12.30, the shellside friction factor, jf is 0.046. The calculation of the
shellside pressure drop, Ps is actually a continuation of Kerns method as we stopped at
the shellside heat transfer coefficient, hs. The shellside pressure drop, Ps is calculated
by using the formula embedded in the excel sheet for step 12. This formula contains the
number of times the flow crosses the tube bundles, (L/lB).
L/lB = (4.88) / (0.177068) = 27.5 28 times
L/lB = Nb +1 where Nb is the number of baffles. Therefore, the number of baffles can be
calculated as follows:
Nb = 28 1 = 27 baffles
The sample calculation for the shellside pressure drop (neglecting viscosity correction
factor) is shown below:
Ps = 8 0.046 27.56006 [(998.2 (0.643838)2)/2] = 0.752549 bar (below 0.8 bar,
so acceptable).
Enthalpy calculation:
Enthalpy of tubeside = = 1264308/ 15.783 = 80.1 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of shellside = = 1264308 / 20.15 = 62.75 kJ/kg
264
6. Control and safety
Our goal is to control the temperature of the outlet process stream (shale gas)
and to ensure that it is not above 40C. Therefore, a temperature indicator is
placed on the outlet process stream. This signal is then fed to the temperature
controller through the temperature transmitter. The output of this temperature
controller would go to the control valve on the outlet utility stream. This is to
ensure the outlet process stream is cooled down to 40C.
Safety precautions:
1. Ensure the area where the heat exchanger is placed is wellventilated.
2. Ensure there are no ignition sources within a radius of 3 metres from the heat
exchanger.
3. Use a simple leak detector, that is suitable for hydrocarbons.
265
Guidelines to follow in case of a leak:
1. Evacuate the area
2. Eliminate sources of ignition
3. In case of doubt, call the fire department
4. Do not unplug anything as this is a possible ignition source
7. Design summary
As a whole, it can be said that the heat exchanger designed is of optimum functionality
and of low cost. Many adjustments were continuously made to ensure maximum
functionality of the heat exchanger at the lowest cost. The heat exchanger has a suitable
pressure drop, overall heat transfer coefficient value, tubeside and shellside velocities,
tube length of shell diameter ratio and mean temperature difference. The heat exchanger
specification sheet is provided on the following page.
References:
Sinnott, R. K. (2005). 12/Heat transfer equipment. In Chemical Engineering Design
(4th ed., Vol. 6, Coulson and Richardson's chemical engineering, pp. 634708).
Oxford, Oxfordshire: Elsevier ButterworthHeinemann.
Design fundamentals of shell and tube heat exchangers. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18,
2016, from http://web.iitd.ac.in/~pmvs/courses/mel709/SHTE.pdf
Water (data page). (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_(data_page)
P&ID symblos. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2016, from
http://www2.widener.edu/~crn0001/Engr314/P&ID.pdf
266
HEAT EXCHANGER Equipment No E108
DATA SHEET Function Cooler
Duty Specifications
2
Overall U W/(m K) 224 Duty MW 1.264
2
Area m 175.9 Mean Temperature K 308.9
Mechanical Layout
Tube Side Shell Side
2
Design Pressure N/m 5500000 Design Pressure N/m2 111458
No of Tubes 460 Arrangement Floating head
Tube Arrangement Square pitch Baffle Spacing 0.177 m
Pitch m 0.03125
Internal Diameter m 0.0218 Internal Diameter m 0.885
Outer Diameter m 0.025 Outer Diameter m 0.892
Thickness m 0.0032 Corrosion Allowance mm 5
Length m 4.88 Fluid Velocity m/s 0.644
Corrosion Allowance mm 2 Heat Transfer Coefficient W/(m2 K) 272.14
2
Fluid Velocity m/s 5.8 Pressure Drop N/m 75255
2
Heat Transfer Coefficient W/(m K) 5812.9
2
Pressure Drop N/m 9928.3
Materials of Construction
Tube Side Shell Side
Tubes Steel Shell Alloy steel
Shell ends Alloy steel
Cost
Design by Gurpreet Singh Gill
Date 18Apr16
267
COMPRESSOR (C107)
DOCUMENTATION
GURPREET SINGH GILL
H00235769
FROM DE
TO STORAGE
METHANIZE
TANK P = 4
R
MPa
P = 2.5MPa
268
2. Summary of material and energy balance
The units used for compressor calculations are English units.
