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Ron Martinez Bm Como dizer tudo em inglés V (© 2006, Elsevier Editora Lida, ‘Todos 0s direitos reservados e protegidos pela Lei 9.610 de 19/02/1998. Nenhuma parte deste livo, sem autorizagdo prévia por escrito da editora, poderd ser reproduzida ou transmitida sejam quais forem os meios empregados: letrOnicos, mecénicos, fotograficos, gravacdo ou quaisquer outros. Editoragdo Eletrénica: Estidio Castellani Reviséo Grifica: Marina Pombo de Oliveira Projeto Gréfico Elsevier Editora Lida. ‘A Qualidade da Intormacao. Rua Sete de Setembro, 111 ~ 16° andar 2050-006 Rio de Janeiro Ry Brasil Telefone: (21) 3970-9300 FAX: (21) 2507-1991 E-mail info @ eisevier.com.br Escritério Sto Paulo: ‘Rua Quintana, 759/8° andar (04569-011 Brooklin Sao Paulo SP Tel. (11) 5105-8555, ISBN 13: 978-85-352-1247-1 ISBN 10: 85-352-352-1247-7 ‘Nota: Muito zelo @ técnica foram empregados na edicao desta obra. No entanto, podem ocorrer erros {de digitacao, impresso ou duivida conceitual. Em qualquer das hipdteses, solicitamos a comunicagao & nossa Central de Alendimento, para que possamos esclarecer ou encaminhar a questao. Nem a editora nem o autor assumem qualquer responsabilidade por eventuais danos ou perdas & Pessoas ou bens, originados do uso desta publicacao. Central de atendimento Tel: 0800-26534 Rua Sete de Setembro, 111, 16° andar ~ Centro ~ Rio de Janeiro ‘e-mail: nfo@elsevier.com br site: waww.campus.com br CIP-Brasil, Catalogacao-na-fonte. Sindicato Nacional dos Editores de Livros, PU a376 Martinez, Ron Como dizer tudo em inglés : avancado / Ron Martinez — Rio de Janeiro : Elsevier, 2006 (Como dizer tudo em) ISBN 85-352-1247-7 1. Lingua inglesa ~ Compéndios para estrangeios. I. Titulo. I. Série 06-0954. COD 428.24 COU 811.111'243 Contents Introduction SECTION 1 Using What You Know 1 © Expressions that Translate Literally (or almost literally) 2 © False Cognates from Portuguese with Advanced Uses in English 6 © Common Basic Nouns with More Advanced Verbal Meanings 12 SECTION 2 Learning by Sound: Phono-Etymologically Related Words 21 © Words with sn- 22 © Words with str- 25 © Words with gl- 29 © Words with gr- 32 © Words with cl- 36 © Words with -ggle and -ngle 38 © Words with wr- 40 * Words with -sh 41 © Words with sl- 45 © Words with p_k 48 © Words with dr- 50 © Words with -umble 54 © Words with sh- 56 © Words with tr- 59 © Words with wh- 61 SECTION 3 Advanced Adjectives © Useful Adje © Useful Adjectives with -ing © Word Formation with Useful Suffixes © Using un- for Euphemism ives with -y © Using in- and im- for Euphemism SECTION 4 intensifying © Intensifying with a stronger adjective . Intensifying with an adverb — 1 ing with an adverb — 2 Intensifying with an adverb — 3 Intensifying with an adverb — 4 1g with an adverb — 5 © Intensifying with Cause and Effect © Intensifying with a simile SECTION Building Vocabulary around a Word © Expressions with thing and things Expressions with say, tell, talk and speak Expressions with -’s ith of sions with of the jons © Expres © Expr Expressions with out of Binomials Binomials with and — 1 Binomials with and — 2 Binomials with and — 3 Binomials with and — 4 Binomials with and — 5 Binomial: Collocations with Binomials Binomials with or ions with to 100 101 103 104 107 108 112 116 118 121 124 126 127 128 130 131 133 134 136 137 139 141 SECTION 6 Discourse Markers: Punctuation for your speech * Using Actually, .... © Using I guess © Using I mean, ... Using I'm afraid Using In a way, ... Using Just Using Like Using Look... . Using Mind you, ... Using Now, ... Using Oh, Using So, Using The thing is, ... Using Well, ... Using You know . ° Using You see... . Using Anyway Collocations with Discourse Markers SECTION 7 Phrasal Verbs © Synopsis Using Phrasal Verbs © Phrasal Verbs Connected to Relationships SECTION 8 Expressions Related to People and Personality *® Personality word formation: Well © Personality word formation: -er endings © A Little Something about Me SECTION 9 Elliptical Expressions © Expressions with Good xpressions with No 143 144 148 150 153 156 158 163 170 173 175 179 184 188 191 195 202 206 209 210 215 219 220 221 231 232 233 © Expressions with Not * Expressions with So © Mixed Elliptical Expressions ~ 1 © Adjacency Pairs SECTION i0 Review and Expansion Answer Key 233 234 234 237 Introduction WHAT IS ADVANCED ENGLISH? Does being advanced mean being able to pass a formal examination like the Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) or the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) with a high score? Or does being advanced perhaps mean sounding like a native speaker? Maybe. There is no