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Faculty of Education and Languages

HBEM1303
Curriculum Management

Copyright Open University Malaysia (OUM)


HBEM1303
CURRICULUM
MANAGEMENT
Alias Mat Saad

Copyright Open University Malaysia (OUM)


Project Directors: Prof Dato Dr Mansor Fadzil
Assoc Prof Dr Chung Han Tek
Open University Malaysia

Module Writer: Alias Mat Saad


Politeknik Port Dickson

Translators: Gina Marini Sathiaratnam


Baskaram a/l Subramaniam
Lee Lai Guan

Developed by: Centre for Instructional Design and Technology


Open University Malaysia

First Edition, December 2009


Copyright Open University Malaysia (OUM), October 2011, HBEM1303
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without the written permission of the President, Open University Malaysia (OUM).

Copyright Open
Copyright Open University
University Malaysia
Malaysia (OUM)
(OUM)
Table of Contents
Course Guide xv - xviii

Topic 1 Concepts, Philosophy and Objectives of Curriculum in Education 1


1.1 Defining Curriculum 2
1.1.1 Learning Objectives 3
1.1.2 Learning Outcomes 4
1.1.3 Learning Activities 4
1.1.4 Assessment 4
1.1.5 Experiences Which Will Be Acquired 5
1.2 Types of Curriculum 5
1.3 Definition of The National Curriculum 6
1.4 Factors Influencing Curriculum 6
1.5 Curriculum Focus 7
1.6 Curriculum Philosophy 9
1.7 Curriculum Objectives 11
1.7.1 Curriculum as a Means of Building Up the
Individual 11
1.7.2 Curriculum as a Constituent of Culture 11
1.8 Curriculum Design 11
1.9 Curriculum Development Models 13
1.9.1 Tylers Curriculum Development Model 13
1.9.2 Tabas Curriculum Development Model 14
1.10 Perspective of Values Across Curriculum 15
1.11 Curriculum Theory and Application for Developing
Curriculum in Malaysia 16
1.11.1 Mcdonalds Theory 16
1.11.2 Traditional Theory 16
1.11.3 Conceptual Theory 16
Summary 17
Key Terms 17
References 17

Topic 2 The Role and Tasks of the Curriculum Administrators 19


2.1 Definitions of Terminology and Duties 20
2.1.1 Head/Principal 20
2.1.2 Senior Assistant 1 20
2.1.3 Senior Assistant 2 (Student Affairs) 21
2.1.4 Assistant for Co-curricular Activities 21
2.1.5 Afternoon Supervisor 21

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2.1.6 Committee Head 21


2.2 Teacher and Student Needs in the Teaching-Learning
Process 22
2.2.1 Inductive Approach 22
2.2.2 The Deductive Approach 23
2.2.3 Methods and Techniques of Instruction and
Learning 24
2.3 Students Needs 25
2.3.1 Provision of Tools for Study 26
2.3.2 Time Management 26
2.3.3 Career Choices 26
2.3.4 Punctuality 26
2.3.5 Managing Stress 26
2.3.6 Encouraging Discussion 27
2.3.7 Listening Skills 27
2.3.8 Participatory Skills 27
2.3.9 Note-Taking Skills 27
2.4 The Role of the Headmaster or Principal 28
2.4.1 Headmaster or Principal 28
2.4.2 Curriculum Management 28
2.4.3 A Model for the Headmaster or Principal as
an Instructional Leader 30
2.4.4 The Teachers Role in Formulating and
Implementing Curriculum 31
2.5 The Role of the Headmaster or Principal as a
Curriculum Assessor 33
2.5.1 Educational Direction 33
2.5.2 Developing a Method 33
2.5.3 Implementation Stage 34
2.5.4 Assessment Stage 34
2.5.5 Feedback Stage 34
2.6 The Role and Scope of Duty of the Headmaster as a
Curriculum Assessor 34
2.6.1 Adjusting the Programmes and Activities of the
Curriculum to Achieve Its Vision and Mission 34
2.6.2 Assessing the Efficacy of Teaching and
Learning Practices 35
2.6.3 Planning, Administration and Implementation
of Tests and Examinations 35
2.7 Supporting New Teachers 36
2.7.1 Improving the System of Selection for
Teaching Candidates 36
2.7.2 Instituting Teachers Training 37

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2.7.3 Establishing Teaching as a Career 37


2.7.4 Improving the Teaching Environment and the
Welfare of Teachers 37
Summary 38
Key Terms 38
References 38

Topic 3 Analysing the Curriculum of Primary and Secondary 39


3.1 Definitions of Terms and Duties 40
3.1.1 Determining Quality Through Interpretation and
Assessment 41
3.1.2 Assessment of a Students Achievements 42
3.2 Understanding the Content of a Curriculum Provided
by the Ministry of Education 44
3.2.1 Syllabus Description and Specifications 44
3.2.2 Content of the Syllabus Description 45
3.2.3 Explanation of Columns and Levels 47
3.2.4 Approach to Curriculum Content 48
3.3 Planning a Pedagogical Approach to Delivering the
Essence of a Curriculum to Students 49
3.4 Analysing the Implicit and Explicit Curriculum 50
3.4.1 Implicit Curriculum 51
3.4.2 Explicit Curriculum 51
3.4.3 Learning Outcomes for Different Domains 52
3.5 The Inspectorate of Schools 54
3.5.1 The Role of the Inspectorate of Schools 54
3.5.2 The Scope of the Inspectorate of Schools 55
3.6 Planning a Pedagogical Approach for Imparting the
Meaning of the Curriculum to Students 56
3.6.1 Using Various Media as Teaching Tools 56
3.6.2 Teaching Medium 57
3.6.3 The Necessity of Employing Multimedia in
Education 58
Summary 59
Key Terms 59
References 60

Topic 4 Thinking Skills Within the Curriculum 61


4.1 Various Types of Thinking Skills 62
4.1.1 Definition of Thinking 62
4.1.2 Process of Thinking 62
4.2 Analysing the Types of Thinking Skills Within the
Curriculum 64

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4.2.1 Can Thinking Skills be Taught? 64


4.2.2 Models for Thinking Skills 65
4.3 Method to Inculcate Thinking Skills in Teaching 68
4.3.1 Separation 68
4.3.2 Integration 68
4.3.3 Combination 68
4.4 Stimulating Students to Raise Questions 74
4.5 Increasing the Quality of Questioning 76
4.5.1 Guidelines for Asking Questions 76
4.5.2 Guidelines for Creating Good Questions 76
4.6 Stimulating Questions from Students 77
4.6.1 The Concept of Information Skills 78
4.6.2 Definition of Information 78
4.7 Skills for Synthesising Information 79
Summary 81
Key Terms 81
References 82

Topic 5 Paradigm Shifts in Curriculum Interpretation 83


5.1 The Definition of Paradigm Shift 84
5.2 Thinking Outside the Box 85
5.3 Thinking Creatively 87
5.4 Changes in Attitudes and Values to Achieve Greater
Success 88
5.5 Embedding the Philosophy of Lifelong Learning Within
the Curriculum 89
5.6 The Concept of Lifelong Learning in the National
Development Plan 90
5.7 Examples of Nations in Asia and South-East Asia that
Launched Lifelong Learning with Success 90
5.8 The Relation between Lifelong Learning and Enhancing
Professionalism 92
Summary 94
Key Terms 94
References 94

Topic 6 Curriculum in Malaysia With Focus on KBSR/KBSM 95


6.1 Pre-Independence Education System 96
6.2 Barnes and Fenn-Wu Report 97
6.3 Razak and Rahman Talib Reports 99
6.4 Common Curriculum and Examination 100
6.5 Primary Education Philosophy 101
6.6 Weaknesses in Old Primary School Curriculum 102

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6.7 The Philosophy of the New Primary School Curriculum 103


6.8 The Design of the New Primary School Curriculum 104
6.9 The Principles, Objectives and Characteristics Of KBSR 105
6.10 The Implementation Strategy of the New Primary
School Curriculum 107
6.11 The Fields, Components and Subjects of KBSR 109
6.12 Allocation of Time 110
6.13 The New Secondary School Curriculum 111
6.14 The Philosophy of the New Secondary School Curriculum 112
6.15 Objectives and Teaching Strategies of the KBSM 112
Summary 114
Key Terms 114
References 115

Topic 7 Effective Curriculum Management 116


7.1 Effective Management 116
7.2 Supervision and Staff Development 118
7.2.1 Planners, Facilitators and Managers 118
7.2.2 Knowledge Disseminators 119
7.2.3 Enhancer and Reinforcer of Skills 119
7.2.4 Instiller of Noble Values 119
7.2.5 A Guide 119
7.2.6 A Model 119
7.3 Evaluation and Supervision of the Teachers 120
7.4 The Teaching Staff 121
7.5 A Conducive Atmosphere 123
7.5.1 Family Influence 123
7.5.2 School Infrastructure 124
7.5.3 School Atmosphere 124
7.6 Resources Management 124
7.7 Quality Control 125
7.8 Coordination 126
7.9 Trouble-Shooting 126
7.10 Head Teachers as Administrators and Managers 126
Summary 127
Key Terms 127
References 128

Topic 8 Management of Curriculum Materials in Classrooms, 129


Resource Centres and Curriculum Development Centre (CDC)
8.1 The Concept of Classroom 130
8.2 Types of Classrooms 130
8.2.1 Traditional Classroom 130

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8.2.2 KBSR/KBSM Classroom 131


8.2.3 Open Classroom 132
8.3 Managing Learning Curriculum Resources in the
Classroom 132
8.4 Management of the Science Laboratory 133
8.4.1 The Concept of a Science Laboratory 134
8.4.2 The Functions of a Science Laboratory 134
8.4.3 Science Instruments 134
8.4.4 Maintenance and Storage 134
8.5 Managing Lesson/Curriculum Resources in the School
Resource Centre (RC) 136
8.5.1 The Objectives of the School RC 136
8.5.2 The Functions of the RC 137
8.5.2 The Characteristics of an Effective RC 137
8.6 The School Resource Centre (RC) Services 138
8.7 The Collection in the School Resource Centre (RC) 139
8.8 The Distribution of Materials of the School Resource
Centre (RC) 140
8.9 The School Access Centre (SAC) 141
8.10 Teachers Activity Centre (TAC) 143
8.11 The Role of the Curriculum Development CENTRE (CDC) 144
Summary 145
Key Terms 146
References 146

Topic 9 Roles of Curriculum Leadership in Planning, Implementing 147


and Evaluating Curriculum
9.1 The Roles of Curriculum Leadership in Curriculum
Planning 148
9.2 Method of Planning a Curriculum Content 150
9.3 Method of Planning for Integrating Content with
Learning Experiences 151
9.4 The Roles of Curriculum Leadership in Curriculum
Implementation 151
9.4.1 Drafting 152
9.4.2 Preparation and Dissemination of Material 152
9.4.3 Training 152
9.4.4 Coordination 153
9.4.5 Logistics 153
9.4.6 Quality Control 153
9.5 Roles of Curriculum Leaders in Evaluating Curriculum 153
9.5.1 Implementation of Curriculum Evaluation
Programme 154

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9.5.2 Suitable Evaluation Programme for a


Curriculum 154
9.6 Challenges of Curriculum Leadership in Evaluating
Curriculum 155
Summary 156
Key Terms 156
References 156

Topic 10 School-Based Curriculum Development 157


10.1 What are the Aims of Education that Schools Strive
to Achieve? 158
10.2 School as Socialisation Agent 159
10.3 Effective Schools 160
10.4 Sustainable School 164
10.4.1 Background of a Sustainable School 164
10.4.2 Definition of Sustainable School Environment
Award 165
10.4.3 Objectives of the Sustainable School
Environment Award 165
10.4.4 Components of the Sustainable School
Environment Award 165
10.5 Cluster Schools 166
10.5.1 Implementation 167
10.5.2 The Criteria in the Selection of Cluster Schools 167
10.5.3 Impact of Cluster Schools 167
Summary 168
Key Terms 168
References 168

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COURSE GUIDE

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COURSE GUIDE xv

COURSE GUIDE DESCRIPTION


You must read this Course Guide carefully from the beginning to the end. It tells
you briefly what the course is about and how you can work your way through
the course material. It also suggests the amount of time you are likely to spend in
order to complete the course successfully. Please keep on referring to Course
Guide as you go through the course material as it will help you to clarify
important study components or points that you might miss or overlook.

INTRODUCTION
HBEM1303 Curriculum Management is one of the courses offered by the Faculty
of Education and Languages at Open University Malaysia (OUM). This course is
worth three credit hours and should be covered over 8 to 15 weeks.

COURSE AUDIENCE
This course is offered to all students taking the Bachelor of Education (Education
Administration) with Honours programme. This module aims to impart
knowledge about curriculum management to enable the smooth development
and running of the Malaysian curriculum system. In the process, you will learn
valuable lessons like thinking skills which will enable you to manage the
curriculum in a critical and effective manner.

As an open and distance learner, you should be acquainted with learning


independently and being able to optimise the learning modes and environment
available to you. Before you begin this course, please confirm the course material,
the course requirements and how the course is conducted.

STUDY SCHEDULE
It is standard OUM practice that learners accumulate 40 study hours for every
credit hour. As such, for a three-credit hour course, you are expected to spend
120 study hours. Table 1 gives an estimation of how the 120 study hours could be
accumulated.

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xvi COURSE GUIDE

Table 1: Estimation of Time Accumulation of Study Hours

STUDY ACTIVITIES STUDY HOURS


Briefly go through the course content and participate in
3
initial discussions
Study the module 60
Attend 3 to 5 tutorial sessions 10
Online participation 12
Revision 15
Assignment(s), Test(s) and Examination(s) 20
TOTAL STUDY HOURS ACCUMULATED 120

COURSE OBJECTIVES
By the end of this course, you should be able to:
1. Discuss the concept of curriculum and its significance to the Malaysian
education system;
2. Manage curriculum effectively in terms of resources and curriculum
development;
3. Employ thinking skills and the concept of paradigm shift within the context
of curriculum interpretation; and
4. Describe the Malaysian curriculum system in detail.

COURSE SYNOPSIS
This course is divided into 10 topics. The synopsis for each topic can be listed as
follows:

Topic 1 introduces the concept of curriculum and its underlying philosophy and
aims.

Topic 2 describes the role and tasks of the curriculum administrators.

Topic 3 analyses the curriculum of primary and secondary schools.

Topic 4 discusses thinking skills within the curriculum.

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COURSE GUIDE xv

Topic 5 discusses the concept of a paradigm shift within the context of


curriculum interpretation.

Topic 6 describes the Malaysian curriculum with special reference to KBSR and
KBSM.

Topic 7 describes effective curriculum management.

Topic 8 discusses the management of curriculum materials in the classrooms,


resource centres and curriculum development centre (CDC).

Topic 9 discusses the roles of curriculum leadership in planning, implementing


and evaluating curriculum.

Topic 10 elaborates on school-based curriculum development.

TEXT ARRANGEMENT GUIDE


Before you go through this module, it is important that you note the text
arrangement. Understanding the text arrangement should help you to organise
your study of this course to be more objective and more effective. Generally, the
text arrangement for each topic is as follows:

Learning Outcomes: This section refers to what you should achieve after you
have completely gone through a topic. As you go through each topic, you should
frequently refer to these learning outcomes. By doing this, you can continuously
gauge your progress of digesting the topic.

Self-Check: This component of the module is inserted at strategic locations


throughout the module. It is inserted after you have gone through one sub-
section or sometimes a few sub-sections. It usually comes in the form of a
question that may require you to stop your reading and start thinking. When you
come across this component, try to reflect on what you have already gone
through. When you attempt to answer the question prompted, you should be
able to gauge whether you have understood what you have read (clearly,
vaguely or worse you might find out that you had not comprehended or retained
the sub-section(s) that you had just gone through). Most of the time, the answers
to the questions can be found directly from the module itself.

Activity: Like Self-Check, activities are also placed at various locations or


junctures throughout the module. Compared to Self-Check, Activity can appear
in various forms such as questions, short case studies or it may even ask you to
conduct an observation or research. Activity may also ask your opinion and

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evaluation on a given scenario. When you come across an Activity, you should
try to widen what you have gathered from the module and introduce it to real
situations. You should engage yourself in higher order thinking where you might
be required to analyse, synthesise and evaluate instead of just having to recall
and define.

Summary: You can find this component at the end of each topic. This component
helps you to recap the whole topic. By going through the summary, you should
be able to gauge your knowledge retention level. Should you find points inside
the summary that you do not fully understand, it would be a good idea for you
to revisit the details from the module.

Key Terms: This component can be found at the end of each topic. You should go
through this component to remind yourself of important terms or jargons used
throughout the module. Should you find terms here that you are not able to
explain, you should look for the terms from the module.

References: References is where a list of relevant and useful textbooks, journals,


articles, electronic contents or sources can be found. This list can appear in a few
locations such as in the Course Guide (at References section), at the end of every
topic or at the back of the module. You are encouraged to read and refer to the
suggested sources to elicit the additional information needed as well as to
enhance your overall understanding of the course.

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
No prior knowledge required.

ASSESSMENT METHOD
Please refer to myINSPIRE.

REFERENCES
Hussein Hj. Ahmad. (1993). Pendidikan dan masyarakat. Kuala Lumpur: DBP.

Kamaruddin Hj. Kachar. (1989). Perkembangan pendidikan di Malaysia. Kuala


Lumpur: Teks Publishing Sdn. Bhd.

Walker, D. (1990). Fundamentals of curriculum. HBJ Publishers.

Edited 3rdAugust,2010

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University Malaysia
Malaysia (OUM)
(OUM)
Topic X Concepts,
Philosophy and
1 Objectives of
Curriculum in
Education
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Define curriculum;
2. Provide a concise definition of the national curriculum;
3. State the factors which influence curriculum;
4. Discuss the focus or thrust of curriculum;
5 State the philosophical foundations for curriculum development; and
6. Describe the objectives of curriculum.

X INTRODUCTION
Are you aware that in general, there are two perspectives of education in
Malaysia? The first is that education is the process by which the nations labour
force is trained in various skills and intellectual disciplines to facilitate its
progress. The second perspective views education as a means of producing
individuals who are physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually
balanced.

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IN EDUCATION

ACTIVITY 1.1

Before you continue reading, state what you understand by the term
curriculum.

1.1 DEFINING CURRICULUM


Let us look at some definitions of the term curriculum:

Educational activities that are planned by the school authorities

Tanner and Tanner (1974)

That reconstruction or reorganization of experiences which add to the meaning


of experience, and which increases the ability to direct the course of subsequent
experiences.

Duncan & Frymier (1967)

The inculcation, through various means, of knowledge, skills and wholesome


attitudes in the learner from the time the learner is in school, college or
university.

Bell (1971)

In his book Exploring Curriculum Theory, Mohd. Daud presents several


viewpoints which include:

Curriculum is a concerted effort on the part of school authorities to guide


students so that they derive the full benefit of what has been planned for their
education.

Inlow (1966)

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A curriculum is an attempt to communicate the essential principles and features


of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and
capable of effective translation into practice."

Stenhouse (1975)

Curriculum is not related to the activities of students in a learning environment.


It focuses on what will be learned or will be undertaken by the students as an
outcome of their actions. This means that curriculum focuses on behavioural
decisions, not the behaviours themselves. The relationship between curriculum
and the learning process is predictive, not causative. Thus, it expresses the
intended outcomes of the learning process. More specifically, it presupposes the
decisions resultant of the learning process.

Johnson (1967)

Curriculum is a written document which maps out the content of subjects to be


taught. In actuality, whatever is taught in school is the total content of what is
taught through various subjects, selected disciplines, solutions for daily life and
various other arrangements. Although organised in many ways, subject content
is the essence of the curriculum.

Beauchamp (1968)

With these various definitions in mind, we may understand what a curriculum is


by considering several aspects. In brief, a curriculum must include:
Learning objectives;
Learning outcomes;
Learning activities;
Assessment; and
Experiences which will be acquired.

1.1.1 Learning Objectives


A curriculum must include all the knowledge, skills, norms, values, cultural
elements and beliefs necessary for the complete physical, spiritual, mental and
emotional growth and progress of the student - physically, spiritually and

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mentally. It should also include the inculcation and enhancement of the desired
moral values and the intended educational goals of a student.

1.1.2 Learning Outcomes


A curriculum should promote the physical and spiritual development of the
individual, enabling him to reach his full potential. He must develop cognitively,
socially, emotionally, and physically, in addition to having his natural talents
honed. The curriculum should also prepare the individual for daily social
interaction.

1.1.3 Learning Activities


The choice of knowledge and skills to be taught in any particular subject should
be varied and flexible. Depending on the skills to be taught, learning activities
could be conducted for the entire class as a group, or where appropriate, students
should be allowed to participate in smaller groups, in pairs or even to work
individually.

1.1.4 Assessment
A curriculum should be assessed based on tests for achievement, performance,
situation and observations, and an evaluation of coursework:
(a) Achievement Tests
These tests measure what a student has gleaned in knowledge and
understanding of subjects such as Islamic Studies, Moral Education, English
Language, and Mathematics.
(b) Performance Tests
These tests assess the student s ability in oral work, reading skills, physical
education and co-curriculum activities.
(c) Observation
Observing and recording of a student s development in subjects such as
Islamic Studies, Moral Education and co-curriculum activities.
(d) Situational Tests
Recognise the attitudes and values of students in subjects such as Islamic
Studies and Moral Education.

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1.1.5 Experiences Which Will Be Acquired


With Tylers perspectives in mind, Saedah (1998) suggests that learning
experiences should meet the following criteria:
(a) Learning experiences must be selected to give students the opportunity to
exhibit desired behaviour.
(b) Learning experiences must provide students with a sense of satisfaction.
(c) Learning experiences must be suited to the needs and abilities of the
students.
(d) Learning experiences must be suitable for use.
(e) Learning experiences must integrate several learning outcomes so that the
student will be able to make connections between the knowledge gained in
various fields.

1.2 TYPES OF CURRICULUM


Did you know that there are several types of curriculum? Mok Soon Sang (1996)
proposes the following (please refer to Figure 1.1):

Figure 1.1: Types of Curriculum

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1.3 DEFINITION OF THE NATIONAL


CURRICULUM
Curriculum is the basis of education. It represents an educational program
comprising of all the knowledge, skills, values, norms, cultural elements and
beliefs selected by society, as the legacy of its members from one generation to
another. The object of this planned education is to meet the needs of the
individual and that of the nation. Thus, the national curriculum is defined as:

An educational program that includes curriculum and co-curricular activities


which encompasses all the knowledge, skills, norms, values, cultural elements
and beliefs to help develop a pupil fully, with respect to the physical, spiritual,
mental and emotional aspects as well as to inculcate and develop desirable moral
values and to transfer knowledge....

The Education Act 1996

ACTIVITY 1.2
Based on what you know, provide a definition for curriculum as well as
the elements that should be present when developing any curriculum.

1.4 FACTORS INFLUENCING CURRICULUM


There are many aspects by which curriculum can be influenced as its
characteristics are always changing. Figure 1.2 and Figure 1.3 show the factors
which directly or indirectly influence curriculum:

Figure 1.2: Types of Curriculum


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Figure 1.3: Indirect Influences on Curriculum

Table 1.1: Influence of the Learning Stage on Curriculum

Learning Stage Curriculum Format


Pre-school 1. Initiating the role and responsibility of the pre-school.
2. Increasing educational activities, tools and resources.
3. Changing the course of a curriculum which is oriented on
cognitive towards awareness.
Primary school 1. Broadens the role and responsibility of the school.
2. Fast changing curriculum.
3. Curriculum suits societal demands.
Secondary school 1. Broadens the role and responsibility of the school, for example,
in human development and communications.
2. Greater emphasis on the study of the local society.
3. Curriculum which has greater relevance.
4. Emphasis on technology.
Tertiary 1. Curriculum seen in its entirety.
Education 2. Increase in relevance and effectiveness in the planning and
formulation of the curriculum.
3. Curriculum planned and shaped to allow for rapid evaluation.

1.5 CURRICULUM FOCUS


In order to produce a society of Malaysians who are broad minded and creative,
the curriculum which is planned, must be able to yield students who have strong
intellectual, spiritual, physical and emotional development. The curriculum must
demonstrate several criteria to achieve this. We will discuss these criteria in the
next paragraphs.

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(a) Cooperative Learning


The curriculum must be centred on structured assignments, problem
solving, and group projects undertaken by the students. These should instil
various types of skills. The individual student must acquire interpersonal
skills which encompass abilities for good decision making, managing
conflict and maintaining good relations with other group members.

(b) Thinking Creatively and Reflectively


A curriculum focused on activities to foster the ability to make proper
choices and decisions has its basis on rational reasons and justifications. A
critical mind is necessary for understanding and discriminating between
assumptions, ideas and perspectives in order to achieve better behavioural
changes or yield new products.

(c) Developing Creativity


The curriculum must incorporate many creative activities which foster
logical thinking, encourage powers of imagination, and the ability to
articulate points of view.

(d) Generic Skills


Generic skills will produce a labour force that is skilled, competent, adept
and accomplished for the job and in the workplace.

(e) Multilingualism
Globalisation trends and the information explosion necessitate a fluency in
several languages. Malaysian must be fluent in languages other than the
Malay language, in order to take advantage of the vast amount of
information available in various other languages.

(f) Patriotism and Statesmanship


The curriculum must sustain the continuous, uninterrupted building of a
patriotic spirit and national identity. It must promote the culture, ideology
and aspirations of the nation which strengthen the national identity to form
a society of Malaysians who have authority and high moral standards.

(g) Full and Total Comprehension of Pure Ideals and Values


The curriculum must inculcate complete comprehension of the pure ideals
and values of the Malaysian society, as well as new and appropriate values
of a modern society. Only a good, cultured person of high moral character
is capable of acquiring and possessing new knowledge without sacrificing
his religion, character and culture. Such a person will realise that he
requires knowledge in order to honourably discharge his duties towards
himself, God, his family and society as well as the world in which he lives.

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(h) Various Aptitudes or Astuteness


Every individual has various aptitudes, abilities and astuteness. There
should be focus on developing the human potential, as suggested by the
Theory of Multiple Intelligences which are linguistic intelligence, logical-
mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic
intelligence, musical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal
intelligence and naturalist intelligence. This will produce balanced and
holistic individuals.

(i) Learning Skills to Facilitate Learning


A curriculum should include teaching learning skills that are necessary for
acquiring knowledge in a subject, along with the actual subject instruction.
Speed reading skills, skimming, scanning and choosing information, note-
taking skills, writing summaries, oral presentation or public speaking skills
must also be incorporated in the teaching and learning process.

1.6 CURRICULUM PHILOSOPHY


At the core of any system of education is its curriculum. It represents a plan for
education which consolidates all the knowledge, skills, values, norms as well as
cultural elements and beliefs selected by society as the legacy of its members
from one generation to another. The objective of this educational plan is to meet
the needs of the individual and the nation. In the Cabinet Report evaluating The
Implementation of Educational Foundations (1979), these two needs were
described as follows:

The role of curriculum in education is the total physical, spiritual, intellectual,


and emotional development of the student. It is also to instil and inculcate
desirable character values apart from transferring knowledge. In the Malaysian
context, the curriculum has a role to play in building a society which supports
the national ambition for harmony guided by the Five Principles of Nationhood
and a skilled labour force.

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In 1974, a Cabinet Committee evaluating ''The Implementation of the Educational


Foundations'' was formed to assess the weaknesses in the primary school
curriculum. Among the recommendations of this Committee in its 1979 reports
are:

The primary school curriculum must be reevaluated in order that the education
received by students will fulfill its purpose in fostering the overall development
of the individual to include basic educational skills (reading, writing and
arithmetic) and nurture their natural talents.