Stream 62 Stream 63
Enthalpy (J/s C) 2.92E+04 2.92E+04
The inlet and out let pressures as well as the inlet temperature is obtained through the
material and energy balance. The other values are calculated as shown in the design
calculations section.
3. Method
This centrifugal compressor is designed according the method outlined in Chapter 10
(Gas compression) of Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook by E.W. McAllister.
The method outlined in this book involves simple calculations to determine the discharge
temperature, shaft power, rotational speed and number of compression stages for a
centrifugal compressor evaluated by means of a polytropic process.
This method begins by calculating the reduced temperature and the reduced pressure of
the inlet stream of the compressor. These reduced temperature and pressure values are then
used to determine the inlet compressibility factor through the chart obtained from
Compressibility factor. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2016, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressibility_factor. In this case, an external source is
269
used as the chart cannot be viewed in the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook. This inlet
compressibility factor is used to determine the volumetric flow rate of the stream entering
the compressor in order to determine the size of the compressor. The volumetric flow is
then used to determine the nominal polytropic head, nominal polytropic efficiency, nominal
rotational speed and nominal impeller diameter. These values are then used to calculate an
estimate of the outlet temperature.
By using this estimated discharge temperature, the average compressibility factor can be
calculated. This average compressibility factor can then be used to calculate overall
polytropic head instead of performing a stagebystage calculation which is more accurate
but more time consuming as well. The calculation of overall polytropic head results in
overestimating the first half of the impellers and underestimating the last half of the
impellers. This results in a polytropic head value that is close to that of the stagebystage
compression calculation method.
The number of stages and shaft power of the compressor can then be calculated by using
this polytropic head value.
A very important assumption made here is that the process stream is 100% methane gas as
the demethanizer is assumed to have a 100% efficiency.
4. Design calculations
.
Gas property evaluation
Since the the compressor being designed here is the compressore before the storage tank, the only component left is methane as the shale gas has passed through the demethanizer process
Molecular weight, MW 16.04 g/mol
Heat capacity, Cp
2.07 kJ/kg K
384.750645 ft Ibf/Ibm R
Critical Pressure, Pc 667.028556 psia
Critical Temperature, Tc 343.0152 R
The Cv and k1 can be found by using the equations below:
The compressor design procedure begins by listing down the properties of the inlet gas. In
this case, the inlet stream consists of only methane. The molecular weight, MW, specific
heat capacity at constant pressure, Cp at the suction temperature, T1, critical temperature, Tc
and critical pressure, Pc were obtained from the sources mentioned in the summary of
material and energy balance section. The specific heat capacity at constant volume, Cv at the
suction temperature, T1 equals to the difference between the specific heat capacity at
270
constant pressure, Cp and the gas constant, R. The gas constant, R is determined through the
equation below:
The specific heat capacity at constant volume, Cv can now be calculated as follows:
Cv = 384.75 96.32 = 288.43 ft lbf / lbm R
The k at the inlet of the compressor, k1 the ratio of Cp to Cv at the suction temperature, T1.
The calculation for k1 is shown below:
k1 = 384.75 / 288.43 = 1.33
A. Inlet compressibility factor, Z1
Inlet Pressure, P1 3.63E+02 psia
Inlet Temperature, T1 342 R
The reduced pressure, PR and reduced temperature, TR are calculated by using the formulae below:
The inlet compressibility factor, Z1 is then determined from the compressibility factor chart by using the reduced pressure, P R and reduced temperature, TR values
Inlet compressibilty factor, Z1 0.77
The next step is determining the inlet compressibility factor, Z1. The reduced pressure, PR
at the inlet of the compressor is a ratio the suction pressure, P1 to the critical pressure, Pc.
The same concept applies for the reduced temperature, TR at the inlet of the compressor.
The calculation of the reduced pressure, PR and reduced temperature, TR is shown below:
PR = 363 / 667.1 = 0.544
TR = 342 / 343.02 = 0.997
The inlet compressibility factor, Z1 can then be determined from the following chart which
was obtained from Compressibility factor. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2016, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressibility_factor :
271
Based on the chart above, the inlet compressibility factor, Z1 is estimated to be 0.77.