definitive answer to that question. Perhaps it’s a little like the old aneedote about the man who walks into a Ferrari deale: ship and asks about the cost of a new car. “Well,” responds the salesperson, you have to ask...” Basically, if you're advanced, you know it. Sure, it’s sometimes satisfying (and even necessary) to have a third party validate that feeling, but, in the end, it is you who will walk away from a letter you wrote, a conversation you had or a speech you ood.” 1 tell you what advanced language for learners of English is not: delivered saying, “Well, that was pretty But Le It isn’t what r tive speakers usually consider advanced. When Americans, for example, study “advanced” vocabulary in the United States, they learn words firmament, errant and replete — words which for their relation to ins are relatively easy to Brazilians. Or we learn “advanced” terms. e callow, prevaricate and abeyance, which may not seem familiar to Br speakers either. ilians, but, for that matter, aren't very familiar to the majority of native Instead, what seems to be advanced to a high-level Brazilian learner of English would probably seem simple and common to most native speakers. To reiterate a term cited above, a Brazilian would know the meaning of replete with, but would most likely be unfamiliar with the terms packed with or chock full of, The former may be useful in certain written or formal contexts, but it is the latter terms which are most familiar to a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Thave learned many collocations while livi © atingir wma meta concordar plenamente travar uma luta * prestar queixa furar a fila —and so on. English is no different, There is no better explanation for why undivided attention, chance encounter, soaking wet and prominently displayed go together than “that’s the way it is” — it’s collocation. You will find collocation emphasized throughout this book. It is in no uncertain terms of key importance to fluency and advanced English language use. DOING MORE WITH WHAT YOU KNOW If you are using this book, then you already know the word mouth, right? After all, it to mouth? How about word of mouth? And hand to mouth? What about to mouth off? They all seem basi one of the most ba: c words in English. But do you know mouth enough, right? Mouth, hand, to, of and off. Yes, all very basic words, but the combination of those words form more advanced locutions. Combinations of words, such as collocations (see above) and expressions make more advanced use of seemingly basic words. This is another focus of this book: to get you doing more with what you already know. HELPING YOU SEE PATTERNS As was mentioned previously, vocabulary is essential to the development of dvanced fluency. But looking at a dictionary of 1,000 pages can make you feel a little overwhelmed. That is why another goal of Como Dizer Tudo em Inglés Avancado is to help you see ways in which vocabulary and expre: can be organized into different patterns. As you will see, lexical items organized around a single word (as we saw with mouth, above), function (the purpose for using the language item), collocation and even spelling. In this way, Como Dizer Tudo emt Inglés Avancado is also designed as a training tool to help you learn to see further w “finished” the book. to develop your fluency even after you've a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés EXPRESSIONS THAT TRANSLATE LITERALLY (OR ALMOST LITERALLY) Most of the time, expressions are unique. For example, you can't translate bater a porta as “hit the door” and ch de cadeira sounds funny as “tea chi But you can say “honeymoon” for lua de mel, and many other such expressions. So it's also useful and important to know which ones you actually can translate literally from one language to another, As is a common theme throughout this book, the aim is to build on what you already know. | take my hat off to the ladies. The amount of grooming — plucking and shaving and all the other things men never have to do. ~ ACTOR CILLIAN MURPHY (‘BATMAN BEGINS’, ‘RED EYE’) palavra chave = key word dar um tiro no pé shoot yourself in the foot abragar uma idéia = embrace an idea beijo o cho que vocé pisa = | [kiss the ground you walk on nao é todo dia que... it’s not every day that... nao é o fim do mundo = it’s not the end of the world campo de visio = field of vision correr 0 risco run the risk no ponta da lingua on the tip of my tongue cheio de vida = full of life em boas:inaios in good hands de bragos abertos = with open arms eu nao nasci ontem = I wasn't born yesterday a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo FALSE COGNATES FROM