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The Present Continuous

The Future



Frank Shearer, 99, waterskis. He was a

championship polo player until age 70.

Youth is wasted on the young.

Oscar Wilde

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Comprehension Check Based on the reading, tell if the statement is true (T) or false (F).
Judy Perlman is working as a teacher.
People are living longer these days.
Some people earn money from a job and get a pension at the same time.

2.1 Present Continuous3Form

For the present continuous, we use a form of be (is, am, are) + verb + ing.4
Subject Be (am, is, are) Verb + -ing
I am working hard.
Judy is making dolls.
She is getting a pension.
Some seniors are starting second careers.
You are exploring possibilities.

Second Careers
Language Notes:
1. We can make a contraction with the subject pronoun and a form of be. Most nouns can also
contract with is.5

I'm having fun. We're learning new things.
Judys making dolls. Frank's working as a carpenter.
CD 8
Read the following article. Pay special attention to the words in bold. 2. To form the negative, put not after am/is/are. In many cases, we can make a negative
contraction in two ways:
Judy Perlman, of Chicago, is starting a new careermaking dolls. She sells most of them She is not working. = She isnt working. = Shes not working.
before Christmas, at holiday fairs all over Illinois. Im having more fun than ever before. You are not relaxing. = You arent relaxing. = Youre not relaxing.
Im traveling in my new job and meeting new people. Right now Im preparing for my next
3. For I am not, there is only one contraction:
show. Im not earning a lot of money, but I dont care. Why isnt she worried about making
I am not traveling. = Im not traveling.
money? Perlman is a retired teacher, and shes getting a pension.1
4. Do not repeat the be verb after and or or.
Many older people are starting new careers in their retirement. Americans are living Some people are working and getting a pension.
longer than ever before. The average life expectancy in the United States is seventy-six
5. We can put an adverb between be and the verb + ing.
years for men and eighty-one years for women. Most people retire in their midsixties. That
Hes still working.
means that retired people can have many years ahead of them. Some people are content just
relaxing. But many seniors2 are getting involved in interesting hobbies or second careers.
If they are getting a pension or living off savings from their work years, many can afford to
3 Some grammar books refer to the present continuous as the present progressive.
find rewarding work without worrying about money. Im enjoying every minute of my new 4 For a review of the spelling of the ing form of the verb, see Appendix A.
career. I think this is the best time of my life, says Perlman. 5 See Lesson 1, page 5 for exceptions.

Some senior citizens decide not to retire at all. Frank Babbit of Newark is a carpenter, and
hes still working. He has his own business and works fifty hours a week. And hes almost
eighty-eight years old.
Today healthy retirees are exploring many options, from relaxing to starting a new
business or making a hobby into a new career. How do you see yourself as a retiree?

1 pension: a regular payment made by a business or government to a retired employee

2 senior: an older person; this usually refers to people over 65.

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CD 8
Exercise 1 Fill in the blanks with the words you hear to complete the conversation between a 4.
The manager of the village him information.
TR TK 59-year-old man (A) and the manager of a retirement home (B). give

Some people .
I m
A: thinking about moving into this retirement village. Can you give me some information? relax
Some people the exercise equipment.
Sure. This is a village for people over 55 years old. use

One man weights.
A: now. Im retired. for activities to keep me busy. lift
2. 3.
Some people in the pool .
Most of the people here are very active. Let me give you a tour. This is our fitness center. not/swim

Nicole a class. She a class.
What those people ? not/take teach
4. 5.
10. Some people anything.
B: yoga. Its very popular here. And heres our pool. As you can see, not/do

some people
2.2 The Present ContinuousUse
What about those people in the pool? .
Examples Explanation
B: a water aerobics class. Now lets go to the computer center. Some people are doing yoga over there. We use the present continuous to describe an action in
Those women are playing a game. progress at this moment.
Thats Nicole. Shes the teacher. a photo-editing course.
10. Mary is standing over there. We use the present continuous to describe a state or
Marge make a photo album for her grandchildren. And Bob and Shes wearing a red T-shirt. condition that we can observe now, using the following

verbs: sit, stand, wear, and sleep.
Cindy over there travel all over the world. together a Web page Judy is meeting new people. We use the present continuous to show a long-term action
She is getting her pension and earning that is in progress. It may not be happening at this exact
with their vacation pictures. Let me show you our game room. As you can see, some people
money from her new job. moment.
chess. More and more retired Americans are We use the present continuous to describe a trend. A trend is
starting a second career. a behavior that many people in society are doing at this time.
What about those women? What game ? People are living longer. It describes a change in behavior from an earlier time.