B. Inlet volumetric flow rate, Q1
Molar flow rate, 978.610503 mol/s
Mass flow rate, 15.6969125 kg/s
2,076 lb/min
The inlet volumetric flow rate, Q is calculated by using the formula below:
Where, 132.277 is the conversion factor. Thus, the volumetric flow rate can now be
calculated. The calculations are shown below:
Mass flow rate (kg/s) = 978.610503 (16.04/1000) = 15.6969125 kg/s
Mass flow rate (lb/min) = 15.6969125 132.2777 = 2076 lb/min
Q = [(2076) (0.77) (96.32) 342] / (144 363) = 1010 ICFM
Based on the table below, which is obtained from Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook by
E.W. McAllister, the nominal values can be obtained to calculated an estimated outlet
temperature, T2.
272
The frame chosen is frame A based on the inlet volumetric flow rate. Based on the table,
Nominal polytropic head, Hp nom = 10000 ft lbf/ibm
Nominal polytropic efficiency, np = 76%
Nominal rotational speed, Nnom = 11000 revolutions per minute
Nominal diameter = 16 in
D. Pressure Ratio
P2 5.80E+02 psia
The type of compressor can now be determined from the graph below which is obtained from
Compressors. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2016, from http://petrowiki.org/Compressors:
273
In order to read the graph above, the discharge pressure, P2 has to be converted from psia to
psig. This is done by using the following formula:
n/(n1) 3.03576975
274
F. Outlet compressibility factor, Z2 and average compressibility factor, Z
For outlet side:
Reduced pressure, P R 8.70E01
Reduced temperature, TR 1.16399479
Based on the graph above the outlet compressibility factor, Z2 is 0.8. The average
compressibility factor, Z can now be calculated by using the formula shown in the excel sheet
above. The calculation is shown below:
Z = (0.77+0.8)/2 = 0.785
275
G. k at discharge conditions, k2 and average k, k
Cp at discharge conditions 391.0702 ft Ibf/Ibm R
Cv 294.7485 ft Ibf/Ibm R
k at discharge conditions, k 2 1.326793
Average k, k 1.330373
The specific heat capacity at constant pressure, Cp at the discharge temperature, T2 is
obtained from Aspen HYSYS. The specific heat capacity at constant volume, Cv and the outlet
k value, k2 at the discharge temperature is calculated by using the method that was deployed
to calculate the Cv and k value at the suction temperature, T1. The calculations are shown
below:
= 391.0702 96.3216958 = 294.75
= (391.0702)/(294.75) = 1.326793
The average k value is then calculated by using the formula shown in the excel sheet above:
k = (1.334 + 1.326793)/2 = 1.330373
H. (n/n1) average value
n/(n1) discharge value 3.085633
n/(n1) average value 3.060431
Next, the average value of n/(n1) is calculated through the equation below:
I. Polytropic head, Hp
The Polytropic head, HP is calculated through the equation below:
276
J. Number of stages
Determine through the equation below:
1.09167601
The maximum HP is then determined from a chart
Max. HP 12000 ftlbf/lbm
To calculate the number of stages, the equation below is used:
By using this value of , the maximum polytropic head, max Hp can now be determined from
the chart below which is from Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook by E.W. McAllister:
Based on the graph above, the maximum polytropic head, max Hp is 12000 ft lbf/lbm
277
The number of stages can now be calculated by using the formula shown in the embedded
excel sheet above. The calculation is shown below:
Number of stages = 13136.9/12000 = 1.09474198 2 stages
.
278
M. Mechanical Losses
The percentage mechanical loss is obtained from the table:
Percentage mechanical loss 3%
The percentage mechanical loss is obtained from table 2 chapter 10 of Pipeline Rules of
Thumb Handbook by E.W. McAllister. The table is shown below:
Based on the table above, the mechanical loss is 3%. Thus, the mechanical loss, Lm can
now be calculated by using the equation shown on the excel sheet above. The calculation is
shown below:
Lm = 0.03 1087.40878 = 32.6222634 hp
279
Finally, the actual discharge temperature, T2 is calculated by using the average value of
(n/(n1) based on the formula below:
= 342 (1.6)(1/3.060431) = 398.764595 R
References:
McAllister, E. W. (n.d.). 10/Compressiongas. In Pipeline Rules of Thum Handbook
(8th ed.). Elsevier.