PORTUGUESE WITH ADVANCED USES IN ENGLISH “Dreams are often most profound when they seem the most crazy.” - SIGMUND FREUD It could be said that there are two types of false cognates: 1. When a word in English looks completely unrelated e a word in Portuguese, but is When a word in English looks like a word in Portuguese, but its meaning is not exactly the same A typical example of Type 1 is the word actually, which has a completely diffe means “in ent meaning in English from atualmente in Portuguese (a ually essentially fact,” whereas atualmente means “currently” ~ see page 144 for more on this word.) But a word like profound is not totally unrelated to profundo in Portugu In fact, it is a fairly common and useful word, especially to more advanced lea rs of English. The fact that it is somewhat related to an existing word in Portuguese makes it easier to remember. It is of course important to be aware of the first type of false cognate, but — for the purposes of this book — it’s actually more productive to study Type 2 more carefully. False cognate Meaning in english Example content Content does not mean “happy” He doesn't want (stress: it does in Portuguese, but it to change content) does mean “generally satisfied.” anything. He's content with the situation the way it is now. profound Profound doesn’t mean This new “profundo” in the sense of discovery has physical depth, but it can mean profound profundo in the figurative sense. _ implications for medicine. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avan False cognate journal optimal (also ‘optimum’) ambience (pronounced ‘ambianss’) ardent augment decadent Meaning in english We don’t say journal for newspapers as is used i Portuguese (jornal), but the word journal exists for other types of publications, such as scientific and scholarly periodicals, and also for personal diaries. The word optimal also means something good in English, but means specifically “the best possible,” and isn’t used as an interjection as étimo is in Portuguese. The word ambience, similar to ambiente, is used in English, but to mean the “atmosphere” or “feel” of a place. Ardent is als English, but fire as it relates metaphorically to passion. » about “fire” in The word augment has the same meaning as aumentar in English, but is used much more formally. Whereas decadente in Portuguese means “falling apart,” decadent in English means falling apart “morally,” due to excess and indulgence. sel Example He keeps a journal with random thoughts and ideas. For optimum effect, you should exercise and diet at the same time. San Francisco is a Although major cosmopolitan city, it still has the ambience of a small town. I'm an ardent supporter of equal rights for everyone. The pressure augmented after the talks broke down. The hotel was utterly decadent, with four swimming pools, marble floors and servants everywhere at your beck and call. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avanca Common noun bridge butter card chance chair cloud coat coin dish edge ees Verbal meaning To make two people or things that are conceptually or culturally different come together. To praise a person so that they will give you what you want. To ask someone for ation to prove pecially at a To take a chance, risk. To lead a meeting or formal discussion. To make nebulous, especially in a metaphoric way. To put a protective or decorative substance on something. To create a new word or term. To give and say things, especially hurtful and harmful things. To advance little by little. To encourage someone to do something that is not good or advisable. Example I's not easy to bridge the cultural gap between people from different religious backgrounds. I had to butter up my boss a little before I could ask him for a raise. She's thirty-eight years old but she looks so young that she's always carded at the door. We weren't sure if we could get in, but we chanced it anyway. Jennifer offered to chair the next staff meeting. The strong emotions I was feeling clouded my good judgment. The breakfast cereal is sugar-coated. Benjamin Franklin coined the term “battery.” She dishes out criticism very easily, but doesn’t accept any. The tide edged toward our beach umbrellas. ‘The man was beating the homeless person and the crowd was egging him on. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo Common noun top toy trouble view voice word PRACTICE Verbal meaning 1. To do something better than someone else; 2. To finish something with something good. (“com chave de ouro”) 1. To think about doing something; 2. To play games with someone and/or their feelings. 