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windows handbook

a guide to
energy efficient
smart windows HANDBOOK Vol. 1

windows and
doors by Capral
Caprals commitment to
Capral is committed to the 04 Introduction
development of sustainable 05 Window Energy Ratings
w i n d ow a n d d o o r s y ste m s .
This encompasses the ongoing 06 Passive Design
research and development of 09 Understanding the Australian Climate
thermally efficient residential
10 The Benefits of Aluminium Windows
and commercial glazing systems.
T h i s d eve lo p m e n t i s b e i n g 11 High Performance Glass
further augmented by a life cycle 12 The Part Capral Aluminium Windows and Doors Play
analysis of aluminium as a building
material in order to improve the 14 Energy Efficient Terms
understanding of its environmental
impacts and benefits.

All care has been taken to ensure that the information provided in this handbook is correct at the time of printing. Innovation and improvement
however can result in change from time to time. Capral reserves the right to make alterations without notice. Please check availability, specifications
of products and colours prior to proceeding.

Introduction Window Energy Ratings
Capral high performance aluminium windows and doors WINDOW ENERGY RATINGS
In simple terms, the U Value is a types. The generic windows range
measure of the rate of heat transfer from very low performance to very high
are one of the easiest ways to improve the comfort and through a window. The lower the U performance for heating and cooling
energy efficiency of your home. The Window Energy Rating Scheme Value, the better level of insulation the and apply to the whole window glass
(WERS) is managed by the Australian window provides. and frame combined. A low star rating
Window Association. It provides a indicates a window is a relatively poor
system for rating and comparing the The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient is a
performer, while at the other end of the
energy performance of windows and measure of how much solar radiation
As climate change causes increasing to arm you with all the information scale, ten stars indicates the perfect
doors against one another, in a similar passes through the window. In cooler
concern we are all becoming more required to make informed decisions on theoretical window. In reality, the
fashion to the rating system commonly climates, windows and doors which
environmentally aware. how best to find windows and doors that highest performing windows available
used for white goods. To participate in transmit a greater amount of solar
suit your requirements and to maximise in Australia fall generally between 6
WERS, window fabricators must obtain radiation can help to provide free solar
Capral is committed to making the energy efficiency of your home. and 7 stars for heating and between
energy ratings for their products from heating. To find out more about these
its products as energy efficient as  and  for cooling. Capral is proud to
a rating organisation accredited by the items, please turn to page 1.
possible. Caprals broad range of high Ca p ra l su p p li e s a network of confirm that it has a number of window
Australian Fenestration Rating Council options in these ranges.
performance windows provide optimal independently owned fabricators
(AFRC) and rated windows must meet HOW DO STAR RATINGS WORK?
weather-sealing, functionality and that have extensive experience in the
all relevant standards. In order to For more information on star ratings,
aesthetics, and can help your home fabrication and installation of Capral Star ratings rank the window against
determine window performance data, visit the WERS website: www.wers.net
meet or exceed energy efficiency high performance window and door alternative products using a ten star
WERS uses a windows U Value and
standards. systems. scale, based on 17 generic window
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient.
Using high performance Capral By choosing a Capral high performance
windows and doors is one of the easiest window or door as an original fitting for
ways to improve the comfort and energy your new home, or as the replacement WERS CERTIFICATE
efficiency of your home. Knowing when renovating, you are making a
where to start and what to look for can genuine contribution to minimising Each individual WERS rated product has its own WERS certificate. WERS certificates include information that can help you select
be difficult. With this in mind Capral your carbon footprint and addressing the best windows and doors for your home. As well as the products star rating for heating and cooling, certificates feature a brief
has produced this handbook, designed the important issue of climate change. product description, performance rating data and the potential heating and cooling improvements when compared to a single
glazed window.

XYZ Company
Heating Band HEAT
Where windows are required to keep warmth in. WERS_03_005 Product Description
Timber Frame
Cooling Band COOL Aluminium Frame
Including window frames and glazing materials.
Where windows are required to keep heat out. ENERGY PERFORMANCE RATINGS NFRC-100 RESULTS
U value Solar Heat Gain Co-efficient

3.7 0.41
Specifies additional energy performance ratings. Visible transmittance Air infiltration L/s m2

0.47 5.0

Indicative Percentage Reductions

In a homes heating and cooling needs compared to a 33% better 52% better
for heating for cooling
clear single glazed aluminium framed window.
*When compared to the base case window (WERS generic window 1). Actual heating
and cooling outcomes may vary with house design, orientation and occupant lifestyle.

