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Non-modifiable Factors: Modifiable Factors:

Increase in age- 55 years old and above Sedentary lifestyle

Gender- female

Decreased elasticity of blood vessels and formation of plaques on blood vessels

Narrowing of the blood vessels

Necrosis and scarring of the vascular endothelium

Impediment of blood flow to the body

Increased workload of the heart

Dilation of ventricles

Increased in preload

Increased stretching of myocardial muscle

Excessive stretching of myocardial muscle

Ineffective cardiac muscle contraction and increase O2 demand of cardiac muscle cells

Decreased contraction of cardiac muscle

Decreased cardiac output and systemic perfusion

Activation of neurohormonal pathways in order to increase circulating blood vessel

Continued neurohormonal stimulation

Cardiac remodelling

Decreased blood filling

Increased stroke volume and decreased cardiac output

Inadequate perfusion Increased wall tension

Decreased Increase pulmonary Separation of mitral

PALLOR Decreased blood
perfusion in the pressure valve leaflets
flow to the kidneys
coronary arteries

Kidneys produce FATIGUE & Increase pulmonary

Deprivation of WEAKNESS pressure
cardiac muscle cells
of nutrients needed
Salt and water for survival Impaired left
retention ventricular relaxation
Normal Balance
between oxygen supply
EDEMA and demand is Increase diastolic
disrupted pressure exceeding
hydrostatic & osmotic
pressure in pulmonary
ISCHEMIA capillaries

Increased capillary
Conversion of aerobic
metabolism to pressure in the lungs
anaerobic metabolism

Fluid shifts from the

Causes reduced Decreased circulating blood into the
interstitium, bronchioles,
contractility adenosine
bronchi & alveoli

Decreases the Increased lactic

hearts ability acid production Decreased lung Pulmonary
to pump expansion Congestion
BRADYCARDIA Irritation of DYSPNEA Fluid trapped in
myocardial cells pulmonary trees