Thats called MahJongg. Its especially popular among the women.

Im a widower. Maybe I can meet a woman here.
Exercise 3 Fill in the blanks with the present continuous form of one of the verbs from the box.
Thats possible. We have a singles group that meets once a week. Infact,
retire return work discover start volunteer live spend
right now. I can introduce you to Mary Dodge.
More and more older people are working at second careers these days.
over there. a red T-shirt. She can
16. 17.
Many people at a younger age.
give you more information.
They time doing interesting things.
Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with the present continuous form of the verb given. Use the correct 4.
Some people new careers.
spelling. Make contractions wherever possible.
Other people . They are helping others without pay.
Jack s
1. visiting a retirement village.
People longer and healthier lives.
He a tour.
Some people new talents and abilities.
He at the different activities.
Some older women to work after raising a family.

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Exercise 4 Are these things happening at this point in time in the United States, in the world, or in Exercise 5 Use the words given to make a yes/no question. Fill in the second blank to complete the
another country you know about? Discuss your ideas with a partner. short answer.

People are living healthier lives. 1.
those/men play

People are living longer. Are those men playing checkers?

The world is becoming a safer place.
No, they arent . Theyre playing chess.

Medical science is advancing quickly. 2.

A lot of people are losing their jobs. this retirement home?

People are working harder than before.
Yes, I . Im considering it now that my wife is gone.

People are doing more and enjoying less. 3.

Kids are growing up faster than before. a website?

Yes, she . Shes designing a website with pictures of her vacations.
2.3 Questions with the Present Continuous 4.

Compare statements, yes/no questions, short answers, and wh- questions. pictures now?

Statement Yes/No Question and Short Answer Wh- Question

No, she . Shes putting her pictures on her website.
You are working as a carpenter. Are you working full time? How many hours are you b.
Yes, I am. working? 5.
your wife/do

They are doing an exercise. Are they doing yoga? What kind of exercise are something now?
No, theyre not. they doing?

No, . Shes just relaxing.
Judy isnt earning a lot of money. Is she earning enough money? Why isnt Judy earning a
Yes, she is. lot of money? 6.
Betty and Charles/take

Language Notes: art classes?

1. We sometimes leave a preposition at the end of a question.
Yes, they . They love art.
What kind of career is he thinking about? b.

2. When the question is What . . . doing? we usually answer with a different verb. 7.
What are they doing? Theyre taking an aerobics class.
too many questions?

No, . You can ask as many questions as you want.


down this information?


No, . I can check your website later.

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Exercise 6 Read each statement. Then write a question using the word(s) given. Exercise 7 Fill in the blanks with the present continuous to complete the conversation between two
neighbors. Use contractions wherever possible.
Some retirees are discovering new interests. (how)
What are you doing , Jack?
are they discovering new interests? 1.you/do

I at some brochures.
Judy is having more fun. (why) 2.look

What kind of brochures ?
3. you/look at

Theyre from a retirement village.
Jack is taking piano lessons. (where)
A: about moving?

Yes, I am.
Im starting a new career. (what kind of career)

Now that Rose is gone, I feel lonely.
Some seniors are studying new things. (what)
But you have a lot of good neighbors here. And your daughter lives with you.

Most of the neighbors are young. My next-door neighbors are always busy. Right now
My father is thinking about retirement. (why)
they . And the neighbors across the street are never home.


Theyre older people. too?
Those women are playing a game. (what game) 6.work

No. They now.

But Im here. I my lawn, as usual. And my wife is inside.
Were not planning to retire. (why) 8.water

She on the phone, as usual.


Im sorry Im complaining so much.
People are living longer nowadays. (why)
You . You for
10.not/complain 11.just/look

something to do.
10. Im doing interesting things. (what kinds of things)
Theres a lot to do. I just dont want to do things alone.

What retirement village to go to?
11. My father isnt working now. (why) 12.you/plan

Sun Valley Senior Village seems nice.

What about your daughter?

She to move in with a friend of hers.

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Digital Natives and
Comprehension Check Based on the reading, tell if the statement is true (T) or false (F).
Many digital natives are always connected.
Seventy-five percent of older people use smartphones.