1. When something worries someone; 2. To disturb a person. (“incomodar”) To have a certain opinion about something or someone. To vocalize feelings and opi ions. To choose the way you write or say something. Example My chocolate chip cookies are pretty good, but it’s impossible to top my mother's. And we topped off that wonderful dinner with my favorite dessert: chocolate cheesecake. We're toying with the idea of getting married next year. He doesn't care about you. He's just toying with you I'm a little troubled by his behavior. I don't mean to trouble you, but could you help me? I view the issue in a different way. Please feel free to voice your concerns. 1 know what I want to write, I just don’t know how I should word it. I. Complete the sentences below. (Try to do it without consulting the expressions on the previous pages.) 1. The daughter misbehaved and the father gr 2. The smoke alarm went off when he 1. her for two weeks. the cigarette. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo WORDS WITH SN- There are many words beginning with sn in English that are related to the nose, either literally or figuratively. “Laugh and the world laughs with you. Snore and you sleep alone.” ~ ANTHONY BURGESS sneeze sniff sniffle snore snort snot Definition Espirrar Example The smell of her strong perfume made me sneeze. Definition Inhale through your nose to sense a smell. Example He stuck his nose in the bouquet to sniff the roses. Defini n Inhale strongly through your nose, as when crying or with a cold. Example Thad no tissues and so was sniffling throughout the test. Definition Roncar Example His snoring kept me awake all night long. Definition Make a loud sound by inhaling or exhaling forcefully through the nose, often because of contempt or laughter; to ingest cocaine through your nose Example She snorted in disapproval of the suggestion. Defini Nasal mucus (informal) n Example The kid wiped away the snot on his jacket sleeve. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo strip strand strap string straw stream Definition Tira Example |_Could you cut me off a strip of tape? Definition Um fio; A thin thread of something, as a strand of hair, or a strand of rope. Example | The crime scene investigators were able to extract DNA from a | single strand of hair. _series of things together; corda. Definition An elongated st p or band used to hold things in position or to shoulder objects, such as a suitcase or handbag; to use a strap to secure something; alga. Example ‘The strap on my gym bag broke and I had to carry it by hand. Definition Barbante; a series of something (ex. a string of pearls); to put a Example An usual string of events led to the criminal’s capture. Definition _Canudo; palha Example Do you want a straw with your drink? Definition Riacho Example Follow the stream until you get to the river. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo gleam glimmer glisten glitzy glint glow glare Definition To shine brightly, or to shine as reflected light. Example The chrome bumpers on the classic car were gleaming in the afternoon sun. Definition A flash of light, especially reflected light, or to shine little flashes of light. Example The moonlight glimmered on the lake. Definition To shine and sparkle, especially if new or recently washed. Example The boy flashed a glistening smile. Definition Flashy to the point of being ostentatious; with the presence of VIPs and celebrities (glamorous). Example She wore this glitzy dress to the Academy Awards ceremony. Definition A momentary flash of light; to sparkle, shine. Example The diamond was glinting on her wedding ring. Definition A soft, steady (usually) pleasant light; to produce such a light. Example I could see the glow of a warm fire in the distance. Definition A strong brightness, usually uncomfortable; to shine intensely, usually in a way that makes one feel uncomfortable. Example Teacher! I can’t read the board! There’s glare on it! a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancapo grouch(y) grumpy grumble Definition A person who is always in a bad mood; the way to describe such a person (grouchy). Example Oh, he’s such a grouch when he hasn't had his dinner Definition Irritable, bitter. Example They're just a bunch of grumpy old men. Definition To complain barely audibly, mostly to yourself. Example “Broccoli? | hate broccoli,” he grumbled. gr- words related to sounds a person can make grunt groan growl Definition Grunhir; grunhido Example The men during the football game seemed to communicate mostly in grunts. Definition A deep, prolonged sound that communicates pain; to make that sound. Example He groaned and held his stomach after eating twenty hot dogs. Definition Resmungo; resmungar Example “Not now, I'm busy” she growled. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo WORDS WITH -GGLE AND -NGLE “It's simple: if it jiggles, it's fat.” ~ ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER There are three verbs with -ggle at the end that have to do with movement, especially repeated, small movements. The three verbs with -ngle endings are related to confusion or chaos. jiggle wiggle wriggle mangle tangle Definition To move an object up and down or back and forth in short, quick movements aking movement as if something were loose. Example If the door doesn’t open, try jiggling the key in the keyhole. Definition Similar to jiggle, but mostly used to describe bodily movements. Example She had to wiggle herself into the tight jeans. Definition To move in a twisting, contorting motion. Example His niece tried to wriggle herself free from his strong hug. Definition To take something apart so that it is drastically altered from its original form. Example He got nervous and completely mangled the wonderful speech he had prepared. Definition A mix of something, such as hair, so twisted that it is difficult to straighten the elements out; to get mixed up with many things and element Example The application process is full of all kinds of tangles and red tape. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancapo -sh words related to collision bash crash clash smash Definition To hi unintentionally; a party (informal). Example After falling off his b and bashing his head on the pavement, he always wore a helmet. something hard against something else, often Definition A collision; to collide. Example The cars crashed into each other on the bridge. Definition A conflict when two things, people or groups meet; the action of that happening. Example His polka-dotted tie clashes with his striped shirt. Defi To vi jon ently hit something else; to break into many pieces. Example In anger, he smashed his fist into the wall. -sh words related to compression. crush mash Defi ion To make something smaller using force or weight. Example Before rec} our feet. ing the aluminium cans, we crushed them with Definition To press down hard on a substance so as to make is soft or break it down into small pieces. Example In order to make the spaghetti sauce, first mash the ga dice the onions. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancaoo slime/ Definition slimy A thick messy substance, often sticky; a substance that is like slime (slimy). Example The chocolate melted and became a slimy mess. sludge Definition Fluid, thick, messy substance, often made of earth or waste. Example The flood filled many residences with sludge. slosh Definition ly splash or spill a liquid. To mess Example Jenny sloshed the paint on the wall. slurp Defin To drink in an unrefined, loud way. Example I couldn't focus on the movie with the man behind me slurping his drink. sl- words related to a smooth surface of movement on a smooth surface slide Definition Deslizar; escorregar. Example |_ The way he danced it seemed he slid across the floor. slip Definition Escorregar; also, to let something go unintentionally. Example I slipped and fell on the icy pavement. slippery Definition Escorregadigo Example Careful, that road gets slippery after it has rained. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo The verb pick deserves special attention: someone's pocket__ —> [thief takes something from your clothes aig > [pected ‘lock —& [open a lock without a key yy 7 a = [clean your nostrils with a finger your nos PRACTICE I. Complete the sentences below. 1. Careful with that stick. You an p. someone in the eye. 2. Shep ed her finger with a needle. 3. The bird p ed at the cage. 4. They climbers ha We were still hungry so we p. to turn back before reaching the p ed the meat off the bones. IL. Collocation, What p-k words can you put below? WORDS WITH DR- “I'm not handsome in the classical sense. The eyes droop, the mouth is crooked, the teeth somehow it all works.” ~ KEVIN SPACEY Words that start with dr- often suggest a aren't straight...but downward movement or lowliness. dr- words related to a downward movement drop Definition Pingo; to let fall; to fall suddenly. Example ops! I dropped my pen. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avawcapo 3. Babysitting my nephews dr. ed all my energy. 4. I'mdr. ing over that chocolate cake over there. 