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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 127 (2014) 847 851

PSIWORLD 2013

The influence of progressive rock music on motivation regarding


personal goals, motivation regarding competition and level of
aspiration on young students in psychology
Mihaela Chraif*a, Laureniu Mitrofanb, Florinda Goluc, Emil Gtejd
a,b,c,d
University of Bucharest

Abstract

The study is focused on highlighting the influence of progressive rock music on motivation regarding personal goals, motivation
regarding competition and level of aspiration at young students in psychology. Method: The participants were 63 undergraduate
students, aged between 19 and 22 years old (M=20.54;S.D.=1.14), students in psychology, University of Bucharest, Romania.
Instruments: OLMT test (Vienna Tests System, 2012). Results highlight that motivation regarding competition and motivation
regarding personal goals (p<0.05) is higher for the group exposed to progressive music than the control group without music
(p<0.05). Conclusions: Progressive music could be an important stimulus for increasing performances at the work place.

2014
2014The
TheAuthors.
Authors.Published
Publishedby
byElsevier
ElsevierLtd.
Ltd.Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selectionand
Selection andpeer-review
peer-reviewunder
underresponsibility
responsibilityofofRomanian
PSI WORLD 2013
Society of and theirExperimental
Applied Guest Editors:Psychology.
Dr Mihaela Chraif, Dr Cristian
Vasile and Dr Mihai Anitei.

Keywords: progresive rock music, motivation regarding personal goals, motivation regarding competition, level of aspiration;

1. Introduction

Rock music has its origins in the 1950s. There followed the glory years of rock where everything was based on
the electric guitar, the most played music of the 1960s until now. Motivation is generally an internal state of a
person who leads to particular behaviors (Spector, 2007). Also Spector (2007) says that particular behaviors derived

*
Mihaela Chraif tel: +40768811012
Email: mihaelapopa14@yahoo.com

1877-0428 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Romanian Society of Applied Experimental Psychology.
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.366
848 Mihaela Chraif et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 127 (2014) 847 851

from motivation depend on each person. The latest theories underlying work motivation are: The goals-setting
theory explains how goals and intentions may result in behavior. This theory emphasizes that motivation starts from
the internal state of a person but can influence and shape intentions, motivations and behaviors. This theory is used
in organizational psychology and human resources. The goal setting principle is widely used in organizations and
Yearta, Maitlis & Briner (1995) noted that 79% of British workers have, in one way or another, some goal-settings
to accomplish.
The basic idea of this theory is that every behavior of a person is motivated by its internal intentions,
objectives and goals. Goal is a very "proximal" constructs to specify certain behaviors. Goals can be a very specific
term, (I have to take 10 exams) or can be a very general term (I have to have good grades in school). Usually general
goals contain more specific goals and may vary depending on the orientation of the person (Spector, 2007; Chraif,
2013a). Locke & Henne (1986) specify that a goal can change a person's behavior one really believes that that goal
can be achieved. The goals may change learning or work strategies and they can even streamline certain processes.
Chraif (2013b) highlighted possible gender differences in mental rotation at youngsters, Chraif & Aniei (2011)
measured the Romanian students attachment and involvement in participation to conferences, Chraif (2012)
highlited differences regarding the motivation from competition at single parent family versus youngsters with
normal family. Taking in consideration the developmental psychology, Golu (2010) presented a theoretical
framework regarding cognition, emotions, self-esteem, level of aspiration, personality of young, adults until elderly.
Furthermore, Golu & Gtej (2012) and Golu Gtej & Gorbnescu (2013) accomplished empirical developmental
studies as practical examples for the theoretical background on developmental psychology.

2. Objectives and Hypotheses

2.1. Objective

This experimental study is focused to highlight the possible influences of progressive rock music during
executing performances task.

2.2. Hypotheses

x Progressive rock music influences statistically significant the motivation from personal goals.
x Progressive rock music influences statistically significant the motivation from competition.
x Progressive rock music influences statistically significant level of aspiration in completing performance
task.

3. Method

3.1. Participants

The participants were 61 undergraduate students, age between 19 and 22 years old (M=20.54; S.D.= 1.14),
students at psychology, University of Bucharest.

3.2. Instruments

x OLMT test (Vienna Tests System, 2012) Objective Achievement Motivation Test is a computerized test
measuring achievement motivation from personal goals and from competition.
Motivating learning test is a personality test that distinguishes between individuals who work better individually
and those who achieve performances from working with competitors. This test provides information on the effort
applied by the participant when working on tasks in various constraints. Applying the test the participants must
follow a form of a snake overlaps with up to 100 squares by pressing two buttons: red for the red square and green
for the green button (Figure 1 and Figure 2). At each square pressed correctly, grey colour is taking place and the
subject can see where the route was completed. Each of the two subtests has a total of 10 trials.
Mihaela Chraif et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 127 (2014) 847 851 849

Fig. 1. Item sequence from OLMT test, individual task/motivation from individual goals (Vienna tests System, 2012)

Fig.2. Item sequence from OLMT test, motivation from competition/with opponent (Vienna tests System, 2012)

x Materials: diablo progressive X guitar audio presented using IPod audio stimuli with headphones.