Digital Immigrants
Digital immigrants usually want a device that does many things.

2.4Contrasting the Simple Present and the Present Continuous

CD 8
Read the following article. Pay special attention to the words in bold. Form
Theyre everywhere: in coffee shops, on the train, growing too fast. Look at the older people around you. The Simple Present The Present Continuous
in restaurants, at work. Theyre texting; theyre Do they have smart phones? Do they have earbuds in Grandma uses e-mail. Marc is receiving a message.
tweeting; theyre googling; theyre checking social their ears? Are they texting? Many older people prefer She doesnt use a smart phone. He isnt getting a phone call.
media; theyre taking selfies; theyre listening to to share information with a small group of friends. Does she use the Internet? Yes, she does. Is he receiving a message from his friend? Yes, he is.
music. And yes, theyre even working. Theyre always Digital natives share information globally.6 When does she use the Internet? How is he receiving a message?
Why doesnt she use a smart phone? Why isnt he receiving a message from his friend?
connected. These are the digital natives.
The younger generations want high-tech devices
Born at the end of the twentieth century and that do everything: take pictures, send texts and
the beginning of the twenty-first century, digital photos, provide music and videos, and connect them Examples Explanation
natives dont know life without technology. The first with friends around the world. What does the older People use their phones to text. We use the simple present for:
generation of digital natives is now entering the generation want from technology? In many cases, I sometimes send photos to my grandmother. a general truth

workforce and changing the way we work. More and Grandma and Grandpa want a device that connects Older people prefer to talk on the phone. a habitual activity
more younger people are working from home, in coffee them to family and friends. They like to see pictures a custom
shops, or anyplace. Theyre bringing their personal of grandchildren. Some even love to have a video chat Im getting a text message right now. We use the present continuous for:
equipment into the workplace too. They switch back with family. My grandfather is learning about technology. an action that is in progress now
and forth between their social and professional lives. Technology is growing quickly. a longer action in progress at this general time
As more and more technology is entering a recent trend
They dont see the need to separate the two.
every aspect of our lives, the digital divide between
My grandparents live in a retirement home. We use live in the simple present to indicate a persons
Some older people are adapting well to technology. generations is widening. home.
Some people call them "digital immigrants." Others My sister is living in a dorm this semester. We use live in the present continuous to indicate a
are having trouble. Some are refusing to use any new temporary, short-term residence.
6 globally: throughout the world
technology. Older people often think that technology is
A: What does she do (for a living)? "What does she do?" asks about a job or profession.
B: Shes an English teacher. "What is she doing?" asks about an activity now.
A: What is she doing now?
B: Shes texting her grandson.

Exercise 8 Fill in the blanks with the simple present or the present continuous form of the verb given.

Conversation between a grandmother and grandson:

A:You re eating and working on your essay at the same time.

a. eat and work

B: Thats not a problem, Grandma.

? Is that a hamburger?

B: No, it isnt. Its a veggie burger. I never


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A: You dont eat enough. Look at you. Youre so thin.
B: No. Shes only fifty-eight.

to lose weight. A:What
with her free time?
d.try c.she/do

A:You always
in front of your computer. Take a break. B: A lot of things. In fact, she
any free time at all.
e.eat d.not/have

I soup now. When its ready, please come to the table. She a course at the art center this semester. Right now
f.make e.take

B: But I
on something important now. she a picture of me.
g.work f.paint

A: How is that possible? You

to music too.
h. eat and listen

B: I always
to music when I . 2.5 Action and Nonaction Verbs
i.listen j. work or study

A:Whenever I
, I on my work. Examples Explanation
k.work l.concentrate
He is texting his friend. Some verbs are action verbs. These verbs express
I other things at the same time. I am listening to music.
m.not/do physical or mental activity (text, call, work, share, etc.).
the world of young people. We often multitask. Young people know a lot about technology. Some verbs are nonaction verbs. These verbs express
n.not/understand Many people have a smart phone now. a state, condition, perception, or feeling, not an
A: Youre right. I dont.
Do you remember a time without cell phones? action. We do not usually use the present continuous
with nonaction verbs. We use the simple present
Conversation between two brothers: even if we are talking about now.
Shes looking at the text message. Some verbs can express an action or a perception.

