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Module 2

OSI Reference Model

www.cisco.com 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.


Agenda

2.1 The Layered Model


2.2 Layers 1 and 2: Physical and
Data Link Layers
2.3 Layer 3: Network Layer
2.4 Layers 47: Transport,
Session, Presentation,
and Application Layers

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The Layered Model

1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. www.cisco.com 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc.


Devices Function at Layers

7 Application
6 Presentation
NIC Card
5 Session
Routers
4 Transport
3 Network Bridges and Switches
2 Data Link
1 Physical
Hub

NIC = Network Interface Card


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Layer Functions

7 Application Provides network services to


application processes

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Layer Functions

7 Application Network services to applications

6 Presentation Data representation


Ensures data is readable by
receiving system
Format of data
Data structures
Negotiates data transfer
syntax for application layer

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Layer Functions

7 Application Network services to applications

6 Presentation Data representation

5 Session Inter-host communication


Establishes, manages, and
terminates sessions between
applications

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Layer Functions

7 Application Network services to applications

6 Presentation Data representation

5 Session Inter-host communication

4 Transport End-to-end connection reliability


Concerned with data transport
issues between hosts
Data transport reliability
Establishes, maintains, and
terminates virtual circuits
Fault detection and recovery
Information flow control

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Layer Functions

7 Application Network services to applications

6 Presentation Data representation

5 Session Inter-host communication

4 Transport End-to-end connection reliability


3 Network Addresses and best path
Provides connectivity and path
selection between two end
systems
Domain of routing

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Layer Functions
7 Application Network services to applications

6 Presentation Data representation

5 Session Inter-host communication

4 Transport End-to-end connection reliability


3 Network Addresses and best path

2 Data Link Access to media


Provides reliable transfer of data
across media
Physical addressing, network
topology, error notification, flow
control
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Layer Functions
7 Application Network services to applications

6 Presentation Data representation

5 Session Inter-host communication

4 Transport End-to-end connection reliability


3 Network Addresses and best path

2 Data Link Access to media


1 Physical Binary transmission
Wires, connectors, voltages,
data rates
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Peer-to-Peer Communications

Host A Host B
7 Application Application

6 Presentation Presentation

5 Session Session
Segments
4 Transport Transport
Packets
3 Network Network
Frames
2 Data Link Data Link
Bits
1 Physical Physical

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Data Encapsulation
Host A Host B

} {
Application Application

Presentation Data Presentation

Session Session

Transport Transport

Network Network

Data Link Data Link

Physical Physical
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Data Encapsulation
Host A Host B

} {
Application Application

Presentation Data Presentation

Session Session

Transport Transport
Network Data
Network Header Network

Data Link Data Link

Physical Physical
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Data Encapsulation
Host A Host B

} {
Application Application

Presentation Data Presentation

Session Session

Transport Transport
Network Data
Network Header Network
Frame Network Data Frame
Data Link Data Link
Header Header Trailer

Physical Physical
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Data Encapsulation
Host A Host B

} {
Application Application

Presentation Data Presentation

Session Session

Transport Transport
Network Data
Network Header Network
Frame Network Data Frame
Data Link Data Link
Header Header Trailer

Physical 0101101010110001 Physical


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TCP/IP Protocol Stack vs. OSI
Model
TCP/IP Protocol Stack OSI Model
Application
Application
Application Presentation Layers
Protocols
Session

Transport Transport

Internet Network
Data Flow
Layers
Networks Data Link
Network
Access
Physical

TCP / IP = Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol


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Layers 1 and 2
Physical and Data Link
Layers

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Physical and Logical Addressing

Logical Address
Layer 3, not fixed
0000.0c12.3456
MAC Address

MAC = Media Access Control

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MAC Address
24 bits 24 bits

Vendor Code Serial Number


0000.0c12. 3456
ROM
RAM

MAC address is burned into ROM on a network interface card


Also called Burnt in Address (BIA) ROM = Read Only Memory
RAM = Random Access Memory
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Layer 3
Network Layer

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Network Layer: Path Determination

Which
Which Path?
Path?

Layer 3 functions to find the best


path through the internetwork

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Network Layer: Communicate Path

5
2 9
6 8
4
10 11
1 3
7

Addresses represent the path of media


connections
Routing helps restrain broadcasts
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AddressingNetwork and Node

Network Node

1 1 2.1
2
3 1.2
2 1 1.3 1.1 3.1

3 1

Network addressPath part used by the router


Node addressSpecific port or device on the network

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Network Layer
Protocol Operations
X Y
C
C

A
A

Each router provides its services to support upper layer


functions

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Network Layer
Protocol Operations
X Y
C
C

A
A

B
B
Host X Host Y
Application Application
Presentation Presentation
Session Router A Router B Router C Session
Transport Transport
Network Network Network Network Network
Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link
Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical

Each router provides its services to


support upper layer functions
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Layers 47
Transport, Session,
Presentation and
Application Layers
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Transport Layer

Segments upper-layer applications


Establishes an end-to-end connection
Sends segments from one end host to another
Optionally, ensures data reliability

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Transport Layer
Segments Upper-Layer Applications

Application Electronic File Terminal


Presentation Mail Transfer Session

Session

Transport Application Application


Data Data
Port Port

Segments

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Transport Layer
Establishes Connection

Sender Receiver
Synchronize
Negotiate Connection
Synchronize
Acknowledge

Connection Established
Data Transfer
(Send Segments)

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Transport Layer
Sends Segments with Flow Control

Transmit
Sender Receiver

Buffer Full
Not Ready
Stop
Process
Segments

Go Ready
Buffer OK

Resume Transmission

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Transport to Network Layer

End-to-End Segments

Routed Packets

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Session Layer

Network File System (NFS)


Structured Query Language (SQL)
Remote-Procedure Call (RPC)
X Window System
AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP)
DEC Session Control Protocol (SCP)

Service Request

Service Reply

Coordinates applications as
they interact on different hosts DEC = Digital Equipment Corporation

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Presentation Layer

Text Graphics
Data Visual images
ASCII PICT
login:
EBCDIC TIFF
Encrypted JPEG
Sound GIF
MIDI
Video
MPEG
QuickTime

ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange TIFF = Tagged Image File Format
EBCDIC = Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code JPEG = Joint Photographic Experts Group
MIDI = Musical Instrument Digital Interface GIF = Graphic Interchange Format
MPEG = Moving Picture Experts Group

Provides code formatting and


conversion for applications

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Application Layer
COMPUTER
APPLICATIONS NETWORK
Word Processor APPLICATIONS INTERNETWORK
Presentation Graphics Electronic Mail APPLICATIONS
File Transfer Electronic Data Interchange
Spreadsheet
Remote Access World Wide Web
Database
Client-Server Process E-Mail Gateways
Design/Manufacturing
Information Location Special-Interest Bulletin Boards
Project Planning
Network Management Financial Transaction Services
Others
Others Internet Navigation Utilities
Conferencing (Voice, Video, Data)
Internetwork applications
can extend beyond the Others
enterprise

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