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LAB

(SFE1013)

CONTENT PAGE

1. FLOW CHART 3

2. PURPOSE 4

3. SCOPE 4

5. LAB MANUAL 10

6. LAB REPORT 37

2

1. FLOW CHART

Experiment 1 :

Electrical Fields and

Poten,als in the Plate

Capacitor

Experiment 2 :

Dielectric Constant of

Dierent Materials

Presenta,on / Test

3

2. PURPOSE

The purpose of conducting Electric and Magnet Lab is to expose physics students to

perform experiment related on the theoretical course taught in Electric and Magnet

(SFE1013) in class.

3. SCOPE

The scope covers basis on electric field and dielectric constant of materials (refer to the

Course Outline).

4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

5. LAB REPORT

Students have to submit Lab Report every consecutive lab session. Any late submission

will cause minus marked (refer to the Lab Report cover for requirement).

Students that registered under code SFE1013 have to attend all the laboratory session as

stated in the laboratory schedule. Students who fail to attend any session will not be

given any replacement except being approved by the course instructors (documented

reasons).

4

Electric and Magnet

(SFE1013)

Laboratory Manual

Contents

Page

6

Experiment 1: Electrical Fields and Potentials in the Plate Capacitor

Objective:

1. The relationship between voltage and electric field strength is investigated, with constant

plate spacing.

2. The relationship between electric field strength and plate spacing is investigated, with

constant voltage.

Apparatus: Plate capacitor, Capacitor plate w. Hole, Electric field meter, Potential probe, Power

supply, High value resistor, Blow lamp, Butane cartridge, Rubber tubing, Digital multimeter,

Connecting cord (l = 100 mm, green-yellow), Connecting cord(l = 750 mm, red) and Connecting

cord (l = 750 mm, blue).

Fig. 1.1: Arrangement for measuring the electric field strength as a function of the voltage

and the plate spacing.

7

Introduction:

A uniform electric field ! is produced between the charged plates of a plate capacitor. The strength of the field

is determined with the electric field strength meter, as a function of the plate spacing d and the voltage U. The

potential within the field is measured with a potential measuring probe.

Theory:

!"# ! = !

!"# ! = !

follow from Maxwells equations for the electric field ! in the plate capacitor. For the steady-state case in the charge-free space between the plates,

!"# ! = 0 (1)

!"# ! = 0 (2)

If one plate is placed in the y-z plane and the other parallel to it at a distance d, and if boundary disturbances due to the finite extent of the plates are disregarded, it follows

from (2) that ! lies

in the x-direction and is uniform. Since the field is irrotational (rot ! = 0) it can be represented as the gradient of a scalar field f:

E = grad = x

while !, because of its uniformity, may also be expressed as the quotient of differences

! !! !

! = ! !=

!!!!!!

(3)

where the potential difference is equal to the applied voltage U and d is the distance between the

plates. From the regression line to the measured values of Fig. 4.2 (a), with the exponential

statement

B

E=AU

8

the exponent follows as

B = 1.005 0.003.

Fig. 4.2: (a) Electric field strength as a function of the plate voltage. (b)

Electric field strength as a function of the plate spacing.

Experimental procedure:

Task 1

1. The experimental set up is as shown in Fig. 1.1. The electric field meter should first be

zero-balanced with a voltage of 0 V.

2. The electric field strength is now measured at various voltages at any plate spacing

(approx. 10 cm).

3. The electric field strength is now measured as a function of the distance between the

two capacitor plates, in a range of approx. 2 to 12 cm, with an unchanged set up, but

with a constant voltage of 200 V.

9

Experiment 2: Dielectric Constant of Different Materials

Objective:

1. The relation between charge Q and voltage U is to be measured using a plate capacitor.

2. The electric constant 0 is to be determined from the relation measured under point 1.

3. The charge of a plate capacitor is to be measured as a function of the inverse of the

distance between the plates, under constant voltage.

4. The relation between charge Q and voltage U is to be measured by means of a plate

capacitor, between the plates of which different solid dielectric media are introduced. The

corresponding dielectric constants are determined by comparison with measurements

performed with air between the capacitor plates.