? Wake up. Its almost time for class.
a.you/sleep I want to learn about technology, but it looks hard. When they express an action (for example, look at),
B: Im so tired. I never
enough sleep. Your photo looks like a selfie. they are action verbs.
b.get When they express a perception (for example, look +
A:Thats because youre always on your computer or phone. How many hours
adjective or look like), they are nonaction verbs.
Im looking at my cell phone. Look and listen are action verbs. See and hear are
anight? I see a text from my father. nonaction verbs.
She is listening to music.
B: About four or five.

She hears her favorite song.
A:Thats not enough. You
more sleep. Turn off your computer Grandma is thinking about getting an e-reader. When we think about or of something, think is an
d.need action verb.
and phone at night, and get some sleep. She thinks that technology is a good thing. Think that shows an opinion about something. It is a
nonaction verb.
B:I never
my devices. I always
e. turn off f.want My grandfather is having a hard time with When have means to experience something or to eat
technology. or drink something, it is an action verb.
to know when I get a message.
Hes having lunch with his friends now.
A: Thats ridiculous! Lets go get breakfast. Mom
pancakes. Grandma has free time now. When have shows possession, relationship, or illness,
She has five grandchildren. it is a nonaction verb.
breakfast. I just coffee. I cant visit her now. I have a cold.
h.not/want i.drink

A: Thats not good. You

to live a healthier life. Some common nonaction verbs are:
Perception verbs: smell, taste, look, sound, followed by an adjective or like
Conversation between two friends:
Feelings and desires: like, dislike, love, hate, hope, want, need, prefer, agree, disagree,
careabout, expect, matter
for a living?
a. your mother/do Mental states: believe, know, hear, see, notice, understand, remember, think that, suppose, recognize
B: Shes retired now.
Other nonaction verbs: mean, cost, spell, weigh

A: old?

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Exercise 9 Circle the correct words to complete the conversation between a grandmother and her Exercise 10 Fill in the blanks with the simple present or the present continuous form of the
grandson. verbgiven.

Listen, Marco, (Im thinking/I think) about getting a new computer. Can you help me pick one out? A: My grandfather is a volunteer. Twice a week he
1. reads for blind people.

Sure, Grandma. How about on Saturday? B:Thats great! My grandmother
part-time in a bookstore. She
b.work c.love

Saturdays good. Whats that noise? It (sounds/is sounding) like rock music (comes/is coming) books. She usually her bike to work. She the exercise.
d.ride e.like

from your pocket. A: Where is she now?


Its my cell phone. Its my new ringtone. (I receive/Im receiving) a text message now. B: Right now shes on vacation. She
her sister in Florida.

Its a message from Dad. See?

A: Can I borrow your dictionary?
It (looks/is looking) like Greek to me. What does it say?
B: Im sorry. I
it now. Wheres your dictionary?
(He tells/Hes telling) me to come home early. (He wants/Hes wanting) to give me another
A: I never
it to class. Its too heavy.
driving lesson. (I learn/Im learning) to drive, you know.
to use my dictionary all the time? You
c.you/expect d.need
When (I have/Im having) something to say, (I use/Im using) the phone.
a dictionary app for your phone.
(I prefer/Im preferring) to text. (It saves/Its saving) time. You can text me too, Grandma.

A: I
a smart phone.
OK. (It looks/Its looking) hard. Teach me. Let me send a note to Grandpa. Jim. Where are you?
3. ? She too fast, so
a. the teacher/say b.talk
See you later.
I her.
Grandma, (youre writing/you write) so slowly. And (you use/youre using) whole words. Use
B: I dont know. I
. I a friend.
d.not/listen e.text
abbreviations, like this: where r u c u later. Don't use punctuation. (You need/Youre needing)
you should pay attention in class.
to write fast.
4. ?
You know Im an English teacher, and (I dont like/Im not liking) to write without punctuation. a.you/write

an essay about my grandparents. I
Text messages don't need punctuation. b.write c.love

them very much.

(I dont think/Im not thinking) I can do it.
with you?
But (you send/youre sending) e-mail every day. d.they/live

B: No, they dont. They live in Pakistan. They

us once a year.
Thats different. (I write/Im writing) slowly, and (I check/Im checking) my spelling. e.visit

? By e-mail?
Youre so old-fashioned! f.you/communicate

B:We usually
a video chat once a week. But right now their computer
No, Im not. This month (I study/Im studying) photo editing at the senior center. g.do

, so we the phone.
(I make/Im making) a digital family album. h.not/work i.use

Thats great, Grandma! Im proud of you. continued

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5. that guy over there? Who is he?

