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AEROSPACE

www.aerosociety.com
October 2017
Volume 44 Number 10

BLADE RUNNER
EUROPE GETS SET TO FLY ITS MOST
ADVANCED AERODYNAMIC TESTBED October 2017

BUSINESS AVIATION
IN AFRICA
HYBRID-ELECTRIC
Royal Aeronautical Society

AIRCRAFT
CERTIFICATION
F-35B ON FINAL
APPROACH TO QEC
Volume 44 Number 10
October 2017 BLADE Runner Switching on electric
Europes most flight
advanced
14 aerodynamic
demonstrator gets 22
Preparing the way
for the development
set to make its first of large commercial

Zunum
all-electric powered

Airbus
flight.

Contents
aircraft.

Correspondence on all aerospace matters is welcome at: The Editor, AEROSPACE, No.4 Hamilton Place, London W1J 7BQ, UK publications@aerosociety.com

Comment Regulars
4 Radome 12 Transmission
The latest aviation and Your letters, emails, tweets
aeronautical intelligence, and feedback.
analysis and comment.
58 The Last Word
Aftermarket and supply chain clash 10 Antenna
Howard Wheeldon looks
Keith Hayward on Airbus
at 50.
at the different factors
Earlier this year saw OEMs Airbus and Boeing launch new initiatives to grab contributing to civil aircraft
a bigger share of the projected $3.2tr services and and support business. safety.
At Le Bourget, Airbus unveiled a set of new partnerships to harness and
exploit Big Data and the Internet of Things. In early July, Boeings new
Global Services division was launched and the airframer also announced
Features
an intention to in-source its avionics a shot across the bows to existing

TADTE
suppliers. Meanwhile, the acquisition of Rockwell Collins by UTC in what

BAE Systems
would be the worlds biggest ($23bn) aerospace deal has put the OEMs on 18
collision course with their biggest suppliers. On paper, this marriage should
be an easy match with little if any overlap between Rockwells avionics, IFE
and seats business and UTCs engines and propellers creating a one-stop
super-Tier One supplier. Yet the response from the airframers to news of the
arrival of this super-supplier has been frosty. Airbus has cautioned UTC to
30
keep its focus on meeting P&W GTF delivery and reliability targets a sore
Taiwan aims for space at
point for those airlines that have ordered the geared turbofan engine option First in the class latest show
for their A320neos. Boeing has been even blunter, saying in a statement: We Getting the Lockheed Martin A report from the TADTE
F-35B ready for the Royal aerospace and defence
are skeptical that it would be in the best interest of or add value to our Navys new Queen Elizabeth- technology show in Taipei.
customers and industry, hinting that it could ask regulators to block the deal class aircraft carriers.
or renegotiate existing contracts if it concluded the merger is not in its best
interests. Ironically, it is the continued OEM pressure on Tier One and below
suppliers to cut costs, drive efficiencies and raise production rates that is
helping to drive this mega-merger of aerospace suppliers. Yet a combined
Pilatus Aircraft

giant with this much influence over the supply chain (and aftermarket a top
growth area identified by airframers) is now raising alarms that the OEMs have
26
spawned a monster that they cant control. What happens when a large force
meets an immovable object? We may be about to find out.
36
Tim Robinson, Editor-in-Chief
Swedish air control
AEROSPACE tours the
NEWS IN BRIEF
tim.robinson@aerosociety.com Out of Africa
The African Business
production facility of
Swedish aircraft cabin
Editor-in-Chief AEROSPACE is published by the Royal 2017 AEROSPACE subscription Aviation Association (AfBAA) humidity system specialists
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+44 (0)20 7670 4353 Chief Executive Please send your order to:
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41 Afterburner
Simon C Luxmoore Chris Male, RAeS, No4 Hamilton Place,
Deputy Editor Advertising London W1J 7BQ, UK.
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43 M
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Reproduction of material used in this
Production Editor publication is not permitted without the offices. 44 Book Reviews
Wayne J Davis
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47 Library Additions Additional features and content
Printed by Buxton Press Limited, to IMS of New York, PO Box 1518, are available to view online on
wayne.davis@aerosociety.com Champlain NY 12919-1518, USA.
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Book Review Editor SK17 6AE, UK aerospace-insight
Brian Riddle 50 Corporate Partners
ISSN 2052-451X Including: UK F-35B on final approach
Editorial Office Distributed by Royal Mail 52 Diary to QEC, Preparing for electric flight, Wanted:
Royal Aeronautical Society
No.4 Hamilton Place 56 RAeS Elections digital natives, In the September issue of
AEROSPACE, Greener biofuels?, Workers at
London W1J 7BQ, UK
the dawn of the new aerospace,
+44 (0)20 7670 4300
publications@aerosociety.com BLADE runner wake-up, time to fly,
www.aerosociety.com Flying for the Dark Side.
Front cover: CleanSky2 BLADE aircraft demonstrator. (Airbus)