The philosophy inherent in this curriculum is to provide equal educational


opportunities and democratise education. Every student, irrespective of his
ethnicity, social status, or the socio-economic background of his family, would
thus, have the same opportunities to obtain communication skills in the 3Rs. The
goal of the new curriculum is that knowledge can be shared among all school
children and not merely to a selected group of them.

In order to prepare Malaysians with an education sufficiently balanced to meet


these two primary needsthe needs of the individual and the needs of the nation
- the curriculum must be planned and directed with care. This is absolutely
essential if the curriculum is to adequately meet these needs and satisfy the
demand for excellent standards of education.

ACTIVITY 1.3
1. State in writing what should be the thrust or focus of a curriculum.
2. What are the direct and indirect factors which influence a
curriculum?

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1.7 CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES


The curriculum is a written document that cites the subject matter that is to be
taught. In truth, whatever is taught in school would encompass the content
delivered through the different subjects that are taught, various disciplines of
knowledge, problem solving skills for daily life and various other matters.
Irrespective of the ways employed, subject content would inevitably be the main
thrust of the curriculum. We will discuss the main role of the curriculum in the
following subsections.

1.7.1 Curriculum as a Means of Building Up the


Individual
Curriculum is the reconstruction of knowledge and experience, which is
systematically developed under the auspices of the school to enable the student
to increase his or her control of knowledge and experience. In essence, the
curriculum links the reconstruction of knowledge and experiences with the
students ability to improve his control of knowledge and experiences.

1.7.2 Curriculum as a Constituent of Culture


A curriculum is a composite of various cultural elements which have universal
characteristics, general values, and also the specific aspects of a particular
culture. For that reason, a curriculum mirrors the values inherent in a society.
These values must be present in the subjects that are taught.

1.8 CURRICULUM DESIGN


The school curriculum can be divided into the following components: the
syllabus and content of subjects for instruction, instructional and learning
activities, and co-curricular activities which take place out of the classroom. In
Malaysia, both curriculum and co-curriculum play an important role in
developing the student, with the objective of producing a society which is skilled
and able to support the national objectives of a harmonious society under the
Five Principles of Nationhood.

Before a curriculum is implemented, it must first be designed. Do you know


what is meant by the term curriculum design?

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According to Saylor and Alexander (1958), curriculum design is a framework


which is used to choose, plan, document as well as implement the educational
experience in school.

In general, the framework of a curriculum is an important aspect for the


following reasons:
It identifies the role of the teacher, the student, and the curriculum
developers.
It is one method by which curriculum developers plan learning experiences.
It shows elements which must be attended to when the curriculum is being
planned, as well as their relationship with the process of curriculum
development.

Some matters of importance which curriculum developers must attend to,


include adherence to the following principles as shown in Figure 1.4.

Figure 1.4: Principles of Curriculum Design

Mok Soon Seng (1996) suggests that when designing the curriculum, several
factors which have a bearing on the shape of the curriculum must be taken into
account. These factors include the following:

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(a) The students wants and needs: The students needs are for food, growth,
safety, love, society, and the desire to improve. The curriculum should be
designed to cater for these needs.
(b) National needs and wants: The curriculum should be designed to realise
the national philosophy for education. It should train the individual to
function responsibly in society, as well as contribute to the nation.
(c) Global needs: The ideal school curriculum would provide an education and
training which would equip a student to succeed anywhere in the world. It
would provide him with an insight and understanding in international
relations, and build a respect for the rights of the individual and the
sovereignty of a nation.

1.9 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODELS


Models are normally used in learning activities to explain processes or guide the
students understanding of how things are done. In this module, we will use the
models of Tyler and Hilda Taba.

1.9.1 Tylers Curriculum Development Model


Tyler suggests that curriculum developers focus on the general objectives of
education and take into account data from three sources: the student, the
ordinary lives of society, and the subject concerned.

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1.9.2 Tabas Curriculum Development Model

Figure 1.5: Tabas curriculum development model

In her book, Curriculum Development, Hilda Taba (1962), states that curriculum
development must be based on deductive approaches (please refer to Figure 1.5).
She feels that teachers are the ones who should be responsible for designing
curriculum, not other authorities. Taba reasoned that teachers alone were in a
position to understand the particular educational needs of their students. Tabas
model for curriculum development may be summarised as follows:
Diagnosis of needs;
Formulation of objectives;
Selection of content;
Organisation of content;
Selection of learning experiences;
Organisation of learning experiences; and
Determination of what to evaluate and the ways and means of doing it.

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1.10 PERSPECTIVE OF VALUES ACROSS


CURRICULUM
In general, a curriculum should contain pure and holy values and ideals. These
should include moral, religious, cultural and aesthetic values.

(a) Moral Values


Values based on ethics, humanitarianism, religion and faith.

(b) Cultural Values


Values related to the way of life, socialisation, society, traditions and
beliefs.

(c) Aesthetic Values


The appreciation of art and beauty are important for emotional
development, awareness and sensibility.

(d) Religious Values


Values touching on faith and beliefs, spirituality as well as good works,
which are practised by society and founded upon the belief in the Almighty
God (Figure 1.6).

Figure 1.6: Values and ideals integrated into the curriculum.


Source: Abd Rahim Abd Rashid (1993)

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1.11 CURRICULUM THEORY AND


APPLICATION FOR DEVELOPING
CURRICULUM IN MALAYSIA
Several theories cited by Ishak Ramly (2005) for curriculum development in his
book, This is the School Curriculum are discussed next.

1.11.1 McDonalds Theory


This theory views curriculum as a social system which produces an educational
plan, through which the teaching process and formal learning occurs in a
structured and organised manner.

1.11.2 Traditional Theory


This theory is supported by theorists such as John Dewey, Franklin Bobbitt,
Ralph Tyler, Hilda Taba, George Beauchamp, Ronald Dull and John Goodlad.
The focus of this theory is on the planning and development of curriculum. Its
emphasis is on logic and the rational aspects of the curriculum. Based on this
theory, the educational process can be identified, explained and controlled.
Proponents of this theory also hold the view that curriculum can be created by of
analysing the behaviour of the student.

1.11.3 Conceptual Theory


The proponents of this theory are Benjamin Bloom, Jerome Brunner, David Berliner,
George Posner, Robert Stake, and Herb Walberg. This theory constitutes a scientific
method of research to yield generalisations, thus enabling educators to predict and
organise what occurs in school.

It stresses the basic theoretical content, what is taught by teachers, what is


implemented in schools and researches the impact that the implementation of the
curriculum has on the students.

In Malaysia, curriculum development and design are influenced by political, socio-


economic and socio-cultural factors. Thus, curriculum planning depends on
developments in the political, socio-economic and socio-cultural arenas. Likewise, it
depends on the direction that the educational development may be moving towards.
Apart from these factors, curriculum development is subjected to the aims and
objectives of the national vision. Any future progress for the nation will depend on
the policies, plans and implementation of the curriculum designed now.

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The concept of curriculum is inclusive of what is learnt, learning outcomes,


learning activities, and values, as well as experiences which the learners will
acquire.
The national curriculum is an education plan which integrates all the
knowledge, skills, values and norms, as well as cultural elements and beliefs
which society chooses to be the legacy of one generation to another.
There are two types of influences on curriculum: direct influences and
indirect influences. Direct influences are the family, school, culture, and
ministry policies. Indirect influences include traditions, government policies,
ethnic traditions, school traditions and traditions as a consequence of
ministry policies.
In order for Malaysians to succeed in its objective of nurturing a progressive
society, the curriculum must be designed to develop the student
intellectually, spiritually, physically, and emotionally.
Curriculum development in Malaysia is influenced by several theories,such
as: McDonalds Theory, Traditional Theory, and Conceptual Theory.

Cooperative learning Learning objectives


Curriculum Learning outcomes
Generic skills Tylers & Tabas Model
Learning activities

Abd. Rahim Abd. Rashid. (1993). Pendidikan nilai merentasi kurikulum. Kuala
Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Brennan, W. K. (1985). Curriculum for special needs. Open University Press.

Ibrahim Saad. (1990). Perubahan pendidikan di Malaysia: Satu cabaran. Kuala


Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

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Mohd. Daud Hamzah. (n.d.). Penerokaan teori kurikulum. Dewan Bahasa dan
Pustaka.

Mok Soon Sang. (1996). Pedagogi 1: Kurikulum dan pengurusan bilik darjah.
Kuala Lumpur: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn.Bhd.

Kamarudin Hj. Kachar. (1989). Perkembangan pendidikan di Malaysia. Kuala


Lumpur: Teks Publishing Sdn.Bhd.

Olivia, P. F. (1997). Developing the curriculum. Longman.

Saedah Siraj. (1998). Dari Pendidikan di Malaysia, Utusan Publication Sdn. Bhd.

Walker, D. (1990). Fundamentals of curriculum. HBJ Publishers.

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Topic X The Role and
Tasks of the
2 Curriculum
Administrators
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Discuss the role and tasks of curriculum administrators;
2. State the approach necessary to deliver instructions;
3. Analyse the learners needs while they follow a lesson in the classroom;
4. Describe the role of curriculum administrators;
5. State what is needed to support new teachers; and
6. Describe the models related to the headmaster, acting as the
instructional leader.

X INTRODUCTION
Congratulations on your successful completion of Topic 1!

It is expected that by year 2020, Malaysia will be in great need of highly skilled
labour. This need can only be met by developing an education system which
strives towards academic excellence. Indeed, an improved system of education
and the pursuit of academic excellence are keys to ensuring the continued
prosperity of the nation and its citizens. The leadership of school principals and
administrators will necessarily be a focal point of study if the goal of educational
excellence is to be attained. In this topic, you will discover the foundations of
teaching and learning methods, teaching and learning from the perspective of the

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teacher as well as the student, the role of a teacher as a leader, curriculum


administrators and the quality of a curriculum.

2.1 DEFINITIONS OF TERMINOLOGY AND


DUTIES
We need to know a schools organisational structure and familiarise ourselves
with those who are involved in its day to day running in order to understand the
administrative process in a school. The following people are responsible for the
administration of a school:

2.1.1 Head/Principal
The Head or the Principal is responsible for:
Managing the curriculum and co-curriculum.
Managing the finances, facilities and resources.
Managing the teaching staff and other personnel.
Managing students welfare.
Managing internal and external communication.

2.1.2 Senior Assistant 1


The Senior Assistant 1 is responsible for:
Teaching.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage the curriculum.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage facilities and resources.
Assisting the Head/Principal in other duties.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage staff members.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage administrative affairs.

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2.1.3 Senior Assistant 2 (Student Affairs)


The Senior Assistant 2 (Student Affairs) is responsible for:
Teaching.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage students welfare and discipline.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage students admissions and
registrations.
Assisting the Head/Principal in general communication.
Assisting the Head/Principal in other duties.

2.1.4 Assistant for Co-curricular Activities


The Assistant for Co-curricular Activities is responsible for:
Teaching.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage the curriculum.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage the co-curriculum.
Assisting the Head/Principal in general communication.
Assisting the Head/Principal in daily administration.

2.1.5 Afternoon Supervisor


The Afternoon Supervisor is responsible for:
Teaching.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage the curriculum.
Assisting the Head/Principal in daily administration.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage students welfare and discipline.
Assisting the Head/Principal to manage staff members.

2.1.6 Committee Head


The Committee Head is responsible for:
Raising academic standards and performance in internal and external
examinations.
Raising students performance in subjects taken.

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Preparing the primary work targets for the subject committees.


Overseeing the safety and cleanliness of special classrooms and equipment
for certain subjects, if available, as well as set the rules for the use of these
facilities.

2.2 TEACHER AND STUDENT NEEDS IN THE


TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS
Education is an important factor in the effort to realise the goal and vision of
Malaysia as a developed nation by 2020. This goal depends on the labour force
and in particular, in having excellent and effective teachers. Our teachers must be
experts in their field and be able to instruct students effectively to meet these
objectives. Towards this end, the strategies and approaches that may be
employed are discussed here.

2.2.1 Inductive Approach


A teacher who uses this approach will propose several statements from which
inferences could be made. The method of making inferences is inductive. This
approach requires students to draw inferences based on information or data that
are given, from which they make observations and learn new concepts or
abstractions. Students are not taught the knowledge which they are required to
learn directly, but rather are made to deduce this knowledge from the related
data or information provided to them. They are encouraged to find, observe, and
study, and thus, derive the concepts or abstractions, or examples of what they are
required to know.

Characteristics of the inductive approach include:


The objective is to form habits of inquiry.
Uses sensory experience to gain knowledge.
Stresses lessons which are concrete.
Gives students the opportunity to be guided by a teacher.
Requires frequent practise in various contexts before mastery is gained.
Requires active student participation.
Creates an interesting and effective learning environment.
Stresses oral work.

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Principles of the inductive approach include the following:


The teacher uses a set of strategic questions which the students must answer
in order to form the desired generalisations.
It tries and tests the students intellectual abilities.
The teacher plans lessons and activities which will stimulate the interest of
the students.
The teacher must also provide suitable learning aids to produce concrete
lessons.
The teachers guidance and assistance is required throughout the entire
learning process.

2.2.2 The Deductive Approach


The deductive approach is a teaching and learning method based on certain
principles. In this approach, a concept, rule or principle is first taught to the
students followed by the application or demonstration of what has already been
imparted. In the classroom, the students are presented with a problem which
they must first understand. They are then required to choose suitable principles,
rules, conclusions or generalisations to solve that problem.

Characteristics of the deductive approach are:


The focus of learning is on the knowledge to be acquired.
Thinking and understanding are the chief means of gaining knowledge.
Learning is initiated from complex content or material which is organised
and presented to the student.
Learning with understanding is more permanent than mere memorisation.
Integrated cohesive approach.
Integrates several skills into the process of instruction and learning.
Requires the teacher to use various resources in order for students to observe
the employment of skills in other fields.

Characteristics of the integrated approach are:


Coalescence in learning.
Cuts across the curriculum.
Absorption.

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2.2.3 Methods and Techniques of Instruction and


Learning
We can use the following methods and techniques of instruction and learning:

Student-centred
(a) The student is actively involved in lessons.
(b) The teacher acts as a facilitator.
(c) Students have the opportunity of learning through experience.
(d) Encourages students to give their own views and contribute to class
discussions.
(e) Encourages students to share objectives.
(f) Encourages students to think about the activities they are engaged in.
(g) Gives students the opportunity to explore ideas.
(h) Encourages students to gather information through various methods, to
process it and make formulations.

Teacher-centred
(a) The teacher is more involved.
(b) The teacher uses various teaching aids.
(c) Students interest is engaged when the teacher is able to deliver a lesson
well.

Material-centred
(a) Helps students to understand abstract concepts.
(b) Enables students to easily acquire new skills.
(c) Lessons and activities can be varied as well as easily delivered.
(d) Lessons and activities are more interesting and stimulating.

ACTIVITY 2.1

Based on what you know, build an organisational chart for your school
and summarise the functions and roles of each member on the chart.

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2.3 STUDENTS NEEDS


Are you ready to be an excellent, effective teacher? Such a teacher is always
sensitive to his or her students needs. Alimuddin states:

If we were to compare conditions within a school with those outside of it, we


will find that students are faced with widely differing environments. Often, they
find themselves in a dilemma or in some confusion about which influences of
these different environments they should receive. It is the teachers duty to help
a student to make wise choices for themselves so that their learning progresses
unhindered.

Based on these facts, the teacher must provide students with learning skills to
enable them to enjoy their lessons. The following guidelines will help the teacher
to meet with the students needs, as shown in Figure 2.1:

Figure 2.1: Learning Skills


Source: Alimuddin Md Dom http://www.tutor.com.my/tutor/dunia.asp

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2.3.1 Provision of Tools for Study


The teacher must show students how to keep their files, folders and lockers
systematically. They must also be taught how to keep their writing instruments,
materials for circulation, notes, assignments and other things in order too. These
materials must be kept systematically and be within easy reach when needed.

2.3.2 Time Management


It is important that students are able to manage their time. They should be able to
complete their homework, study, read, research, engage in discussions, attend
extra classes and participate in other activities according to their timetable. In
addition, they will also need to socialise with their friends, watch television, play
and rest.

2.3.3 Career Choices


Teachers can help students make good career choices based on career interest
and personality tests, as well as by providing the students with information on
the different career possibilities. Having knowledge of possible career pathways
would encourage and stir students to work towards their ambitions, whether in a
classroom or otherwise.

2.3.4 Punctuality
Students must constantly be reminded about the importance of being punctual.
They must be trained to be at school early and be prepared to arrive for activities
before the appointed time. They must complete their homework on schedule and
prepare for tests and examinations in advance. A student who has learned the
value of being punctual would be one of excellent calibre and also someone who
is well-prepared for working life.

2.3.5 Managing Stress


Students must be taught to manage stress. They must be taught to handle
pressure and trained to be open-minded, while able to control their emotions.
They must have access to proper nutritional information during their growing
years and be taught to get enough sleep and sufficient exercise so that they will
be healthy, energetic and balanced individuals.

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2.3.6 Encouraging Discussion


The teacher must be a source of information or reference for his or her students.
He or she can encourage them to engage in class discussions or group study.
There must be adequate and suitable space in which students can exchange ideas
with their teacher acting as a facilitator.

2.3.7 Listening Skills


Students must acquire effective listening skills and adopt a positive attitude
towards their teachers efforts to impart knowledge. They must be early for
classes, find suitable seating within the classroom, have done some pre-reading
of the topics to be studied, be ready with a pen and paper for note-taking and
also be prepared to absorb the lecture with an open mind.

2.3.8 Participatory Skills


The effort to develop the personality of the student must be made so that he or
she is able to participate in classroom activities and willing to take on academic
challenges unhampered by shyness or diffidence. Participatory skills must be
imparted so that students overcome nervousness and are able to ask questions,
offer their opinions or views on a subject, even though they may have differences
of opinion.

2.3.9 Note-taking Skills


Although students may have effective listening skills, if they do not take notes,
they may easily forget what they have heard in the classroom. Several studies
have shown that students forget half the information they have received within
55 minutes after they have heard it, and retain only about 17 % after a week has
passed. However, this problem can be overcome if they take notes. Effective
note-taking skills will enable students to remember facts or information in the
long term. This is necessary if they are to be adequately prepared for
examinations.

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2.4 THE ROLE OF THE HEADMASTER OR


PRINCIPAL
This subsection deals with the following points:
Headmaster or principal.
Curriculum management.
A model for the headmaster or principal as an instructional leader.
The teachers role in formulating and implementing curriculum.

2.4.1 Headmaster or Principal


A headmaster or principal whose style of leadership is conservative and
reactionary, and who is mindful of tasks and duties which are not of professional
importance, will not be able to rise up to the boundless challenges of this world.
Without a doubt, the school principal must simultaneously play two important
roles that of an Instructional Leader and Administrator as well as
Management Head. The Education Ministry acknowledges the importance of the
role of the school principal as an Instructional Leader in five important areas:
(i) To properly manage a curriculum, one requires an understanding of the
philosophy, the objectives of education, preparation and provision of
curriculum materials, tracking and management of information.
(ii) Managing the school culture.
(iii) Managing the staff andpersonnel.
(iv) Managing the co-curriculum.
(v) Social communication.

2.4.2 Curriculum Management


In this subsection, we will concentrate on curriculum management. Alimuddin
states that the method for monitoring the curriculum is as shown in Figure 2.2:

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Figure 2.2: Methods of monitoring curriculum management

(a) Pre-monitoring: Before monitoring can begin, the headmaster or principal


should hold a discussion with the teachers regarding relevant aspects such
as objectives, topics, teaching approaches and expected learning outcomes.
The background and level of the students are also discussed.
(b) Monitoring: The process of monitoring the curriculum occurs in the
classroom. The principal or headmaster should be present in the classroom
to observe the lessons. Their main focus should be on the teachers
methods, techniques and means of teaching. The principal should make
notes of the teachers strengths and weaknesses. When making such
observations, the principal or head must consider whether the lesson is
communicated according to the level of the students, who naturally would
not have as much knowledge or understanding. Attention must be paid to
the content of the lesson, the knowledge imparted, the clarity of audio aids
and devices used in the lesson, classroom management, as well as the
students level of understanding.
(c) Analysis: Analysis is undertaken by the headmaster or principal who works
with the teachers to reflect on the teaching and learning process, and
specify learning outcomes. He or she should note a teachers strengths and
weaknesses, his or her techniques of delivering a lesson, the knowledge
which is imparted, students reception of the lesson and the intended
outcome. A video recording of lessons would help in forming an analysis.
(d) Post-Monitoring: The headmaster meets with teachers to discuss their
analysisand provide suggestions that are necessary for improvement. At
this juncture, the strengths of the teaching staff will be apparent. A
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competent headmaster or principal will be able to ensure that students are


well-nurtured and provided with proper guidance. Teachers who have
special talents for instruction and are able to effectively deliver lessons, may
become examples for others in the profession, particularly those who are
young and inexperienced.
(e) Assessment: The effectiveness of the teaching-learning process can be
measured by assessing the students performance. Oral and written
assessments may be conducted either during lessons or at scheduled testing
periods. In effective schools, assessments in the form of tests or
examinations are conducted systematically on a periodic basis: weekly,
monthly, semester by semester, or at the year end.

2.4.3 A Model for the Headmaster or Principal as an


Instructional Leader
Based on the views of Halinger and Murphy (1987), Wan Hamzah explains that
the headmaster has three roles as the instructional leader. These are:
(i) Defining the mission of the school;
(ii) Administering curriculum and the teaching process; and
(iii) Promoting an environment in school which is conducive to learning.

Our discussion will focus on the role of the headmaster as a curriculum and
instructional leader, and particularly on the role of the instructional leader in
administering instructions and managing the school curriculum. Previously,
based on traditional understanding and practise, the headmasters role was
limited to supervision and assessments. Now however, his scope has increased
so that he requires close contact with the teachers in two other related aspects.
These aspects are managing the curriculum and monitoring the progress of
students. The headmaster, acting as the instructional leader, must ensure that
students receive the education planned for them by the Ministry of Education,
guided by his knowledge and skills in curriculum management and learning
processes. The headmaster has an active role in supervising the content and
activities in the curriculum, including the task of implementing the curriculum in
the classrooms. To this end, he must make certain that teachers are empowered
with flexibility to contribute their best. It is also the headmasters duty to
frequently observe lessons in the classrooms in order to track the progress of
students. Table 2.1 shows the instructional leadership model:

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Table 2.1: Instructional Leadership Model (Hallinger & Murphy, 1987)


Source: Wan Hamzah Wan Daud (2006)

Dimension Function Behaviour


Defining the school Framing objectives
mission and objectives Delivering objectives

Managing curriculum Knowledgeable in curriculum and Various


and instruction instruction behaviours
Administering the curriculum and and practises
assessments for a
Monitor progress headmaster
Promoting a Set the academic standards
conducive Manage time
environment in school Promote progress and
improvements

2.4.4 The Teachers Role in Formulating and


Implementing Curriculum
Do you know that the success of a curriculum is closely dependent on the
implementation of the curriculum in school? Therefore, teachers must have the
skills to accurately interpret the changes in the school curriculum, as well as be
able to make necessary adjustments to cater to the needs of the students, the
environment and available resources. According to Mok Soon Sang (1993), these
skills would encompass the following, as shown in Table 2.2:

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Table 2.2: The Teachers Role in Formulating, Implementing and Assessing the
Curriculum

The teachers role in Centralised involvement: The teachers involvement in


formulating formulating or presenting views of the curriculum at the
curriculum level of the State Education Office or at the Curriculum
Development Centre.
Decentralised involvement:. The teachers involvement in
formulating curriculum at the state level and
implementing it in school.
The teachers role in Understanding and imbibing the philosophy and
implementing objectives of the curriculum, the structure and
curriculum organisation of the curriculum, as well as its educational
merit.
Possessing teaching skills which include the ability to
interrelate knowledge, skills and values.
Managing the education of students with differing
talents.
Having positive and creative teaching skills which will
ensure the success of the curriculum.
Analysing the objectives and the contents of the
curriculum.
Equipping himself or herself with teaching skills and
resource materials as well as making assessments to
identify weaknesses.
The teachers role in Formulate questions for assessment purposes.
curriculum assessment Be involved in seminars and training exercises which are
related to the curriculum in order to raise his or her level.
Offer suggestions in the choice of suitable, high quality
textbooks.

ACTIVITY 2.2

Effective curriculum management requires clinical monitoring by the


headmaster or principal. State in brief the phases of this monitoring.

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2.5 THE ROLE OF THE HEADMASTER OR


PRINCIPAL AS A CURRICULUM ASSESSOR
Before we begin our discussion of the role of a curriculum assessor, do you know
the steps that lead to the implementation of a curriculum? Examples for our
discussion will be with reference to the primary school curriculum (KBSR).
According to Mok Soon Sang (1993), who agrees with the views of A. Nicholls
and SH. Nicholls,there are five steps in the development and implementation of a
school curriculum. This process of development is illustrated in Figure 2.3:

Figure 2.3: Process of School Curriculum Development and Implementation

2.5.1 Educational Direction


In Malaysia, the direction for education is based on the National Education
Philosophy and the National Educational Objectives, which are designed to
produce students who possess knowledge, and have noble character. It is also
designed to develop their intellectual, physical, spiritual and social potential.

2.5.2 Developing a Method


This stage of planning encompasses the following:
Method and strategy for implementation.
Materials for instruction such as text books and teaching aids.
Teaching and learning strategies.
Syllabus.

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Time-table.
Scope of subjects.
Form and organisation of the curriculum.

2.5.3 Implementation Stage


Currently, implementation is limited as it is at the trial stage. Although limited, it
will enable the Ministry of Education to identify weaknesses and shortcomings of
the curriculum.

2.5.4 Assessment Stage


Assessment at this stage falls into two categories:
(i) Assessment of the teachers understanding of the curriculum which is being
implemented; and
(ii) Assessment which concentrates on tracing the workings of the National
Education Philosophy and the concept of integrated learning.

2.5.5 Feedback Stage


At this stage, all the inputs derived during the assessment will be used to identify
any weaknesses and adjustments which will have to be made in the planning of
the curriculum.

2.6 THE ROLE AND SCOPE OF DUTY OF THE


HEADMASTER AS A CURRICULUM
ASSESSOR
The question often asked is, what exactly is the role of a Headmaster or
Principal? There are times when headmasters ask themselves this question. The
following are the role of the Headmaster as a curriculum assessor:

2.6.1 Adjusting the Programmes and Activities of the


Curriculum to Achieve its Vision and Mission
According to Tyler, all staff must be involved if change is to be wholly instituted.
As the educational program is affected by the educational experience of the

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students, all teachers must participate in curriculum planning in order to gain a


thorough understanding of how to attain the objectives of the curriculum.

2.6.2 Assessing the Efficacy of Teaching and Learning


Practices
Hussein Mahmoud (1993), taking the view propounded by Lipham and Hoeh
(1974), states that the headmaster must be involved in educational development.
He must be involved in evaluating and planning relevant programmes as well as
instituting changes in the school to bring about progress.