This product complies with Australian Standard 2047:1999

WERS was established in 1995 and data is calculated using WERS software developed with the co-operation of
the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO), Australian Glass and Glazing Association (AGGA) and the Australian
Window Association (AWA). The computer modelling software is the same as that used by the U.S. National
Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) and results are generated to the NFRC Environmental Conditions. Results
are for the total window system.


Areas that are used for relatively short
let your house do the work periods of time such as bathrooms,
laundries and garages are best
positioned on the west to provide a
buffer against the extreme summer The following checklist provides a sound starting point for considering
Simple things like orientating your There are several key elements to how best to maximise the energy efficiency of your home by utilising
home to take advantage of available consider when using Passive Design: WINDOWS & GLAZING heat.
passive design principles.
sunlight and selecting energy efficient Windows and glazing are a critical To ensure you enjoy the maximum
windows and doors can make a real THERMAL MASS element of Passive Design as up to benefits of solar heat, position rooms
Thermal mass describes the ability
9% of heat loss and 87% of heat gain that generally require heating, such
as living areas, on the north side of the
1 The main living areas are oriented north to maximise winter
occurs through windows with mm sun and minimise summer sun.
Passive Design is the term given to the of building materials to store heat. house.
single glazing.
design of homes that have little, if any, Thermal mass is used to store heat from
need for artificial cooling and heating. the sun during the day and re-release it Passive Design takes advantage of
INSULATION 2 Rooms are zoned or grouped and divided as needed for
Through the use of clever design when required. Adding thermal mass this by keeping winter heat indoors economical heating and cooling.
principles the home takes advantage of helps reduce extreme temperatures Whether it be the roof, walls, doors or
and excluding excessive summer heat windows, it is imperative that premium
the natural climate to maintain thermal within the home, making the average from entering the building. Appropriate
comfort. Passive design principles temperature more moderate all year-
insulation is achieved and that all gaps
3 Eaves or other shading devices have been incorporated to
placement of windows and doors is are filled to keep wanted air in and
can be applied throughout Australias round. Consequently, occupant comfort another important consideration; as unwanted air out. High performance provide shading from summer sun and allow winter sun to enter.
different climate zones. levels are increased and energy costs well as minimising reliance on artificial windows and doors provide superior
are reduced. heating and cooling, windows aid insulation when combined with other Windows and doors are located to get good natural cross
A home with a Passive Design provides 4
ventilation and importantly, a healthy insulation materials. This reduces the ventilation and to ventilate bathrooms and wet areas.
a more comfortable living environment Heavyweight building materials store
living environment. amount of artificial heating and cooling
and results in decreased energy costs a lot of heat so are said to have high needed to maintain thermal comfort,
to heat and cool due to improved thermal mass, whereas lightweight Single glazed high performance glass which in turn means smaller heating 5 Windows are located appropriately and glass selections made
energy efficiency. In doing so this helps materials do not store much heat and can stop up to 0% of solar heat gain and cooling units and decreased that provide natural daylight and winter sun penetration, while
the environment through decreasing therefore have low thermal mass. As while Low E double glazing can stop up running costs.
greenhouse gas emissions related to a rule of thumb, the greater the daily to 77% of solar heat gain, which equates avoiding summer overheating.
artificial heating and cooling. temperature range, the more thermal to a financial saving of approximately SHADING
mass required. 0% off your energy bill to heat and 6 Windows have been utilised to improve energy efficiency, by
Preventing summer sun from directly
cool. Specifying high performance making use of the large range of high performance energy
hitting windows is one of the most
glazing for your home can add as little effective ways to reduce summer
as 1% to the total building cost. efficient glazing products available.