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Radome
INTELLIGENCE / ANALYSIS / COMMENT

Safety first
The designers plan to incorporate a number
of safety features into the hoverbike. In the
event of main engine failure (or fuel
exhaustion), the PowerGuard system, will
use battery electrical power to drive the
main lift fans and safely land. For the US mar-
Flight control ket, the altitude will be electronically limited
to 3.7m the maximum height for which
Ridden like a motorcycle, the
certification is not required. It will also
Raptor would also
incorporate an emergency ballistic para-
include intelligent algorithms,
chute recovery system
an automatic stabilisation
system, as well as a 3D
moving map, terrain and
weather awareness system,
along with fuel and battery
monitoring parameters.

Structure
The Raptor is
constructed from
hybrid carbon
composite, resistant
to an 8G impact force.
Small wheeled
landing gear, mean-
while can absorbed
shocks of up to 10G.
NEWind Energy

4 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


Specifications
Passenger capacity One
Length 4.9m
Engines 330hp
Weight 300kg
Top speed 110km/h
Max hover altitude 900m
Range 150km

Power shift
The Raptor will use a hybrid power system
incorporating a 1,300cc Suzuki Hayabusa
sports bike engine, along with a 30kw
generator. While the petrol engine will drive
the main ducted fans for hovering, the
manoeuvring fans are electric. Both, along
with stabilisation and steering, are
controlled by a central control unit.

GENERAL AVIATION

Hoverbike from Poland


Revealed as a full-scale mock-up at Polands MPSO defence exhibition in September was this
Raptor VTOL hover bike from Wojnicz-based NEWind Energy. Inspired by the speeder bikes;
from Star Wars, the designers envisage a number of applications for this one-person ducted
fan aerial bike, including military, urban EMS and aero-trekking or extreme sports. Powered
by hybrid 1,300cc Suzuki engine/electric batteries NEWind Energy says that it is already
thinking about a larger two/three person hoverbike. With an estimated price tag of $65,000,
the Raptor is set to be on display at the Dubai Air Show next month.

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Radome
AEROSPACE SPACEFLIGHT
Aviation responds after hurricanes Power on for Orion
Tropical hurricanes Harvey and Irma have caused disruption and devastation in Texas
and Florida, US, and the Caribbean. Air travel was disrupted by Hurricane Harvey causing On 18 August, NASA beyond Earth orbit. Its first
flooding in Texas, with Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport shut down in late announced the milestone unmanned flight, EM-1, is
August. A follow-on storm, Hurricane Irma, caused chaos in the Caribbean and south that it has powered up its scheduled for 2019 and
Florida with airports closed and air travel shut down. The famous planespotter airport on Orion spacecraft at will see the Orion
N
the island of St Maarten, Princess Juliana Airport suffered extensive damage. Rescue and Kennedy Space capsule spend

AS
A
relief efforts included US Center for the three weeks
Coast Guard and Air National very first time. in space on a
Guard Helicopters rescued Orion is flight around
1,000s in Texas. Meanwhile, a crewed the Moon after
relief efforts for the aftermath spacecraft being being launched
of Irma in the Caribbean have developed for NASA by NASAs new SLS
seen UK C-17s, A400Ms by Lockheed Martin (with (Space Launch System)
and Pumas, as well as Airbus Defence & Space rocket. The first crewed
RCAF C-17s and an Airbus providing the rear Service flight of Orion EM-2, is
Foundation A350XWB test Module) for deep space currently scheduled for
aircraft, deliver urgent aid. exploration missions August 2021.