B: Thats my technology teacher.

A: He
jeans and running shoes. And he an
b.wear c.have

earring in his ear. He like a student.


B:I . Everyone hes a student. But hes a very

e.know f.think

professional teacher.

A:My parents
6. to put Grandma in a nursing home. Mom
a.plan b.think

The Future
shell receive better care there.

like a difficult decision.

A: It is. Mom
what else to do. Grandma .
d.not/know e.sometimes/fall

United States Population

B: Maybe she
a cane or a walker.

A: Her memory is bad too. She

where she puts things.

B:Can I call you back later? I
my other phone. My son
CD 8
Read the following article. Pay special attention to the words in bold.
me. TR TK
The population of the United States is growing slowly. Today its about 320 million. By2050,
its going to be about 440 million. This is not a big growth, but one group is growing very fast
the elderly. The sixty-five and over population will more than double by 2050. The eighty-five and
over population will more than triple.
There are two reasons for this increase of older Americans. First, the baby boomers are
getting old. Baby boomers are people born between 1946 and 1964. During that time, a very large
number of babies were born. The oldest are now entering their senior years. Many more will soon
be elderly. As these people retire, young people are going to have many more job opportunities.
In fact, theres going to be a shortage7 of workers to take their place. The number of jobs in health
care will increase. There will be many jobs for pharmacists, physical therapists, and home health
There is another reason for the increase in older Americans: life expectancy is increasing.
Some scientists predict that half the babies born in 2007 will live to be 104 years old. But
according to Dr. Harrison Bloom of the Longevity Center of New York, many young people wont
reach this age because they dont have a healthy lifestyle. Or, if they do live a long time, theyre
going to need a lot of medical help.
When todays young people retire at age sixty-five or seventy, theyll have a lot of years ahead
of them. They need to think about how theyll spend their later years. If they expect to have good
health, they need to think about it now.

7 shortage: a state of not having enough

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Comprehension Check Based on the reading, tell if the statement is true (T) or false (F). A:
To the Grand Canyon.
There will be a shortage of jobs in health care. B:
Thats great! How long there?
The biggest growth in population will be in people over eighty-five.
For about two weeks. Then Grandpa in Nevada.
The baby boomers will live longer than younger generations. 8.

I'm sure happy to see you.

2.6 The Future with Will A:

eighty-five at the end of August.

there for his birthday.

Examples Explanation
The number of older people will increase. We use will + the base form for the future. B:
What with the dog?
My grandfather will be 85 next week.
Can you take care of her for us while were gone?
Ill be 72 years old in 2050. We can contract will with the subject pronouns. The
Well retire at age 65. contractions are Ill, youll, hell, shell, itll, well, and theyll. B:
Sorry. I here the first week in August.
The population will not decrease. 13.
To form the negative, we put not after will. The
I wont retire soon. contraction for will not is wont. A:
Why here?
Youll probably have a long retirement. We can put an adverb between will and the main verb.
I'm going to New York. to find someone else to take
Compare statements, yes/no questions, short answers, and wh- questions. care of the dog.

Yes/No Question
Statement Wh- Question A: my neighbor. Maybe it. Dont
and Short Answer 16. 17.
She will help her parents. Will she help her grandparents? How will she help her parents? forget to send Grandpa a birthday card.
Yes, she will.
B: him an e-mail on his birthday.
You will retire soon. Will you retire next year? When will you retire? 18.

No, I wont. A:
You know Grandpa. He doesnt use his computer much.

There wont be enough Will there be a lot of jobs? Why wont there be enough health B:
All right. him a card then.
health workers. Yes, there will. workers?
Im sure it.

Exercise 12 Fill in the blanks with will and one of the verbs from the box. You may use the same
Exercise 11 Listen to the conversation between a 60-year-old mother and her 29-year-old daughter.
CD 8 verb more than once.
TR TK Fill in the blanks with the words you hear.
spend have increase triple live need move find be
Tomorrow will be my last day of work.

What with all your free time? 1.
Todays generation will live longer.

Our retired friends all say I any free time. They say 2.
The population of old people .

plenty of things to do. 3.

The over-85 population by 2050.

So first? 4. young people more job opportunities?

Dad and I are planning to travel. 5.
Many young people jobs in health care.
B: first? 6.
Some older people into retirement housing.