2.6.3 Planning, Administration and Implementation


of Tests and Examinations
Assessments are necessary to gauge a students level of mastery, skills and
comprehension. Information of this nature serves as a pointer for further
teaching and learning plans. The tools and methods of assessment that are
employed must be able to accurately measure the abilities and efforts of a
student. Such assessments would take the following forms:
(a) Assessments based on the school: Schools should be given a mandate to
carry out their own assessments as only the school authorities would know
the achievement level of their students. Students can therefore be assessed
and streamed according to their individual performance. Those who
perform excellently can be promoted to higher levels of study while those
who are weaker can be suitably assisted through remedial programs.
(b) Continuous assessment: We should conduct continuous assessment to
ensure that students have mastered the desired knowledge and skills. Such
assessments can help identify the level of mastery which students have
attained. The assessment also shows weaknesses in students which can then
be quickly overcome before the period of learning ends.
(c) Assessment based on subject elements: Each subject has different elements,
apart from knowledge and skills. We should stress on these elements in
order to assess whether a student has truly understood the subject. For
instance, with a subject like Life Skills, elements such as communication
skills, design capabilities, practical skills, investigative know-how,
management skills and the ability to make calculations, budgets, or
estimates, can be assessed along with the subject knowledge.

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2.7 SUPPORTING NEW TEACHERS


In an effort to produce teachers who are excellent and on par with international
standards, the choice of candidates that are interested in becoming teachers must
be carefully made. The challenge faced by the Ministry of Education is to set in
place a system to select only prospective candidates who are interested in
teaching and have the personality and aptitude to make excellent teachers.
Innovative steps will also be necessary to encourage students who are brilliant to
enter the teaching profession. Thus, the mission and hope of the Main
Educational Development Plan is aimed at developing the teaching profession
through various strategies. Figure 2.4 describes the implementation focus and
strategy for raising the professionalism of teachers:

Figure 2.4: Implementation Focus and Strategy in Raising the Professionalism of Teachers

2.7.1 Improving the System of Selection for Teaching


Candidates
Improvement for the selection of teaching candidates is implemented by having
stricter conditions. These conditions include:
Malaysian Teachers Selection Test (MteST), individual and group
interviews, and a written English Test.
Post Graduate Teaching Course suited to the chosen option.
Selection of Trained Graduate Teachers through advertisements and short-
listing.
Firmly establishing the process by which the Educational Services
Commission selects and certifies teachers, ensuring in the process, that each
teacher satisfies the minimum standards of requirement.
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2.7.2 Instituting Teachers Training


In order to firmly establish teacher training, the Ministry of Education has raised
the standard of the teaching colleges to teaching institutes, which offer degree
level programs in education. In addition, the Ministry has formulated a Teaching
Institute Curriculum which is centralised and has the approval of the Council for
the Curriculum of Education for Teachers.

2.7.3 Establishing Teaching as a Career


Teachers now have the opportunity to be promoted to a grade equivalent to the
main posts in the public sector. In addition, the number of teaching positions has
been increased in the Ministry of Education, the State Education Departments,
and District Education Offices.

2.7.4 Improving the Teaching Environment and the


Welfare of Teachers
Preparation of a work environment that is conducive should include the
following:
(a) Sufficient living quarters in remote areas of the country, out-of-town and
in-town areas by building new housing for teachers and restoring and
renovating existing quarters.
Providing staff rooms and classrooms which are conducive in
increasing the quality of work and performance through upgrading
projects, additional buildings and new constructions.
Studying the needs of teachers in interior regions for facilities on a
periodic basis.
Establishing planning and management of human resources.

(b) Preparing the mechanism for the supply of teachers. This includes:
Fostering cooperation with IPT's for teachers training.
Establishing the mechanism for stretching the supply of teachers
Improving the system of teachers information.
Compulsory period of service in the interiors for all new teachers.

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Those involved in implementing the curriculum in schools must know their


specific roles.
To teach effectively, teachers must be masters in the field of knowledge
they are to impart to students.
For a student to learn effectively, the teacher must know his individual
needs.
As the leader, the Headmaster or Principal must know the methods of
monitoring the curriculum.
In our efforts to raise a generation of teachers who are excellent in calibre,
we must provide adequate support for all new teachers.

Deductive approach School environment


Inductive approach School-based assessment

Alimuddin Md Dom, Pengurusan kurikulum berkesan.

Hussein Hj Ahmad. (1993). Pendidikan dan masyarakat. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan


Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Mok Soon Sang. (1996). Pedagogi 1: Kurikulum dan pengurusan bilik darjah.
Kuala Lumpur: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn.Bhd.

Wan Hamzah Wan Daud. (2006). Peranan pemimpin instruksional dalam


mendefinisikan wawasan sekolah. IAB Cawangan Utara.

http://www.tutor.com.my/tutor/dunia.asp, Effective Curriculum Management

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Curriculum of
3 Primary and
Secondary
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Analyse the quality of a curriculum;
2. Summarise the criteria of an effective curriculum;
3. Summarise how to plan a pedagogical approach before teaching;
4. Analyse the implied or hidden curriculum and the explicit curriculum;
and
5. State the role of school superintendents.

X INTRODUCTION
Teachers and educators must be equipped with a compass to guide them in their
efforts to educate their students. Such a compass will ensure that they are not
diverted from their primary objectives. A curriculum is in fact the guidepost that
teachers and educators require to discharge their responsibilities. It contains all
the information related to the implementation of the teaching and learning
process. An educator, therefore, should not stray from the curriculum chosen for
implementation in the school.

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3.1 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS AND DUTIES


A curriculum has several elements which include a set of experiences, culture,
ideas, teaching materials, activities formed for a particular target group, or a
group of students for the purpose of achieving a set of objectives. A curriculum
must indeed contain the following:
An educational plan;
Desired objectives;
A list of materials, content, topics, and intended experiences;
Activities, method and tools for delivery; and
A method for the assessment process.

In addition, one must ascertain the objectives of the curriculum when developing
the said curriculum. The efforts of the panel of experts involved in curriculum
development will certainly have a bearing on the teaching and learning process,
and what is more significant, on the outcome of the curriculum they formulate,
regardless if they succeed or otherwise.

To establish a curriculum that is up to standard, all learning experiences must be


well planned and organised in such a way that the curriculum is properly
implemented. We shall refer to the planning and organising steps for effective
learning experiences. These steps are an integral part of curriculum development
because they will shape the effectiveness of what is taught and will make a big
difference in the education of the students. Table 3.1 describes the criteria for
organising effective learning experiences:

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Table 3.1: Criteria for Organising Effective Learning Experiences


Source: Ralph W. Tyler

Criteria Explanation

Continuity This refers to the repetition of important elements of the curriculum.


For example, if reading skills are the primary objective, then we need
to ensure that students are given enough opportunities to practise
these skills throughout their course of learning.

Arrangement This refers to the progression of old learning experiences into new
or Progression experiences. For example, arrangements made for reading skills
should include providing reading materials that range from a simple
to complex level.

Integration This refers to the horizontal link between experiences within the
curriculum. The organisation of a students learning experiences
should enable him or her to gain a progressively integrated view of
his whole education. It should result in behaviours that reflect what
has been imparted to the student through the curriculum. For
example, the experience gained from learning about ritual washing
should be integrated with the practise of cleanliness and good
hygiene to promote health.

3.1.1 Determining Quality through Interpretation and


Assessment
The quality of education in Malaysia is affected by the way we interpret the
National Curriculum and implement a system of assessments. Interpretation and
assessments should be carried out continuously to ensure a high standard of
education. The Instrument for Gauging Standards within the Malaysian Standard
of Education Quality, states that the Assessments and Examinations Committee
is an important element in curriculum management programs. Apart from
managing the implementation of the Primary School Assessment and matters
relating to public examinations, this committee is responsible for analysing the
results of the Primary School Assessment (PKSR) and public examinations. Its
responsibilities include managing internal and external examination papers, and
announcing the analysis of examination results to members of the School
Curriculum Committee.

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3.1.2 Assessment of a Students Achievements


The Primary School Assessment (PKSR) was introduced by the Ministry of
Education to track the overall development, ability, progress and achievements
of pupils. This assessment is chiefly meant to ascertain whether the objectives of
the Integrated Primary School Curriculum, which is based on the National
Educational Philosophy, are met. The Primary School Assessment is formulated
on the principles of assessment held by the schools. These assessments are
planned and carried out by the school teachers for all subjects. The teachers
construct and administer the instruments for assessment.

The Primary School Assessment is a part of the ongoing process (please refer to
Figure 3.1). Assessment outcomes trigger follow-up actions to improve the
quality of teaching and to increase the students learning. These assessments are
formative as they prioritise a students progress from one level to the next. The
teacher is able to track a students development from time to time, giving him the
opportunity to correct mistakes and weaknesses in the students immediately and
thus, preventing the accumulation of errors and weaknesses, which if unchecked,
will eventually prove difficult to deal with.

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Figure 3.1: Primary School Assessment Process


Source: Ministry of Education

In general, a students academic achievements are assessed in stages throughout


his school years. Records of his grades in school will indicate his mastery of what
has been taught. Assessments of academic achievements are conducted by school
authorities for a two-fold purpose that is, to encourage high achievement in
students and thus, produce students of excellent academic calibre, as well as to
upgrade the quality of education in the country. It is hoped that students will
master the subjects they have taken in school and obtain As in their assessments.

Through the process of assessment, teachers are able to:


Identify the strengths and weaknesses of a student in the early stages of their
learning process.
Track a students overall progress.

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Gauge the effectiveness of their teaching.


Plan and if necessary make changes in their teaching methods.
Take suitable measures to follow-up on assessment findings.

ACTIVITY 3.1

Considering what you have learnt thus far, state what affects the quality
of a curriculum.

3.2 UNDERSTANDING THE CONTENT OF A


CURRICULUM PROVIDED BY THE
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
Before teachers begin lessons in class, they must have a proper understanding of
the curriculum. They must understand the syllabus for the subject which they are
to teach. What is a subject syllabus?

3.2.1 Syllabus Description and Specifications

The Syllabus Description and Specifications is a document which details the


contents of the syllabus in order to fulfill the objectives and spirit of the National
Philosophy of Education, and to equip students with knowledge to meet the
economic and global challenges of the 21st century.

This document outlines learning and teaching strategies through various


activities which make effective use of available resources. Teachers are
encouraged to be creative when choosing, arranging and conducting activities
suitable for their students. It is hoped that the syllabus description will help
teachers to plan and conduct lessons effectively, as well as act as an impetus for
teachers to incorporate into their lessons, thinking skills, study skills, how to
employ information technology and communicate effectively, various theories on
increasing aptitude, methods of mastering a subject, understanding context,
constructive learning, and independent study. An important goal of the syllabus
is to produce patriotic students who will possess noble values and become good
citizens. It is hoped that all these elements will give students confidence and
enable them to apply what they have learnt in their daily lives and in the
workplace.

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3.2.2 Content of the Syllabus Description


As a tool for discussion purposes in this module, you will study the Syllabus
Description of History for students in the fourth year of their secondary
education. The contents of the Syllabus Description include the following:

Introduction

In this section, explanations are focused on:


Subject status.
Chronological approach.
Gaining a wide perspective.
Integration of elements.
Inculcating thinking skills.
Education on par with international standards.
Building stamina.
Lifelong learning.

(a) Subject Status


This refers to an explanation on the status of the subject, for example, if it is
a core subject.

(b) Chronological Approach


The curriculum content for History is in the form of a series of events which
serve as topics for discussion in the aspects of social, economic and political
life of the nation and its people. The historical events are arranged
chronologically so that students will gain an understanding of the progress
of society and the nation, as well as be informed about elements of
continuity or changes which have had a bearing on history.

(c) Gaining A Wide Perspective


The curriculum for history at the SMA level is so planned in order for
students to gain a very wide perspective about the process of the
development of society and the nation. The history of development and
evolution of cultures of the world will be studied to complete the historical
perspective of education. Such knowledge and understanding will enable
students to compare cultural achievements of other nations with our own.
Through this, students will understand the position of our nation as a part
of the world culture.

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(d) Integration of Elements


The Integrated Secondary School Curriculum explicitly promulgates
integration of knowledge with an increase in intellectual ability, the
inculcation of pure values and the development of study skills. The
integration and continuity of these elements are check-listed in the syllabus
for History. Apart from equipping students with knowledge of history,
there is also an emphasis throughout the teaching and learning process on
concepts and fundamental disciplines of the study of history, such as
analytical or thinking skills and the inculcation of a sense of patriotism.

(e) Inculcating Thinking Skills


In an effort to produce a generation of people who will fulfil the objectives
and aspirations of the nation, the teaching approach and learning process
for History must inculcate in students, the ability to think and analyse
history critically. The subject must also impart pure values and a patriotic
spirit to the students.

(f) Education on Par with National Standards


The goal of Vision 2020 is that Malaysia will be a developed nation but one
structured in a mould of its own. Thus, Malaysians must have the
knowledge necessary for competing with the rest of the world. Competition
cannot be avoided in a global world where political and economic power is
in the hands of societies which are knowledgeable and well-informed. It is
therefore, of paramount importance that the Malaysian education system
introduces students to the outside world through a futuristic curriculum
which is on par with international standards and closely linked with
information technology.

(g) Lifelong Learning


Learning is greatly developed when it is a life long process. As history is a
field of study which is dynamic, the teaching approach must be such that it
actively and continuously engages the students on the subject.
(a) Goals and Objectives of the Subject?
(b) Curriculum Organisation

The curriculum for History has been embedded with elements within the
learning process that impart knowledge or subject content, skills (historical
thinking skills), and positive values such as patriotism (please refer to
Figure 3.2). The integration of these elements refreshes the intellect, spirit,
emotions and physical wellbeing of the students.

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Figure 3.2: Curriculum for History


Source: Curriculum Development Centre

3.2.3 Explanation of Columns and Levels


There are five columns in the syllabus description:
(a) Theme/Titles: These are titles and subtitles within the scope of the content
for study. During the teaching and learning process, the content listed
under these titles can be combined, connected or discussed separately
depending on the relevance of the topic, as well as the capability of the
students.
(b) Learning Outcomes: This column outlines the desired learning outcomes to
be achieved by students through teaching and learning activities for each
title and level.
(c) Concepts/Terms: This column outlines the concepts and terms which must
be emphasised in lessons under the various titles. Teachers may teach
additional concepts and terms which they feel would be relevant or
necessary.
(d) Suggestions for Learning Activities: This column lists activities that
teachers may introduce in their lessons. They may adapt these activities or
introduce others to increase the effectiveness of the lesson.

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(e) The Element of Patriotism and its Behavioural Outcome: This column
outlines the values and examples of patriotism which must be impressed on
students through their history lessons.

The Summary of Levels in the Syllabus outlines the level of learning which will
coincide with the ability and maturity of the students in a class. Teachers are
encouraged to cover all the three levels as far as possible in order to train their
students to be able to think critically and creatively. Blooms Taxonomy has been
utilised as a guide to simplify the division of levels (please refer to Table 3.2):

Table 3.2: Division of Levels in the Syllabus Description


Source: Curriculum Development Centre

Level Knowledge and skills which can be grasped by all students. These are basic
1 skills and knowledge according to Blooms Taxonomy. They include
thinking about history in easily digestible terms.
Level Knowledge and skills which are within the scope of the majority of students.
2 In Blooms Taxonomy, this stage of learning encompasses application and
analysis and a higher level of critical thinking about history. Students will be
able to apply and analyse how man engages in time, space, change and
continuity in all aspects of his life.
Level Knowledge and skills which are within the grasp of some students. In
3 Blooms Taxonomy, these are skills and knowledge at a level requiring
synthesis and evaluation. This is the highest level of thinking critically about
history. Students will be able to grasp a critical and creative understanding
of aspects of human life in history until the present.

3.2.4 Approach to Curriculum Content


The curriculum content for secondary schools has been organised so that
students will study the history of Malaysia, as well as that of other nations. These
two topics are not taught as separate components. Instead, students will be
taught historical developments in other nations which have had a bearing on our
own local history. The emphasis for secondary schools is on the history of
Malaysia and those nations whose history is relevant to ours (please refer to
Figure 3.3):

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Figure 3.3: Content for the syllabus for emphasis

ACTIVITY 3.2

State what is necessary to be included in a syllabus description for any


subject taught in school.

3.3 PLANNING A PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH


TO DELIVERING THE ESSENCE OF A
CURRICULUM TO STUDENTS
A well designed curriculum must be implemented effectively. Varying methods of
teaching are needed to prevent boredom in students. Teachers must thus employ
wisdom when implementing the curriculum. The pedagogical approach which can
be carried out include:
Teaching a subject in groups according to the level and ability of the students.
Teaching in groups which suit the interest of the students.
Paying individual attention to students who are weak and also encouraging
the students who have the potential to progress in their studies.

There are many approaches to delivering a lesson and imparting knowledge.


Among them are:
Engaging in class discussions and summarising a topic.
Storytelling, role-playing and incorporating games into the lesson.
Excursions to relevant places, involvement in various group or class
activities.
Writing, drawing and craft work.

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Apart from what has been listed above, teachers will find that classroom
interaction enables students to grasp the meaning of the curriculum. Teachers
must then make every effort to create through such interactions, an environment
in which learning is promoted. Teachers may also carry out the following
suggestions as shown in Table 3.3:

Table 3.3: Suggestions for Interactions

Suggestions for Description


Interaction
Democratic style of A democratic teaching style may help reduce tensions in
teaching class and encourage students to draw closer to their
teacher. It may also foster better interaction between
students.
Facilitating many group Group activities provide many opportunities for
activities interaction among students. Teachers must plan and
manage activities that will enrich the students.
Using the technique of Teachers will be able to actively engage their students in
questioning the lesson and also encourage them to express their
opinions by using probing questions.
Using an appropriate An appropriate style of expression will encourage
style of expression students to express their opinions. Giving praise when it is
due will also foster active interaction.
Using a student-centred A student-centred teaching approach will maximise
teaching approach student participation in a lesson by indirectly encouraging
interaction.
Making good use of Teaching aids and tools heighten a students interest in
teaching aids and tools learning. It increases the students industry and active
involvement in the lesson.
Helping students who Weaker students and those who have problems should be
are weak or have assisted and encouraged to participate in class activities.
problems They will then develop the habit of interacting
enthusiastically in the lessons and activities for study.

3.4 ANALYSING THE IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT


CURRICULUM
Do you know that part of the teaching and learning that takes place in schools is
not derived from the curriculum or from the text books used in the school? All
teaching and learning which is based on the curriculum as it is expressly stated,
is part of what is known as the explicit curriculum. The hidden or implicit
curriculum is the part which is not clearly stated in the curriculum. According to
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Dreeben (1968), the hidden curriculum plays an important role in shaping a


students efforts to cope with the move from the shelter he has within his family
to adult-life in the real world. The implicit curriculum shapes the students
attitudes and behaviour in an adult world.

3.4.1 Implicit Curriculum


According to Abd. Ghafar (2003), the implicit curriculum can be interpreted in
two ways with differing meanings, as shown in Figure 3.4:

Figure 3.4: Two Perspectives of the Hidden Curriculum


Source: Abd. Ghaffar Md. Din

3.4.2 Explicit Curriculum


A curriculum must expressly state its learning outcomes. Why do we need to
state learning outcomes? The reasons are as follows:
To state what must be mastered by the student;
Assist the teacher to focus on the learning outcomes;
Assist the teacher to plan and use teaching tools to attain the learning
outcomes; and
Help the teacher in preparing assessment tests.

Learning outcomes may be stated as follows:


(a) Form
(i) General Learning Outcomes
(ii) Specific Learning Outcomes

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(b) Field
(i) Cognitive
(ii) Affective
(iii) Psychomotor
(c) Level
(i) Level 1
(ii) Level 2
(iii) Level 3 (higher)

3.4.3 Learning Outcomes for Different Domains


There are three different domains for learning outcomes:
Cognitive domain
Affective domain
Psychomotor domain

(a) Learning Outcomes for the Cognitive Domain


The cognitive domain outcomes range from simple to complex as follows:
Knowledge: The ability to recall previously learned facts, terms,
concepts, principles, methods, events and procedures.
Comprehension: The ability to explain a term, fact, concept, principle,
methodology, means or procedure.
Application: The ability to use a term, fact, concept, principle,
methodology, means or procedure in new situations.
Analysis: The ability to break into parts a concept, methodology, means
or procedure and also to identify connections between the parts.
Synthesis: The ability to merge or compile concepts into a meaningful
pattern or structure.
Evaluation: The ability to evaluate or make judgement about an idea,
concept, principle, means, project or action.

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(b) Learning Outcomes for the Affective Domain


The outcomes for this domain arranged from simple to complex are as
follows:
Receiving reception by students through listening, taking notice or
observation, e.g. on smoking, drug taking, good and bad behaviour and
etc.
Responding studentss are asked to discuss and argue on what is heard
or observed.
Valuing studentss make decision on its importance and place value on
it.
Organising studentss place values in relationship to other values,
organise judgements and choices and decide on how to be influenced
by the value.
Characterising the highest level, values are organised and internalised
and become part of the students lives.

(c) Learning Outcomes for the Psychomotor Domain


The outcomes for this domain are arranged from simple to complex as
follows:
Reflex movements involuntary actions responding to some stimulus,
e.g. blinking, stretching and posture movements.
Basic fundamental movements movement patterns formed from a
combination of reflex movements like running, walking, jumping,
pushing and pulling.
Perceptual abilities translation of stimuli through the senses into
suitable movements, e.g. take action based on verbal instructions,
avoiding a moving ball, keeping balance or jumping rope etc.
Physical abilities a combination of basic and perceptual abilities to
become skilled movements, e.g. distance running, toe-touching, basic
ballet exercises, weight lifting and etc.
Skilled movements more complex movements requiring a certain
degree of efficiency, e.g. movements in dance, sports, music and art.
Nondiscursive communication the ability to communicate through
body movement, e.g. gestures, pantomime, choreographed dance and
etc.

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3.5 THE INSPECTORATE OF SCHOOLS


The Inspectorate of Schools (IS) is a professional body which was established in
October 1956 after the Razak Report 1956 (Paragraphs 42-46). It was subsequently
confirmed by the Education Ordinance 1957 (Paragraphs 92-96). The establishment
of the IS as a regulatory body for education was in fact recommended as early as
1938 by the Special Commission on the Education Policy (Letter No. 70, 1952). The
Report of the Educational Committee 1956 (Razak Report) supported the
establishment of a special nation-wide regulatory system.

3.5.1 The Role of the Inspectorate of Schools


The role of the Inspectorate of Schools is as follows:
Being experienced educators, school inspectors are required to cooperate
closely with the teachers in schools to guide them so that the educational
objectives of the National Philosophy for Education are successfully met.
Officials of the Inspectorate of Schools are required to inspect schools based
on several specific objectives. For example, as the Ministry of Education has
determined that the education of the nation must be implemented in line
with its philosophy of education, then school inspectors must ensure that
teachers carry out these goals and objectives within the classroom.
Evaluate the ability of teachers to impart knowledge which is accurate and
useful, and which spurs students towards excellent thinking skills.
School inspectors must be aware of the connection between what is learnt in
the classroom and what should be happening outside the classroom. If for
instance cleanliness and neatness are the subject of the classroom, then the
effectiveness of the lesson must be apparent in each student.
School inspectors provide guidance to teachers in order for them to be able to
impart to their students the essence of each subject that they teach.
They must know how to approach examinations and assessments in ways
that are objective, systematic and scientific, and be able to use accurate
instruments to measure the subjects that are being studied.
A school inspectors tasks include keeping tabs on the standard of education
in schools and conducting inspections and evaluations for quality.
School inspectors are also responsible for evaluating schools and deciding on
the status of a school to determine whether it is excellent, good, average or
weak.
To evaluate and report on teachers ability to conduct a well integrated lesson
in class.

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3.5.2 The Scope of the Inspectorate of Schools


The main function of the Inspectorate of Schools is to maintain the standards of
the education provided in the country and to give advice or serve as consultants
to the school authorities. The school inspectors main responsibilities are
conducting inspections, making reports and providing recommendations and
guidance to the school administrators. Their expertise and availability as
consultants are meant to help the school administrators to efficiently manage the
school and the education of its students. The scope of the Inspectorate of Schools
also includes educational research and empirical studies such as on the
effectiveness of teaching and learning in classrooms. All these tasks must be
carried out earnestly and diligently as a school inspector is chosen for his
professionalism.

(a) The scope of the inspectorate is as follows:


Conducting inspections
Giving advice
Issuing reports to the Minister of Education
Publishing.
Research
Stimulate the Standard and Quality of Education in Malaysia.

(b) Basic activities of the inspectorate:


Inspections
Evaluations
Monitoring
Remedial actions
Developing the professionalism of staff
Choosing the Candidates for the National School of Hope Award and
the Minister of Educations Award for Quality.
Spreading the influence of the professionalism of the inspectorate.

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3.6 PLANNING A PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH


FOR IMPARTING THE MEANING OF THE
CURRICULUM TO STUDENTS
Ismail Zain adopts the view (Dick & Reiser, 1989) that effective learning is
learning which brings much pleasure. Certainly all teachers hope to make their
lessons enjoyable for their students. If students enjoy their lessons, they will
naturally be interested and focused on learning. Teachers must employ various
strategies to spur students to pay attention and participate wholeheartedly in the
learning process.

Teachers can create lessons which are interesting and fun by using teaching aids
and various media. Technological advances provide teachers with the
opportunity to use various ways of delivering a lesson and improving the
content of a lesson. Man first began communicating orally, then by writing on
papyrus until the development of paper and the printing press. Subsequently,
with the discovery and advances in photography, pictures could be produced for
viewing. Eventually, advances in electronics gave rise to information transfer
through media such as radio, television, film, video, VCD, and DVD. The more
recent advances are teleconferencing, computers and multimedia.

Although such progress primarily benefits the world of entertainment,


nevertheless these advances can help enhance the field of education. Teachers
must rise to the challenge of these technological developments and employ them
to develop useful strategies to deliver lessons that are effective, dynamic,
enjoyable and entertaining.

3.6.1 Using Various Media as Teaching Tools


The dictionarys definition of media or mediums is a method or tool of
communication. Thus, whatever tool is used to deliver information is a medium
of communication to the receiver. The field of education is influenced by the rise
of various tools of communication. Teachers communicate with their students
using a particular teaching medium. They must use various mediums to enhance
their lessons. The relationship between the lesson and the medium used to
conduct the lesson is illustrated in Figure 3.5:

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Figure 3.5: Relationship between the medium and the lesson


Source: Abd.Ghaffar Md. Din

3.6.2 Teaching Medium


Teachers must use a teaching medium as a tool to deliver a lesson. The media
which can be used in class include various tools and writing implements. Both
are known as teaching aids. Among these are:
(a) Visual Tools
These are tools which appeal to the sense of sight. For example, reading
materials, picture exhibits, or screened pictures.
(b) Audio equipment
These are equipment which engages the sense of hearing. For example,
radio, cassettes and recordings, and compact discs.
(c) Audio-visual equipment
These are equipment which engages both sight and hearing. For example,
television, film, video and computers.
(d) Non-electronic media
These are tools which do not require battery power or electricity. Examples
are printed materials such as text books.
(e) Electronic media
These are equipment powered by batteries or electricity, such as radios,
cassette recorders, television, video recorders, overhead projectors and
computers.

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3.6.3 The Necessity of Employing Multimedia in


Education
The application of multimedia in life can no longer be ignored. Its use in
education has the potential to greatly impact the progress of the field. According
to Jamalludin Harun (2003), the education field will benefit from the use of
multimedia for the following reasons:
(a) Storage space and ease of dissemination
Compared with traditional methods, storage of large amounts of
information is easier with the use of compact discs. The internet also
provides access and sharing of information.