AIR TRANSPORT
MoD

GENERAL AVIATION German airline Air Berlin has Ailing Air


declared insolvency after its
New piston engine main shareholder, Etihad, said Berlin on
speed record it would cease financial support
for the carrier. Other partners in
life support
On 2 September in Idaho, sponsored by winglet the airline, including Lufthansa
warbird pilot Steve Av manufacturers, and the German Government,
ia t
Hinton Jr set a Aviation Partners, have said they will continue
io
nP

new Class C-1e also saw the supporting Air Berlin. The airline
art ne ra s

world speed company reported a loss of $919m in


record for piston- contribute CFD 2016. With the airline close
powered aircraft modelling to to collapse, 200 of its pilots
of 531mph, with modify the wing staged a sick-out, calling in
his highly modified P-51 aerofoils and delay Mach sick on 12 September in protest
Voodoo. The attempt, shockwave rise. about possible new terms.

NEWS IN BRIEF
customer, with ESA company Rockwell Collins working for the airline are
Boeing has broken On 5 September a USAF agreeing to launch four in a deal worth $30bn. The set to conduct three more
ground on its new 40m test pilot Lt Col Eric Galileo satellites with the combined company is to be one-day strikes.
Sheffield factory, its first Schultz was killed in the launcher. They will be called Collins Aerospace
manufacturing facility in crash of an unknown launched by the Ariane 62 Systems. The deal is North Korea has
Europe. The plant, set classified aircraft on the variant in 2020 and 2021. expected to be finalised conducted two more
to open at the end of Nevada Test and Training in Q3 of 2018, subject to provocative missile tests,
2018, will supply actuator Range, northwest of Nellis Switzerlands Pilatus Aircraft shareholder approval. firing them over Japan.
components for 737s and AFB. No other details have is to end production of the On 29 August it launched
777s. been revealed, apart from Porter PC-6 STOL utility Thomas Cook Airlines what was thought to
the USAF Chief of Staff aircraft in early 2019. pilots have carried out the be a Hwasong-12
On 7 September Airbus stating that it was not an The aircraft has been in first British pilots strike intermediate-range missile
delivered the first Pratt F-35. production since 1959 with since 1974 with a one-day over Northern Japan which
& Whitney PW1100G- over 500 produced. strike on 7 September splashed down in the
powered A321neo to ArianeGroups new in a dispute over pay. Pacific Ocean. Then on
launch customer All heavylift Ariane 6 rocket United Technologies (UTC) As AEROSPACE goes 15 September, it tested
Nippon Airlines. has signed up its first is to acquire aerospace to press, BALPA pilots a longer-range ICBM

6 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


DEFENCE AIR TRANSPORT
First news from DSEI SkyWest opts for E-175s
US regional airline group West Airlines on behalf of
SkyWest Airlines has Delta Air Lines, while the
signed a deal to remaining ten will
acquire 25 be operated for
Embraer E-175 Alaska Airlines.
E jets. The The 175SC will

E m bra e
first 15 will be be able to be
in an 70-seat upgraded to

r
configuration the traditional
Saab exhibited a full-scale mock-up of its Gripen Aggressor trainer featuring called 175SC, 76-seat layout
some memorable tail art. The aircraft, an unarmed new-build C variant is with the rest to at a later date. The
aimed at the growing Red Air training market. be in a 76-seat layout. deal, worth $1.1bn at list
DPM Drone Division has revealed that an eHang autonomous flying taxi is to Fifteen of the new aircraft prices, will see the E Jets
be tested for the first time in the UK in early 2018. will be operated by Sky delivered in 2018.