Apparatus: Plate capacitor, Plastic plate, Glass plates f. current conductors, High-value resistor,

10MOhm, Universal measuring amplifier, High voltage supply unit, Capacitor/case 1/0.22 F,

Voltmeter, Connecting cord, (l = 100 mm, green-yellow), Connecting cord (l = 500 mm, red),

Connecting cord (l = 500 mm, blue), Connecting cord (30 kV, l = 500 mm), Screened cable

BNC, Adapter BNC socket, Connector T type and Adapter BNC-plug/socket 4 mm

10

Introduction:

The electric constant 0 is determined by measuring the charge of a plate capacitor to which a

voltage is applied. The dielectric constant is determined in the same way, with plastic or glass

filling the space between the plates.

Theory:

Electrostatic processes in vacuum (and with a good degree of approximation in air) are described

by the following integral form of Maxwells equations:

!

! !!! = !! (1)

!!! = 0 (2)

where ! is the electric field intensity, Q the charge enclosed by the closed surface A, 0 the electric constant and s a closed path.

If a voltage Uc is applied between two capacitor plates, an electric field ! will prevail between the plates, which is defined by:

!

!! = !!!

!

Due to the electric field, electrostatic charges of the opposite sign are drawn towards the surfaces

of the capacitor. As voltage sources do not generate charges, but only can separate them, the

absolute values of the opposite electrostatic induction charges must be equal. Assuming the field

11

lines of the electric field always to be perpendicular to the capacitor surfaces of surface A, due to

symmetry, which can be experimentally verified for small distances d between the capacitor plates,

one obtains from equation (1):

1

!

= ! ! = !! !. (3)

!!

The volume indicated in fig. 3, which only encloses one capacitor plate, was taken as volume of

integration. As the surface within the capacitor may be displaced without changing the flux, the

capacitor field is homogeneous. Both the flow and the electric field ! outside the capacitor are zero,

because for arbitrary volumes which enclose both capacitor plates, the total enclosed charge is zero.

The charge Q of the capacitor is thus proportional to voltage; the proportionality constant C is

called the capacitance of the capacitor.

!

! = !!! = !! ! ! ! (4)

The linear relation between charge Q and voltage U applied to the otherwise unchanged

capacitor is represented in fig. 4. Equation (4) further shows that the capacitance C of the

capacitor is inversely proportional to the distance d between the plates:

1

! = !!. ! ! (5)

For constant voltage, the inverse distance between the plates, and thus the capacitance, are a

measure for the amount of charge a capacitor can take (cf. fig. 5). If inversely U, Q, d and A were

measured, these measurement data allow to calculate the electric constant 0:

! !

! = (6)

! ! !!

In this example of measurement, one obtains 0 = 8.8 1012 As/(Vm), as compared to the

exact value of

0 = 8.8542 1012 As/(Vm)

Equations (4), (5) and (6) are valid only approximately, due to the assumption that field lines are

parallel. With increasing distances between the capacitor plates, capacitance increases, which in

turn systematically yields a too large electric constant from equation (6). This is why the value of

the electric constant should be determined for a small and constant distance between the plates.

12

Fig. 2.3: (a) Electrostatic charge Q of a plate capacitor as a function of the applied voltage

Uc (d = 0.2 cm). (b) Electrostatic charge Q of a plate capacitor as a function of the inverse

1

distance between the capacitor plates d (Uc = 1.5 kV).

Things change once insulating material (dielectrics) are inserted between the plates. Dielectrics

have no free moving charge carriers, as metals have, but they do have positive nuclei and

negative electrons. These may be arranged along the lines of an electric field. Formerly nonpolar

molecules thus behave as locally stationary dipoles. As can be seen in fig. 6, the effects of the

single dipoles cancel each other macroscopically inside the dielectric. However, no partners with

opposite charges are present on the surfaces; these thus have a stationary charge, called a free

charge.

The free charges in turn weaken the electric field ! of the real charges Q, which are on the capacitor plates, within the dielectric.