(b) Information is easily accessed


Most multimedia applications enable information to be searched and
accessed quickly and effectively. Time is saved and the user is actively
engaged in the process of gathering the information needed.

(c) An unlimited source for finding references and supporting information


Students will have quick and easy access to information and references.
Using a computer, they will be able to search and use sources of
information on CDs or the Internet.

(d) Provides a flexible way to control and encourage learning


Multimedia applications enable students to master a subject using the
method of learning which interests them. Independent learning activities
which are interactive are interesting enough to hold a students attention.
The teacher then acts as a facilitator and exercises for reinforcement can be
done without following a strict schedule.

(e) Learning is more effective through the use of multimedia


Dwyer (1978) discovered that the involvement of each of our five senses for
absorbing information is quite different. In percentages we learn:
1% through the sense of hearing;
1.5% through the sense of touch;
3.5% through the sense of smell;
11% through the sense of hearing; and
83% through the sense of sight.

Dwyers research shows that our senses of sight and hearing are the most
important for absorbing information.

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ACTIVITY 3.3

State the steps that a teacher must take when they are observed by a
school inspector. The steps you list must be based on the role of the
School Inspectorate.

The learning experience outlined in a curriculum must be well planned and


executed in order to have a curriculum of great quality.
The Syllabus Description is an important document that a teacher must refer
to before teaching a lesson.
In order to be effective, lessons must be well planned.
Athough the implicit curriculum is not expressly stated, it has a great
influence on students.
In order to enrich the curriculum, additional materials are needed in order to
make the learning enjoyable.

Implicit curriculum The inspectorate of schools

Pedagogical approaches Subject syllabus description

Teaching medium

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Abd. Ghaffar Md. Din. (2003). Prinsip dan Amalan Pengajaran (Teaching
Principles and Practices). Utusan Publication & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.

Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Sejarah Tingkatan 4, Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah


Menengah, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. Syllabus Description For
History in the Fourth Form, Integrated Secondary School Curriculum,
Ministry of Education, Malaysia.

Ismail Zain. Pendidikan Bertaraf Dunia, Ke Arah Pembestarian Dalam Proses


Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (An Education On Par With International
Standards, Towards Excellence in Teaching and Learning Processes),
http://www.tutor.com.my

Jamalludin Harun & Zaidatun Tasir. (2003). Asas multimedia dan aplikasinya
dalam pendidikan (multimedia foundations and their application in
education). Bentong: PTS Publications.

Siti Fatimah Nor Bt Abd Wahab. Sistem Analisis Prestasi Akademik Murid
Sekolah Keb Selayang Baru, Tesis Sarjana Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia. (A System for Analysing Academic Performance in
Students of Selayang Baru National School) Masters Thesis Faculty of
Education, University Technology Malaysia.

Tyler, R. W. (1948). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. The University


Of Chicago Press.

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Topic Thinking Skills
Within The
4 Curriculum

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. State the various types of thinking skills;
2. Analyse the various types of thinking skills;
3. Explain the method of imparting thinking skills in teaching;
4. Explain how to stimulate students to raise questions;
5. Analyse how to improve on the quality of questioning; and
6. State the ways in which to apply information obtained from the
Internet.

INTRODUCTION
The ability to think effectively is extremely important in a world that is
increasingly complex and advanced. Facing lifes daily challenges not only
requires adequate knowledge but also the skills for applying that knowledge in
various situations. Rapid developments in mass media and an information
explosion can burden an individual with many forms of information. As such, it
is difficult to imagine any situation where the ability to think is not required. This
shows that meaningful learning should be able to stimulate ones thinking
prowess in order to enhance a students potential for able and capable thinking.

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4.1 VARIOUS TYPES OF THINKING SKILLS


Did you know that the pubescent years give rise to the most exciting thoughts?
At this age, students exult in producing varied and varying ideas. According to
Ainon and Abdullah (1996), after the age of 12, the young begin expressing ideas
that they consider are right, compared to expressing ideas which they had
previously known or heard or read. They then begin to develop a defensive
attitude concerning their ideas as they do not want their ideas to be deemed
incorrect or deficient.

Due to this reality, teachers need to provide encouragement in order for students
to employ techniques in thinking. Students love to think and enjoy using their
minds to produce a diversity of ideas. The teachers can spur them on by creating
an exciting study time for their students. They can create an environment which
mimics a play situation, such that the students are naturally encouraged to think
while enjoying a fun and exciting activity.

4.1.1 Definition of Thinking


According to Ishak Ramly (2003), who takes the views of Dewey and Edward de
Bono, thinking is a problem-solving behaviour that acts as a means for a person
to adjust to his surroundings. In addition, thinking is also a conscious process
that takes place in the mind with the intention of seeking an objective or purpose
and to provide solutions to problems.

4.1.2 Process of Thinking


This process occurs at two levels; which are at the condition of the brain
developing perceptions, and at the level of the brain thinking with the force of
logic (please refer to Figure 4.1):

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Figure 4.1: Thinking Process


Source: Ishak Ramly (2003)

Types or Styles of Thinking


According to Ainon and Abdullah (1996), the types or styles of thinking can be
divided into different situations, as show in Table 4.1).

Table 4.1: Thinking Skills

Thinking Style Explanation


Creative Style This style is used to produce various possibilities, proposals, ideas
and actions. Its purpose is to do something similar but in different
ways.
Positive Style This style is used to evaluate the advantage, use or benefit of any
idea. Any idea, whether positive or negative, must have scope and
space for methods that can be employed towards its improvement.
Negative Style This style is used to ascertain the risks, dangers, difficulties and
sources of failure that are in any idea.
Analytical Style This style has its core in logic, facts and data. The thinker uses the
full strength of his knowledge to gain a detailed view of the
problem that requires a solution.
Mathematical This style is employed by a thinker who wishes to arrive at a
Style solution using a mathematical approach or process.
Informative This thinking style requires information, such as facts, figures or
Style other types of information, whether in existence or not, but which
must be of necessity.

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Logical Style This style of thinking is used to identify right or wrong; either right
in real truism or right from a standpoint of logic.
Critical Style This style is used to identify errors, weaknesses, deficiencies and
mistakes in the way of thinking that was adopted or in the proposal
that was presented.
Emotive Style This style of thinking is used to view an idea from an individuals
feelings and tastes. For example, feelings of delight, fear, anger, or
joy in a certain matter.
Value-based This style of thinking is used based on the values held by a person.
Style
Systematic Style Thinking in this style allows us to view a matter without confusion.
Major issues will take precedence or priority in comparison to
minor issues.
Intuitive Style This style of thinking is based on inspiration and is used in the
complete absence or limited availability of information for
consideration.

4.2 ANALYSING THE TYPES OF THINKING


SKILLS WITHIN THE CURRICULUM
Every mortal born is able to think, as it is Gods gift to man from birth. Although
it is difficult to influence how a person thinks, there is proven research that
suggests thinking skills can be enhanced. There are between 1 to 3 percent of
students in Malaysia who may be categorised as being in the brilliant, highly
intelligent group. This group of students form an immensely valuable asset to
the nation.

4.2.1 Can Thinking Skills Be Taught?


According to John Arul Phillips (1992), efforts to develop a students thinking
process should be based on the operational definition of stable and holistic
thinking. Therefore, he takes several views, among which are:
(a) Bartlett (1958) characterises thinking as an effort to provide information
that is not available (meaning interpolation); providing additional
information based on information that is available (meaning extrapolation);
and rearranging information to formulate a new interpretation (meaning to
reinterpret).

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(b) Mayer (1977) viewed thinking as involving the exercise of certain mental
operations that occur in the mind or cognitive system of a person whose
purpose is to solve problems.
(c) According to Fraenkel (1980), thinking is the formation of ideas, the
reforming of experiences and the rearrangement of information in a certain
form.
(d) Chaffee (1988) characterised thinking as an extraordinary process that is
used in decision making and problem solving.
(e) Nickerson, Perkins and Smith (1985) viewed thinking as a collection of
expertise or mental operations employed by a person.

Based on this understanding, thinking skills can be enhanced by providing


instruction in the respective skills.

In the execution of the Secondary School Combined Curriculum (SSCC), one


important aspect that is emphasised regarding teaching instructions is thinking
skills:

Students are not to solely receive knowledge in and of itself but should also
be able to express ideas, thoughts and opinions with clarity, objectivity,
creativity and rationality in all situations. In order to achieve this goal,
opportunities to develop intellectual process must be created such that critical
and analytical thinking become an important aspect in every learning activity.

4.2.2 Models for Thinking Skills


There are many models for thinking skills. Among them are:
(a) Enhancement and nurturing power of the intellect (Peningkatan dan Daya
Asuhan Intelek - PADI)
According to John Arul Phillips (1992), the PADI Programme is the result of
revisions and adaptations of several thinking programmes that were in
existence. The programme is based on the principle that stresses on the
thinking process as involving the permutations of a few mental operations
or thinking skills. The programmes main purpose is to develop the
students thinking prowess and provide them with opportunities to use or
exercise the relevant mental operations in the subjects being studied. The
PADI Programme has three dimensions as shown in Figure 4.2:

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Figure 4.2: PADI model

(i) Dimension I
This refers to the subjects being taught in schools. All subjects can be
adapted to develop thinking skills. This is based on the assumption
that active thinking starts with the subject content. In other words,
activities involving thinking skills that are developed while grasping
the facts of a subject, will indirectly aid achievement in the subject
being taught.

(ii) Dimension II
This dimension involves the student and refers to the types of
thinking and learning skills that are targeted for development, as well
as the attitude that we wish to be inculcated in the students. The
students developed thinking prowess will lead to specific attitudes
such as:
A desire to know;
Respect for the opinions of others;
An awareness of ones own thinking process;
A sensitivity to any information that is read or heard; and
An open mind that is not easily manipulated.

(iii) Dimension III


The third dimension refers to the teacher. Teachers are the most vital
dimension in developing the students thinking prowess. In the PADI
model, teachers should feel that the programme is not a burden or a
waste of time. Encouraging students to think will aid them in recalling
all the facts that were taught.

ACTIVITY 4.1

In the PADI model, there are three dimensions which involve the
teacher, student and subject. Explain the three dimensions mentioned.

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(b) The Torrance Model (1978)


This model is obtained from Ishak Ramly (2003) in his book This Is The
School Curriculum. He expounds on a model that has a strong influence
on the development of curricula and education in Malaysia.

This model places emphasis on aspects of solving current problems and


problems in the future. Students are encouraged to conduct the following
skilled activities:
(i) Analysing information.
(ii) Defining problems.
(iii) Brainstorming as an alternative solution.
(iv) Expanding and using appropriate criteria when evaluating
alternatives.
(v) Deciding on the best solution.
(vi) Planning the execution.

(c) The Treffinger Model (1978)


This model focuses on self-motivated directed learning. Among the
learning objectives are:
(i) Learning to function more effectively towards the environment, ones
peers, teachers, parents and adults.
(ii) Learning to make choices and decisions based on self-knowledge
regarding ones own needs and interests.
(iii) Learning to assume responsibility for choices and decisions adopted
by completing all needful actions to a satisfactory level of
achievement within an acceptable timeframe.
(iv) Learning to define problems that are to be explored and determining
actions that should be taken to overcome the problem.
(v) Learning to evaluate ones own work.

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4.3 METHOD TO INCULCATE THINKING


SKILLS IN TEACHING
Skills in Critical and Creative Thinking (SCCT), according to the Swatz and Parks
(1994) model, are taught in the following ways:

4.3.1 Separation
SCCT are taught in isolation , without any connection to the subject matter.

4.3.2 Integration
SCCT are taught by planned inclusion of the subject matter, integrated with the
content using the skills and tools of thinking.

The types of integration include:

(a) Complete Integration


This is executed by using the following five steps:
(i) Introduction to subject content and SCCT.
(ii) The use of stimulating materials, tools, exercises and activities for
subject matter content and SCCT.
(iii) Reflection and metacognition.
(iv) Reinforcement of subject matter content and SCCT.
(v) Application of SCCT in daily situations.

(b) Partial Integration


SCCT can be used in any of the steps in the teaching and learning of the
subject, whether at the beginning, during the development or at the end.

4.3.3 Combination
Combination refers to the teaching of thinking implicitly by using methods that
stimulate thinking in the context of the curriculum, as shown in Figure 4.3:

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Figure 4.3: Separation + Combination = Integration


Source: Swatz & Parks. (1994) Model for Approach to Teaching Thinking Skills.

According to Mook Son Sang (2001), strategies that are often used to teach
thinking skills are:
(a) Strategy of the teacher as a facilitator
As a facilitator, the teacher must assist in the students preparedness to
study, give clear and concise directions, provide sufficient teaching aids
that are appropriate for use, and guide students to use their thinking skills
to engage in learning activities.

(b) Student-Centred Strategy


This strategy requires students to be actively involved in their learning
activities. The base considerations when using the student-centred strategy
are group study methods, inquiry-findings, discussions, queries, problem
solving, play, stimulation, role-playing and volunteerism.

(c) Material-Centred Strategy


The strategy of material-centred teaching enables teachers to convey lessons
that are more interesting with ease and effectiveness, while the students can
comprehend their lessons better and in a more meaningful way.

Thinking skills that need to be mastered by students can be divided into two
main categories:
Critical thinking skills; and
Creative thinking skills.

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The goal of learning critical and creative thinking skills is to pave the way
towards the process of making decisions and solving problems with intelligence.
Figure 4.4 shows thinking domain maps that correlate two thinking skills with
two thinking processes:

Figure 4.4: Thinking Domains


Source: PPK

The guide to creative and critical thinking are shown in Table 4.2 and Table 4.3:

Table 4.2: Guide to Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking Words or phrases that have the same meaning

(a) Defining characteristics Stating the characteristics of an element


Identifying criteria such as Explaining the nature of the criterion
characteristics, nature, quality
and elements of any concept. Tabulating characteristics, nature and
elements
Identifying quality, nature, characteristics and
elements
Verbalising characteristics, nature and
elements

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(b) Comparing and differentiating Seeking similarities and differences


Seeking similarities and Defining compatible and non-compatible
differences based on criteria characteristics
such as characteristics, nature,
quality and elements of any Stating similar and dissimilar characteristics
event. Stating similarities and differences
Arranging similar and dissimilar
characteristics

(c) Grouping and classifying Making classifications based on mutual


Separating and grouping characteristics
events into their respective Collating according to categories
groupings based on specific
Grouping according to comparisons among
criteria such as characteristics. the characteristics
This grouping is based on
mutual characteristics. Categorising characteristics
Arranging according to criteria
Arranging according to groupings

(d) Making progressions Arranging according to a certain order based


Arranging information on value, alphabet, chronology, pattern and
according to order based on time
its nature. For example, time, Arranging in ascending or descending order
shape or quantity. Arranging in a sequential chain

(e) Arranging in order of priority Arranging according to a specific criteria from


Arranging information the most to the less important
according to order based on Listing ideas from the most to the less
importance. important
Arranging according to urgency from the most
to the less urgent
Listing according to hierarchy based on goals
Arranging according to the most forward to
the most backward
Arranging according to the topmost to the
bottom most

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(f) Analysing Interpreting information


Derive information by Derive ideas
reducing it to smaller parts in Tracing causes
order to comprehend a
concept or event and find Expounding causative factors
indirect meaning. Making assumptions based on information
Explaining according to characteristics
Explaining in parts
Exposing components involved
Looking for supporting proof
Revising ideas afresh
Studying good and bad effects
Studying decisions based on facts

(g) Tracing biases Determining biased convictions


Uncover views or opinions Determine weightage given to a particular side
that side with or oppose Determining convictions geared towards a
something. particular side

(h) Evaluating Assessing information


Weighing a certain matter Considering opinions and views
from its positive and negative Weighing proposals
aspects, based on sound proof
or valid reasoning. Stating a rationale
Debating issues or statements
Weighing matters
Apologetics whether to accept or reject
Making choices
Reviewing past choices
Determining value

(i) Drawing Conclusions Expounding issues


Making a statement regarding Stating results after analysis
the results of a study based on Arranging arguments
a hypothesis or reinforcing a
matter based on an Making resolutions
investigation. Concurring
Making a brilliant decision that is final
Making formulations
Winding up arguments

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Table 4.3: Guide to Creative Thinking

Creative Thinking Words or phrases that give the same meaning

(a) Generating ideas Presenting ideas


Producing ideas linked with a Proposing alternatives
certain matter.
Proposing causes
Listing ideas
Stating another method
Contributing opinions
Stating possibilities
Producing ideas
Sparking ideas
Birthing ideas

(b) Making inferences Making initial conclusions from observation


Making initial conclusions Making early formulations from date
that are plausible, the
Making initial conclusions from information
probable truth to explain an
Making initial assumptions
event or observation.
Making initial statements
Taking an initial stand
Stating an initial certainty

ACTIVITY 4.2

As indicated in Figure 4.4 Thinking Domains, ten approaches or


techniques are listed for Creative Thinking. The explanation for two of
them, namely, generating ideas and making inferences are found in
Table 4.3 Guide to Creative Thinking.

Find out how one describes or applies the other remaining approaches
to creative thinking: correlating, predicting, creating hypothesis,
synthesizing, theorizing, making analogies, creating mental images and
inventing.

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4.4 STIMULATING STUDENTS TO RAISE


QUESTIONS
One of the important elements in teaching is having students raise questions on
the subject matter, as well as their attitude towards questioning. The crux of the
matter here is how do we stimulate them to ask questions? The propensity to
question differs among students. In the event that they ask good questions, the
teacher needs to further encourage them. Teachers should not have a fear of
being unable to answer any questions from their students. We could just tell
them that I do not know the answer to that but I will look it up. This situation
will actually bring the teacher closer to the students. Among the benefits of a
Question and Answer (Q&A) session in class are as follows:
The session raises and retains the interest of the students to continue
studying.
It focuses attention towards important matters in a lesson.
It stimulates the students.
The Q&A session keeps students in constant readiness and always prepared.
It is able to guide lesson development when used as a reinforcement of an
idea, principle or fact.
It measures the students knowledge or comprehension, as well as evaluating
the effectiveness of the lesson being conducted.
Steers the students towards making observations and arriving at conclusions.

Several approaches and absorption of motivational elements need to be executed


in order to encourage students to raise questions. In this sub-topic, we will see
several theories and forms of instruction that can be employed by teachers.

(a) Theory of Expectation


This theory assumes that human beings will always possess the motivation
to perform an action when they anticipate some success or expect to profit
from it. Conversely, if failure is a foregone conclusion, they will make
every attempt to avoid the action. According to Kamarudin (1997), who
takes the view of Beck (1983), any sane human being will always be
motivated by values of expectation. He introduced a formula to determine
the values of expectation:

EV = P x V (Expectation Value = Probability x Value)

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During lessons in the classroom, motivations such as these may be used to


enhance the desire to learn. Expectations of attaining success, excellence
and reward must constantly be in the students conscious awareness so as
to activate their efforts in class.

(b) Reinforcement Theory


The reinforcement theory assumes that incentives are necessary for any
duty to be performed or produced properly. A person who is rewarded for
producing satisfactory work will always display good work performance.
In the process of teaching and learning, reinforcements such as verbal
encouragement, warmth, signals marking acceptance, as well as gifts and
certificates will stimulate students to take an interest in their work.

Apart from this theory, there are other matters that can be acted on by
teachers to stimulate students. Among them are:
(i) Student Involvement
Students should be reminded that their involvement in learning
sessions is vital. Teachers need to stimulate involvement by
conducting Question and Answer sessions, holding discussions,
telling stories or conversing. This will provide students with an
opportunity to express their views and opinions while allowing them
to enjoy their lessons.
(ii) Awakening a Desire to Know
Teachers must wisely stimulate the students until a desire to know is
awakened in them. Teachers can create a learning environment that
might puzzle, terrify, astound, or explain phenomena that the
students have never before experienced, and so forth. All these will
provide stimulus.
(iii) Drawing Attention
Teachers must attempt to capture the attention of students by
presenting new and unusual subjects. In the process of teaching and
learning, the attention of students can be drawn by altering their
channel of ideas. These methods can spur enjoyment and eliminate
boredom in the classroom.
(iv) Using Reinforcements
The usual purpose of reinforcement is to attract and sustain the
students attention in any learning session. Praise is among the more
common reinforcements used by teachers. In addition, teachers can
use positive responsive actions. It is essential for teachers to know
when and where to use them.

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(v) Individual Achievement and Success


Teachers can heighten their students motivation by making an
example of individual students who are successful and highly-
motivated. Other than that, a students achievement can also be used
to highlight feelings of satisfaction resulting from those achievements.
(vi) Sprouting Thoughts Method
Sprouting thoughts is a learning method for small groups. It is an
appropriate exercise to generate ideas and creative information.

4.5 INCREASING THE QUALITY OF


QUESTIONING
As teachers, we need to remind ourselves that children have already begun
learning before they start schooling. They constantly have a desire to know. This
desire causes them to continuously raise questions.

4.5.1 Guidelines for Asking Questions


Among a teachers mistakes when asking questions are:
Disordered word structure from start to finish of the question.
Questions that require a yes or no response.
A question that begins by giving a statement which contains the answer
within it, and subsequently followed by the question.
Questions that are ambiguous and uncertain.
Foolish questions which will receive equally foolish responses.

4.5.2 Guidelines for Creating Good Questions


Among the proper forms proposed for questions are:
A good question is clear and easily understood; if it is brief as well, the
question will surely be challenging.
A teacher should show interest in the question raised as well as in its answer.
Before asking a question, the teacher should decide in advanced whether
students should volunteer to answer by raising their hand, wait until they are
called upon to respond or to answer spontaneously.
Leave some time in between questioning and accepting an answer in order to
give the weaker students a chance to participate.

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Teachers need to profer questions in a clear and confident voice. Questions


are not to be presented in an abusive tone or in a whisper.
Accept answers from several students before obtaining the desired answer.
Teachers should ensure that the acceptable or correct response is made
known to the students.
In the event a question does not elicit the anticipated desired response, it is
likely that the question itself is defective.

4.6 STIMULATING QUESTIONS FROM


STUDENTS
Internet technology refers to the combination of computer technology and
communications. Today, it can be considered the pinnacle of achievement in
cutting edge computer technology. At the simple touch of a finger to a chosen
input key, allows people to interact through a computer with the help of
communication lines.

This rapidly developing technology also has a profound influence on the


education system in many aspects, particularly the teaching and learning aspects.
Based on the advantages offered by the internet and multimedia technology, a
merging of the two will bring positive changes and also added benefits to the
process of information exchange.

According to Albion (1988), the use of multimedia technology in the field of


education will also enable information to be channelled in vast amounts for the
use of students. Multimedia also afford itself as a positive and effective medium
of communication, as through its use of text, audio, video and animation, in
multiple colours and forms, can be portrayed on screen at the same time.

Studies have also found that the use of multimedia technology has received a
positive response from students from all disciplines at all age levels. According
to OConnor and Brie (1994), its use also affords the support of education that
features problem solving, forming and testing hypotheses, evaluations based on
potential, in addition to increasing students creativity.

Using multimedia in the teaching and learning environment can also encourage
students to become able critical thinkers, to solve problems, to be more skilled in
the process of seeking and arranging information, as well as to be motivated in
their studies and so forth.

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4.6.1 The Concept of Information Skills


Figure 4.5 illustrates the concept of information skills:

Figure 4.5: Information skills

4.6.2 Definition of Information


The following is a definition of information:

Information is an explanation that is obtained from various sources in the


form of data, knowledge or wisdom.
Division of Educational Technology

Information is also seen as a process of adding knowledge, directly or indirectly,


through individual experience or that of others, whether real or imagined, and
knowledge that is stored in the form of print and film including three dimensional
materials.

Therefore, information skills are the skills required for obtaining and deriving
information efficiently and effectively.

Characteristics of information skills include:


(a) Library skills, learning, communication and living skills
(b) Utilisation of print, non-print and electronic sources of information.
(c) Placing importance on the concept of resource-based learning.

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ACTIVITY 4.3

Based on the information in the sub-section, state the guidelines for


asking good questions.

4.7 SKILLS FOR SYNTHESISING INFORMATION


The six steps in information skills as a learning process include the following
(please refer to Figure 4.6):

Figure 4.6: Summary of six steps in Information Skills for students


Each step would be discussed as follows.

(a) Determining
Determining involves the following:
Visualising the scope of a topic.
Recalling important points regarding the relevant subject.

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Making diagrams, collating knowledge maps and sketching topics.


Identifying vital information.
Understanding the specifics of various types of information that exist
within different sources.
Correlating information with the available resources.

(b) Finding
Finding involves the following:
Understanding how resources are stored and organised for use as
magazines, books, videos, cassettes, maps and slides.
Appreciating electronic materials as complementary materials to books.
Selecting appropriate resources and knowing the advantages and
shortcomings of such resources.

(c) Utilising
Utilising involves the following:
Using learning skills and reading widely, while being flexible and
focused.
Selecting and using the appropriate methods and technologies to obtain
the requisite information.
Using learning techniques to process information by predicting, making
hypotheses, comparisons and analysis.

(d) Recording
Recording involves the following:
Selecting ways to take notes according to the needs of the research by
identifying the important points in ones own words.
Collating and organising information for a presentation.
Using skills such as writing, drawing to produce systematic and
effective notes.

(e) Reporting
Reporting involves the following:
Communicating accurately by considering the media, message and
audience.
Developing self awareness as a researcher who is able to evaluate
strategies and skills at every stage of the research with capability and
complete confidence.
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(f) Evaluating
Evaluating involves the following:
Identifying the required skills and discussing them with the teacher.
Reviewing the research process again and stating the satisfaction and
experience gained from conducting the research.

SELF-CHECK 4.1
1. Multi-cultural education is complex and complicated to be
implemented. Discuss this statement.
2. State at least two advantages of Banks five cultural diversity
educational dimensions along with illustrations.
3. State at least two importances of every multi-cultural educational
programmes.

Teachers need to provide encouragement for students to want to use the thinking
techniques.
Thinking skills can actually be learnt by students.
Students can be motivated to raise questions because questioning is an
important element in learning.
Teachers need to follow guidelines when asking questions in order to improve
the quality of questioning.
Students need to be exposed to the Internet to know how to use information that
they obtained.

Critical and creative thinking Thinking techniques

Thinking styles Thought Domain

Thinking skills Synthesising information

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Ainon Ahmad & Abdullah Husein. (1996). Pemikiran rekacipta. Kuala Lumpur:
Utusan Publication & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.

Ishak Ramly. (2005). Inilah kurikulum sekolah. PTS Professional Publishing Sdn.
Bhd.

John Arul Phillips. (1992). Memperkembangkan pemikiran pelajar melalui mata


pelajaran KBSM. Malaysian Journal of Teacher Education.

Kamarudin Hj. Husin. (1997). Psikologi bilik darjah. Utusan Publication &
Distributors Sdn. Bhd.

Mok Soon Sang. (2001). Psikologi pendidikan. Subang Jaya: Kumpulan Budiman.

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Topic X Paradigm Shifts
in Curriculum
5 Interpretation
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Explain the definition of paradigm shifts;
2. State ways in which to think out of the box;
3. Analyse the use of the Six Thinking Hats;
4. State the characteristics of creative thinking; and
5. State the relationship between lifelong learning and upgrading
professionalism.

X INTRODUCTION
Education is a branch of learning that rests upon theories derived from the
various disciplines of intellectual studies. In comparison, a curriculum is a
branch of learning that has been kneaded and processed before it is translated
into education. Changes and developments in the field of education have led to
changes and developments in curricula. It stands to reason that curriculum
development depends on the interpretation of each and every change that occurs
in the field of education. Various discoveries and new explorations by
curriculum specialists make the field of education more dominant and
pragmatic.