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How you your retirement years? Exercise 13 Fill in the blanks with be going to and one of the verbs from the box. You may use the
same verb more than once.
Why we more health care workers?
need spend study be live find become double have
How old you in the year 2050?

Many people are going to live to the age of 100.

2.7 The Future with Be Going To 2.

Young people a lot of job possibilities.

Examples Explanation 3.
I a nurse because it
People are going to live longer. We can use a form of be + going to + the base form to
easy to find a job.
We are going to need more pharmacists in the express future time.
Some people a long retirement.
Im not going to work after retirement. To form the negative, we put not after am, is, or are.
He isnt going to retire soon. 5.
Some old people a lot of medical help.
Were going to go to the Grand Canyon. We often shorten going to go to going.
Were going to the Grand Canyon. 6. you to be a physicians assistant?

Younger people jobs in health care.
Compare statements, yes/no questions, short answers, and wh- questions.
By 2050, the population of people over sixty-five .
Yes/No Question
Statement Wh- Question

and Short Answer 9. your grandparents with your family?
We are going to travel. Are we going to travel by car? When are we going to travel?
Yes, we are. 10. You need to think about how you your retirement years.

She is going to work as a Is she going to work at a Where is she going to work? 11. In the future, there a shortage of workers.
nurse. hospital?
12. I to be 100?
No, she isnt.

You arent going to send Are you going to send an e-card? Why arent you going to send Grandpa
Exercise 14 Fill in the blanks with be going to and the words given to complete the conversation
Grandpa a present. Yes, I am. a present?
between two co-workers.
Pronunciation Notes:
Im so excited. I 'm
A: going to retire at the end of this year!
1. In informal speech, going to before another verb often sounds like gonna. In formal 1.retire

English, we dont write gonna. B:

Thats wonderful news. What next?
Im not gonna work after retirement.
A: I dont really know yet. I new things.
2. Only going to before another verb sounds like gonna. We dont pronounce gonna before 3.explore
a noun or a noun phrase. B:
What ?
Hes going to the store. 4.you/explore

I think I have a talent for art. I art classes.

B: part-time?

No way! I want to have fun.

Is your husband happy about your retirement?

Yes. He too.

But youre not that old. continued

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Im 58 and hes 56. Our children us much anymore. CD 8
Exercise 15 Listen to the conversation. Fill in the blanks with the words you hear.
8.not/need TR TK

Why you? A:
I hear youre retiring next month.
9.not/need 1.

A: Our youngest son from college in June. And the other B:

Yes. Isnt it wonderful? sixty-five in September.
10.graduate 2.

two are already on their own. The oldest married next A:

What after you retire?
11.get 3.

year, and the middle one has her own apartment and a job. B: to Florida.

I you at work. It A:
What in Florida?
12.miss 13.not/be 5.

the same without you. B: a sailboat. Maybe

6. 7.

A: I the boss and the long hours. to play golf. What about you?
I dont know. any time soon. Im only forty-five.
2.8Choosing Will or Be Going To or Present Continuous B:
I hope me in Florida.
forFuture A:
Of course

! Do you need help packing?

Examples Explanation B:
Yes. to pack this weekend.
The U.S. population will be 440 million by 2050. For a prediction about the future, we use either

The U.S. population is going to be 440 million by2050. will or be going to. Will is more formal than be A: you.
going to.
Thanks. my life a lot easier!
Grandpa will be 85 years old in August. For a fact about the future, we use either will or 13.
Grandpa is going to be 85 in August. be going to.
A:Im interested in health care. I am going to become When we have a definite plan for the future, we Exercise 16 Circle the correct words to complete the conversation. In some cases, both choices are
a nurse. use be going to. possible. If so, circle both.
B:My sisters a nurse. Ill tell her about your plan. When we are thinking about the future at the
Maybe she can give you some advice. moment of speaking, we use will. A: Do you want to go for a cup of coffee?
Grandma: I want to buy a cell phone. What kind should To make a promise or offer to help with no
B:Sorry. I dont have time. (Im going to visit/Ill visit) my grandfather this afternoon.

I buy? previous plan, we use will. The decision comes at a.
Grandson: Ill help you. Ill take you shopping. the moment of speaking. (Im going to help/Ill help) him with his computer. And I need to return some books to thelibrary.
Grandma: You always say that. But you never have time. b.
Grandson: Ill make time. I promise. A:Give them to me. Im going that way on my way home. (Ill return/Im going to return) them for you.