3.3. Procedure

The participants to the OLMT (Vienna tests System, 2012), test either experimental group or the control group
were informed about the application procedure and completed the informed consent.

3.4. Experimental design

Experimental group Collection of data to test the OLMT (Vienna


diablo progressive X guitar Tests System) experimental group
audio, 31 participants

Collection of data to test the learning behavior


Control Group
motivating OLMT (Vienna Tests System)
No music, 30 participants
Control Group

Figue 3. Experimenta design for testing the hypotheses (experimental and control group) (adapted from Chraif, 2013c)
850 Mihaela Chraif et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 127 (2014) 847 851

In figure 3 the experimental design for testing the hypotheses can be analyzed.
Variables are: independent variable: diablo progressive X guitar audio for the experimental group, and no music
for the control group.
Dependent variables: motivation from personal goals, motivation from competition, level of aspiration.

4. Results

After applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the data distribution separately by gender, we noted that the date
for the dependent variables motivation from personal goals, motivation from competition, level of aspiration were
normal distributed (p>0.05). Hence, T-student test has been applied.

Table 1Descriptive statistics for dependent variables

group N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean


baseline Control group 31 41.48 20.746 3.726
Experimental group 30 54.63 20.508 3.744
motivation from Control group 31 31.16 20.085 3.607
personal goals Experimental group 30 47.47 23.633 4.315
level of aspiration Control group 31 43.94 29.397 5.280
Experimental group 30 59.93 27.888 5.092
motivation from Control group 31 29.71 27.032 4.855
competition Experimental group 30 47.83 29.436 5.374

In table 1 can be seen the descriptive statistics (Mean and standard deviation) for the dependent variables.

Table 2 Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for Equality of


Variances t-test for Equality of Means
F Sig. t df
baseline Equal variances assumed .003 .953 -2.489 59
Equal variances not assumed -2.489 58.972
motivation from Equal variances assumed 1.284 .262 -2.907 59
personal goals Equal variances not assumed -2.899 56.856
level of aspiration Equal variances assumed .079 .779 -2.179 59
Equal variances not assumed -2.181 58.978
motivation from Equal variances assumed .513 .477 -2.506 59
competition Equal variances not assumed -2.502 58.187

In table 2 and table 3 can be seen the Levene's Test for Equality of Variances (p>0.05), T-test values and p-values.

Table 3 Independent Samples Test, p-value

t-test for Equality of Means


Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference
baseline Equal variances assumed .016 -13.149 5.283
Equal variances not assumed .016 -13.149 5.282
motivation from Equal variances assumed .005 -16.305 5.609
personal goals Equal variances not assumed .005 -16.305 5.624
level of aspiration Equal variances assumed .033 -15.998 7.341
Equal variances not assumed .033 -15.998 7.335
motivation from Equal variances assumed .015 -18.124 7.232
competition Equal variances not assumed .015 -18.124 7.243

In table 3 can be seen that applying T-test for independent groups the research hypotheses has been confirmed.
Hence, progressive rock music influences statistically significant the motivation from personal goals in the way that
Mihaela Chraif et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 127 (2014) 847 851 851

the experimental group with music obtained statistically significant higher performances than the control group with
no music (31.16<47.47; p=0.005<0.01). Progressive rock music influences statistically significant the motivation
from competition in the way that the experimental group with music obtained statistically significant higher
performances than the control group with no music (29.71<47.83; p<0.01).
Furthermore, progressive rock music influences statistically significant level of aspiration in completing
performance task in the way that the experimental group with music obtained statistically significant higher level of
aspiration than the control group with no music (43.94<59.93; p<0.01).

5. Conclusions

Results obtained in tables 2 and 3 highlight that motivation from competition and motivation from personal goals
(p<0.05) are higher for the group exposed to progressive music than the control group without music (p<0.05).
Taking in consideration that the study investigates young students, it can be said that music (Progressive Rock)
helps them concentrate learn better in groups or alone to work more efficiently. Also very important is to increase
the level of aspiration (Golu, 2010) because they are the beginning of life and career. Further studies will focus on
validating the OLMT test using external criterion on Romanian population, correlative studies with other
psychological assessment tests, correlative studies with personality tests.

References

Chraif, M., (2013a). Tratat de psihologia muncii, vol .1 [Handbook of work psychology, volume 1]. Bucuresti: Trei.
Chraif, M. (2013b). Gender Differences in Mental Rotation at Young Romanian Students at Psychology-a Pilot Study, In Vasile, C. Anitei, M.
Chraif, M. (Eds.)Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 78, 13 May 2013, Pages 692-696
Chraif, M. (2013c). Psihologie experimental, suport de curs, [Experimental psychology], Bucureti: Ed Universitar
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