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5.1 THE DEFINITION OF PARADIGM SHIFT


Do you know that , the paradigm theory was first introduced by Thomas Kuhn
(1962) in his book entitled The Structure of Scientific Revolutions? According to
Ainon (1995), the paradigm theory proposed by Kuhn was aimed at explaining
why experts become blind. Kuhn observed that in the field of science, discoveries
were made by the energised efforts of the young, in comparison to the efforts of
an old entrenched establishment long mired in its inability to make new
discoveries. Similarly in the business and corporate fields, the phenomenon of
the wonderkid is seen when famed and established companies are routed by
young entrepreneurs who enter and successfully challenge these companies on
their own turf using innovative ideas.

Paradigm shifts are the patterns through which an individual views his world.
We comprehend the world through the paradigms that are in our minds. When
we view something, we will match the pattern we see with patterns that are
stored in our minds. According to Thomas Kuhn, our paradigms are formed
from a set of assumptions. Assumptions are what we believe to be true but are
yet to be proven so. Kuhn used the visual illusion of a duck and rabbit image, as
shown in Figure 5.1, to illustrate this situation. Individuals will see the same
image but each will describe it differently.

Figure 5.1: Duck-Rabbit Image by Thomas Kuhn (1962)

It is not surprising to receive criticisms of new proposals in light of the constant


changes in the field of curricula. In pondering the direction which we should be
moving towards in order to arrive at the perfect curriculum, innovative ideas are
required to ensure continuity in the field of education.

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5.2 THINKING OUTSIDE THE BOX


When the Prime Minister announced the PIPP (Pelan Induk Pembangunan
Pendidikan), or Master Plan for the Development of Education, he reiterated his
message that Malaysians need to think outside the box. Each field of
specialisation has its own boxes. Similarly, the field of education too has its
own box. Experts in the field of education have their own self-created boxes.

According to Ali Yeon (2004), Six Thinking Hats which is the model created by
Edward de Bono, is an important and effective technique or instrument within an
organisation. This model is employed in decision-making where the chosen
decision is viewed from different perspectives. This technique is proven from the
added and improved capabilities and thinking skills.

Have you heard of the Thinking Hats? Thinking Hats is a model developed by
Edward de Bono that has been adopted for world-wide use, specifically among
educational organisations and management in general (please refer to Table 5.1).
Unstructured thinking can result in irrational decisions; is emotion-driven,
confused and sometimes does not assist in making decisions. Making a decision
is very difficult without a proper framework and creative thinking. This model
can be employed to make your choice from all the alternatives.

Table 5.1: Thinking Hats


Source: Ali Yeon (2004)

Type of Hat Use


Focuses on available data and information. The knowledge gap can
be improved or destroyed by looking at the available information.
The White Hat enables an individual to analyse trends from current
data and make predictions of future trends based from the current
trends. Some of the questions that are used when wearing this hat
are:

White Hat What is the information available?


What is the required information?
What are the questions that need to be asked?
Views problems and issues by using the pull of the heart and
emotions. The Red Hat technique also considers the views of others
or third parties, as well as the manner in which they may react
emotionally. A Red Hat allows the individual to use his or her
feelings and emotions in making a decision without basis or reason.
This technique veers from the common practice of many of us who
Red Hat use rational thinking when making any decision.

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By using a Black Hat, an individual will see the bad points of a


problem or issue. The problem or issue will be weighed carefully
and its potential for failure will then be analysed. This technique is
important as it identifies the weaknesses of an issue or problem.
Once the step of identifying weaknesses is complete, the weaknesses
can be overcome or eliminated or modified, and an action plan can
Black Hat be formulated towards this end.

Assists in positive or optimistic thinking. It is an optimistic view that


allows us to see the advantages and value of a decision. The Yellow
Hat technique of thinking aids towards a sustained progress by
helping us to see things positively, although there may be difficulties
in reaching a decision. The questions that arise when using the
Yellow Hat :
What is the positive side of this proposal?

Yellow Hat Where is the advantage of this proposal?


Who will benefit from this proposal?
What are the values involved?

This hat symbolises creativity. It is a platform to develop creative


problem solving. The aim of adopting a Green Hat is to allow us to
compare alternative solutions as well as variations in the solution to
a problem or issue. This hat is often seen as a symbol of energy, life
and progress. As mentioned before, the Green Hat aids us in
Green Hat generating ideas, submissions, proposals and alternatives.

We use this hat at the start of every discussion to define what our
views or opinions are regarding a problem or issue at hand, and the
objective on the ensuing discussion is to arrive at a decision. This hat
also refers to control. It is employed by every chairperson at
meetings whenever any confusion or difficulty arises in producing
ideas and opinions. The Blue Hat brings us to a review of the
thought process by asking ourselves the following questions:
Blue Hat What is the next step?
What have we achieved so far?

ACTIVITY 5.1
Explain how the Six Thinking Hats can be employed in building or
planning a curriculum.

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5.3 THINKING CREATIVELY


According to Ishak Ramly (2005), thinking creatively is a skill or capability in
using the mind to generate and produce a variety of ideas that are new, original,
extraordinary, provocative, challenging, and which can be developed into ideas
that are more open and greater in scope. Among its characteristics are:
(a) Striving to seek new ideas, concepts, new approaches or new assumptions
that may be said to be in opposition to the current ideas.
(b) Considering alternative ways when appraising an issue.
(c) Focusing on the desire to change current ideas.
(d) Seeking new ways to replace solutions that are presently in use.
(e) A constant dissatisfaction with the current methods of thinking.
(f) Finding new ideas that will shock ordinary thoughts.
(g) Paying attention and scrutinising future possibilities.

Edward de Bono introduced a programme which is hailed as a simple and


effective thinking tool, which is capable of assisting in handling any problem in
any situation, whether from an academic, employment, religious or social
viewpoint. The thinking tools are summarised in Table 5.2:

Table 5.2: Thinking Tools and Their Uses


Source: Ali Yeon (2004)
Thinking Tool Use
AGO The AGO thinking tool is used to determine the aims and
Aims, Goals, Objectives goals of thoughts, and to have the correct focus when
thinking.
CAF The CAF thinking tool trains us to consider all important
Consider All Factors factors before making any decisions.
PMI The PMI thinking tool trains us to evaluate any given
Plus, Minus, Interesting information, decision or action.
C&S The C&S thinking tool is used to predict any occurrence in
Consequence and Sequel the future.
FIP FIP reminds us of priorities or what is crucial and of
First Important Priorities importance.
APC The APC thinking tool trains us to see all the alternatives
Alternatives, Possibilities available to us and all possible choices before making any
and Choices decisions.
OPV The OPV thinking tool trains us to consider the opinions of
Other Peoples Views others in order to ensure more effective decisions are made.

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5.4 CHANGES IN ATTITUDES AND VALUES TO


ACHIEVE GREATER SUCCESS
Do you know that a positive attitude plays an important role as a determinant to
our success? Try to review everything that is outlined by Stephen R. Covey in his
book, Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. The following are seven
attitudes of those who succeed:
(a) Responsibility towards Ones Own Self
Responsibility is a yardstick to measure if you have begun to determine for
yourself the priorities, time and resources that you can rely on to achieve
success in learning.
(b) Give Focus to the Values and Principles that You Believe In
Determine for yourself what is important to you. Do not allow friends or
other people to determine what is important to you.
(c) Put First Things First
Act on the priorities that you have set for yourself. Do not allow other
people or other issues to derail what you have determined to do.
(d) Assume that You are in a Win-Win Situation
Consider the classmate who has been of great assistance in your group
study and who has contributed many new ideas in your assignments as a
rival. In this way, you are always motivated to do your best in class.
(e) Understand In Order to be Understood
When you are discussing a problem of an academic nature with your
teacher, for example a query regarding a mathematical value or asking for
extra time to complete an assignment, place yourself in the teachers shoes.
Try asking yourself what is the most appropriate excuse that can be made
while placing yourself in the teachers position.
(f) Seek Better Solutions
When you fail to understand a subject that was taught today, do not just re-
read the subject again. Seek other alternatives. For example, discuss the
topic with your teacher, classmate, study group or with your mentor. They
will be able to assist you in appreciating the topic better.
(g) Continue to Challenge Yourself
In this way, the student will always be raring to go, and may produce
excellent ideas.

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ACTIVITY 5.2

Before we proceed to the next topic, explain what is meant by


Lifelong Learning.

5.5 EMBEDDING THE PHILOSOPHY OF


LIFELONG LEARNING WITHIN THE
CURRICULUM
The concept of lifelong learning is not a new concept in the national education
system. Nevertheless, the spinoff from changes in a new environment where a
knowledge-based economy or K-economy is the principle norm, has led to the
emphasis of the lifelong learning concept in our national development. We will
discuss the concept and the approach to its realisation in the management of
human resources in the public sector.

According to Hassan Jantan (2005), the concept of lifelong learning in the context
of education, refers to the democratisation of education that encompasses the
programme of enhancing knowledge, skills and competence, whether formally at
schools, vocational training centres or informally through workplace-based
experience and training. On the other hand, from the context of the organisation,
this concept refers to the process in which the worker obtains knowledge through
experience to improve his skills. Lifelong learning requires workers to
understand the entire work system, including interactions between their work,
the work of their unit as well as the organisation. The worker is expected to
acquire new skills, to employ these skills at work and share information with
other workers.

Based on this aforesaid viewpoint, lifelong learning can be concluded as being


akin to the following processes:
(a) A process of continuous learning by an individual, either for the purpose of
enhancing skills or developing a career in a given field of employment,
both for the present and the future.
(b) A process of learning by an individual to enhance knowledge that will not
end on leaving the scholastic world but instead be a lifelong process.

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5.5 THE CONCEPT OF LIFELONG LEARNING IN


THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN
On approaching the 21st century, the international community has been
increasingly mindful in comparison to the preceding century, concerning
enhancing knowledge through the concept of lifelong learning. According to
studies by UNESCO, the progress and prosperity that has been achieved by
developed countries (North America, Europe and Japan) is the result of strategic
planning in the development of human resources where every member of the
society receives open opportunities in education and lifelong learning.

In recognising the importance of lifelong learning in ensuring the peace and


prosperity of a nation, the government of Malaysia has taken proactive steps by
formulating policies in which lifelong learning becomes the main core in national
development planning. The Framework for the Third Long Term Plan for the
period 2001 2010 and the National Vision Policy form the structure for a long
term national development to face global challenges, economic liberalisation and
an economic environment based on knowledge.

The implementation of lifelong learning is to achieve the following aims:


(a) Forming the core in developing human resources within the period
planned for the Five Years national development plan;
(b) Laying the foundation for the creation of a society that makes knowledge as
part of its culture and for the realisation of the national vision to become a
developed nation; and
(c) Providing encouragement towards lifelong learning by giving facilities to
ease the acquisition of knowledge and improve the skill base even after the
cessation of education and formal training.

5.6 EXAMPLES OF NATIONS IN ASIA AND


SOUTH-EAST ASIA THAT LAUNCHED
LIFELONG LEARNING WITH SUCCESS
The following are examples of nations in Asia and South-East Asia that have
launched lifelong learning with success:
(a) Japan
The perception regarding the importance of lifelong learning has led to the
emergence of a new phenomenon known as employability fever. The young
have an aggressive attitude towards obtaining qualifications in many fields
of study and training as a means to guarantee them increased opportunities

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in obtaining the employment of their choice. In many countries, the lifelong


learning concept has been successfully launched through various
approaches.
(b) South Korea
Since the mid 90s, the government of South Korea has made changes in the
education system in order to face the challenges of the 21st century. The
Education Act was reviewed and The Law for Lifelong Education was
created and the Korea Educational Development Institute (KEDI) was made
the Lifelong Education Centre. The function of this centre is as follows:
To conduct research, develop programmes and curriculums, organise
activities and supervise institutions that provide lifelong education.
To provide training to the tutor/lecturer workforce for pre-service and
in-service programmes with the cooperation of other institutions.
To become the centre for the collation and dissemination of data on
lifelong learning.
To facilitate the exchange of information by building a national network
with all institutions involved in lifelong learning.
To supervise the database, the education accounts system and electronic
library.
To create cooperation with centres of higher education involved in
lifelong learning.
(c) Hong Kong
Since 1999, the Civil Service of Hong Kong has launched several new
programmes for change in its public services in order to face the challenges
from the new environment of the 21st century. The objective of the
transformation was to create a civil service that was more open, flexible and
equitable by invoking an environment with a culture that was proactive,
responsible, highly efficient and able to provide the best service. Among the
changes that were introduced, include an emphasis on increasing
awareness and making lifelong learning a culture in the civil service.
Among the approaches and programmes that have been and will be
launched are as follows:
Providing opportunities to its members to obtain continuous training
and instruction through the ICT based Training Programme at the Civil
Service Training and Development Institute.
Launching the Promoting Training Scheme.
Providing financial allocations to departments to encourage their staff
to enrol in courses related to their duties or in training programmes that
will assist in improving their expertise in their careers.

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Developing and providing teaching materials individually, such as


CD-ROMs or other training packages that are suitable for all levels of
staff.
Improving the facilities and training materials at departments by
providing learning booths, self-learning courseware and training using
websites.
(d) Republic of Singapore
In March 2000, the government of Singapore launched the Singapore
Learning Movement to give accreditation and to encourage the concept of
lifelong learning as a way of life. Lifelong learning is a programme under
the School of Lifelong Learning (SOLL), which is one of the plans of action
under the Singapore Manpower 21, that is the blueprint for developing the
workforce in Singapore to compete in the changing global environment of
the 21st century. SOLL is a system to facilitate lifelong learning by means of
two programmes, which are the Programme for Strategic Changes in
Manpower and the Skills Accreditation System.

The Singapore Ministry of Manpower (MOM) with the support of the


community and the private sector launched the Singapore Learning Festival
Programme with its theme for year 2000 entitled "Learning for Living". The
purpose of the learning festival was to:
(i) Increase awareness on the importance of lifelong learning for every
individual to build a life that is complete and comfortable.
(ii) Provide encouragement and benefit the society whether at a
professional or personal level.
(iii) To open the minds of the people to a wider view of life through
learning related activities with the aim of:
Showing the importance of lifelong learning in preserving
employment;
Self-development; and
Engaging in fun-filled activities.

5.8 THE RELATION BETWEEN LIFELONG


LEARNING AND ENHANCING
PROFESSIONALISM
Do you know that the Public Services Department (PSD) has determined lifelong
learning as one of five characteristics to make it a world-class organisation that
cradles the public service? The other characteristics are professionalism, acting as

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one team, excellence and uniqueness, as well as capable and authoritative. In this
subsection, we will focus only on professionalism.

Professionalism can be defined as behaviour, expertise or quality that


demonstrates an individuals experience and high standards that can be relied
upon, such as being from that of a member of a profession. In other words,
professionalism means being highly competent with the requisite knowledge and
complete expertise for the function to be performed. By this, we can provide the
quality service that is expected of us.

The Rt.Hon. Tun Ahmad Sarji bin Abdul Hamid, the former Chief Secretary to
the Government, while giving a speech at the Seminar on The Re-interpretation
of the Role of Muslim Professionals in the 21st Century, outlined five main
characteristics that are vital for professionals:
(a) He needs to be competent and well-informed, to be able to assimilate
information and knowledge of copious quantity with sharp analytical
prowess, and have the capacity for conceptual and integrated thinking. This
will enable him to respond quickly to the fast pace of change surrounding
him. In a competitive world, this characteristic is necessary.
(b) He needs to practise life-long learning; to continuously seek knowledge
with the aim of acclimatising himself to a world that is constantly
experiencing dynamic changes.
(c) He needs to have the capacity to predict changes that are about to occur
and personify creative innovation in handling fresh challenges. Creativity
must be coupled with the courage to undertake responsibility, a willingness
to make decisions as well as accept its risks. In addition, there must be
sensitivity to social justice, national unity and the common solidarity of
mankind.
(d) He needs to possess self-respect and belief in himself based on a sterling
core of faith. This will empower him to strive hard and compete while
motivating cooperation with others. His hold of faith and religion will
ensure that every step he takes or proposes will include the dimensions of
religion, morality and ethics.

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Paradigm shift is a pattern by which someone views the world.


A positive attitude plays an important role in determining our success.
The emphasis on the need for lifelong learning in curriculums is crucial for
our education system.
Lifelong learning is one of the characteristics of professionalism as
determined by the Public Services Department.

Enhancing professionalism Thinking outside the box


Positive attitude Paradigm shift
Creative thinking Thinking hat

Ali Yeon Md. Shakaff, Six Thinking Hats: Bagaimana ia dapat membantu
kecemerlangan pengurusan organisasi, Diskusi Pagi, 2004.
Ainon Ahmad & Abdullah Hussein. (1996). Pemikiran rekacipta. Kuala Lumpur:
Utusan Publication & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.
Hasan Jantan. Konsep pembelajaran sepanjang hayat. Public Services
Department Malaysia.
Ishak Ramly. (2005). Inilah kurikulum sekolah. Malaysia: PTS Profesional
Publishing Sdn. Bhd.
Stephen R. Covey. (1989). Seven habits of highly effective people. Free Press.
Thomas Kuhn. (1962). The structure of scientific revolution. USA: University of
Chicago press.

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Topic X Curriculum in
6 Malaysia
With Focus on
KBSR/KBSM
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Elaborate on the pre-independence education system and education
system during the Japanese Occupancy;
2. Elaborate on the Razak Report as the basis for the National Education
Policy;
3. Describe the Razak Reports recommendations;
4. Elaborate on the advantages of KBSR (The Primary School Integrated
Curriculum);
5. State the principles, objectives and characteristics of KBSR (The Primary
School Integrated Curriculum); and
6. State the objectives and strategies of teaching and learning in KBSM
(The Secondary School Integrated Curriculum).

X INTRODUCTION
The present education system is the product of the nations development since
Independence. Nevertheless, current changes in the education system began
since the Education Committee 1956 Report which is known as the Razak Report.
Without a doubt, the most important thing about a nation is its identity. With
regard to that, the Razak Report had emphasised on an education policy that was
acceptable to all and which could fulfill their aspiration, and at the same time
capable of nurturing national development.
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6.1 PRE-INDEPENDENCE EDUCATION SYSTEM


Do you know that the liberal and non-interference policy practised by the British
Administration in the field of education had resulted in the establishment of
different types of schools which were entirely different from each other? These
schools were:
English Schools;
Religious Schools;
Chinese Schools;
Tamil Schools; and
Malay Schools

According to Omar Hashim (1991), all these schools had characteristics which
greatly differed from each other in many aspects. The characteristics are as
follows:
(a) These schools were established with the aim of catering to the need of the
respective ethnic groups. As such, there was no opportunity for the Malay,
Chinese and Indian students to interact with each other. Without social
interaction among them, racial unity was difficult to achieve. The
opportunity for students of various ethnic groups to interact occurred in the
English Schools but such schools existed only in the urban areas.
(b) There was no policy on the medium of instruction of the schools. The
Malay, Chinese and Tamil schools used their mother tongues as the
medium of instruction respectively. On the other hand, the English and
Religious schools used English and Arabic Language as their medium of
instruction.
(c) The schools (except the English Schools) were established to cater for the
education of children of certain ethnic groups and they were separated
from each other according to geographical location and population
distribution. Most of the Malay schools were found in villages, which was
the result of the Britishs policy to encourage the Malays to remain in their
villages. As for the Chinese schools, they were located mainly in tin mining
areas and urban centres where most of the Chinese were living. The Tamil
schools were built in rubber estates where the majority of the workers were
Indians.
(d) All five types of schools had their own curriculum. The syllabus and text
books used in the English schools were based on those used by
schoolchildren in England. The Malay schools placed emphasis on 3R skills
(Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) as well as traditional carpentry. The

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Chinese and Tamil schools followed curriculum that was used in China and
India respectively. The Religious schools used reading materials, text books
and syllabus adapted from the Middle East schools and the teachers were
trained in the Middle East.

Figure 6.1: Pre-Independence System of Education


Source: Omar Hashim, 1991

It is not surprising to receive criticisms of new proposals in light of the constant


changes in the field of curricula. In pondering the direction which we should be
moving towards in order to arrive at the perfect curriculum, innovative ideas are
required to ensure continuity in the field of education.

The schooling system during the Japanese Occupation was totally different from
the system during the British administration. The Japanese regarded school as an
important tool to change the thinking of the local people. The English schools
were converted to Japanese schools. In these schools, children were taught to
honour the Japanese Emperor and at the same time, sentiment of hatred against
the British was sown.

Although the Japanese language was made the sole medium of instruction, the
Japanese government made no effort to unite the people of various ethnic
groups. As a result, the existing segregation among various ethnic groups before
the Japanese Occupation remained. In addition to that, the difference of
treatment given by the Japanese government to the different ethnic groups
worsened the situation.

6.2 BARNES AND FENN-WU REPORT


After the formation of the Federation of Malaya, waves of development towards
self-governance coupled with the independence of several countries in this
region gave rise to the awareness regarding the importance of the issue of unity
among the people of this country.

One of the important matters which needed immediate attention was the
education system. The situation during the pre-independent period had
obviously hindered unity among the people of various ethnic groups. The
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Reconstruction Programme in education was found inadequate. A single


education system was the solution to combine the various systems of schooling
into one.

In the early stage, two major reports, namely the Barnes Report and the Fenn-Wu
Report, had submitted recommendations for a single national education system.

The Barnes Report was regarded as the most comprehensive, revolutionary and
influential report that was ever published. Among the recommendations were:
(a) The establishment of a single type of primary school known as the National
School. The School would be opened to the children of all races and the
teachers would also be from various races. The medium of instruction
would be Malay and English only.
(b) Chinese and Tamil schools were to be abolished.
(c) The medium of instruction for secondary schools and institutions of higher
learning would be English.

Even though The Barnes Report took national goals into consideration, obviously
it could not satisfy the aspirations of the various communities in the country. The
Malays were not happy as the position of Malay language was not given
sufficient attention. On the other hand, the Chinese and the Indians were
strongly against the Barnes Report as they regarded the recommendations
detrimental to their cultures.

The government in 1951 then appointed a committee to look into the Chinese
education in Malaya, to meet the demand of the Chinese community. The
committee known as the Fenn-Wu Committee, came up with a report which
basically upheld the idea of using three languages (Malay, Chinese and Tamil) as
the medium of instruction.

An in-depth study on the report was carried out and the government finally
approved the Education Ordinance 1952. The idea of National schools using
Malay and English Language as the medium of instruction was accepted. The
Chinese and Tamil schools were not accepted as national schools. However, the
resources for the teaching and learning of Chinese and Tamil Languages would
be provided. The recommendation was radical and brave but was not
implemented at that time due to financial and political constraints.

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6.3 RAZAK AND RAHMAN TALIB REPORTS


After the 1955 General Election, the coalition government formed an education
committee which was chaired by Y.B. Dato Abdul Razak Hussein, the Minister
of Education at that time, to propose recommendations to improve the education
system. In 1960, the Abdul Rahman Talib Committee was formed to study the
Razak Report (please refer to Figure 6.2). This committee had strengthened and
improved the concepts and objectives stipulated in the Razak Report.

Figure 6.2: The Razak Report (Omar Hashim,1991)

Regarding national unity, the Razak Report stated that:

The aim of education policy in this country is to unite children of various


races by using the same education policies which applies to all races through
the use of the National Language as the main medium of instruction. The idea
could not be implemented immediately, but has to be done gradually, in
stages.

(Razak Report, Paragraph No.12)

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To achieve the goal of a united nation through the education system, the Razak
and Abdul Rahman Talib Report recommended three basic principles:
(a) A common school system for all;
(b) The National Language as the main medium of instruction for all levels of
schooling; and
(c) A common content for curriculum and examinations at all levels of
education and the curriculum content should reflect the local cultures of the
nation.

ACTIVITY 6.1

What are the differences between the Pre-Independence Education


System and Post Independence Education System in Malaysia?

6.4 COMMON CURRICULUM AND


EXAMINATION
Do you know that the common syllabus was based on the recommendation of
the Razak Report, 1956? The report recommended that:

We could not emphasise more seriously that it is vital to adopt a common


syllabus in all schools in the Federation of Malaya towards the development
of Malaya as a united nation.

(Razak Report 1956, Paragraph 1)

The Committee for General Syllabus and Time Table 1956 designed a common
syllabi for all subjects in all schools. The syllabi and rules for all courses were
determined and enforced in Peninsular Malaysia since 1957, and was later
extended to Sabah and Sarawak.

In 1960, the Abdul Rahman Talib Committee which was entrusted to review the
Razak Report 1956, stressed that the school curriculum should consider the needs
of the nation. The governments plan for a common curriculum in schools was
strengthened with the introduction of a common system of public examination.

The system of public examination which was unified is shown in Table 6.1:

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Table 6.1: System of Public Examination

Stage of Schooling Examination

Lower Secondary Sijil Rendah Pelajaran (SRP);


Lower Certificate of Education (LCE) for students in English
medium.
Upper Secondary Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM);
Malaysian Certificate of Education (MCE) for students in
English medium.
Form Six Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia (STPM);
Higher School Certificate (HSC) for students in English
medium.

As every school uses a common curriculumor syllabus, a students schooling


would not be interrupted if he or she transferred to other schools. More
importantly, integration among the students of various races was encouraged by
the common curriculum.

ACTIVITY 6.2

Elaborate the characteristics of the Razak Report 1956 which made the
basis of the National Education Policy.

6.5 PRIMARY EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY


Primary education is the most important stage in the students education as it is
the basis to their mental, physical, moral and social development. Well known
scholars in education, either in the field of Philosophy in Education or
Educational Psychology, such as Rousseau, Locke, Plato, and Piaget were of the
opinion that education planned for students has to be of varied forms, which take
into consideration their differences in aptitude, capability and nature. Hence,
primary education curriculum planning and implementation has to take into
account the students personality development.

With regard to that, primary education curriculum has to be deliberated,


designed and implemented in the form of activities which enhance the students
experience. In other words, the curriculum should not merely focus on acquiring
and retaining knowledge and abstract facts.

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According to Ishak Ramly (2005), primary education philosophy has to focus on


the following aspects:
(a) Children have to acquire skills and knowledge directly through intellectual,
spiritual and physical experiences. These experiences should be interesting
and have to be chosen and planned carefully to enable children to express
their feelings and ideas through play, words, music, dance and creative
movements.
(b) Teaching and learning activities should actively and effectively involve
students so that they enjoy the teaching and learning process.
(c) Teachers should be flexible in their practise especially in matters related to
time tabling and teaching and learning materials.
(d) Evaluation should be integrated with classroom activities so that it could
assist teachers in improving the effectiveness in teaching and learning.
Besides, an evaluation could guide teachers in planning, enrichment,
reinforcement and remedial activities.
(e) The practise of learning and working in a team has to be inculcated among
the students and teachers. This will promote understanding and sense of
respect for each other. The environment and atmosphere in a classroom
should encourage students to think, question and put forward their own
ideas.
(f) Primary school education should focus on balance development among
students from the intellectual, spiritual and physical aspects.

6.6 WEAKNESSES IN OLD PRIMARY SCHOOL


CURRICULUM
Several shortcomings in the primary school curriculum were raised, especially in
the area of personality development and communication skills among students.
In view of these shortcomings, the Ministry of Education made an appropriate
decision in implementing a new curriculum.