My grandmother is moving into a retirement home on We can use the present continuous with definite
Friday. Im helping her move. plans for the near future. Doyou want to get together for coffee tomorrow?
The weather report says its going to rain on Friday, so We dont use the present continuous if there is
B: Im not sure. (Ill text/Im going to text) you tomorrow to let you know.

the move wont be easy. no plan. (Not: It is raining on Friday.) d.

Language Note: A:I have to go to the airport. My grandparents plane (is arriving/is going to arrive) at four oclock this
For a scheduled event, such as a flight, movie, or class, we often use the simple present. a.

The semester begins in August. afternoon.

My nursing course ends next month.
(Ill go/Im going) with you. (Ill/Im going to) stay in the car while you go into the airport.
b. c.


B: How long (are they going to stay/are they staying)?


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(Theyll come/Theyre coming) because (my sisters graduating/will graduate) on Sunday. After the A:
That's great! What are you and your family (doing/going to do) when (hes/hell be) no longer
e. f. 6. 7.
graduation, (theyll/theyre going to) visit my cousins in Denver. able to take care of himself?

We never think about it. Hes in great health. I think hes (outliving/going to outlive) us all.
A: My mothers so happy. (Shes going to retire/Shell) retire next month.
3. 8.
But (hes probably going to need/hell probably need) help when (hell get/he gets) older.
B: Are you (going to have/having) a party for her?
9. 10.
If (hell need/he needs) help, (he has/hell have) his wife to take care of him.
A: Yes. Do you want to come to the party?
11. 12.

My grandparents are in their sixties now. But when (theyre/theyll be) older, theyre going to
B: Whats the date?

live with my parents. In our country, its an honor to take care of our parents and grandparents.
A: June 16.

That sounds like a great custom. But I think older people should be independent. Im glad that
B: I have to check my calendar. (Im going to/Ill) let you know later.

Grandpa doesnt depend on us. And when (Im/Ill be) old, (Im going to take/Im taking) care
14. 15.

2.9 Future + Time or If Clause of myself. I dont want to depend on anyone.

(Youll change/Youre changing) your mind when (youre/youll be) old.
Time or If Clause (Simple Present) Main Clause (Future) Explanation 16. 17.
When I retire, Im going to start a new hobby. Some sentences have a time or if
If I am healthy, Ill continue to work. clause and a main clause. We use Exercise 18 About You Think about a specific time in your future (when you graduate, when you

the future in the main clause; we get married, when you have children, when you find a job, when you return to your native country,
Main Clause (Future) Time or If Clause (Simple Present)
use the simple present in the time when you retire, etc.). Write three sentences to tell what will happen at that time. Find a partner who is
Hell move to a warm climate as soon as he retires. or if clause. close to your age. Compare your answers to your partners answers.
My parents are going to travel if they have enough money.
1. I have children, I won't have as much free time as I do now.
Punctuation Note:
If the time or if clause comes before the main clause, we use a comma to separate the two When
2. I retire, I'm going to start a new hobby.
parts of the sentence. If the main clause comes first, we dont use a comma.

Exercise 17 Choose the correct words to complete the conversation. In some cases, both choices are
possible. If so, circle both choices. 5.

What (are you doing/will you do) later today?
After class (will be/is) over, I'm going to drive my grandfather to the airport.
Where (is he going/will he go) ?

To Hawaii to play golf.

Thats great! How old is he?

(Hes going to/Hell) be seventy-eight next month.

Hes pretty old.

Hes in perfect health. (Hes getting/hell get) married in two months.

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summary of lesson 2 test/review
Simple Present Circle the correct words to complete the conversation. If both answers are correct, circle both choices.
For general truths Many people retire in their sixties.
Hi, Maya.
Some retirees get a pension.
For regular activities, habits, customs Jack plays golf twice a week. B:
Hi, Liz. How are you?
I always visit my grandparents on the weekend.
Fine. What (are you doing/you are doing) ? (Do/Are) you want to go out for a cup of coffee?
With a place of origin My grandfather comes from Mexico. 1. 2.
My grandmother comes from Peru.
(Im not having/I dont have) time now. (I pack/I'm packing).
In a time clause or in an if clause of a When she retires, she'll start a new hobby. 3. 4.
future statement If Grandma needs help, she'll live with us. (Were moving/Were going to move) next Saturday.
With nonaction verbs I care about my grandparents.
Oh, really? Why (are you/you are) moving? You (have/are having) such a lovely apartment now.
Your grandfather needs help now. 6. 7.
My grandfather prefers to live alone now.
Yes, I know we do. But my father (comes/is coming) soon, so we're (going to need/needing) a
For scheduled events The plane leaves at 8 p.m. tonight. 8. 9.

bigger apartment.