Compressibility factor. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2016, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressibility_factor
Compressors. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2016, from
http://petrowiki.org/Compressors
McAllister, E. W. (n.d.). 10/Compressiongas. In Pipeline Rules of Thum Handbook
(8th ed.). Elsevier.
280
281
Heat Exchanger and Pump Design
Heat Exchanger
Description
Hydrogen Sulfide to sulfur plant
33
V106
E106
34
The inlet temperature of the cooling heat exchanger is 175C and the outlet temperature is
71C. So the feed is cooled down from 175C to 71C using the heat exchanger designed
below. The heat exchanger is placed in between the acid gas removal and dehydration
process.
Calculation:
Step 1: Specifications
25.491 kg/s of natural gas is to be heated from 175C to 71C in order to cool down 279.631
kg/s of water with the inlet temperature of 10C
SI Unit Natural Gas Water
Inlet Temperature C 175 10
Outlet Temperature C 71 20
Specific Heat Capacity kJ/kg C 2.65 4.189
Molar Flow Rate mol/s 25.491 95.8336
At process gas, which is the natural gas, the heat transfer rate (duty) of the heat exchanger is
calculated as follows:
282
Since the heat transfer rate of natural gas is equal to the heat transfer rate of water, the mass
flowrate of water can be determined as follows:
The data in the table below are obtained from Aspen Hysys based on the mean temperature of
hot fluid and cold fluid:
Physical Properties SI Unit Hot fluid: Cold fluid:
Natural Gas Water
Inlet Temperature C 175 10
Outlet Temperature C 71 86
Mean Temperature C 123 48
Specific Heat Capacity kJ/kg C 2.65 4.189
Thermal Conductivity W/mK 0.0512 0.6114
Density kg/m 25.5 996.96
Viscosity 0.000015 0.00089
The overall heat transfer coefficient, U is referred from a book entitled Coulson
Richardsons Chemical Engineering. Vol. 6 Chemical Engineering Design 4th Ed, pg.
639.
Given that my process fluid is crude oil; service fluid is boiling water.
283
My trial value for U based on the graph above is in between 150450 .
For the purpose of calculation 150 is used to find required heat transfer area.
The value of U is assumed to be in the range between 450 to 700 based on a specific type of
process gas and utility. Based on the graph above, the process ga, which is the natural gas is
chosen to be a condensation organic vapours as the feed components of dehydration unit
consist of hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. As for utility, which is the
water is chosen to be from the river, well, and sea water.
Step 4: Calculation of the Mean Temperature Difference
The type of heat exchanger chosen is countercurrent flow. Countercurrent flow happens
when there are two type of fluids, which is hot fluids and cold fluids flow in opposite
direction. This is suitable for shell and tube heat exchanger to undergo countercurrent flow
as it can results in nearly to a constant gradient between the two flows over the entire length.
In this case, the fluid exchange can flow faster under a sufficient length and at a sufficiently
low flow rate, where almost all of the property can be transported.
Countercurrent
Th1 175
Tc2 86 71 Th2
10 Tc1
T2 = Th2 = 71 C t2 = Tc2 = 86 C
284
Log mean temperature can be determined using the formula below:
The usual design of shell and tube heat exchanger is to assume the true temperature
difference, which is the mean temperature of the two fluids from the logarithmic mean
temperature by using a correction factor to allow for the removal from true
Correction factors depend on the dimension of the heat exchanger including the inlet and
outlet temperature of the hot and cold fluid streams. For common countercurrent flow and
285
After the value of R and S is determined, its value can be plotted in the temperature
correction factor chart as shown below in order to get the value of correction factor .
Therefore,
Now that the values for log mean temperature and correction factor are
286
Step 6: Heat Exchanger Layout
For shell and tube heat exchanger, there are two perspective that is taken for consideration,
which is an outside packed floating head and a triangular pattern.
A splitring floating head is chosen as it can withstand a high pressure on tube side and so the
corrosion problems can be prevented. Its floating tubesheets allow a different thermal
expansion between the shell and tube bundle, so that they have the tendency to withstand the
thermal stresses due to the difference in temperature and pressure.