According to Kamaruddin Kachar (1989), among the weaknesses in the old


primary school curriculum were:
Frequent repetition of content of the school subjects. In addition, the contents
among the school subjects were not interrelated.
The school subjects were heavily loaded with contents which were not
interesting to the students.
The main emphasis was on examinations. As such, teachers had to ensure
that they completed the syllabi in time.

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Teachers depended heavily on text books. Consequently, there was very little
use of other teaching methods, teaching and learning materials which were
more useful.

According to Ramly (2005), among the dissatisfactions towards the old primary
school curriculum were:
The teaching and learning focused more on mastery of knowledge.
The teaching and learning emphasised more on passing exams with flying
colours. Education was regarded as an investment that brought profit in the
long term.
Teaching was mainly focused on drilling and memorisation, while thinking
and reasoning were not emphasised.
Mastery of skills and the inculcation of values were not given appropriate
attention during teaching.
Many students were incapable of writing, reading and doing arithmetic (3R)
even after six years of primary education.
Content of the primary school curriculum was too packed for children aged
between 6-12 years old.
The subjects were not integrated and instead were taught separately.

The weaknesses listed above had prevented many pupils from enjoying a quality
education. According to Kamaruddin (1986), only 30% of the primary school
pupils were able to enjoy the benefit of schooling. Another 70% were abandoned
and not given any effective remedial education.

6.7 THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE NEW PRIMARY


SCHOOL CURRICULUM
The Cabinet Committee on the Review of the implementation of the Education
Policy, which was formed in 1974, studied the weaknesses of the primary school
curriculum. Among the recommendations which were included in the 1979
report of the Committee are as follows:

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There is a need for a review in the primary school curriculum so that


education is able to cater for the needs of holistic development of individuals,
which include aspects of the basic 3R skills and the development of talent
among the children.

Recommendation 55

The philosophy that underlies the new curriculum is democratisation of


education in Malaysia. Hence, every child is be given equal opportunities to
acquire communicative skills by mastering the 3R skills. This is carried out
regardless of racial background and socioeconomic status of the children.

According to Kamaruddin (1989), the KBSR does not only train the students to
acquire the basic 3R skills, but also develop them psychologically so as to be able
to adapt to the ever changing needs of the society.

In accordance to the recommendations of the Cabinet Committee on the


Education Review, the Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) formulated the
new primary school curriculum which encompasses educational activities that
suit the needs, interests, talents, cognitive abilities, and learning readiness of the
pupils.

ACTIVITY 6.3

List down the weaknesses of the old secondary school curriculum.

6.8 THE DESIGN OF THE NEW PRIMARY


SCHOOL CURRICULUM
Ishak Ramli(2005) explains that the design is based on the aim to enable the
students to acquire skills in the fields of communication, humanities and
environment. This is done through the development and enhancement of
interests, talents and cognitive abilities of the students , as an on-going effort to
seek for knowledge to the optimum level (please refer to Figure 6.3).

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Figure 6.3: The New Primary School Curriculum Design


Source: Mok Soon Sang, 1996

6.9 THE PRINCIPLES, OBJECTIVES AND


CHARACTERISTICS OF KBSR
The KBSR emphasised on the holistic development of individuals, which include
the basic education and the development of the students potential. The main
principles of KBSR focused on the following main aspects:
(a) The holistic development is focused on individuals rather than groups;
(b) Basic education for every child in the primary school education; and
(c) The development of differentiated talents of individuals.

The integrated curriculum (KBSR) is aimed at providing equal opportunity for


every student to acquire knowledge, skills, positive attitude and values as well as
the common social practises. Students are given comprehensive guidance and
encouragement to master the 3R basic skills. Adequate opportunity will be
provided to help the students to develop their intelligence, interests and
creativity in certain fields of study.

Among the objectives of KBSR are:


To master the Malay language satisfactorily in accordance to its status as the
national and official language of the country.

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To acquire basic language skills, i.e. to speak, read and write using the
medium of instruction in the respective school type.
To acquire basic skill of counting.
To master other learning skills based on the basic skills.
To enable students to understand, read, write, and speak English in
accordance to its status as the second language of the country.
To enable students to form desirable attitude and good behaviour, to be
accepted and appreciated by the society, and practise the Five National
Principles (Rukun Negara).
To acquire knowledge and information as well as to cultivate a keen interest
towards other people and the environment.
To be friendly and respect the rights of others, possess the spirit of working
together and being tolerant.
To enable students to develop their intelligence, leadership quality, and self-
confidence, and to acquire sufficient knowledge as well as to enhance their
abilities through the application of the basic skills which they have mastered
earlier.
To provide opportunity for students to participate actively in activities
related to art and recreation that suit our national culture.

Briefly, the characteristics of the New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) are as
follows:
Basic education;
Emphasis on the basic skills of 3R (reading, writing and arithmetic);
Employ student-based activities which encourage students involvement;
Resources, teaching and learning are planned based on the students age,
interests, abilities and the environment;
Focus on the individual differences (abilities);
Provide remedial programmes for the weak students and enrichment
programmes to further develop the students abilities;
The use of the integration approach, whereby several skills are integrated in a
particular subject;
Content knowledge from various related subjects are integrated into each
lesson content;
Emphasis on both group and individual-based learning and teaching; and
The use of various learning materials and teaching aids, and a lesser use of
textbooks.

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6.10 THE IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY OF


THE NEW PRIMARY SCHOOL
CURRICULUM
Many aspects are involved in the implementation of KBSR, among them are:
(a) Involvement of Various Authorities/Divisions
There are various divisions involved in the implementation of KBSR.
Among them are:
The Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) mainly organises the
syllabus.
The In-service training department has been conducting training since
1982.
The textbook department is involved in selecting appropriate textbooks
for the students.
The Examination Syndicate is responsible for carrying out evaluation in
schools. The Year Five examinations was abolished to give way for
yearly examinations.
The Inspectorate Board monitors and guides school teachers to ensure
that they are equipped with the knowledge of the latest techniques of
teaching and learning in the classroom.
The Educational Technology Department organises educational
programmes in accordance with the new curriculum (KBSR).
(b) The Method of Teaching and Learning
The new curriculum obviously differs from the previous curriculum. The
new curriculum focuses on the development of an individuals personality
based on interests, needs, talents, intellectual ability and learning readiness.
Teachers are encouraged to employ a wide range of methods of teaching and
learning in their classrooms. This is to prevent boredom among the students.
In addition, it will provide students with opportunities to understand what
was taught by their teachers. Among the teaching methods that could be
employed are:
Group teaching according to the ability of the students in certain school
subjects;
Group teaching according to the interest of the students;
Individual teaching to assist the weaker students and to encourage
bright students to advance further; and

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Class teaching. However, this method should be avoided as KBSR


recognises the existence of individual differences from the aspects of
mental, physical and moral development among students.
(c) Methods in Delivery of Knowledge
In Stage 1, the method in the delivery of knowledge is informal. Students
are encouraged to:
Discuss and explain;
Be involved in storytelling, acting and learning through play;
Tour suitable places and involve themselves in class activities; and
Drawing, writing and working on handy craft.

Formal teaching starts only in Stage 2. In this stage, the developmental


needs of students are still emphasised.
(d) Opportunity for Express Promotion to Stage 2
KBSR provides an opportunity for students to move forward by express
promotion to Stage 2. With this, the brighter students will be less likely to
get bored.

Figure 6.4 below explains the strategy of implementation of the new


curriculum (KBSR):

Figure 6.4: The implementation strategy of KBSR


Source: Abu Bakar Nordin (1991)

ACTIVITY 6.4
The old Primary School Curriculum was incapable of producing
balanced students . Analyse the statement by referring to the
weaknesses in the old Primary School Curriculum.

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6.11 THE FIELDS, COMPONENTS AND


SUBJECTS OF KBSR
The sole emphasis in primary education is acquiring the basic skills of 3R. It
involves the mastering and application of those skills. The skills are constantly
reinforced in order for the students to be able to use them to attain new skills or
knowledge.

The new curriculum is divided into two levels Level 1 and Level 2:
Level 1 is mainly concentrated on mastering of the basic skills; and
Level 2 focuses on reinforcement and application of those skills to acquire
knowledge in various fields.

The fields, components and subjects of KBSR are clearly stated in Table 6.2
below:

Table 6.2: The Fields, Components and Subjects of KBSR


Source: Mok Soon Sang (1996)

Field Component Subject


Stage I Stage II
Communication Skill Medium of Medium of
Instruction, Malay Instruction, Malay
and English and English
Language Language
Mathematics Mathematics
Human and Value Islamic Education Islamic Education
Environment Spirituality and Moral Education Moral Education
Attitude
Humanity and Human and
Environment Environment
(Science and Local
Studies )

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Individual Self Art and Music Music


Development Recreation
Art Education Art Education
Physical Education Physical Education
Co-curriculum Manipulative Skills

Co-curriculum
Assembly Assembly

6.12 ALLOCATION OF TIME


The time allocated for primary school Level 1 is 1350 minutes per week, while
Level 2 is 1440 minutes. The allocation is based on the priorities and needs of the
respective levels, as shown in Figures 6.5 and 6.6:

Figure 6.5: Level 1 - Percentage of Time Allocation for Subjects Per Week

Figure 6.6: Level 2 - Percentage of Time Allocation for Subjects Per Week

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6.13 THE NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL


CURRICULUM
The new secondary school curriculum (KBSM) was launched by the Education
Minister on 11th September 1986. Due to weaknesses in the previous curriculum,
there was a great demand for a new curriculum in the education system in
Malaysia. In addition, this will ensure continuity in terms of content and learning
(styles).

According to Abu Bakar (1991), among the weaknesses in the old curriculum
were:
Over emphasis on content which hindered the development of character,
personality, and talent among the students.
Though the previous curriculum focused on problem solving skills, it was
lacking in terms of application of these skill in social settings.
Specialisation was done too early, especially in certain subjects such as
science and mathematics.
Ishak Ramly (2005) also listed several weaknesses of the old curriculum. Among
them were:
Lack of emphasis in value and skills, especially in noble values. Reasoning-
based knowledge was given importance, while revealed knowledge was
neglected. Hence, students lacked moral values and nationalism.
The curriculum was too examination-oriented. It focused on preparing
students for higher learning but neglected character and personality building
among them.
Lacking in nurturing the students noble values and patriotism.
Lack of focus in acquiring of skills and the use of thinking as learning is
focused on rote learning.

The Cabinet Committee Report suggested that there was a need to overcome the
problems faced by the old curriculum. A new curriculum was needed to suit the
latest development and. must have the following characteristics:
The secondary education curriculum must be based on general education,
whereby it emphasises the students holistic and balanced development. To
achieve that, the elements of spiritual, value, attitude, knowledge and talents
of the students should be given equal consideration in all aspects of learning.
Focus is given to infuse a universal value of the Malaysian society, and to
produce a responsible, rational and humanitarian citizen. The Islamic and
Moral education subjects are to act as a guide to the Malaysian society.

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The secondary education curriculum must give special attention towards


developing patriotism in order for the students to be proud of their race and
nation.
The emphasis is placed on Bahasa Malaysia as the national and the official
language of the country. The aim is to enable students to master the
language and communication skills in Bahasa Malaysia, in accordance with
its function as a language for national unity, knowledge acquisition and
communication.
The focus is on the latest changes in technology and entrepreneurship.
Students should be taught Living Skills and value in technology,
entrepreneurship, commerce and also given guidance to solve problems in
their daily life.
Extracurricular activities are given due focus and not as an additional
activity.

6.14 THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE NEW


SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM
Education is an on-going effort towards the development of students potential
holistically and enables them to become knowledgeable, responsible, capable and
at the same time balanced spiritually and physically, based on the belief in God.
In addition, education is to contribute positively towards the development of the
nation in producing loyal, disciplined and united Malaysians according to the
Five Principles of the Nation (Rukunegara).

Based on this philosophy, the KBSM is clearly a continuation of the KBSR


programmes which focuses on the holistic, balanced and integrated development
of individuals. The integration can be achieved through the following efforts:
(a) Integration of knowledge, skills, values and language in all the subjects;
(b) Integration of experiences and learning techniques in various subjects;
(c) Integration of theory and practice; and
(d) Integration of learning experiences inside and outside the classroom.

6.15 OBJECTIVES AND TEACHING STRATEGIES


OF THE KBSM
The objectives and teaching strategies of the KBSM are as below:
(a) Enable students to master communication as well as thinking and
reasoning skills.
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(b) Provide opportunities for students to understand the social and physical
environment in order for them to enjoy life and appreciate life values, and
essentially becoming good and effective members of the society.
(c) Emphasis on learning towards understanding oneself, develop talents, and
also personal characters.
(d) Take into consideration the basic knowledge, skills, values, attitude ,
behaviours, and culture that are needed by the students.
(e) Emphasis on problem solving skills in all aspects of life.
(f) To create a balance between knowledge and values, practice and recreation.
(g) To balance between formal lessons in the classroom and informal learning
outside the classroom.

Please refer to Figure 6.7 to understand the relationship between the KBSM
objectives, the National Education Philosophy, and goals:

Figure 6.7: Relationship between KBSM objectives, the National Education


Philosophy and Goals
Source: Mok Soon Sang (1996)

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ACTIVITY 6.5

Explain the strengths of KBSM to produce balanced students in terms of


physical, emotion, intellectual and spiritual.

The KBSM programmes are focused towards developing holistic, balanced


and integrated individuals.
British colonisation brought about a segregated education system.
The weaknesses of the old curriculum resulted in the development of the new
primary school education.
The basic skills of 3R are the basic principle of the KBSR.
The design of the KBSR enables students to acquire knowledge and skills in
communication, humanities and environment.
The main principles of the KBSR are focused on three elements which are the
development of individuals, the basic education and development of talents.

Barnes report Primary school curriculum


Fenn-Wu report Rahman Talib report
General philosophy of the basic Razak report
education
Secondary school integrated
KBSR curriculum
KBSM

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Abu Bakar Nordin. (1991). Kurikulum: Perspektif dan pelaksanaan. Kuala


Lumpur: Pustaka Antara.

Ishak Ramly. (2005). Inilah kurikulum sekolah. PTS Professional Publishing Sdn.
Bhd.

Kamaruddin Hj. Kachar. (1989). Perkembangan pendidikan di Malaysia. Kuala


Lumpur: Teks Publishing Sdn. Bhd.

Mok Soon Sang. (1996). Pedagogi 1: Kurikulum dan pengurusan bilik darjah.
Subang Jaya: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd.

Omar Hashim. (1991). Pengisian misi pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa
dan Pustaka.

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Topic X Effective

7 Curriculum
Management
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. State the effective management techniques;
2. List down the roles of a good and effective teacher;
3. Explain the procedures of evaluation and supervision of teachers;
4. Describe a conducive learning environment; and
5. Explain the challenges in leadership and management of curriculum.

X INTRODUCTION
Other than establishing the vision and mission of their schools, the head masters
also have to share their commitment and responsibilities with their teachers. As
such, they have to communicate their opinions for the generation of ideas to help
their students achieve excellence.

7.1 EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT


Do you know that the liberal and non-interference policy practised by the British
Administration in the field of education had resulted in the establishment of
different types of schools which were entirely different from each other? These
schools were:
(a) English Schools;
(b) Religious Schools;
(c) Chinese Schools;

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(d) Tamil Schools; and


(e) Malay Schools

These schools had effectively managed their organisation by following the four
domains line below.
(a) Planning
The process of planning is to determine the target of the organisation. In
planning, one has to consider the weaknesses and strengths of the
organisation.
(b) Organising
It is important to monitor the implementation of each activity carried out as
it must be integrated and balanced. Wisdom and patience are two vital
characteristics in the process of organising.

Among the focus of organising are as follows:


Coordinate the activities so that there are no redundancies.
Identify the staff that are suitable for certain tasks based on their
expertise, level of tolerance and discretion. This is also important for
future undertakings.
Establish good relationship between the executives and their
subordinates. Good rapport will enhance a feeling of respect towards
one another.
(c) Controlling
This is important in determining the current work performance. The work
quality needs to be controlled to evade low quality output. Controlling
could identify and rectify work performance which is lower than the
expected standard.
(d) Evaluating
An evaluation determines the success or failure of the programmes. There
are two types of evaluation formative and summative. A formative
evaluation is to be done as soon as a task is completed, while a summative
evaluation is to be carried out after a certain time period, for example, a
month, a semester, or end of the year.

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7.2 SUPERVISION AND STAFF DEVELOPMENT


According to Duke (1993), instructional leadership is focused on key situations,
for example actions that are carried out continuously by the head master to
ensure that the teaching and learning conducted by teachers are up to their
standards and of good quality. Among those key situations are:
The headmaster must monitor and supervise their teachers to gauge their
strengths and weaknesses.
Teachers need to be exposed to the latest educational development,
monitored and supervised.
Staff development programmes have to be carried out throughout the year,
as a means to enhance the teachers skills and knowledge. These programmes
can be conducted by their own colleagues and even by guest experts.

As the teaching profession is considered a noble profession, teachers are


responsible to act as good role models for the students. Consequently, teachers
need to realise their important roles. Among those are:
As planners, facilitators and managers;
As knowledge disseminators,
As enhancer and reinforcer of skills;
As instiller of noble values;
As a guide; and
As a model.

7.2.1 Planners, Facilitators and Managers


Teachers need to plan and manage their teaching and learning process. In the
classroom, they are required to prepare the yearly, by semester, weekly and daily
plans for each subject. This involves planning the contents, based on the syllabus
which encompasses knowledge, skills and values. Furthermore, they must also
plan the teaching techniques and aids that they need to employ for their teaching
to be effective. Besides that, a teacher needs to prepare learning activities for
outside the classroom, which is meant to support the learning in the classroom. A
teacher must also be able to plan and manage the environment to carry out
activities within a certain planned time period, control their students discipline
and provide clear instructions for them to work on the activities.

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Saedah (1996) mentioned that a teachers role as a facilitator is to deliver


information to the students. Students are given opportunities to expand their
knowledge, revise and deliver new information. Last but not least, a teacher must
also develop their students' talents and motivate them.

7.2.2 Knowledge Disseminators


A teacher must provide adequate information as required by a syllabus. Other
than that, he or she must also teach effective study skills in order to motivate
thestudents to seek for new information. By doing so, they will be dynamic and
master the study skills effectively.

7.2.3 Enhancer and Reinforcer of Skills


This is one of the important roles of a teacher. He or she must train the students
to acquire the intended skills and provide encouragement to practise them in
their daily life. Furthermore, a teacher also must motivate the students to acquire
new skills.

7.2.4 Instiller of Noble Values


A teacher indirectly instils noble values through teaching and learning activities
and also co-curriculum activities. Hence, these values will become part of the
students characters.

7.2.5 A Guide
A teacher is also a guide to the students in the process of education. He or she
identifies and enhances the students potentials by taking into consideration
their differences in abilities, backgrounds, and interests. Effective guidance is
easier to be provided by teachers as they know the strengths and weaknesses of
their students.

7.2.6 A Model
As a model, teachers have to be competent, assertive and possess self confidence
in their daily routines. A teacher has to show good character whether in or out of
the classroom.

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Among the characteristics that a teacher must possess as a good role model are:
Self confidence;
Open-mindedness through a wide range of reading, socialising with others
outside of their profession, trips and active involvement in societies;
Selflessness;
Positive thinking;
A stable mind;
Dynamic;
Imaginative;
Having an interesting daily routine;
Job satisfaction; and
Healthy and active.

ACTIVITY 7.1

As a curriculum manager, you are required to look for appropriate


management models to perform your daily duties. State the
management models.

7.3 EVALUATION AND SUPERVISION OF THE


TEACHERS
The evaluation or supervision of teachers has to be done frequently. It can be
conducted either by monitoring the teaching methods employed or the exercises
given to the students. Teachers will have the opportunity to obtain guidance
directly from their head masters through evaluation or supervision. In addition,
this will encourage them to be more prepared for any supervision and
evaluation. Also, evaluations will result in gathering more accurate information
regarding the teachers performances. In relation to this, the Staff Development
Committee (SDC) of a school is established to ensure that teachers use effective
teaching methods in the classroom. The SDC is shown in Figure 7.1.

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Figure 7.1: Staff Development Committee (SDC)

The functions of the committee are to:


Plan and coordinate staff development programmes;
Motivate, guide and counsel;
Enhance the competency of the resource management;
Evaluate training programmes;
Carry out follow-ups;
Prepare documentations; and
Provide training and exposure to newly appointed, transferred, change of
option and also non- trained teachers (GSTT).

7.4 THE TEACHING STAFF


The teaching staff is an important factor that determines the success of
curriculum implementation. As teaching staff, teachers are required to:
(a) Realise the National Education Philosophy (FPK)
Teachers must fully understand and be clear about the National Education
Philosophy (FPK), which is to produce balanced and harmonious
Malaysian citizens who practise noble values, believe in God, possess high
moral standards and are responsible. Besides, he or she should be loyal to

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the nation and be able to contribute towards the nations development


while inculcating racial integration in a multiracial society.
(b) Be Trained
The Education Ministry always ensures that the teachers in Malaysia are
fully equipped with sufficient training. Among the steps taken to enhance
the quality of teachers are:
To raise the qualification standard of the teachers from certificate to
diploma, and also first degree in the field of teaching;
To upgrade the Teachers Training Colleges to Teaching Institutes;
To conduct a systematic process of candidate selection for the Teachers
Training programmes, for example, UKELP (Teachers Training
Qualification Test);
To carry out interviews to select candidates for the Teachers Training
programmes based on elements like ability, interest, attitude,
dedication, and character;
The syllabus of co-curriculum activities (GERKO) is based on the
current developments in education;
To enhance the infrastructure of the teaching institutes; and
To ensure quality in the selection system of the new lecturers.

(c) Be Interested, Creative and Innovative


Leonard (1996) states that teachers need to realise the relationship between
work commitments and their creativity to generate new ideas to carry out
their duties. Creativity and innovation are a result of interest and
commitment to a job.

Teachers must also realise that the teaching profession is full of challenges,
and regardless of this, they should be able to perform their duties. They
have to persevere and be resilient in order to excel in their duties. What
matters most is that the teachers must be able to continuously improve their
practises by first accepting their own weaknesses, and then try to overcome
them.

Why is there always an inadequate supply of teachers? According to Omar


Hashim (1991), the supply of teachers is always inadequate due to the
following reasons:
Increase in pupils population;
Retirement of teachers;
The upgrade of teacher-student ratio;
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Teachers are seconded to other departments out of the Education


Ministry;
Changes in policy;
Teachers are directed to attend courses; and
Commitment issues.

The commitment of the teachers is vital as they are considered as the agent
of change of the society. Therefore, teachers need to fulfil this additional
role in order to help produce citizens who are an asset to the society.

7.5 A CONDUCIVE ATMOSPHERE


An effective school management, such as student affairs and administration, can
surely contribute towards effective teaching and learning in the classrooms. An
atmosphere that is conducive (clean, peaceful, orderly, and well-managed) will
certainly enhance the students discipline, and develop a harmonious and
controlled atmosphere in a school. Consequently, academic activities can be
carried out in the school effectively.

7.5.1 Family Influence


According to Howard (1987), the environment of the schools location and the
students background are very important and worth analysing. This is vital in
planning an effective curriculum. He pointed out that family and peer groups
have a great influence on the students.

Factors that influence the family will have a great impact on students . These
include:
(a) Family size;
(b) The students position in the family;
(c) Relationship of their parents; and
(d) The parents perspective on education.

Peer group pressure certainly needs to be given due attention, as it has a major
influence on th students. Their relationship in a classroom is also very important
because it can influence their learning.

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7.5.2 School Infrastructure


The school infrastructure must be focused in the planning and management of
effective curriculum. It can either be a significant obstacle or assistance in
determining the success of achieving excellence in a curriculum. The facilities
and buildings must also be analysed to ensure the optimal use.

7.5.3 School Atmosphere


The school atmosphere greatly influences every aspect of the curriculum, for
instance the selection of the objectives, materials, method, and evaluation. The
atmosphere undergoes gradual changes and it is not easy to analyse and takes a
joint effort to analyse the atmosphere of a school.

7.6 RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


The school allocates a certain budget to prepare sufficient teaching aids for
teachers to teach effectively. Besides that, the teachers have to be distributed
according to their specialisations, abilities, experiences and compatibilities. Staffs
are the most important resource to ensure the aim and objectives of the school
can be achieved.

As curriculum leaders, head masters must ensure that the budget is adequate for
the implementation of the curriculum and teaching. Among the actions needed
to be taken are:
Planning and preparing an expenditure estimates;
Allocation based on priorities; and
Expenditure based on proper financial procedures.

They also have to ensure that the teaching and learning materials are adequate
and updated so that the teaching and learning process goes on smoothly. In brief,
the following elements have to be considered for teaching and learning materials:
Adequateness;
Usability;
Employ the latest technology; and
User friendly.

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7.7 QUALITY CONTROL


Continuous evaluation is vital to ensure that each activity performed is according
to the aim, needs, priorities, and planned teaching standards. The output such as
examination results can be a clear indicator of quality control. In addition,
surveys on customers satisfaction that are carried out on parents, teaching staff,
local community and even the students can also give a clear picture of the
effectiveness of the school management. Quality control and continuous
improvement can be done based on the findings from interviews, questionnaires
or surveys. They must be done on people who are related to the school.

There are various challenges to the curriculum leadership in ensuring the


implementation of quality control measures. According to the Curriculum
Development Centre (CDC), some of the challenges are as shown in Figure 7.2:

Figure 7.2: Challenges of Curriculum Leadership and Management


Source: Curriculum Development Centre (2001)

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7.8 COORDINATION
Programmes, planning and implementation need to be coordinated in parallel to
and compatible with the human resource aspect, such as the number and
qualifications of the teachers, time period, place, financial allocation, support
services and curriculum planning. Headmasters need to plan and implement
activities according to the strengths and abilities that their school possess.

Every school is different in many aspects. This calls for proper coordination
which must be done indiscriminately from one school to the other. The analysis
of strengths and weaknesses is certainly helpful for the management to draw up
an effective plan.

7.9 TROUBLE-SHOOTING
Headmasters must be the trouble-shooters who are able to solve any problems
that may arise at any time especially in ensuring high quality teaching and
learning standards. Proper and correct action is needed to solve problems as it
may lead to other problems. This is also important to satisfy the teachers. These
key situations demand that the head masters possess skills and professional
judgements. The wisdom of the head masters are vital in each key situation that
they deal with. The key situations require the employment of different ways,
methods, techniques, and approaches. They must also be far-sighted to enable
them to see the big picture in order for accurate information and immediate
action to be taken in the key situations. Briefly, the key situations are the daily
routines that the head masters have to prioritise.

7.10 HEAD TEACHERS AS ADMINISTRATORS


AND MANAGERS
According to Omar Hashim (1991), headmasters, who view their profession as
administrators will not succeed. An administrator normally emphasises heavily
on the bureaucratic characteristics, such as sitting alone in the office, calling the
subordinates, using a bell or the telephone, implements strict rules and
regulations, minimum face-to-face interactions with the teachers and other staffs.
The priority of the administrator is power and control. The concern is to enhance
hisor her power and exert that on the subordinates. The issue of the teachers
quality is rarely given due attention.

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On the other hand, if the headmasters consider themselves as managers, their


views are based on a broader perspective. As managers they plan, coordinate
and consolidate every human effort under hisor her leadership. A manager must
give importance to the following elements:
Achievement of the school objectives;
Reducing red tape and other obstacles to face him orher;
Frequent face-to-face interactions with the teachers and students to overcome
problems;
Seeking for fresh approaches, techniques and new ways to develop the
school; and
Constantly seeking for beneficial leadership approaches that can synergise
the teachers efforts towards achieving the objectives of the school.