heat from negatively impacting on
thermal performance. Shading can be
ORIENTATION achieved through appropriately sized 7 Maximum insulation has been provided in the roof, walls and
and positioned eaves or by other means floor.
Optimal positioning of a home on its such as verandas, trees and outdoor
site can have a significant impact on its blinds. As the winter sun enters at a
thermal performance. During winter lower angle than summer sun, by using 8 There is appropriately designed thermal mass internally to
the most sunlight enters a home effective shading you can guard the moderate indoor air temperatures.
through north facing windows and same areas from heat gain in summer.
doors. Draughts and air leakages have been adequately sealed.
If your site doesnt permit or altern-
atively you are renovating an existing Well placed windows and doors can
10 The star rating of the home is more than the minimum  star
home and unable to optimise the capture cooling breezes for optimal
orientation, energy efficient windows ventilation. Trees and other external required.
and doors will prevent heat gain and objects can be used to direct breezes
heat loss and help ensure your home is through the home. Some window types,
thermally efficient. such as casement windows and louvres,
are particularly useful in controlling
breezes for maximum benefit.
Understanding the Australian Climate
Our climate is getting warmer. Regardless of what climate zone you important, particularly if the home is air
Australians are now using more live in, the same basic Passive Design conditioned. In these situations double
energy to cool than to heat their principles apply. Through careful glazing can deliver significant benefits
homes. The use of energy efficient selection of windows and doors you and also provide further improvement
windows and doors can save up to can gain maximum control over your in solar heat gain coefficient.
60% of your energy costs to heat homes thermal performance and
and cool in all climates. reduce reliance on artificial cooling HEATING CLIMATES
and heating. Australians are now using
AUSTRALIAS CLIMATE more energy to cool than heat; artificial In heating climates the aim is to retain
cooling systems generally consume heat and to maximise the penetration
In Europe, frequent extreme cold more energy than heating systems and of solar energy in winter. Selecting
periods and unpredictable heat waves are expensive to install and operate. windows that insulate well ensures
can make for uncomfortable living unwanted heat loss is minimised.
conditions at times. However Australia WERS (WINDOW ENERGY RATING Windows with a low U Value and high
is lucky to have relatively moderate SCHEME) CLIMATE CLASSES SHGC indicate effective insulation
climate conditions. While some areas properties and are preferable in cool
do experience extreme heat, these climates. Double glazed windows
areas are largely unpopulated, and with spectrally selective or Low E
extreme cold is rare throughout the glass coating provide excellent energy
continent. outcomes. Areas with a cool climate
include Tasmania, Southern Victoria
The lack of extreme weather conditions and some parts of New South Wales
means that it is relatively easy for and South Australia.
homes to achieve very good energy
outcomes. Homeowners do not need to
part with excessive amounts of money MIXED CLIMATES
for elaborate window and door systems In a mixed climate the goal is to stop
to improve the energy efficiency of their heat from entering the home during
home. High performance aluminium summer and from escaping during
windows and doors can easily provide winter. In these climates, windows
the desired thermal performance which offer a good compromise
benefits at a reasonable cost. between U Value and Solar Heat Gain
are required. Alternatively, use of
CLIMATE CHANGE various glasses on certain elevations
COOLING CLIMATES can help achieve the right balance.
While climate change is often referred Southern Western Australia, parts of
to as an abstract far-off phenomenon In cooling climates, the primary goal is
New South Wales and South Australia,
the fact is we are already experiencing to keep unwanted heat from entering
and northern Victoria generally fall
the effects of a changing climate. the home and to reduce the size of the
within this category.
artificial cooling system to minimise
Australian average temperatures have ongoing operating costs. The best
increased by 0.9c since 190, while results are obtained from windows and
the frequency of hot days and nights doors that limit solar heat gain. This can
has increased and the frequency of cold be achieved by using tinted or coated
days and nights has declined. glass types. Good insulation is also