Present Continuous (with action verbs only) A:

When (is he/he is) going to come?
For an action happening now, at this My friend is texting me now.
moment Shes sending me her photo. B:
He (leaves/ll leave) as soon as he (gets/ll get) his visa. That (is probably/will probably be) in
11. 12. 13.
For a long-term action in progress at this Judy is earning money by making dolls.
about four months.
general time Jack is retired now. He is starting a new career.

For a trend in society The population of the U.S. is getting older. A:
But your present apartment (has/have) an extra bedroom.
Americans are living longer.
Yes. But my husband (likes/is liking) to have an extra room for an office.
For a definite plan in the near future She is retiring next month. 15.
She is going on a long trip soon.

He usually (brings/is bringing) a lot of work home. He doesnt (likes/like) noise when he works.
With a descriptive state Mary is standing over there. 16. 17.
She is wearing jeans and a T-shirt. A:
(Is your father/Your father is) going to get his own apartment after he (will find/f inds) a job?
18. 19.

Hes retired now. Hes going to (live/living) with us. He (isnt liking/doesnt like) to live alone.
Future 20. 21.

Will Be Going To A:
(Do you need/Are you needing) help with your packing?
For a plan He is going to retire in two
No, thanks. Bill and I are (stay/staying) home this week to finish the packing. And my sister
years. 23.
For a fact The number of old people will The number of old people is (is helping/helps) me now too.
increase. going to increase. 24.

For a prediction There will be more jobs in There are going to be more A: Id like to help. (I come/Ill come) over next Saturday to help you move.
health care. jobs in health care.
(Were going to use/We use) professional movers on Saturday. We (arent/dont) want to bother
For a decision made at the Ill take care of you when 26. 27.
time of speaking, usually with a youre old. our friends.
promise or an offer Grandma, Ill carry your
grocery bags for you. A:
Its no bother. I (want/m wanting) to help.

Thanks. I have to go now. (I hear/Im hearing) Bill now. (He calls/Hes calling) me.
29. 30.

He(need/needs) help in the basement. (I call/Ill call) you back later.

31. 32.

Thats not necessary. (I see/Ill see) you on Saturday. Bye.

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Writing Grandpa doesnt want to travel. He says, What Im going to do in India? Im thinking
9. 10.
that Grandpa is needing to find a hobby. Grandma always tells him, You will happy if you
PART 1 Editing Advice 11. 12.

Always include a form of be in a present continuous verb. find something to do. Will I going to have a hard time like Grandpa when I will retire?
13. 14.
is Illthink about it when the time comes.
She working now.
^ 15. 16.
Dont use the present continuous with a nonaction verb.
like PART 3 Write About It
I am liking my new hobby.
Include be in a future sentence that has no other verb. 1. Write about the differences in generations and their use of technology. Use examples from your
be own life or the lives of people you know.
You will busy when you retire. 2. Interview a retired person. What is this person doing with his or her life now? What are this
^ persons plans for the future?
Dont combine will and be going to.

He will going to leave. OR Hes going to leave.

PART 4 Edit your Writing
Dont use the future after a time word or if.
Reread the Summary of Lesson 2 and the editing advice. Edit your writing from Part 3.
When I will retire, Ill have more free time.

If I will have enough money, Ill travel.

Use a form of be with going to.

He going to help his grandfather.
Use the correct word order in questions.
will you
When you will retire?
isnt she
Why she isnt going to work part-time?

PART 2 Editing Practice

Some of the shaded words and phrases have mistakes. Find the mistakes and correct them. If the shaded
words are correct, write C.

My grandfather is retired now, and hes not happy. He wakes up every day and says,
will I
What I will do today? On the other hand, my grandmother is very busy. My grandparents
live in a retirement village, and Grandma is learning how to draw. Shes also take singing
2. 3. 4.
lessons, and she studying photography. Next month, she going to take a trip to India with a
5. 6.
group of older people. When Grandma will get back from India, shes going to make a photo
7. 8.
slideshow of her trip.

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