Saab
AEROSPACE SPACEFLIGHT
CSeries price dumping
row escalates NASA
WB-57s chase
It has emerged that UK
Prime Minister Theresa
had asked Trump to
encourage Boeing to drop solar eclipse
May has personally lobbied its complaint. For its part,
President Donald Trump Boeing responded to the
to help protect 4,500 UK news by stating: Boeing
Bombardier jobs in Belfast, had to take action, as
after Boeing pressed for subsidised competition
legal action against the has hurt us now and will
Canadian manufacturer continue to hurt us for
During the solar eclipse of 21 August, NASA used two of its high-altitude
due to alleged CSeries years to come, and we
WB-57F research aircraft to chase the phenomena across the US and
airliner price-dumping. could not stand by given gather scientific data. The two much-modified Martin B-57s observed the
Newspaper, The Times, this clear case of illegal eclipse using powerful nose-mounted telescopes, above much of the Earth's
reported that the PM dumping. atmosphere.

which flew 3,700km over the first flight of its new is currently in Tierra del 747s out by the end of Peggy Whitson) and
Hokkado, to land in the single-engine Elixir light Fuego, Argentina hoping to the year. one Russian cosmonaut
northern Pacific. aircraft. The 45-minute take the glider to the edge from the ISS, returned to
maiden flight took off of space at a height of Indonesia is set to acquire Earth on 2 September
Russia has launched the from La Rochelle airport 90,000ft. 11 Sukhoi Su-35 multirole aboard a Soyuz capsule
first Blagovest Internet on 31 August and was fighters as part of a $1.1bn landing in Kazakhstan. A
and TV communications followed by a second flight Taiwanese carrier Eva Air complex offset trade replacement ISS crew of
satellite into orbit from to the ULM Blois airshow has retired its last Boeing agreement with Russia. two NASA astronauts and
Baikonur spaceport, at Arodrome de Blois-le 747-400 on a passenger Half of the contracts value one Russian cosmonaut
Kazakhstan. It was Breuil. flight on 21 August from is to be financed through a lifted off using a Soyuz on
launched on 16 August Hong Kong to Taipei. reciprocal trade agreement, 12 September.
by a three-stage Proton Airbuss Perlan II In service with Eva since with a further 35% to be
booster carrying a Breeze stratospheric glider has 1992, the airline is the paid via offsets. On 18 August, Dornier
M upper stage rocket. set a new altitude record latest carrier to retire the . Seawings rolled out the
for soaring of 52,172ft. passenger 747 model, with Two NASA astronauts first next-gen Seastar
French manufacturer Elixir As AEROSPACE goes to United Airlines and Delta (including new US time- amphibian at its facility in
Aircraft has announced press, the Perlan II team Air Lines to phase their in-space record holder Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.

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Radome
AIR TRANSPORT DEFENCE
easyJet and Norwegian Valor gets ready to spread its wings
forge network alliance
UK low-cost airline easyJet connections and flights
has announced the launch through easyJet's booking
of 'Worldwide by system. Seats are
easyJet' a global already available
ea
s yJ
et

self-connecting for North and


airline South America,
partnership. The with the airline
digital codeshare saying it is already
style partnership, with in talks to add other Bell Helicopter has announced that its next-generation V-280
launch airlines Norwegian airlines, including Middle tiltrotor prototype is now 100% complete and ready for its first
Bell Helicopter

Airlines and Canada's East and Asia-Pacific flight this autumn. One of two contenders for the US Army's
WestJet, along with Gatwick carriers to 'Worldwide by Joint Multirole Technology Demonstration (JMR-TD), it is now
Airport, opens up long-haul easyJet'. set to undergo ground runs at Bell's facility in Amarillo, Texas.