The benefits of aluminium windows THE ALUMINIUM ADVANTAGE

For those who wish to achieve a timber

look, DecoWood provides an attractive
High performance aluminium windows Aluminium frames can be significantly alternative in aluminium.
are able to meet or exceed energy
efficiency standards. Aluminium
less expensive than other framing
options, providing a strong yet
DecoWood is a highly durable marine
grade powder coating that looks like
Meets or exceeds energy standards when combined with
energy efficient glass.
windows and doors can easily achieve economical window and door solution,
improvements in heat gain and heat timber without the maintenance issues
while also achieving excellent energy
loss through windows by 60% rivalling associated with timber.
more expensive timber and uPVC
And because DecoWood never requires
Low maintenance and durable; wont swell, crack, split
or warp.
DESIGN FLEXIBILITY painting, oiling or staining, there are
no harmful VOCs released into the
REDUCES CARBON FOOTPRINT The inherent strength and flexibility atmosphere. Reduced carbon footprint with energy savings
outweighing initial energy input by over 100 times.
for aluminium to be manufactured to
In the case of an average gas heated exacting specifications means you are
home in Melbourne, the use of limited only by your imagination. With
aluminium double glazed windows an endless array of systems, finishes Aluminium has one of the highest Corrosion resistant qualities and resistant to weathering
under a range of harsh environmental conditions.
delivers CO equivalent savings of and glass options, aluminium offers recycling rates of any metal and is an
almost three times that required to a vast range of possibilities from the environmentally sustainable material.
produce the aluminium frames, just economical to most elaborate systems
within the first year. while also delivering excellent thermal
Recycling of aluminium requires
only five percent of the initial energy Economical framing solutions that can be less expensive
than other framing options.
performance. consumed to create it. This inherent
Over the life of the building, energy property differentiates from other
savings outweigh the initial energy
input by well over 100 times. For homes FINISHES
framing materials reinforcing its
sustainable credentials.
Strong and durable providing a range of long lasting
design options.
with electrical heating, or cooling for
homes in hot climates, savings run into A range of finishing options ensures
aluminium windows and doors can be SHORT PAYBACK PERIOD
multiples of close to 00 times.
perfectly matched to any decor. Environmentally sustainable material with one of the
highest recycling rate of any metal.
Payback periods on high performance
DURABILITY AND LOW Powder coating provides an attractive aluminium windows are typically far
MAINTENANCE finish to aluminium frames and once shorter than for other alternatives
coated, does not require repainting. which offer only marginally improved DecoWood achieves an attractive alternative timber
The corrosion resistant qualities of The Interpon colour range gives you performance at a far higher price. Such
aluminium provide a low maintenance the freedom to create the look you want options can take several decades to
using a variety of natural colours to
frame and is resistant to weathering
under a range of harsh environmental blend into the environment and colours
deliver a payback.
Range of coloured finishes available to match your
homes decor.
conditions. Unlike many other to coordinate with Colorbond steel as
materials, it will not swell, crack, well as a selection of unique pearl and
split or warp over time; ensuring an
extended product life.
metallic finishes.
Significant performance improvements provide a
short payback period.
Anodising treatment can provide
Aluminium can be left in its finished excellent corrosion resistance and a
condition. For additional protection or wide range of colour options. Such
decorative finishes, aluminium can be finishes are widely used for both interior
anodised or painted. and exterior applications.