5. The sweat was dr, ing down my forehead. II. Collocation. What dr- words can you put below? i>: | Es —E—EE=EeE OEE “Do the one thing you think you cannot do. Fail at it. Try again. Do better the second time. The only people who never tumble are those who never mount the high wire. This is your moment. Own it.” ~ OPRAH WINFREY Words that end in -umble often have a connotation of words or actions that lack grace or elegance. stumble _ Definition To almost trip or fall as you walk. Example He wasn't looking and stumbled as he stepped off the curb. tumble | Definition To fall suddenly, often in a rolling fashion. Example The steps were slippery and I tumbled all the way down. fumble Definition To handle something clumsily, often letting it fall; to | ungracefully try to find something. Example | The football player fumbled the ball and lost the game. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo shade Definition A thing that blocks the light; the area where it's cooler because the sun isn’t hitting there; to block the light. Example The red lamp shade caused the room to have a pinkish glow. sheath Definition The protective covering of a knife or a sword; other close-fitting protective coverings, such as the plastic sheath around electric wiring. Example He put the knife back into its sheath. Useful expressions with sh- words. Could you shed some light Offer an explanation for something on this situation? that is hard to understand Come out of your shell! Stop being a shy person. She's led a very sheltered She doesn’t know what it’s like life. in “the real world.” PRACTICE I. Complete the sentences below. 1, It was hot out so we sat in the sh, 2. He tore the paper to sh___s. 3. The camera lens sh. ed when it fell on the floor. 4. She left me but I'm not going to sh any tears over her. 5. Some people actually have a bomb sh. built under their house. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo whew Definition “Ufa!”; an interjection, especially written, to communicate a feeling of relief (it is pronounced with a long blow, approximating the sound “few”). Example Whew! That wa a close one! Useful expressions with wh- words. She blew the whistle Tell an authority about illegal on her boss. lly at work). ity (espe An event that ends with little It ended with a whimper. : : s and little attention. suc Something bad almost happened, but now you're OK. Whew! That was a close one! PRACTICE I. Complete the sentences below. 1. The dog wh d out of sadness whenever its owner left. Wh {It sur Well, I can’t sing very well but can wh hot today! quite nicel T-can hear you wh. Shh. This is a libra ing. Do you want your medicine? yhene ry. You should wh. IL. Collocation. What wh-words can you put below? Jin your ear | a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo Showing courage. Very thin. In a bad mood. Generally unhappy. Very strange. An animal with a lot of hair. itty Lites Shocking in a scary way. Wanting things a particular wi Admirable goals. ambitious Uncomfortably hot and humid. hearty Large portions. Restless because you're nervous. Sexually excited; always Qa in the mood for se Object: Useful; Person: Knows how to fix things. | Done/Doing i ina ree | hurry. Not very clear. Horrible, offensive; obscene Pegajoso; not easy to solve. Pes ae ‘ae ge we a Silly, funny. Showing blood. ay Always talking about gossip. Easily irritated. Carthy needy Carente. Intrometido. ng Makes you want to scratch. Suculento (literally and figuratively). Nervous and easily scared. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo % 13. 21. grumpy 10. sketchy stuffy wordy grouchy old man a ghastly report cuddly phony furry smiley squeaky 12. hasty raspy gutsy stinky voice a(n) iffy decision gicly shaky silky pricey smelly 14, corny hearty racy picky eater a tasty joke fussy filthy sloppy nasty bubbly 16. rocky sketchy hearty gory details a kinky relationship hazy shaky yummy fiery touchy 18. slinky pointy skimpy tricky subject a puffy dress sticky spongy slippery clingy curvy 20.) cushy clingy shady needy boyfriend a sloppy job horny shaky hunky bossy bossy 22. worthy cocky lofty preachy tone (of voice) greedy ambitions spooky fiery greedy bossy a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés avancavo Actions or words that you interpret as aggressive. Very exciting. Very tall. Makes you feel anxious or worried. ‘A person who trusts easily. Difficult to endure. Showing no desire for attention or admiration. Stubborn. A place full of activity and energy. Lasting forever. Intolerant of mistakes. Makes you feel happy and positive. Makes you feel angry or emotional Acolhedor. Offering to do something that maybe the person does not want to do PRACTICE 1. Test yourself + +++ Perr ert Tat ron Pereettht Pet td et ag Pcs Pr isntd upsetting Ren Stay Using a strip of paper, cover the adjectives, read the description and try to remember what the ing-ending word was. IL. Collocation 1 What's the collocation? Look at the adjectives and insert a noun from the box below. gesture offer work comment statistic meal a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em ingl AVANCADO 16. 