The weakening of the electric field ! within the dielectric is expressed by the dimensionless, material specific dielectric constant ( = 1 in vacuum):

!!

! = ! (7)

13

where !! is the electric field generated only by the real charges Q. Thus, the opposite field generated by the free charges must be

!1

!! = !! ! = ! !! (8)

Neglecting the charges within the volume of the dielectric macroscopically, only the free surface charges (Q)

generate eectively the opposite field:

!= !! = !! 1 =!

!

(9)

! !! !! ! !

! !

where p is the total dipole moment of the surface charges. In the general case of an

inhomogeneous dielectric, equation (9) becomes:

1 !! 1

! = = = ! (10)

! !! !" !!

where ! total dipole moment per unit volume is called dielectric polarisation. If additionally a ! -field (dielectric displacement) is defined:

! = ! !! !(11)

whose field lines only begin or end in real (directly measurable) charges, the three electric magnitudes, field intensity !, dielectric displacement ! and dielectric polarisation ! are

related to one another through the following equation:

! = !! ! + ! = ! !! !

If the real charge Q remains on the capacitor, whilst a dielectric is inserted between the plates,

according to definition (3), voltage Uc between the plates is reduced as compared to voltage Uvac

in vacuum (or to a good approximation, in air) by the dielectric constant: !

!"#

! = (12)

! !

! = ! !!"# (13)

14

Fig. 2.4: Electrostatic charge Q of a plate capacitor as a function of the

applied voltage Uc, with and without dielectric (plastic) between the plates

(d = 0.98 cm)

!

! = ! !! ! !! (14)

In fig. 7, charge Q on the capacitor is plotted against the applied plate voltage Uc for comparison

to the situation with and without plastic plate between the capacitor plates, all other conditions

remaining unchanged: thus, for the same voltage, the amount of charge of the capacitor is

significantly increased by the dielectric, in this example by a factor of 2.9. If the charges

obtained with and without plastic (equations [4] and [14]) are divided by each other:

!

!"#$%&' =! (15)

!

!"#$$%

15

In order to take into consideration the above described influence of free charges, Maxwells

equation (1) is generally completed by the dielectric constant of the dielectric which fills the

corresponding volume:

!

! !! ! !! = !!! = ! (16)

Experimental procedure:

1. The experimental set-up is shown in fig. 5.1 and the corresponding wiring diagram in fig.

5.2.

2. The highly insulated capacitor plate is connected to the upper connector of the high voltage

power supply over the 10 M protective resistors. Both the middle connector of the high

voltage power supply and the opposite capacitor plate are grounded over the 220 nF

capacitor. Correct measurement of the initial voltage is to be assured by the corresponding

adjustment of the toggle switch on the unit.

3. The electrostatic induction charge on the plate capacitor can be measured over the voltage

on the 220 nF capacitor, according to equation (4). The measurement amplifier is set to high

input resistance, to amplification factor 1 and to time constant 0.

4. To start with, the surface of the capacitor plates is determined by means of their radius. The

experiment is carried out in two parts:

Task 1

1. In the first part, the distance between the plates of the plate capacitor is varied under

constant voltage, and the charge on the capacitor plates is measured.

2. The linear relation between charge and plate capacitor voltage is then verified.

3. Measurement data allow determining the electric constant 0, using equation (4).

4. Be sure not to be near the capacitor during measurements, as otherwise the electric field of

the capacitor might be distorted.

Task 2

1. In the second part, the dependence of the electrostatic induction charge from voltage,

with and without plastic plate (without air gap!), is examined in the space between the

plates, with the same distance between the plates.

2. The ratio between the electrostatic induction charges allows to determine the dielectric

constant 0 of plastic.

3. Repeat measurement using glass plate and determined its dielectric constant in the

same way.

16

LABORATORY REPORT

APPLIED PHYSICS PROGRAMME

NAME: _________________________________________

EXPERIMENT: _____________________________________________________________________

Marks:

Objectives & Introduction 20

Technique / Method 10

Results / Data 20

Analysis / Discussions 40

Conclusions 5

References 5

Total 100%

17

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