The part Capral aluminium windows and doors play High performance glazing
Capral is proud to offer an extensive Energy transfer through a window glass, a frame should be durable and Selecting a window or door that and doors, by reflecting radiation rather
range of Australian made window generally travels through the glass and low maintenance. Capral aluminium combines high performance glass than absorbing it. A Low E coating can DOUBLE GLAZING
and door systems that have been frame. However, given that up to 90% of frames are popular in contemporary with a quality frame and long-lasting reflect unwanted heat in summer while
a windows area is made up of glazing, architecture as they require little Double glazed units (also known
designed and tested to provide weather resistant seals will result retaining heat and preventing it from
glass selection is the most critical maintenance, are long lasting, dont as Insulated Glass Units or IGUs)
thermal comfort and cater for new in a high performance, long lasting radiating out in winter.
component in minimising heat transfer. warp, swell or crack over time and can comprise two or more panes of glass,
trends. Caprals products allow light, window and door.
be coated in a range of different finishes separated by an air (or gas) filled cavity
views and ventilation whilst providing Well-designed aluminium windows and and colours. that is completely sealed. IGUs provide
sustainable, energy efficient facade doors with good glazing achieve high CHOOSING THE RIGHT GLASS thermal insulation and improved
solutions. thermal efficiency at a much lower cost. . Quality Seals acoustic performance while also
Long-lasting seals that offer exceptional Accounting for up to 90% of the thermal significantly improving a buildings
VENTILATION ADDITIONAL BENEFITS resistance to all weather conditions performance of windows and doors, energy efficiency.
are vital to keep air from inadvertently glass is the most influential factor in
Capral aluminium windows and doors There are many additional benefits to entering or escaping through gaps determining window and door energy A combination of IGUs and performance
offer a great way to naturally ventilate be derived from clever use of Capral in the window. High quality seals will efficiency. Not all glass products are
high performance windows and doors glazing can prevent up to 0% of heat
your home. Different styles of windows ensure the window acts as an effective created equal and its vital to select
and doors offer a range of ventilation including: loss in winter and 87% of heat gain in
insulator. the appropriate glass for your specific summer compared to standard mm
options. Maximum ventilation is Reduced reliance on orientation, Reflective coatings involve the
achieved through windows with wide purpose. single glazed windows.
meaning greater design freedom; . High Performance Glass application of a metallic film to one
openings such as Caprals range of Decreased environmental impact Selecting the wrong glass to put in From self cleaning glass to glass that side of the glass in order to significantly
sliding windows, while other styles
and reduced greenhouse gas a frame, or similarly, placing high turns from transparent to opaque with increase the amount of reflected visible
such as casement windows and louvre
emissions; performance glass in an inferior the flick of a switch, todays technology and infra red heat.
windows give you greater control
Enhanced thermal comfort of up to frame, will have a negative effect on is so advanced that there are endless
over the direction and strength of air
c warmer in winter and 10c the thermal performance of your entire
entering your home. Doors that offer possibilities.
cooler in summer; home. Selecting a window and door
wide openings such as Capral folding
that combines high performance glass
or stacking doors offer unobstructed Improved wellbeing through Decorative glass, whereby an image
with a quality frame and long-lasting
airflow between inside and outside increased exposure to natural is encapsulated between two sheets
weather resistant seals will result in
environments. daylight; a high performance window and door, of glass, means you can even choose
A substantial reduction in designed to provide a high level of to incorporate patterns or photos into
condensation with the installation insulation and to keep heat in or out your homes design if you so desire.
of double glazing; depending on your requirements. Glass is more than a building material;
Improved acoustic performance. it offers endless aesthetic and practical
EXPERT ADVICE benefits. Hopefully it will be part of The components of an Insulated
Reduced fading of furniture and
your home for a long time so it is Glass Unit.
fittings due to decreased UV ray Much like a medical professional
transmittance; important to select glass that will meet
prescribes a remedy, when selecting
Integration of indoor and outdoor windows you should consult a design your design and thermal performance
areas, perfect for entertaining. professional to help determine the best requirements. TINTED GLASS
window and door and glazing solution
A TOTAL SOLUTION for your specific needs. COATINGS Tinted glass reduces outside glare,
REDUCED HEAT TRANSFER minimising fading to furnishings by
It is important to note that a window is High performance aluminium windows A range of coatings can be applied to UV rays and decreasing solar heat
By reducing heat transfer through more than a pane of glass; rather it is can easily achieve heating and cooling glass to further enhance its properties. gain. Green, grey, bronze and blue are
windows and doors, you will enjoy a the glass, frame, seals and hardware improvements of more than 60% over
the most common tints, as they do
more energy efficient home. Many combined. conventional systems and rivalling Low E coatings (also known as
more expensive alternatives, such as not significantly alter the colour of the
homes are using 60% more energy to 1. High Performance Frame spectrally selective coatings) lower the views through the window.
heat and cool than might otherwise be thermally broken aluminium, timber
As well as visually complementing the amount of heat flow through windows
necessary. and uPVC.

