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5

The Communication Process

McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.


The Communications Process

Fields of Experience

Source / Channel Receiver /


Sender
Encoding Decoding Audience
MESSAGE

Noise

Response Feedback Loop


Encoding / Decoding Symbols

Graphic Verbal
Pictures Spoken word
Drawings Written word
Charts Song lyrics
Musical Animation
Arrangement Action/motion
Instrumentation Pace /speed
Voice or chorus Shape/Form
Experiential Overlap

Different Worlds
Sender
Sender Receiver
Receiver
Experience
Experience Experience
Experience

Moderate Commonality
Sender
Sender Receiver
Receiver
Experience
Experience Experience
Experience

High Commonality
Sender
Sender Receiver
Experience
Experience Experience
Semiotics

Three Components of a marketing message

Object
Brand such as Marlboro

Sign or symbol Interpretant/


representing intended intended meaning
meaning (Cowboy) (masculine,rugged
individualistic)
What is the symbolic meaning of the Snuggle
bear?
Two Types of Channels

Direct (Personal)
One-on-one
One to group
Team to group

Indirect (Media)
Paid media
Unpaid media
Special media
Human Communicators

Verbal
Vocabulary
Grammar
Inflection

Nonverbal
Gestures
Facial expression
Body language
Levels of Audience Aggregation

Mass Markets

Market Segments

Niche Markets

Small Groups

Individuals
Models of the Response Process

Models
Stages AIDA Hierarchy of Innovation Information
model effects model adoption Processing

Attention Awareness Awareness Presentation


Cognitive Attention
Knowledge Interest Comprehension

Interest Linking Yielding


Affective Preference
Desire Conviction Evaluation Retention

Trial
Behavioral
Action Purchase Adoption Behavior
Advertising is used to make consumers
aware of new products and their features
Models of Obtaining Feedback

Persuasion Process Effectiveness Test

Circulation reach Exposure, presentation

Listener, reader,
Viewer recognition Attention

Recall, checklists Comprehension

Brand attitudes, Message acceptance/


Purchase intent yielding

Recall over time Retention

Inventory, POP
Consumer panel Purchase behavior
An Alternative Response Hierarchy
Topical Involvement
High Low
Learning Model Low Involvement
Model
Perceived product

High
differentiation
Cognitive
Cognitive
Affective
Conative

Dissonance/ Conative
Attribution Model
Low

Conative
Affective Affective
Cognitive
An ad for a low involvement product
Involvement Concept
Antecedentsofof Possibleresults
Possible results
Antecedents ofinvolvement
involvement
involvementderived
involvement derived of
fromthe
from theliterature
literature
of
Elicitationof
Elicitation
counterargumentsto
counterarguments to
Personfactors
factors ads
ads
Person
--Needs
Needs
Involvement
Effectivenessof
Effectiveness ofad
adto
to
Involvement
--Importance
Importance inducepurchase
induce purchase
--Interest
Interest importanceof
Relativeimportance
Relative of
--Values
Values
Withadvertisements
advertisements
theproduct
the productclass
class
With
differences
Perceiveddifferences
Perceived
Objector
Object orstimulus
stimulusfactors
factors ininproduct
productattributes
attributes

--Differentiation
Differentiationof
of Withproducts
With products Preferenceof
Preference ofaa
alternatives
alternatives particularkind
particular kind
--Source
Sourceofofcommunication
communication Influenceof
Influence ofprice
priceon
on
Content
Contentof of Withpurchase
With purchasedecisions
decisions brandchoice
brand choice
communication
communication Amountof ofinformation
information
Amount
onsearch
on search
Situationalfactors
Situational factors spend
Timespend
-Purchase/use Time
-Purchase/use deliberatingalternatives
deliberating alternatives
-Occasion
-Occasion Typeof
Type ofdecision
decisionrule
rule
usedininchoice
used choice
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Thinking Feeling

Involvement
High 1 2
Informative Affective
The Thinker The Feeler
Involvement

3 4
Low

Habit Self-
Formation Satisfaction
The Doer The Reactor
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Thinking

1
Informative
Involvement The Thinker
Car-house-furnishings-new products
Model: Learn-feel-do (economic?)
High

Possible implications
Test: Recall diagnostics
Media: Long copy format
Reflective vehicles
Creative: Specific information
Demonstration
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Feeling

2
Affective
Involvement The Feeler
Jewelry-cosmetics-fashion goods
Model: Feel-learn -do (psychological?)
High

Possible implications
Test: Attitude change
Emotional arousal
Media: Large space
Image specials
Creative: Executional
Impact
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Thinking

3
Habit formation
The Doer
Involvement
Food-household items
Model: Do-learn-feel (responsive?)
Low

Possible implications
Test: Sales
Media: Small space ads
10-second IDs
Radio; Point of Sale
Creative: Reminder
Foote, Cone & Belding Grid

Feeling

4
Self-satisfaction
Involvement The Reactor
Cigarettes, liquor, candy
Model: Do-feel-learn (social?)
Low

Possible implications
Test: Sales
Media: Billboards
Newspapers
Point of Sale
Creative: Attention
Cognitive Response

A method for examining consumers


cognitive processing of advertising
messages by looking at their cognitive
responses to hearing, viewing, or
reading communications

Examines types of thoughts that are


evoked by an advertising message
A Model of Cognitive Response

Cognitive Responses Attitudes

Product/message
Product/message Brand
Brandattitudes
attitudes
thoughts
thoughts

Exposure
Exposureto
to Source-oriented
Source-oriented Purchase
Purchase
advertisement
advertisement thoughts
thoughts intention
intention

Ad
Adexecution
execution Attitude
Attitudetowards
towards
thoughts
thoughts the advertisement
the advertisement
Cognitive Response Categories

Product/Message Thoughts
Counter arguments, support
arguments
Source - Oriented Thoughts
Source derogation source
bolstering
Ad Execution Thoughts
Thoughts about the ad itself
Affect attitude toward the ad
Important determinant of
advertising effectiveness
The Elaboration Likelihood Model

Focuses on the way consumers respond to


persuasive messages based on the amount and
nature of elaboration or processing of information

Routes to attitude change


Central route to persuasion ability and motivation
to process a message is high and close attention is
paid to message content

Peripheral route to persuasion ability and


motivation to process a message is low and receiver
focuses more on peripheral cues rather than
message content
Central processing usually occurs for high
involvement products
An ad using peripheral cues
A framework for studying how advertising
works

AdvertisingInput
Advertising Input
MessageContent,
Message Content,media
media
scheduling,repetition
scheduling, repetition

Filters
Filters
Motivation,ability
Motivation, ability(involvement)
(involvement)

Consumer
Consumer
Cognition
Cognition Affect
Affect Experience
Experience

ConsumerBehavior
Consumer Behavior
Choice,consumption,
Choice, consumption,loyalty,
loyalty,
habit,etc.
habit, etc.