SPACEFLIGHT AEROSPACE

SES reveals next-gen satellite MRJ flight test hits hitch


network Flight testing of state, and saw the second
Mitsubishi's MRJ regional prototype FTA-2 divert
Satellite operator SES is to launch what
it describes as the 'first multi-terabit airliner has restarted to Portland International
constellation' with seven Boeing high- after one of the Airport. The MRJ
capacity broadband O3b mPower four prototypes flight test flight,
satellites. The satellite suffered based at
constellation with

M i t s u b i s h i Airc
an in-flight Moses Lake
30,000 fully shapeable
uncommanded Washington,
and steerable beams will be
placed in medium Earth orbit (MEO) some shutdown of returned to

ra
ft
C
5,000miles above the equator. First launch is its left Pratt & o rp
flight on 6
scheduled for 2021. Whitney PW1200G September. The
engine. The incident, on delayed MRJ is expected
21 August, occurred west to wrap-up flight test by
Boeing

of Portland, Washington the end of 2018.

NEWS IN BRIEF
now back in the air after order for 35 -1000s to 45
Airbus is planning to begin two previously unreported The Air Charter Engineers at BAE Systems -900s.
flight testing its Vahana crashes of the drone lead Association, BACA, has have developed a cockpit
VTOL air-taxi in November, to a temporary grounding. called for an urgent windshield filter that can A Royal Saudi Air Force
in Pendleton, Oregon. review into the regulations block lasers beams and Eurofighter Typhoon
SpaceXs Elon Musk surrounding private flight protect pilots and flight crashed in southern Yemen
Budget carrier Ryanair has has teased the first cost-sharing apps and crew from laser attacks. on 13 September with the
begun cancelling between image of the companys websites. While BACA says pilot being killed. Initial
40-50 flights a day in a new spacesuit for its it welcomes innovation and, Cathay Pacific and reports suggested it was
bid to improve punctuality, human-rated Dragon 2 while genuine cost-sharing United Airlines have not due to enemy action.
(down to 80%) which spacecraft which will take is legal, the organisation both converted Airbus .
it says is to due a large NASA astronauts to the is concerned that, A350-1000 orders to the Orbital ATK launched a
backup of staff leave. ISS. Previewing the new without proper regulation, smaller A350-900. Cathay Minotaur IV rocket from
design on Instagram, he commercial flights will be switched six to the -900, Cape Canaveral on 26
The UK MoD has revealed said Worth noting that flown without an AOC, thus while deferring a further August. The rocket was
that the British Army's this actually works (not a compromising flight legality five. Meanwhile, United carrying an ORS-5 satellite
Watchkeeper UAV fleet is mockup). and safety. has swapped an existing for the US Air Force.

8 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


AIR TRANSPORT AEROSPACE
After 97 years KLM bids Fokker Rolls-Royce certification
fond farewell on the double
On 18 August, Rolls- Meanwhile, on 31 August,
Royce received the company also
EASA full flight was awarded
certification EASA
for its Trent certification

R o ll s - R o y
Russian Helicopters Kamov Ka-226T light utility helicopter 1000 TEN for its
is undergoing testing in Iran, with a focus on evaluating the engine for 97,000lb

ce
Dutch flag carrier
coaxial KLM
helicopter at Royal Dutch
very high Airlines ispreparing
temperatures up to 50C.to bid farewell to its all variants of thrust Trent
97-year association with Fokker Aircraft, with the last Fokker 70 flights set the Boeing 787. XWB-97 which
to take place this month. The final flight of a KLM Cityhopper Fokker 70 is First engines have will power the latest
scheduled for 28 October, with a London to Amsterdam service. The airlines been delivered to Boeing, Airbus A350-1000, which
first Fokker IIs were the first passenger aircraft operated by KLM, entering ready for entry into service is set to enter service this

KLM
service in 1920. this year. year with Qatar Airways.

DEFENCE Honeywell launches UAV inspections


DARPA imagines Honeywell has launched its first commerical UAV inspection
service. Honeywell's InView will use the Intel Falcon 8+ UAV
disposable missile rails and is aimed at the utility, energy, infrastructure, and oil and gas
industries.
US defence research manufacturing of up to
agency DARPA has
unveiled a technology
500 rails a month. These
rails would be armed with
SPACEFLIGHT
challenge to
industry to
either one or
two AIM-120s
INFOGRAPHIC: Cassini ends epic
DA

20year voyage with Saturn plunge


R PA

develop a low- and used as


cost, mass disposable,
produced cheap mini-
''flying missile UCAVs to
rail' able to fly for 20mins
extend the weapon range at 690mph to keep US
of tactical fighter aircraft. fighters out of enemy
The concept asks for rapid weapon kill zones.