The four main domains of management are planning, organising, controlling


and evaluating.
A good teacher has good knowledge of hisor her own role.
The supervision and evaluation by the head masters will certainly encourage
teachers to more prepared in their teaching and learning processes.
A learning atmosphere which is conducive, enriches the teaching and
learning activities in the classroom.
The challenges in the curriculum leadership, enhance the teaching and
learning in schools.
The head masters need to be trouble-shooters to solve the various problems
that may arise at any time.

Conducive atmosphere Teacher as a model


Leadership challenges Teachers planning and evaluation
Resource management

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Hj. Mohd. Ab. Rahman. (1999). Cermin pengurusan pendidikan. Pustaka Ilmi.

Leonard, M. S., Yong, K., & Biraimah, L. (1996). Guru yang kreatif. Kuala
Lumpur: Arena Buku Sdn. Bhd.

Saedah Hj. Siraj. (1996). Pendidikan di Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan


Publication & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.

Sharifah Maimunah Syed Zain. (2001). Pengurusan dan kepimpinan kurikulum


di Sekolah. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia: Pusat Perkembangan
Kurikulum.

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Topic X Management of
8 Curriculum
Materials in
Classrooms,
Resource
Centres and
Curriculum
Development
Centre (CDC)
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. State the types of classrooms;
2. State teaching resources and curriculum available in the classroom;
3. Explain ways to manage curriculum resources in resource centres;
4. Analyse materials and collections in resource centres;
5. State the role of the school access centre; and
6. Explain the role of the CDC as the curriculum resource centre.

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X INTRODUCTION
It is vital that a curriculum and its supporting materials need to be managed
well, in order for the curriculum to be developed effectively. In this topic, you
will learn about ways to manage the curriculum supporting materials, whether in
the classroom, school resource centres and the Curriculum Development Centre
(CDC). Teachers as curriculum managers, need to have a good understanding on
this topic.

8.1 THE CONCEPT OF CLASSROOM


The classroom concept is defined based on the educational function or the
characteristics of the physical arrangement. The general concept of a classroom is
a room which contains a group of students under the supervision of a teacher, a
field in the physical education lesson, a science laboratory, a school hall and a
resource centre where a group of students are viewing educational television
programmes.

Basically, classrooms are equipped with facilities such as tables and chairs which
are arranged based on the teaching and learning activities, writing board and
teaching aids under the supervision of a teacher.

8.2 TYPES OF CLASSROOMS


The classification of classroom can be categorised based on their characteristics
and functions. They would be discussed in the following subsections.

8.2.1 Traditional Classroom


The traditional classroom was commonly used during the implementation of the
old curriculum - the KLSR and KLSM (before the introduction of KBSR and
KBSM). In this type of classroom, students are seated in rows. The teacher is
positioned in front of the classroom and frequently employs a teacher-centred
strategy. There is a table and chair for the teacher to take attendance and collect
fees. These classrooms are normally equipped with writing boards which are the
focus in the teaching and learning process.

The main characteristics of a traditional classroom are:


(a) Tables and chairs are arranged in rows;
(b) Students with smaller physique, or hearing and visual problems are seated
in front;

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(c) Whole class teaching is employed as the main teaching method in this
classroom;
(d) Students are seldom involved in the teaching and learning process; and
(e) Students are passive and merely listeners.

8.2.2 KBSR/KBSM Classroom


This type of classroom was introduced since 1982 in primary schools on a trial
basis. The KBSM classroom is a continuation of the KBSR classroom concept. This
classroom is different from the traditional one although the size remains the
same.

The arrangement of the students tables and chairs are according to groups as
teaching and learning activities are group-based. Therefore, the teaching and
learning activities in this classroom is studentcentred, whereby the they are
actively involved.

The KBSR/KBSM classroom is equipped with learning areas to provide space for
the students to carry out their learning activities. There is also a space for
exhibiting their work which makes teaching and learning more interesting.

The main characteristics of KBSR/KBSM classroom are:


The tables and chairs are arranged in groups;
Students are divided into groups based on their abilities or performances;
Students participation in learning activities are encouraged;
Student-based teaching is mainly employed;
Interaction between teacher-students and student-student are encouraged;
The learning atmosphere is very conducive, as the students work and
teaching materials are exhibited;
The learning area is allotted to encourage students involvement in the
learning activities; and
Students are actively involved in discussions with their teacher and
classmates.

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8.2.3 Open Classroom


This type of classroom is derived from the idea of an open education. According
to R.S Barth (Mok Soon Sang, 1996), the concept of open classroom is an
approach in education that is open in terms of the curriculum, teaching and
learning approach, as well as learning spaces and materials. Other than that, the
students are involved in selecting the approaches and strategies in their teaching
and learning. They are given opportunities to decide and plan their own learning
activities and teaching is reduced to a minimum. The teachers take the role of
facilitators to guide their students to choose learning materials and also to plan
and implement teaching based on groups or individuals.

Among the important characteristics of an open classroom are:


Teaching and learning are organised based on groups and individuals;
Various teaching and learning activities can be carried out simultaneously in
the classroom;
Students go through various learning activities based on their own personal
timetable;
There is no fixed curriculum, therefore students are free to choose, plan, and
implement learning activities of their interest;
Students are free to implement projects based on groups or individuals;
Teaching takes into consideration the individual differences in terms of
abilities, emotions, and interests;
Marks and grades in the process of evaluation are given little emphasis;
Problem-solving and inquiry-discovery methods are mainly employed in the
teaching activities; and
The teacher-students and student-student relationships are based on sincerity
and mutual respect.

8.3 MANAGING LEARNING CURRICULUM


RESOURCES IN THE CLASSROOM
Learning resources in the classroom are the materials that the pupils use during
their learning activities. According to Mok Soon Sang (1996), the common
learning resources or materials used in the classroom are:
Textbooks;
Workbooks;
Stationeries;

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Specimens;
Maps;
Pictures;
Instruments (apparatus);
Activity cards;
Reading cards;
Instruments for counting activities; and
Materials for commercial practices.

In KBSR classrooms, there are learning spaces for reading, mathematics and
storage of various instruments and learning materials for students to carry out
their learning activities.

The learning resources which support the curriculum must be organised


according to:
Subjects and displays in suitable places.
A record of the learning resources which is kept as a reference.
The distribution methods, collection and storage of the learning resources
need to be explained to the students for them to use it effectively.
The learning materials such as pictures, charts, drawings and other students
work can be displayed on boards for public viewing.
Reading spaces must be full with reading materials which can be used for
group reading.
Mathematics and Commerce sections must be complete with teaching
materials for counting and commercial practices, and also concrete objects.
Cupboards, racks and boxes can be used to store the learning materials. This
keeps the place tidy and orderly.

8.4 MANAGEMENT OF THE SCIENCE


LABORATORY
Management of a science laboratory is a lot of work. This subsection will prepare
you for this demanding task by discussing the following:
The concept of a science laboratory;
The functions of a science laboratory;
Science instruments; and
Maintenance and storage.

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8.4.1 The Concept of a Science Laboratory


The science laboratory is a room where the teaching and learning of the primary
school science subject is carried out. It is complete with the basic facilities for
teaching and learning activities of the science subject, such as experiments,
demonstrations and projects. The science laboratory can be renovated from a
normal classroom or a Man and Environment subject room. Among the basic
facilities needed for a science laboratory are chairs, tables, cabinets, water and
electricity supplies, science apparatus as listed in the Apparatus Book of the
Teaching and Learning of Primary Science (The Ministry of Education, Malaysia).

8.4.2 The Functions of a Science Laboratory


This room is where the teaching and learning of science is carried out. The
activities must focus on scientific skills. This approach enables student-centred
teaching and learning to be employed in the classroom. The teacher must plan for
activities which utilise the instruments in the science laboratory in order for the
students to be given the chance to interact with these instruments.

8.4.3 Science Instruments


The science instruments are supplied to schools through the Federal allocation.
Any replacement and new or additional supplies can be requested from time to
time.

8.4.4 Maintenance and Storage


Most of the science instruments are fragile or easily damaged. Therefore,
maintenance and storage are very important. It is also vital that the information
in the inventory list show the exact condition and storage of the instruments.
(a) Glass Products
The glass products are washable with appropriate detergents. These
products cannot be kept in high places or together with metal products. The
smaller glass products must be arranged in front, while the bigger ones at
the back.
(b) Chemical Products
Hazardous chemicals are not supplied to primary schools. The materials
used in teaching and learning are mostly household products, such as
vinegar, sugar, salt and soap as they are not dangerous or toxic.
Nonetheless, all chemicals must be organised in terms of storage, usage and
disposal. As an example of the products used, vinegar is acidic and needs to

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be handled with caution. If vinegar accidentally gets into ones eye, he or


she needs to immediately wash their eye with clean water.
(c) Optical Instruments
Some of the optical instruments are lenses, prism and glass blocks. These
can be easily scratched when used on rough surfaces. Styrofoam is a
suitable material that can be used to prevent any scratches or damages.
Binoculars and microscopes need to be kept in dry places to prevent fungus
growth. Hence, it is advisable to keep them with silica gels, whereby blue
silica is the best to absorb moisture. Eye lenses and objective lenses must be
cleaned using silicon paper as tissue paper or cloth can damage the surface
of the lenses.
(d) Electrical Instruments
All science laboratories are supplied with at least two power sources for the
use of electrical products, such as the electrical kettle or projector. The use
of electrical products has to strictly follow the proper procedures or
maintenance to avoid accidents. Below are the steps to avoid any mishaps:
Ensure students do not handle the electrical products with wet hands;
Immediately switch off the products when they are not in use;
Faulty sockets need to be replaced immediately;
Ensure that the wires are connected based on the correct colour code;
Make sure the wires and cables are insulated;
The electrical products must only use three-pin sockets;
Do not use long cables for the electrical products;
Any faulty electrical appliances must be handled only by the electrician;
The electrical safety procedures must be followed strictly; and
Batteries used in the torch-lights, clocks, and battery holders must be
removed after use to avoid corrosion.
(e) Life Specimens (Animals and Plants)
With regards to life specimens, the following guidelines must be followed:
Life specimens must be taken only according to the needs of the
teaching and learning activity;
Animal specimens which are still alive must be returned to their natural
habitats;
Dead specimens can be preserved;
Protected animals must not be kept or preserved without the
permission of the Wildlife Department; and
Avoid using animals that can sting or are venomous.
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(f) Preservation
With regards to preservation, we should follow these guidelines:
Use the dry method;
Suitable for specimens with less moisture and hard skin, such as insects
and seeds;
Specimens must be fully dried to prevent damage caused by fungus
growth or bacteria;
They can be dried by placing them directly under the sunlight or using
an oven, hot sand or silica gels;
Preservation using this method must be done with strict observation as
the specimens can spoil easily; and
The specimens must be dried from time to time to avoid any fungus
growth.
(g) Wet Preservation
With regards to wet preservation, we should follow these guidelines:
Suitable for all types of biological specimens especially soft body types;
Specimens must be soaked in a preservative solution, such as formalin,
to ensure their structures and textures are preserved;
A suitable preservative solution must be determined for the different
types of specimens; and
Safety procedures must be followed while handling formalin as it is a
hazardous substance.

8.5 MANAGING LESSON/CURRICULUM


RESOURCES IN THE SCHOOL RESOURCE
CENTRE (RC)
The resource centres in Malaysia have to be upgraded to cater the changes in the
current trends in education. More importantly is the school resource centres
(RC) position as a change agent, whereby it can nurture and motivate the
students potential and interest in learning.

8.5.1 The Objectives of the School RC


The objectives of the school RC are as follows:
Excellence in education;
Making use of the facilities andservices provided by the RC;
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Nurturing reading habits;


Producing materials that can assist the implementation of the curriculum;
Learning services; and
Enhancing information gathering skills among the students.

8.5.2 The Functions of the RC


The functions of the RC are as follows:
Identify and prepare a collection of materials for the needs of curriculum and
co-curriculum;
Provide services as a centre for materials or instruments for the process of
learning;
A place where the selection and evaluation of materials are done before they
are used;
A place where information on outside agencies are accessible;
Provide guidance to seek, use, produce and present information on the needs
of curriculum;
Encouragement for reading activities and information gathering skills;
Develop self-access learning;
Provide the latest educational technology; and
Provide reproduction and photocopying services.

8.5.2 The Characteristics of an Effective RC


The characteristics of an effective RC are as follows:
The school members must know the manager of the RC;
Activities to motivate people to use the RC;
The services and collection must be used in the process of teaching and
learning;
The location of the RC must be easily accessible;
The school members enjoy visiting and using the services provided by the
RC;
The school members understand the functions of RC as a curriculum support
service; and
Have collections that are appropriate, adequate, up-to-date and interesting.
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8.6 THE SCHOOL RESOURCE CENTRE (RC)


SERVICES
The services provided are to support the teaching and learning according to the
stipulated curriculum. The RC must provide programmes which are aimed at
developing the information gathering skills to enhance self-access and life-long
learning. The services provided must be made available to all the clients. It must
also conduct maintenance in terms of the collections content, updating the
records and consistency in providing those services. Some of the characteristics
of an effective RC service are:
Expose and guide clients to effectively use the RC;
Guide to materials that are needed; and
Effective dissemination of information.

The types of services provided by the RC can be divided into 4 categories:


(a) Reading (references and borrowing).
(b) Guide pertaining to services for readers and users:
Library orientation;
User guide;
Using a catalogue;
Knowing the current issues; and
Guide for internet usage.
(c) The educational technology services mainly provide the teaching and
audio-visual aids. Other services include:
Provide consultation on the usage of various instruments and devices;
Prepare instruments and devices for teaching and learning activities in
school;
Provide facilities for recording (audio and video);
Assistance in producing media for teaching and learning; and
Loan teaching and learning media.
(d) The documentation and publication services include services such as:
Consultation for producing teaching and learning materials;
Publication of magazines, brochures, bulletins and other materials
pertaining to school activities;
Publish materials pertaining to school publications; and
Record and storage of materials published by the school.

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8.7 THE COLLECTION IN THE SCHOOL


RESOURCE CENTRE (RC)
The materials in the RC must follow a certain standard for the development or
collection of a RC. The standardisation of materials, such as the selection,
evaluation and collection, must be determined. The materials in the collection
must take into account the users and curriculum needs.

Among the basis for selection of materials are as below:


(a) Materials must be relevant to the National Education Philosophy.
(b) Suggestions for the materials must be done through the RC Committee of
the school. Figure 8.1 shows the organisational chart of the school Resource
Centre:

Figure 8.1: Organisational Chart for a School Resource Centre


Source: The Curriculum Development Centre (CDC)
(c) Materials are based on the schools curriculum as well as the co-curriculum
needs and users interests.
(d) To research on the trend of materials usage and current collection statistics.
(e) The important aspects in the selection of the materials are:
(f) Able to support the education process based on the differences in interests,
abilities and users level of thinking;
(g) To fulfill the needs of a schools curriculum and co-curriculum;
(h) To enhance the users knowledge;
(i) To enhance the critical and creative thinking skills;
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(j) To enhance the users vocabulary;


(k) To nurture national integration;
(l) To develop high moral standards; and
(m) To develop the users sense of responsibility towards religion, race and the
nation.

8.8 THE DISTRIBUTION OF MATERIALS OF


THE SCHOOL RESOURCE CENTRE (RC)
The collection of the RC must reflect:
(a) Various Languages used in the Schools
Table 8.1 shows the distribution based on the medium of instruction (based
on the total usage of language in a school):

Table 8.1: Distribution Based on the Medium of Instruction

School Type Malay Language ( % ) English Language ( % ) Others ( % )


National and Approximately 70% Approximately 25% Approximately
Primary National 5%
Schools
Primary National Approximately 30 % Approximately 10% Approximately
Type (Chinese) 60%
Primary National Approximately 30 % Approximately 10% Approximately
Type (Tamil) 60%
Secondary School Approximately 65 % Approximately 30% Approximately
5%

(b) Types of Reading Materials


Table 8.2 shows the distribution based on reading material types:

Table 8.2: Distribution Based on Material Types

School Level Fiction Non-Fiction Periodical Publications


and Special Editions
Primary Schools 65 % 25% 10 %
Lower Secondary 45% 40% 15%
Schools
Upper Secondary 40% 45% 15%
Schools

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Priority must be given to fiction reading materials in the primary and


secondary schools. This is because students normally like reading fiction
compared to the other types of material. Hence, fiction reading materials
are used as the basis to nurture reading habits among the students.

Non-fiction reading materials are more appropriate for the upper


secondary level, as these materials are commonly used as references in the
teaching and learning process at this level of schooling. For Form Six
classes, it is more suitable to provide non-fiction materials and periodicals.
(c) Schooling Levels
Table 8.3 shows the distribution based on the school level:

Table 8.3: Distribution Based on the School Level

School Type Total Students Minimum Stock Increase of New


Required Books
Primary Less than 250 pupils 2000 books 1-2 books per pupil in
Schools a year
More than 250 pupils One book per pupil
Secondary Less than 1000 pupils 8000 books 3- 4 books per pupil
Schools in a year
With Form Six pupils 14 books for every
Form Six pupil

8.9 THE SCHOOL ACCESS CENTRE (SAC)


The school access centre(SAC) employs the concept of a cyber caf which focuses
on e-learning. This gives students the opportunity to carry out self-access
learning. They are able to seek and select their own learning materials at their
own pace, self-directed and self-access. It is a form of support to the teaching and
learning process. Besides, it enables the school community, especially the
students, to gain information and communicate using information technology.
The learning process in the SAC can take place all the time. Stydents can make
use of the SAC during their own free time with the teachers facilitating and
monitoring them from time to time. The SAC caters to students with different
learning styles. Furthermore, it also enhances the quality of education towards
developing IT literacy and a progressive society via life-long learning.

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(a) Aims
The aims of the SAC are to:
Inculcate the usage of ICT into the school culture;
Reduce the ratio of computers to students; and
Increase contact hours for computer usage among students.
(b) Objectives
The objectives of SAC are to:
Develop the students skill in finding information;
Enable students to effectively self-pace, self-direct and self-access their
learning process; and
Enhance the students usage and mastering of ICT skills for learning.
(c) Organisational Structure
Figure 8.2 shows the organisational chart for the School Access Centre
Committee:

Figure 8.2: Organisational Chart for the School Access Centre Committee

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8.10 TEACHERS ACTIVITY CENTRE (TAC)


TAC is a unit formed under the State Education Resource Centre. It is also part of
the networking of the Education Technology Department of the Ministry of
Education,Malaysia(KPM). The main purpose of the centre is to provide support
services and training in the usage of education technology in teaching and
learning.

The concept of TAC is based on group services, whereby support services are
provided to teachers from nearby schools. Normally, there will be more than one
TAC in an education district.

Among its functions are to:


(i) Monitor and improve the following:
The programmes of the school RC development;
Reading habits campaign; and
Information literacy programme.
(ii) Monitor the usage and effectiveness of various teaching and learning
media:
Existing materials and instruments; and
Innovative materials.
(iii) Monitor the implementation of smart school activities in smart schools.
(iv) Monitor the setting up and implementation of school access centres.
(v) Monitor the implementation of educational TV programmes in terms of the
usage, collection and management.
(vi) Monitor the implementation of SchoolNet.
(vii) Monitor school computer laboratories.
(viii) Provide support services for the usage of education technology and media.
(ix) Usage support services and school RC management: Management of RC
Materials Workshop.
(x) Reading campaign and information literacy: Workshop for Management of
Reading Programme.
(xi) Usage of educational technology and media in schools:
Educational television; and
Other types of media.

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(xii) Reference centre for the usage of education technology, media and ICT:
Guide and advise the library and media teacher (RC Coordinator Teacher)
on the usage and management of RC.

8.11 THE ROLE OF THE CURRICULUM


DEVELOPMENT CENTRE (CDC)
The CDC was formed as a department under the Ministry of Education in 1974.
The CDC has many facilities in its own building. Prior to the CDC, any issues
pertaining to curriculum were handled by the respective departments without
any coordination. After it was formed, curriculum development was better
coordinated. In 1982, the syllabus for primary education was introduced and by
1988, the syllabus for secondary schools was also introduced. The CDC efforts on
curriculum development enhanced the performances and quality of education in
accordance to the NEP.
(a) The Objectives of the CDC
The objectives of the CDC are as follows:
Produces an effective, relevant and high quality curriculum;
Ensures effective management of curriculum implementation for all
levels of education except for Form Six; and
Enhances and updates the curriculum performances continuously,
parallel to the current and future needs.
(b) 8.11.2 The Role and Functions of the CDC
The role and functions of the CDC are as follows:
Explain the needs and aims of the NEP and improve the curriculum
according to the Malaysian governments vision and mission.
Analyse and explain current issues pertaining to curriculum policies
and its implementation.
Understanding and planning of curriculum for pre-schools, primary
and secondary schools.
Develop syllabus for every subject in the pre-schools, primary and
secondary schools.
Provide additional lesson materials such as curriculum specifications,
teachers guide and students guide, and also training packages for
teachers.
Disseminate information about changes and development to the
educators and society.

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Conduct orientation courses for various levels of staff and government


servants in order for them to understand the programmes for pre-
schools, primary and secondary schools.
Enhances effectiveness of teaching and learning through school-based
evaluations.
Implements various activities which involves the upper management
and curriculum implementors in enhancing the effectiveness and
professionalism among the educators of all levels.
Coordinate all curriculum activities implemented in all departments in
the Ministry of Education, State Education Departments and the School
Department.
Provide in-house packages to assist schools in implementing the in-
house training programmes.
Monitor schools in evaluating programmes and activities carried out for
all subjects and determine the level of effectiveness.
Implement researches and projects to obtain information on certain
aspects of curriculum implementation and development.
Conduct researches on school projects in the implementation of certain
aspects of the curriculum;
Carry out various activities to enhance the level of professionalism and
competency of the officers.
Cooperate and provide assistance and expertise to other government
agencies in the field of education.

A good classroom is arranged to the needs of the students in learning.


The materials for teaching resources must be well-managed to ensure
effective teaching and learning.
The school RC needs to be managed effectively to produce a learning
atmosphere which is conducive.
Materials of RC need to be evaluated to determine its ability to cater to the
students educational needs.
The CDC plays a great role in providing support materials for the
curriculum.

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Managing of learning resources Teachers Activity Centre (TAC)


School Access Centre The Curriculum Development
Centre (CDC)

Mok Soon Sang. (1996). Pedagogi 1: Kurikulum dan pengurusan bilik darjah.
Subang Jaya: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd.

Modul pengurusan sumber sains sekolah rendah. Kementerian Pelajaran


Malaysia: Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum.

Pusat Akses Sekolah, Bahagian Teknologi Pendidikan, Kementerian Pelajaran


Malaysia.

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Topic X Roles of
9 Curriculum
Leadership in
Planning,
Implementing
and Evaluating
Curriculum
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Describe the roles of curriculum leadership in planning, implementing
and evaluating curriculum;
2. State the methods of planning for curriculum content;
3. Describe the roles of curriculum leadership in planning curriculum
content; and
4. Describe the methods of planning to integrate content and learning
experiences.

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X INTRODUCTION
Headmasters are professional managers who are actively involved in the
supervision of their organisation. As such, they are responsible in developing
and enhancing the quality of the individuals in their organisations. In relation to
this, it is also necessary for head masters as well as senior assistants to review
their roles as curriculum leaders.

9.1 THE ROLES OF CURRICULUM LEADERSHIP


IN CURRICULUM PLANNING
According to A. Nicholls and S. H. Nicholls (1987), the school curriculum
development and implementation involve the following aspects:
Determination of education aims, which include educational goals and
learning objectives;
Development of methods and language used, which include curriculum
design, curriculum content, topics for every subject, learning materials as
well as teaching and learning strategies;
Implementation which includes trial and actual implementation stages;
Evaluation during trial and actual implementation stages; and
Feed back which includes interpretation of the evaluation results and
modifications.

The Curriculum development process includes several steps, as shown in (please


refer to Figure 9.1). These steps are:

Figure 9.1: Process of Curriculum Development


Source: Ee Ah Meng (1995)
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In Malaysia, even though all the processes of curriculum planning is carried out
by the Curriculum Development Centre (CDC); as curriculum leaders, the
headmasters, senior assistants, heads of subject panel and teachers should also
possess information and knowledge about on curriculum planning.

Do you know that in planning and developing a curriculum, there are certain
principles which have to be taken into consideration? Ee Ah Meng (1995), listed
the following principles:
(a) Curriculum has to be student-centred
A student-centred curriculum will considers the needs and interests of the
students. In another words, various activities are planned to involve the
students in the teaching and learning process/activities. The students will
be able to inculcate noble values such as responsibility, cooperativeness,
self-confidence and consideration, through these planned activities like
responsible, cooperative, self-confident and considerate.
(b) Curriculum has to be dynamic:
Curriculum has to change with time. The frequent changes in science and
technology must have significant influence and be reflected in the
development of the curriculum.
(c) Curriculum has to deliver a relevant learning experience:
Learning experiences that are planned for the students have to be relevant
to the needs of the community and the country, either in the academic or
non academic forms. The learning experiences should be capable of
developing balanced and harmonious individuals from the intellectual,
physical, spiritual and emotional aspects.
(d) Curriculum should have a close relationship with daily life
Teaching materials in the curriculum should be related to the students
daily life so that learning is meaningful and interesting.
(e) Economic aspects should be taken into consideration
We need skilled and productive workers to develop the economy of our
contry. As such, the curriculum should also emphasise on technical and
vocational training. In view of this, Malaysia has taken initiatives to
establish the Technical and Vocational Schools, Polytechnics, Community
Colleges and others.
(f) Curriculum should deliver holistic knowledge
Holistic knowledge should be delivered to the students. The knowledge
could be delivered through subjects such as Malay or English Language,
Mathematics, Science, Local Studies, Music and Physical Education.

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(g) Curriculum should emphasise on science and technology


Science and technology is vital for the development of mankind. As such,
the curriculum should consist of subjects like Science, Mathematics,
Computer Science, and ICT.
(h) Curriculum should be able to inculcate creative and innovative thinking
The curriculum should be able to produce creative and innovative students.
These qualities are important to assist in problem-managing and decision-
making in their adult life.
(i) Emphasis on inculcating noble values and positive attitudes
Besides knowledge and skills, curriculum planning should also stress on
noble values and good behaviours. These could be implemented through
subjects such as Islamic Education, Moral Education and Civics.
(j) Curriculum should stress on coherence
Coherence refers to the blending and mixing of various elements of
knowledge, skills, language and values in all the school subjects. Coherence
can be seen from physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual aspects. This
ensures that the students can develop holistically.
(k) Continuity from one level to another
Continuity from a lower level to a higher level of schooling has to be
emphasised. This will provide experiences which are interrelated from one
level to another.
(l) Individual difference is stressed
Teaching materials and experiences have to be suitable with the level and
interest of the students. The differences in achievement among pupils are
inevitable. Hence, enrichment and remedial activities have to be stressed.

9.2 METHOD OF PLANNING A CURRICULUM


CONTENT
Based on the views highlighted by Smith, Stanley and Shores, Ee Ah Meng
produced four basic principles in determining a curriculum content. They are:
(a) The content should be an important part of the field;
(b) The values to be included in the content should be relevant;
(c) The content chosen should be capable of arousing the students interest;
and
(d) The content chosen should contribute towards the redevelopment of social
values.