Efficient Terms
Before embarking on the important important to install effective shading
Low E Glass
journey of choosing windows and doors devices to block summer sun from
for your home, it may be useful to A thin coating that is applied to the the north while still allowing the lower
become familiar with a few commonly glass surface to enable it to reflect angled winter sun in.
used energy efficient terms. short wave (direct solar) heat or long Solar Control Glass
wave (re-radiated/reflected) heat.
Double Glazed Units or Insulated Glass
Units (IGUs) Glass that reduces heat gain derived
from direct solar radiation. This may
IGUs provide thermal insulation and The direction a home faces can affect be achieved via interlayers, body tints,
improved acoustic performance. how much energy is used heat and reflective coating or Low E coatings.
Consisting of two panes of glass, cool. Ideally a home should be oriented Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)
separated by an air or gas filled north-south to prevent the suns rays
cavity, an IGU is described in terms from penetrating in summer, while still SHGC is a measure of the amount of
of the thickness of the outer pane in allowing for solar warming in winter. solar radiation transmitted through a
millimetres, followed by the cavity width It is impractical for many homes to window and released into the home as
and finally the thickness of the internal achieve optimal orientation; however, heat. The lower a windows SHGC, the
pane; e.g /1/. Generally, a 1mm to high performance windows can help less solar heat it transmits; a low SHGC
1mm cavity width provides optimum achieve a high level of control over a is vital for warm or hot climates.
performance. homes thermal performance.
Toned / Tinted
Infiltration Passive Cooling
Usually green, grey, bronze or blue,
Heat loss and heat gain can occur Passive cooling encourages cooling toned or tinted glass can shade internal
through leaks in the window or door breezes and air movement in summer areas and reduce the amount of heat
assembly. Good seals and quality as an inexpensive way of cooling your entering through the window. This will WeWehope
hope this handbook
this handbook has been
has helpful.
been ForFor
helpful. further information
further on on
information Caprals
workmanship minimise this. home. Passive cooling is best achieved keep the building cooler and reduce high
windowsand anddoors, www.capral.com.au
doors, www.capral.com.au
through: orientation to cooling breezes, glare and UV rays.
Laminated Glass call1300
ororcall 1300 366
increased natural ventilation, a light
Panes are assembled from two sheets coloured roof and wall finishes, and U Value
of glass with an adhesive interlayer. appropriate windows and glazing to
minimise heat gain. U Value measures the rate of heat flow

smart windows
Laminated glass when broken will not

through a window, due to temperature
shatter or splinter leading to greater Passive Solar Heating difference between the indoor and
safety and security. Laminated glass
outdoor environment, taking into
eliminates nearly 99% of harmful UV Passive solar heating aims to keep the account the effect of the frame, glass,
rays, reducing fading to floors and summer sun out while still allowing seal and any spacers. Heat is lost
furniture. A specialised interlayer in the winter sun in. As well as using Selection
Selection and
placement of of
windows and
anddoors is one
doors of the
is one most
of the important
most important
and gained through a window by
laminated glass can further reduce orientation and shading, passive solar decisions when designing your home. Installation of high performance Capral
the combined effects of conduction, decisions when designing your home. Installation of high performance Capral
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient. heating is best achieved through windows and doors is one of the easiest ways to improve the comfort andand
convection and radiation. The lower the windows and doors is one of the easiest ways to improve the comfort
effective insulation, draught sealing U Value, the higher the energy efficiency energy efficiency ofof
your home allall
year round. With Capral windows and doors,
Reflective Coating energy efficiency your home year round. With Capral windows and doors,
and high performance glazing. Window of the window or door. your home can be designed to maximise the suns warmth in winter and to to
A metallic coating is applied to one side frames and the type of glazing used your home can be designed to maximise the suns warmth in winter and
reflect the suns intense heat in summer. This reduces reliance on
reflect the suns intense heat in summer. This reduces reliance on cooling and cooling and
of the glass in order to significantly play a big part in passive solar heating. Visible transmittance (VT)
savesyou money
you money and,
and, byby
minimisingyour carbon
your carbonfootprint, helps
footprint, helps
increase the amount of reflected visible Shading VT is a numeric measure of how much save the environment at the same time.
and infra red heat. save the environment at the same time.
visible light is transferred through the
Shading a home can improve comfort
window. The higher the VT, the more
and increase energy efficiency. It is
daylight that is openly transmitted.

aluminium - the
smarter choice
for windows
and doors

Engage a professional and qualified energy expert

to assist with your project. Recognised sustainable
energy building consultants can be found through the
following member-based organisations:


Proud industry memberships

smart windows HANDBOOK Vol. 1

Capral Limited
1300 366 517 I www.capral.com.au
ABN 78 004 213 692