ON THE
MOVE Boeing has elected
Caroline Kennedy as a
Nok Air CEO Patee new Director on the Audit
Sarasin has resigned. He and Finance committees.
is replaced by NokScoot's
chief executive Piya UK Chief of the Defence
Yodmani. Staff, Air Chief Marshal
Sir Stuart Peach RAF has
United Aircraft President been elected Chairman
Yuri Slyusar will take over of NATOs Military
as President of Irkut. Committee, taking over in
June 2018.
Qatar Airways Group CE
Akbar Al Baker is to be the Qantas Group has moved
next Chairman of IATAs Qantas International CE
Board of Governors from Gareth Evans to head the
June 2018. Jetstar Group.
NASA

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antenna: Global Outlook and
Analysis with
HOWARD WHEELDON

Aviation safety: no time


for complacency
T
he recent near miss incident between March 2015 highlight other reasons that crashes
a landing Air Canada flight at San occurred. True, hijacking of aircraft is nothing
Francisco International Airport which new and governments and airlines have taken
mistakenly lined up with a taxiway on significant action to make sure aircraft cockpits
which four aircraft were waiting to take are more secure. Airports and airlines have done a
off, instead of the runway, before the pilot aborted considerable amount of work to ensure that bombs
the landing, highlights that, no matter how much and other devices do not get onto planes and
effort is put into training and that air accidents passenger security checks today have never been
have continued to reduce, there is no room for more thorough.
complacency when it comes to aviation safety. While it is often difficult to perceive what
Air accidents are, however, increasingly rare. else airlines and airports might reasonably do in
In the executive summary of its 2017 report, respect of further improving passenger security,
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) says aircraft maintenance, operational flight safety and
that: Accident statistics as reported by the ICAO in training, more still needs to be done. Flight safety is
its 2017 annual report showed a further decrease in increasingly impacted today by a range of potential
both number of accidents, as well as accident rate indirect issues, such as terrorist related actions, on-
and that, during 2016, the downward trend in the board actions by passengers themselves and one
number of [scheduled commercial flight] accidents other large issue growing concerns in relation to
fell to 75 from the 182 reported for 2015. This, mental health of pilots. None of these concerns are
according to ICAO, represented an 18% decrease. likely to diminish.
Given that the number of scheduled commercial In recent years there has been an alarming
departures continues to increase, a further decline increase in passengers required to be removed from
in air accident numbers is positive. Airline claims aircraft due to drunken or threatening behaviour.
that safety comes first are real but that doesnt Passengers are not the only ones, as there have also
mean that the reasons why 182 people lost their been a noticeable increase in reported incidents of
lives on commercial aircraft flights last year can be commercial airline pilots removed from aircraft, the
glossed over. most recent reported example being a pilot who
Putting the accident rate into perspective, was prosecuted for turning up at Glasgow Airport
ICAO estimated that 0.0001% of flights have reeking of alcohol. While such incidents are still to
crashed in the past ten years and that this resulted be considered very rare, they can and do occur.
in one death for every 38,549 flights. While it is
certainly true that the number of air accidents
On 7 July an Air Canada A320 performed a late go-around after
caused by aircraft technology issues, poor
nearly landing on a taxiway with four other airliners awaiting take-
maintenance, pilot error and lack of training, has off. With over 1,000 passengers on all the aircraft this could have
declined, it is also true that the number of incidents been the worst ever aviation disaster.
related to terrorist actions has risen. These, along
with increased fears related to lack of global
regulation in respect of drones and the increase
in reported near incidents, remain a cause of
considerable concern. So too does the fact that, as
skies become increasingly crowded and with some
countries ATM systems already near to capacity,
the potential for air accidents is growing rather
than subsiding.
The shooting down of the Malaysia Airlines
Flight MH17 in July 2014 with the loss of 298
passengers and crew, the disappearance of
Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in March 2014 and
the seemingly deliberate crash by the co-pilot
NTSB