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However, according to Tyler, curriculum content should:


(a) Consist of experiences which provide students with opportunities to
practise the desired behaviour;
(b) Provide knowledge, skills and activities that bring satisfaction to the pupils;
(c) Provide opportunities for students to learn according to their level of
achievement; and
(d) Provide opportunities for students to acquire knowledge through
experience.

9.3 METHOD OF PLANNING FOR


INTEGRATING CONTENT WITH LEARNING
EXPERIENCES
Learning in school is based on a formal plan, which is different from learning in
the daily life. The function of a school is to organise the students experience
such that learning occurs as desired. In curriculum organisation and sequencing
determination, continuous learning and integration are important aspects. As
such, the implementation of the following four steps is needed:
(a) Presentation of materials has to begin from an easy to difficult level;
(b) Presentation of materials has to depend on the previous learning activity.
Students will only be introduced to more complex materials after they have
acquired the basics;
(c) Presentation of materials starts from general to specific; and
(d) Presentation of materials has to be chronological. In other words, facts and
ideas have to be presented according to a time sequence. Events that
occurred earlier have to be learnt first.

9.4 THE ROLES OF CURRICULUM LEADERSHIP


IN CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION
Curriculum implementation is the fourth stage after planning, development of
content, material and methods and a trial run of the curriculum. The emphasis
here is that the division should not be seen as a sequence. If any problems arise
along the way, the stage that is involved has to be repeated until the problem is
solved.

According to Abu Bakar Nordin (1991), curriculum implementation involves


several stages, among which are discussed in the following subsections.

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9.4.1 Drafting
Curriculum implementation begins when the contents related to a curriculum are
still in the prototype form. In the process of drafting the curriculum, focus is
given to the determination of objectives, learning content, materials and tools
needed, suitable methods and learning climate that have to be developed. When
all these are in place, a trial run will be conducted to detect any possible
problems. In other words, curriculum drafting at the stage of implementation is
about the preparation of several main blueprints as well as the awareness of the
parties who are essential in ensuring the success of the curriculum
implementation.

9.4.2 Preparation and Dissemination of Material


Depending on the needs of a particular curriculum, the major reference materials
could consist of only one or two types, such as text books and syllabus. Apart
from that, some curriculum may suggest the use of several materials for the
students such as text books, work books, additional reading materials and
exercise books. As for the teachers, the materials could be in the form of guide
books, elaboration on syllabus specification, source books, charts and posters. If
the materials are important and need to be used, they have to be made available
and disseminated to all schools.

9.4.3 Training
In the system of schooling, there are several groups that should be trained. They
are the teachers, head masterss and officials at various levels of administration.
Parents and community members should also be involved, at least through
occasional meetings. The form of training is determined by several factors,
among which are:
The lack of the required knowledge, skills, attitudes and techniques among
the teachers and inspectorates. Training will also be based on the specific
fields and aspects that the groups are lacking.
The level of readiness and capability of the groups involved in learning new
knowledge and techniques, and making changes to implement new practices.
Sufficient training officers to conduct training in a certain area and time
period.
The type of model employed in training as training can be conducted in
various forms, such as technical or conceptual. It could also be a simple
presentation session.

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9.4.4 Coordination
At this stage, the curriculum leaders play a role in creating the right atmosphere
for curriculum implementation. The role of the administrator is crucial in
ensuring the success of it's implementation.

9.4.5 Logistics
This stage is closely related to the readiness of the education system to practise
certain recommendations. It is not confined only to material components such as
financial allocation, transportation and provision, but also includes mental and
spiritual aspects such as cooperation, consideration and commitment towards
change.

9.4.6 Quality Control


A curriculum has to undergo a quality control process before implementation
begins. The task of quality control has to be carried out by an independent party
who has the expertise in curriculum evaluation. Quality control is necessary as
all groups involved in developing a programme are expected to be supportive
and clear on their respective roles. Quality control should not only be regarded as
an attempt in improving any weaknesses but also as an effort to ensure that
everyone would benefit from the programme.

9.5 ROLES OF CURRICULUM LEADERS IN


EVALUATING CURRICULUM
Curriculum evaluation is an aspect which is rather confusing. What is actually
evaluated? School curriculum can be evaluated from several aspects such as the
objectives, scope, quality of officers involved, ability of students, the importance
of subjects taught as well as achievement of the objectives. The evaluation is
implemented at various stages by different individuals. In general, the interested
parties might want to know as to what extent is a curriculum effective. For
example, is the time allocated for Mathematics sufficient? And does the Science
syllabus fulfill the objectives required? Teachers will evaluate the students
achievement, and similarly the students may want to evaluate what they have
learnt and how far they have attained the set objectives. As for the parents, they
might want to assess their childrens achievement too.

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9.5.1 Implementation of Curriculum Evaluation


Programme
The guidelines to implement a curriculum evaluation programme are as follows:
An evaluation has to be in line with the curriculum objectives. If the
programme stresses on individual development, then the achievement of
each student has to be emphasised. However, a comparison of the students
achievement should not be carried out.
An evaluation has to be holistic or comprehensive. The effectiveness of a
curriculum depends heavily on the acquisition of academic skills such as
reading, arithmetic and the ability to locate a place in a map. The method to
determine these skills is by using a paper and pencil test. However, if the
evaluation involves a higher level of knowledge, such as analytical thinking,
aesthetic and moral values, the use of the paper and pencil test is insufficient.
A curriculum evaluation should highlight the various levels of performance
or achievement of skills. It should also reflect the strengths and weaknesses of
the people and the processes involved.
The validity of an evaluation is vital. It is important to ensure the proper
usage of an evaluation instrument. For example, a data interpretation test
that uses technical terminologies which students may find difficult to
understand, is in actual fact, testing the understanding of those
terminologies, and not the ability of the pupils to interpret the data.
An evaluation has to be performed continuously. The evidence in progress,
the priority and weaknesses of a curriculum are needed throughout the year.
Therefore, continuous evaluation is an important part of curriculum
development.

9.5.2 Suitable Evaluation Programme for a Curriculum


An evaluation programme which is suitable for a curriculum should be able to
answer the following questions:
What are the objectives of a curriculum? What are the behaviours of the
students that are needed to achieve the objectives of the curriculum?
What are the situations needed to provide opportunities for the students to
display the desired behaviours?
What criteria are used to evaluate students' achievement? For example, how
would we evaluate the reading interest of a student? The criteria to be
considered for an evaluation in reading interest are the number of story
books read, as well as the levels and fields of the content.

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IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING CURRICULUM

What are the factors that determine the objectives of a lesson and how do we
determine these factors?
What are the implications of the findings from a curriculum evaluation? This
information could be used to improve the curriculum.

Upon the completion of a curriculum, a trial run will be carried out in schools.
The findings from the trial run provide feedback to the curriculum planners. If
there are any weaknesses, the curriculum content will be changed to fulfill the
students needs. Hence, curriculum evaluation is essential to ensure that the
students develop holistically. The aspects to be included are the intellectual,
spiritual, physical, emotional, talent, moral, aesthetical and social values.

ACTIVITY 9.1

There are several stages in implementing a curriculum. List and discuss


those stages.

9.6 CHALLENGES OF CURRICULUM


LEADERSHIP IN EVALUATING
CURRICULUM
The feedback towards evaluation from curriculum developers and individuals
involved in the development and renewal of curriculum are mostly varied. Some
are of the opinion that evaluation need not be carried out separately as the
problems faced by curriculum developer are not understood by others. There are
a number of the curriculum developers who are more comfortable in performing
their own evaluations. On the other hand, others prefer it to be performed
separately as the information will be free from any personal sentiment and bias.
For some evaluations, the evaluator is regarded as a member of the team of
curriculum developer. However, there are other programmes that perform the
evaluation separately and the use of the feedback is at the discretion of the
parties concerned.

Even though curriculum evaluation is a new field, there are efforts to make it a
credible education discipline. Several definitions, methodologies, forms of data,
instrument constructions and conceptual frameworks have been proposed. The
differences in opinion is a positive sign, as there is the potential for it to become a
field of study and at the same time serve important functions in education.

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IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING CURRICULUM

The curriculum leaders should possess the information and knowledge on


curriculum planning even though the curriculum is provided by the
Curriculum Development Centre.
The main function of a school is to manage the learning experiences of
students so that what is desired is implemented.
Curriculum evaluation is carried out to determine the effectiveness of the
curriculum.
As curriculum leaders, they will face challenges in implementing curriculum
evaluation.

Curriculum evaluation Dynamic curriculum


Curriculum implementation Learning experience
Integration of content

Abu Bakar Nordin. (1991). Kurikulum: Perspektif dan pelaksanaan. Kuala


Lumpur: Pustaka Antara.

Ee Ah Meng. (1995). Pendidikan sebagai satu proses. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbitan


Fajar Bakti.

Nicholls, A. Nicholls, S. H. (1987). Perkembangan kurikulum: Satu panduan


praktis. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

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Topic X School-Based

10 Curriculum
Development
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Elaborate on the aim of education to be achieved by a school;
2. State the roles of a school as a socialisation agent;
3. Analyse the characteristics of an effective school;
4. Elaborate on the concept of Sustainable Schools; and
5. Elaborate on the concept and impact of Cluster Schools.

X INTRODUCTION
Generally, an education system is said to embrace two major roles. On the one
hand, education generates trained labour force in various fields of knowledge
and skills for driving and promoting the economic growth of a nation. On the
other , the same students who have gone through the formal education system
are expected to become balanced individuals encompassing the spiritual,
intellectual, emotional and physical growth aspects.

ACTIVITY 10.1

Before we continue our discussion on this topic, what is your opinion


on the actual goals of education?

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10.1 WHAT ARE THE AIMS OF EDUCATION


THAT SCHOOLS STRIVE TO ACHIEVE?
According to Ishak Ramly (2005), generally, the social functions of schools can be
divided into five categories. These functions are:
(a) To deliver knowledge and skills
Students acquire their knowledge and skills from formal and informal
educational institutions. Both these systems may operate independently or
are integrated to provide the students with knowledge. Certain knowledge
are acquired through classroom learning, but some are learnt out of the
classroom, such as through co-curricular activities. Certain systems of
education are capable of providing knowledge and employment to their
students. However, there are others which can only provide skills and the
students have to find their own opportunities and economic resources.
(b) To maintain and preserve culture
The social and cultural systems have to be preserved, protected and
modified in order to adapt to current social developments. This could be
done through the transmission and assimilation of culture and knowledge
to the society. Tradition and culture need to be preserved and modified to
suit the changes of time and the needs of the society. The culture and
tradition of a race may become extinct if they are not practised and
protected by its members.
(c) To create social perpetuation and unity
Education focuses on the preservation of unity and promotion of
cooperation among community members. This can be done through the
inculcation of the concept of unity and harmony. Relationship and unity in
a family, race and community or even among nations are often emphasised
during the teaching and learning process in schools. This would enable the
students to learn to live harmoniously in school regardless of race, creed
and economic status. The stability of a social system and the
implementation of an education curriculum will strengthened the unity
among the communities of a country.
(d) To implement the selection task
Education can be regarded as a social mobility agent. Educated individuals
are in a better position to upgrade their economic and social status. In
addition, education could change the value system and future of the
students. Individuals who are better qualified, are also respected in their
society. This could be seen in the praise and reward which comes with
holding a high position in the society. Since education can determine social
status, students should be free to undertake their choice of stream,
occupation and field of interest.

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(e) To bring social change


Education can also bring changes to the society. For example, an
agricultural society could be transformed into an industrial society; or a
poor society can be transformed to a society which is rich, technologically
advanced and well-informed. These situations can happen as societies tend
to acknowledge individuals who explore and master new knowledge and
skills with monetary and other incentives. The modern society places more
emphasis on materialism and knowledge as compared to a society in the
past, which depended a lot on tradition and power. The new values and
attitudes are transferred to the younger generation to help them face
challenges and adapt to the constant changes in their surroundings.

10.2 SCHOOL AS SOCIALISATION AGENT


According to Abu Bakar Nordin (1991), curriculum contains only a small portion
of what is actually learnt by the students. Ironically, the biggest portion which is
achieved or actually acquired from the curriculum is different from what was
hoped for. In short, the curriculum does not achieve the objectives expected.

Therefore, we can conclude that the contents planned in a curriculum is limited


and sometimes becomes irrelevant to the students. In other words, the planned
curriculum is not only insufficient but also incapable of functioning as a
socialisation mechanism. The question is, how could this happen? Several factors
have been put forward to explain this situation. Among them are:
(a) The students interpretation of their teachers teaching
The explanations provided by the teachers on certain topics are frequently
misunderstood by their students. Sometimes, they tend to make their own
interpretation on the lesson, which can be different from the knowledge
their teacher intended to impart to them.
(b) The teachers action or demonstration is beyond the planned curriculum
Teachers are imparting positive and negative values to their students,
whether directly or indirectly, in or out of the classroom. For example, a
teacher might advise or penalise their pupils when they do not complete
their homework. The action taken by the teacher serves as lessons to the
students concerned and also the rest of the classroom. Many of the values
and norms of a society are presented to the students through the action of
the teachers which is not a part of the planned curriculum.
(c) The school serves as a place for pupils to develop and acquire living skills
A classroom or school compound can be regarded as a place that enables
the pupils to interact and acquire different living skills in a different social
context. Even though schools focus on learning academic subjects, the

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development of living skills will also take place within the school
compound. Students are experimental when trying various living skills to
enable them to live together harmoniously as a member of society.
(d) The school serves as a place for students to seek their role models and learn
to obey rules
Students usually consider their teachers as their role models. They think
highly of teachers especially when they are in primary school, although this
is not so obvious in secondary school. The behaviours of the teachers, such
as their habits, the way they talk and dress will be imitated by their
students. As such, it is very important to select the right candidates for a
teaching position. Besides that, the school acts as a formal institution for
students to learn to obey rules.

10.3 EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS


As an educator, we tend to question the characteristics and the internal processes
of a school which is regarded as effective by parents and society. Researchers
such as Edmonds are no longer interested in discussing the characteristics of an
effective or an ineffective school but are now thinking of creating an effective
school. In relation to that, we will discuss the findings on the characteristics of an
effective school as well as details of the steps taken in a school improvement
programme to benefit practitioners in education institutions in Malaysia.

Ghazali Othman (2001), referred to the views of Mortimore (who has gone
through hundreds of studies and findings regarding school effectiveness all over
the world). Accordingly the summary of the findings should be disseminated so
that they can be utilised in the drafting of education policies and practices in
schools in Malaysia. The research findings in effective schools have a direct
implication in school improvement.

The eleven characteristics of an effective school as summarised by Mortimore are:


(a) Professional leadership
This characteristic emphasises on school leadership, which is assertive and
possessing definite objectives. Schools should have proactive
administrators who stress on consensus and common aims in the
development of the schools. The school should practise negotiation, shared
responsibility, and involve the teachers in decisions making. It should also
focus on the head of departments and panel leadership. This characteristic
should emphasise on the professionalism and knowledgeability of the head
master, who is capable of offering curriculum leadership, planning
curriculum strategies and monitoring the students progress. In addition,
the head master should also be aware of the happenings in the classrooms

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and is capable of assisting in improving the quality and practice of teaching


and learning.
(b) Shared vision and goal
This characteristic implies that the school community should share
common values and goals. In addition, it should function as a stable
organisation. This characteristic also refers to a school administration which
is consistent in its management, based on a standardised disciplinary
procedure determined by the schools. This vital characteristic implies that
there is a sense of collegiality and cooperation among the school
community as well as the involvement of the teachers in decision making.
(c) Learning environment
This characteristic means that the school climate is determined by a vision,
value and goal. In actual fact, a good school enviroment is influenced by the
learning atmosphere and the state of a well-organised school. The working
environment should be conducive, peaceful and harmonious. Besides that,
it should also be task-oriented. This characteristic reflects the existence of
self-discipline among the pupils, which is one of the prerequisites of
effective learning.
(d) Focus on teaching and learning process
This characteristic focuses on the main goal of a school, that is teaching and
learning, as the effectiveness of a school depends on how well the process
of teaching and learning occurs in the classroom. Research shows that there
is a relationship between the focus on teaching and learning in school, and
the effectiveness of the teachers. The research also emphasises that schools
should focus on both the quantity and quality of teaching and learning. A
summary of Mortimore, which was based on various studies, showed that
schools should maximise learning time, increase the use of learning time, as
well as distribute evenly the time for priority subjects. Asubstantial amount
of the teachers time is given to their students learning and naturally, they
are very concerned about their students learning. The school emphasises
on the punctuality of learning time and makes an effort to reduce any
interference from the activities outside of the classroom. The school also
places importance in academic aspects, whereby the teachers are expected
to have extensive knowledge in the curriculum. Besides that, it also focuses
on the mastery of basic skills.
(e) Goal-oriented teaching
Mortimore found that, in addition to quality teachers, quality teaching is
the gist of an effective school. The characteristics of a goal-oriented teaching
are efficient organisation, clear goals, structured teaching and flexible
practice.

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(f) High expectations to succeed


This characteristic means that the school places high expectations on their
students to succeed in all fields. Mortimores study shows that there is a
close relationship between high expectations to succeed and the
effectiveness of students. Teachers are actively assisting the students and
also are confident of their achievements. Teachers also always express their
expectations and show their confidence in the studentss. Words of praise
are given consistently to encourage them to strive for success.
(g) Positive reinforcement
Mortimore finds that positive reinforcement in the form of presents and
incentives are important factors in motivating the students. The
administration of discipline as a form of positive reinforcement, should be
clean and fair. Good discipline comes from an organised school climate
based on a sense of ownership and involvement. Effective discipline would
ensure a peaceful atmosphere in school. In addition, teachers should
immediately receive feedback on each action that they have taken. As for
the students, rewards should be given immediately after every good deed,
likewise, punishment should be meted out as soon as they have done
something wrong.
(h) Monitoring of progress
Mortimore also stated that, an effective school always monitors the
progress and achievement of students systematically. This would enable
teachers to determine how far the goals of the school are achieved. A school
has to focus on students, parents and goals of schooling. It should always
strive to upgrade the knowledge and skills of teachers in the latest
evaluation approaches and teaching methods. In addition, school should
also remind the students to concentrate on their studies. Similarly, teachers
should be reminded to give their undivided attention to their students
education.
(i) Rights and responsibilites of pupils
Mortimores findings is of the view that an effective school emphasises on
the efforts to raise the self-worth of the students. Students should take an
active role in various school activities. In relation to that, they should also
be given responsibilities which suit their abilities.
(j) Home and school relationship
Mortimore emphasises the importance of a relationship between the home
and school, which enhances the effectiveness of a school. Research findings
show the importance of involving parents in helping children do their
homework. The home and school relationship is strengthened through
parents visit to the school to discuss their childrens progress with the
teachers. This relationship is further reinforced by the head masters
flexibility in the policies.

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(k) Learning organisation


Mortimores research also shows that an effective school is also a learning
organisation which encourages teachers and staff to continuously upgrade
their professional knowledge. The school management should carry out
staff development programmes to assist their teachers in upgrading the
quality of their classroom teaching.

Most of the eleven characteristics of an effective school as proposed by


Mortimore, are suitable and relevant to the structure and organisation of
government schools in Malaysia. However, according to Ghazali Othman
(2001), with reference to the book entitled ''The International Handbook of
School Effectiveness Research'' written by Teddlie and Reynolds (2000),
there are also other important factors to be considered when interpreting
school effectiveness. One of them is the contextual factor which should also
be given due attention in order for our interpretation of school effectiveness
to be carried out holistically and fairly.

Ten out of the eleven characteristics of an effective school as proposed by


Mortimore are school-based factors which focus more on the process rather
than the context. The only characteristic which is not school-based, concerns
the relationship between the school and the home. In short, the research in
school effectiveness shows that more variance in effectiveness could be
explained by using school-based factors. Hence, for the purpose of school
improvement, we should concentrate more on the internal factors rather
than contextual factors.

However, Ramaiah (1995) was of the opinion that in the Malaysian context,
several criteria for measurement of school effectiveness should be applied
carefully. This is because, there are factors such as private tuition and urban
or rural context which greatly influence a schools effectiveness, especially
if the achievement in public examinations is taken as the absolute
measurement.

ACTIVITY 10.2

Teachers are role models to their studentss. What is your opinion of this
statement? Are teachers aware that they are the role models to their
students? Discuss.

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10.4 SUSTAINABLE SCHOOL


Environment education is a process regarding the environment, through
environment and for environment. The process is to understand the interaction
of human beings with the environment and how human beings manage the
environment in a responsible manner to ensure peacefulness. Hence, the Ministry
of Education has taken proactive steps to emphasise environment education in
school. The infusion of noble values pertaining to the environment is
implemented not only in classroom teaching but also during co-curricular
activities.

10.4.1 Background of a Sustainable School


The Sustainable School Environment Award is a programme which was
proposed during the ''National Symposium in Environment Education for School
Principals'' held in Malacca from 27-30 August 2001. The symposium was
organised by the Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology
and Environment (MOSTE), in collaboration with the Technical Teachers College,
Ministry of Education. The Department and the Ministry proposed a draft on
Guidelines towards the Development of a Sustainable School. The proposed
draft was improved in several workshops after taking into consideration the
views of various parties such as government agencies, private sector and non-
governmental organisations.

The proposed draft is to assist the schools in strengthening the implementation of


the existing environment education. With the implementation of this
programme, the elements of environment education can be directly infused
among the teachers and students and indirectly, among the community
members. This can be done by integrating knowledge, skills and noble values on
the environment, in the curriculum and co-curriculum activities.

The aim of the Sustainable School Environment Award is to develop a school


environment which emphasises on maintenance and conservation of the
environment from the aspects of management, curriculum, co-curriculum and
greening of the Earth. The involvement of the school community in the Award
provides the opportunity to practise, appreciate and familiarise with
environment-friendly characteristics in the school, home, local community,
society and finally at the national level.

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10.4.2 Definition of Sustainable School Environment


Award
The Sustainable School Environment Award customised environment education
through continuously infusing noble values in the environment into the aspects of
management, curriculum, co-curriculum and greening of the Earth. This is in order
to establish practices which are in line with the concept of sustainable development.

The definition of Environment Education is?

10.4.3 Objectives of the Sustainable School


Environment Award
The Sustainable School Environmental Award is to achieve the following
objectives:
To inculcate noble values pertaining to the environment among the school
community;
To raise the level of awareness among the school community regarding the
importance of environment maintenance and conservation;
To encourage the school community in the effective implementation of
environment-friendly activities;
To increase the cooperation between the school and society in environment
education; and
To create a conducive atmosphere for the school community to practise a
sustainable lifestyle.

10.4.4 Components of the Sustainable School


Environment Award
The Sustainable School Environmental Award consists of four components,
which are:
(a) Management;
The headmaster plays an important role in the development and management
of a Sustainable School. This involves planning, development of strategies,
implementation of action plans, monitoring, evaluation and reviewing. The
cooperation between the various parties such as Parent Teacher Association
(PTA), alumni, local communities, government agencies and non-
governmental organisations, is needed for the success of a Sustainable School.
These activities are to be implemented in every corner of the school such as the

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office, staff room, science laboratory, workshop, canteen, toilet, rubbish


dumpsite, and any vacant space. The practice of the 5Rs (Rethink, Repair,
Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle) is given priority in this context.
(b) Curriculum;
The Primary School Integrated Curriculum (KBSR) and Secondary School
Integrated Curriculum (KBSM) emphasise on the infusion of environment
education across the curriculum. Elements and noble values in the
environment are infused in all the school subjects through various methods of
teaching and learning.
(c) Co-curriculum; and
The school co-curriculum consists of three components, which are:
(i) Uniform units;
(ii) Clubs/societies; and
(iii) Sports/games.

The commitment and creativity of the school community in the co-


curricular activities are needed to enhance the practice of a sustainable
lifestyle.
(d) Greening.
Greening emphasises on the initiatives to upgrade the quality of the
environment and becomes a complement to the school beautification
programme. Greening is not limited to tree planting activities, but also
includes thriftiness in electricity and water usage, rubbish management, as
well as wise use of resources and recycling.

10.5 CLUSTER SCHOOLS


The idea to form cluster schools is found in Chapter 9 of the Education Development
Master Plan (EDMP), which was launched in 16 January 2006. The development of
Cluster Schools is based on the second approach in the Education Development
Master Plan which is to fully develop the potential of schools in a cluster of
excellence. Its mechanism is stated in the Sixth Strategic Thrust, To Accelerate
Excellence in Educational Institutes. A review of the literature on the subject shows
that the practice of grouping schools into a cluster that has been implemented in
foreign countries, has a significant effect in upgrading the quality of education. The
grouping is based on locality or excellence.

Cluster school is a brand name given to schools that have been identified to have
achieved excellence in the aspects of school management and students
performance. The establishment of cluster schools is aimed to accelerate the
development of excellentschools in the education system of Malaysia. In

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addition, it is to develop schools which can be modelled by other schools in the


same cluster or outside the cluster.

The establishment of a cluster school is aimed at accelerating excellence in


schools in the education system of Malaysia.

10.5.1 Implementation
The implementation of cluster schools is based on a decentralisation process
which involves empowerment of schools through guided autonomy. The views
of stakeholders such as the PTA, alumni, school leaders and teachers are taken
into consideration in the implementation of cluster schools. They were directly
involved in the Workshop in Cluster School Autonomy, Ministry of Education
Malaysia which was held from 19-20 March 2007. The Panel of Advisers for
Cluster Schools will assist by contributing their expertise to ensure success in the
implementation of these schools.

10.5.2 The Criteria in the Selection of Cluster Schools


The selection of cluster schools will be based on the following clusters:
Primary schools which consist of National Schools, National Type Chinese
Schools, National Type Tamil Schools and The Aboriginal Schools;
Secondary Schools which consist of Boarding Schools, Technical Schools,
Religious Secondary National Schools, Secondary Day Schools, Premier
Schools, Centennial Schools, Schools situated in Putrajaya and Cyberjaya, and
Special Model Schools;
Primary Special Education Schools, Secondary Special Education Schools,
and Secondary Special Education Vocational Schools;
International Schools and Private Schools, and
Post Secondary Institution such as Matriculation Colleges and Teacher
Education Institute (PIPP, 2006, p. 119 and 121).

10.5.3 Impact of Cluster Schools


Cluster schools is expected to have a positive impact to our national education
from the aspects of:
Career programme.
Holistic excellent pupils in the system: 5.8% from 5.2 million pupils.
Graduates from cluster schools will be accepted into renowned foreign
universities.
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Corporate bodies and government agencies are confident in sponsoring the


education of graduates from the cluster schools.
Provide a strong basis in producing excellent leaders as change agents.
A standardised model to schools in and out of the country.
Quality leaders (3.1% from 9663 schools) and excellent teachers (6.9% from
350,000 teachers).
To accelerate excellence of educational institutes in Malaysia.
Excellence in co-curricular programmes.

Schools serve certain social functions to the society.


Schools are agent of socialisation and development for the students
personality.
Teachers are role models to students.
We have to be innovative and creative to produce effective schools.

Agent of socialisation Effective school


Cluster school Sustainable school

Abu Bakar Nordin. (1991). Kurikulum: Perspektif dan pelaksanaan. Kuala


Lumpur: Pustaka Antara.

Asas Pembentukan Sekolah Lestari, Jabatan Alam Sekitar, Kementerian Sumber


Asli dan Alam Sekitar, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia dan Lestari UKM.

Ishak Ramly. (2005). Inilah kurikulum sekolah. PTS Professional Publishing Sdn.
Bhd.

Ghazali Othman. Sekolah berkesan dan program pembaikan sekolah di


Malaysia. Utusan Malaysia: Arkib Digital.

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