17. 18. 19, 20. 21 22. 23. 24. He was a cocaine addict but now he's ‘The company cares about helping the community. It’s No sound leaves the room. It’s It's designed in a way that no mistakes can occur. It's This sauce is OK for your heart. It's There is no risk involved. It's I feel safe in my building because the residents are very ‘They don't think. They simply obey. They're T always try to spending. I'm ind ways to reduce drug socially sound mistake cholesterol risk security mind cost Most of the words seen above you won't find in dictionaries, but you can do a quick search on the Internet and see many examples. Remember that the above repr ent only some of the more common combinations, but you can get creative in your everyday language production: If you don’t have Internet If you don't get “spam” in your email “spam-proof.” at home, you could say you're “internetless.” then you could say it’s If you are happy you don't have a girlfriend, you could say you're “girlfriend-free. If you are always noticing Volkswagen Fuscas, you might s “Fusca-conscious. On the other hand, you could also be “Fusca-less,” “Internet-free,” “spam-conscious, and “girlfriend-proof”! The possibilities are limitless! a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Como dizer tudo em inglés It’s unpopular. It’s unpleasant. a I'm unsure. It's untidy. It’s untimely. It’s simply untrue. It’s unusual. OU Oo GoUL a a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. SECTION 4 Intensifying One of the most common elements of spoken English is the use of hyperbole. When describing something, telling a story or simply chatting, people often emphasize by using an adjective, adverb or expression to communicate extremity and involve the listener. In the pages that follow, we will look at some of the most useful tools all advanced students should have in order to sound more natural when speaking. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. section 4 Intensifying Beautiful day: Is there enough time? IIL. Using strong adjectives with I mean... and We're talking... As you will see on page 150 in the section on Discourse Markers, the phrase I mean is often used in conversation to rephrase and intensify. Do the exercise below following the example. Oh, this fish was big. | How big was the fish? mean, we're talking huge! Let me tell you... This hotel was dirty. I mean, we're talking ! a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. SECTION 4 Intensifying 5. Thought I wanted the divorce, but now that she’s gone I'm all 6. I don’t think there's a “right” age to have children. It all on the individual couple. 7. OK, well, I'm showered, dressed and all to go. 8. The clothes are still all . Better let them dry a little longer. 9. He thought he had life all out before he got fired. 10. My husband is away on business so I have the place all to INTENSIFYING WITH AN ADVERB - 2 “Keep your eyes wide open before marriage, and half-shut afterwards.” ~ BENJAMIN FRANKLIN The exercise below will teach you many ways of intensifying using one or two words. At intermediate and beginner levels, students learn words like “very” and “really,” but sometimes to use those adverbs with certain adjectives doesn't sound natural. For example, most native speakers of English don't say “very asleep” or “really awake.” Instead, they use a word that collocates with those adjectives and acts as an adverb (even though it might not look like one). Sometimes it’s a word that seems unusual, but trust the list below. It truly reflects what advanced speakers of English say. at last at long last cold (ambient temperature) freezing cold cold (drink) ice cold rich filthy rich new brand new gone long gone open hot (popular) hot (food) piping hot a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. sections Intensifying PRACTICE I. Collocation The box below has some of the strong adjectives from page 88. Insert those adjectives next to the appropriate adverbs. gigantic adorable cute _ spotless _ tired ~—_—hhideous filthy hilarious starving sure packed —_furious funny brilliant drenched cold a“. a“ Co a“ a“ oe \ SN IL. Elliptical answers with totally, absolutely and extremely Many times adverbs can come in the form of a response to intensify and show agreement. Look at the example and do the exercise below. ee “< He must be erary Cc DC 2. Is he still angry? O Ne, * Yaa Aren't you starving? Mt a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. SECTION 4 Intensifying INTENSIFYING WITH CAUSE AND EFFECT I fell so hard | heard bells ring, but held on to my ding-a-ling-a-ling. ~ CHUCK BERRY, ‘MY DING-A-LING’ It’s common to say things like “I was so tired I had to lie down.” These expressions which intensify the adjective by telling what consequence it had often come in the form of an expression. In the exercise below, connect the beginning of an expression with its ending below. 