of Germanwings Flight 9525 into the Alps in

10 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


the risk of human error. Cockpit data monitoring
The mental health factor systems, including digital audio and visual recording
Incidents such as that at Glasgow Airport, together equipment, are all widely used to identify safety
with the dreadful Germanwings aircraft crash in trends that can be addressed by further training, as
2015 have highlighted another growing problem for well as being used by air accident investigators to
the civil airline industry that of mental health of assist in specific crash incidents. THE AIRLINE
A wider concern and one that commercial
pilots and the need to ensure that they are always fit
airlines must show greater concern, is the growing
INDUSTRY
and mentally safe to fly. IS WELL
A cross-sectional descriptive study BioMed shortage of pilots. Estimates suggesting a global
Central in 2016 entitled Airplane pilot mental shortage of pilots likely to reach 50,000 by 2030 AWARE THAT
health and suicidal thoughts concluded that inevitably give rise to fears that some airlines might COMPLACENCY
take short cuts in training. The bigger fear is that
hundreds of pilots that are currently flying are
the pressure on trained pilots could further increase,
REMAINS
managing depressive symptoms, perhaps without
the possibility of treatment due to fear of negative unless the industry embraces the problem of pilot THE BIGGEST
career impacts. While a study of 3,485 pilots, of shortage and invests. ENEMY
whom 1,866 had completed the study, is limited Welcome as the 25% fall in the global accident
in value, it does confirm that a potentially serious rate to 2.1 accidents per million departures from the
problem exists. previous years 2.8 is, a degree of care is needed
Clearly, physiological screening of pilots ahead when looking at the figures. Airline industry accident
of every flight is both impractical, unnecessary and records are littered with unfortunate spikes and it
risks do more harm than good because of causing only takes one large accident to throw everything
potential passenger alarm. In the UK, Class One off-course.
Medical certificates are mandatory for all flight crew.
Annual medicals are required by pilots up to the age The biggest enemy
of 45 and then every six months up to the age of
65. Initial medical examinations include eye, hearing Even so, compared to the dim and distant past,
test, physical examination, ECG, lung function an accident rate of 2.1 per million departures is
spirometry test, urine and haemoglobin blood test. remarkable, particularly when compared to figures
There is no mandatory requirement for psychological 40 years ago that, if they really were comparable,
screening whatsoever. would show a figure close to four times higher.
In the wake of the Germanwings crash, the CAA Indeed, back in 1964 when airlines carried 141
announced an intention to review all pilot screening million passengers there had been a total of 87
procedures, that this would be co-ordinated with the commercial aircraft crashes and 1,597 people killed.
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and that it Last year according to the ICAO, 182 people lost
has requested all UK commercial airlines to review their lives in a similar number of aircraft accidents.
relevant procedures. Clearly, the outcome of any Improved though they certainly are, the airline
review should require not only that mood, sleep and industry is well aware that complacency remains
alcohol usage be checked but also that cognitive the biggest enemy in all forms of aviation transport.
issues, such as speech, mood, relationships and We are also reminded of the now infamous quote:
lifestyle of pilots in particular, need to be better If you think health and safety is expensive, try an
understood. accident. Attributed to Stelios Haji-Ioannou, founder
In recent years considerable effort has been of EasyJet, and used by him not in the context of a
put into crew/cockpit resource management and specific air accident but rather, the Troodos Shipping
the monitoring of data, which are aimed at reducing Co incident in 1991 when six people lost their lives
and more than 50,000 tonnes of crude oil spilt into
the Mediterranean Sea, such words are equally
poignant in the aviation industry just as they are
across all forms of transport.
They say that something is learned from
every aircraft crash and there is no doubt that the
sophistication and expertise that allows investigators
to get to the bottom of accident causes has
never been better. Todays technology, added to
experience gained and constant improvement in
engineering and flight safety requirement, together
with a far better understanding of human factors,
have contributed to the significant reduction in air
accidents. Safety management systems, be they on
the aircraft or at airports and air traffic control, have
also contributed.