A triangular pattern is chosen because it can produce high turbulence which then results in a
high heat transfer coefficient. Since the inlet fluids of the heat exchanger is not dirty, it does
not require a serious mechanical cleaning on the shellside.
Tube Dimension
Material = Steel
The tube dimension is based on the British standard 3274 as shown below:
287
The reason of choosing stainless steel is because it has the tendency to withstand corrosion.
When selecting the tube thickness, the capability of withstand internal pressure and external
pressure was considered.
Step 7: Calculation for Number of Tubes
2. Number of tubes:
288
Therefore, there are 204 tubes used in total. Since two pass heat exchanger are used to
compensate the duty for the heat exchanger, thus there are 102 tubes per pass for the
heat exchanger.
289
6. Velocity of the tubeside:
1. Bundle diameter:
290
and are constants based on the number of tube passes and the pattern of the
pitch layout. The values are based on Coulson Richardsons Chemical Engineering.
2. Shell diameter:
= Shellside diameter
The typical shell clearance for a splitring floating head heat exchanger can be
obtained from the chart below Coulson Richardsons Chemical Engineering. Vol. 6
291
Step 9: Tubeside Heat Transfer Coefficient
1. Reynold number:
292
2. Prandtl number:
= Mean heat capacity of the crude oil, tube side fluid (J/kgK)
= Mean thermal conductivity for the crude oil in the tubes (W/ )
3. Nusselt number:
293
6. Tubeside heat transfer coefficient:
Kern method:
1. Baffle spacing:
294
= Baffle spacing (m)
295
A = Area of cross flow (m)
6. Reynold number:
Based on the mean value for density and viscosity of the shellside fluid:
7. Prandtl number:
296
8. Nusselt number:
297
Comparison between overall heat transfer coefficient and estimated heat transfer coefficient:
Therefore, the percentage value shows that the design is nearly to 0, which means that the
1. Tubeside
pressure drop:
298
Shellside friction factor: = 0.041 *Coulson Richardsons Chemical Engineering.
Pump Design
Description
299
38 43
40
V108
39
P103
The pump in this dehydration unit has a process of transporting natural gas and water from
the absorber to the distillation column. The output fluid from the acid gas removal will enter
the dehydration unit starting with the absorber which is then pass through the heat exchanger
and enter the pump. The pump is used to increase the pressure of the feed.
Components Molar Mass (g/mol) Molar Flow Rate (mol/s) Mass Flow Rate (g/skg/s)
Methane , C1 16.044 978.6105028 15700.82691
Ethane , C2 30.07 0.956191661 28.75268325
Propane , C3 44.097 0.15854301 6.991271099
Carbon dioxide 0 0 0
Nitrogen 28.0134 0.02541873 0.712065063
iC4 58.12 0.013852105 0.805084361
nC4 58.12 0.011778958 0.684593059
iC5 72.15 0.0034598 0.249624547
nC5 72.15 0.001301617 0.093911644
C6 86.17 0.002991339 0.257763702
C7+ 100.21 0.484627037 48.56447538
Hydrogen sulphide 0 0 0
Water 18.02 538.46 9703.0492
583.1644 1518.728667 25490.98758 g/s
25.49098758 kg/s
rate
300
Viscosity = 0.0004044 Pa.s
Pipe Dimension
Physical Properties
Area of pipe, A =
301
3. Reynold number:
Since the Reynolds number as calculated above is more than 4000, the flow is considered to
be a turbulent flow.
Pressure drop
Pressure drop occurs in pipes in various forms, which are based on fractional, hydrostatic,
and through valve/fittings. Any pressure difference over the process equipment and between
the absorber and distillation column, the fluid is being pumped between must also
compensated for by the pump.
302
The friction factor, f, can be found from the graph below:
Hence,
Pipe friction factor, f = 0.002
Assumption:
Elevation = 6 m
Gravity = 9.81 kg.m/s
303
4. Total Pressure drop:
Total: 30.5
304
Pressure drop at discharge side
90 square elbow 1 75
Sudden expansion 1 50
Sudden reduction 1 25
Total: 157.5
Pa
305
i. Pump Suction head:
The total pump head that must delivered by the pump is the discharged head minus the
suction head:
306
Input Power
Pump selection
http://www.castlepumps.com/pumptype/singlestagecentrifugalpumps#
307
Pump Specification
Flow Rate
308