1. |The music was so loud 2. Imso hungry 3. The place was so crowded 4. [laughed so hard 5. [fell so hard 6. Lwas so drunk 7. | The steak was so tender 8. | The tension is so thick 9. It's so easy ___ lo. It's so cheap | ll. I was so nervous 12. The weather is so hot 13. Twas so tired a. ven a child could do it. ob. couldn't stand. |e |... could eat a horse. d. -I couldn't breathe. e. couldn't hear myself think. f. cried. g heard bells ring. h couldn't see straight. i, y hands were shaking. i. hey’re pra ly giving it away. k. jou can cut it with a knife. I, fou could cut it with a fork. m. jou could fry an egg on the sidewalk. ANSWERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. SECTION 5 Building Vocabulary around a Word One important aim of this book is to train the reader to see different ways of organizing vocabulary and expressions Organizing vocabulary, often the same vocabulary, in different ways will make the lexical area of language seem less chaotic, and also help you recall the items later on. In this section, we look at how to organize vocabulary around a word to build up expressions a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. SECTION 5 Building Vocabulary around a Word PRACTICE 1, Match a statement on the left to a response on the right. 4. (An toternet love-affair isnt a relationship. d. (Among other things. ) Il. Match the beginning of the sentence on the left to its completion on the right. L. The funny thing 2. | The way things are going... All things considered. 4. 5. a. d. ee aes Patt a eter u ocr aren Porm tc I don’t have a car. Tawa PoC Pw oom a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Building Vocabulary around a Word PRACTICE I. Fill in the blanks, then match the statement on the left to a response on the right. i He You should have no problem on your 3. English test 5. (How di you get oot ofthe spccting che? e. Easy for you (o IL. Fill in the blanks, then match the statement on the left to a response on the right. iC ae ) aL Meee oC nein) Soe i iden 3. Tn Cane >) ° (ime ae Is she pretty? ) aC Time will . Do you think they'll get married? ) e.( You .. . for themselves. ) ) “ uw me into it. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. secTionS Building Vocabulary around a Word Being free to choose what + freedom choice you want. A person who was in the + circumstance wrong place at the wrong time. Any kind of pond, lake, river, > body water sea, etc. Something new, a welcome + breath fresh air change from what is traditional sininaapsiny + plece BETES cate A situation full of problems > worms that you did not anticipate. A situation in which a person > conflict interest cannot make a fair decision because that person is affected by the results When the sun is just + crack beginning to rise A person who likes todothe creature habit same thing at the same time every day A part of life, usually a part > most people don't like or want to accept Linha de fogo. + line FE fire anions + sense EEN The way things happen. + course J The fundamental structure of | > society our society (family, culture, values, etc.) The stairs going from one > re level to the next a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. a You have either reached 2 page thts unevalale fer vowing or reached your ievina tit for his book. Tion 5 Building Vocabulary around a Word The thing/event/person the > faim ofthe Bt media and people in general are focusing on right now. out blue more same middle road The worst of the worst. bottom barrel When someone gives an opinion understatement COME year on something that is clearly not etiong enough, That's the ... PRACTICE I. Test Yourself Cover up the last word of the expre: Completely unexpectedly. No news. Nothing extreme. +++ et ns with a strip of paper, then try to say the whole expression. IL. Fill in and Matching a statement on the left to a response on the right. mplete the sentences in the speech bubbles on the right, then match a Don't worry. It’s not the end of the lL. Did you see anything suspicious? a. r Teouldn’é do'tr \ i That's the understatement im sorry I couldn't do it b. h \ of the )