@aerosociety i Find us on LinkedIn f Find us on Facebook www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017


11
Transmission
LETTERS AND ONLINE

f
Ron Howard F-35 and QE carriers

xxx

BAESystems
I read your obituary of Ron
Howard(1) with interest
and was surprised that it
did not include his very
valuable contribution to
the UK avionics industry
as a whole. Having been BLADE runner(6)
President of the Society All-electric flight(4) Artists impression of F-35B
taking off from deck of QE-
of British Aerospace McParlinStephen [On
It would depend on a number class carrier.
Companies (SBAC), Ron Airbus laminar wing flow
of factors... purpose of
recognised that avionics Committee (ESASC) as research] I remember the
aircraft, future environmental
needed a way of marrying the industry vehicle to early days of the programme
restrictions, cost of oil,
the emerging concepts of work with Government. definition well. Keeping the @Scottmox UK [On
technological development
the avionics industry with The dialogue between attachment line clean is an F-35B on final approach
rate in electrical components,
those of Government at the Government and ESASC issue for laminar flow wing to QEC(7)]. Easily the best
etc. The list is fairly long.
executive level with the aim was very wide ranging and, designs. article on F-35B Ive had
Solar will only ever be
of establishing co-ordinated as one-time Chairman, I the pleasure to read.
supplementary power in
research programmes. always found Ron to be Balanced and accurate.
civil aviation. Batteries need
In this context he took a hugely supportive. I should @Boba_H_Fett Have they
to get a LOT more power
major lead in encouraging also add that he had the solved the flies/bugs/rain
and energy dense (note
effective collaboration most wonderful sense of problem? @thepublicgets Also
the distinction between the
within the avionics humour and a fine sense of good reminder that total
two!), and hybrid technology
industry. It is all a long the ridiculous both very work on global develop-
needs to make gains
time ago but Ron brought important in the aerospace @StTim Not sure I would ment and manufacture will
elsewhere (aerodynamics,
together the Electronic industry! like being in an inherently be 3 x value of our own
weight savings) where losses
Engineering Association unstable aircraft. Unlike aircraft purchases.
are inevitable (ie between
(EEA) and the SBAC in Bruce Adams FRAeS fighter jets, we dont get
engine and fan). One thing
establishing the EEA/ formerly of Smiths ejection seats.
is for sure, we need more
SBAC Avionics Systems Industries @GoddersTwit Agreed
interdisciplinary engineers.
@NuffSaidThis Can CFD a great article by
Electrical and mechanical
always tell the truth? @RAeSTimR ... I like it
engineers are all well and
when he says Jedi-like
good, but when you have
Third British offset(2) HMS Queen Elizabeth @ProfAtkin No, not skills were required to
complex trade-offs that
enough conceptual work hover a Harrier them
exist between electrical
into how best to extend were the days...
I think the bits about 17- The HMS Queen and mechanical systems
year old LEET hackers are Elizabeth aircraft carrier(3) as with electric flight, the laminarity while maintaining
ridiculous. Sorry. Might as represents a singular lack of knowledge on either a customer-friendly aircraft.
Non-optimal solution IMO! @kilo_delta_papa Sea
well go on about 17-year- achievement of the discipline about the other can
More context: in 1996 I was Harriers were much
old missile engineers. Such British sovereign industry make progress slow.
shouted down for suggest- prettier. Are we going to
people are always using and the Royal Navy. All
ing that LFC might deliver see the old FAA insignia
tools made by their elders involved with this project Joe Palmer
only 10% fuel burn reduction revived? Mailed fist? The
and betters. could rightly be proud Airport Art (5) cf 40% claimed by others. O?
of the impressive and
wikimedia/Bjrn Christian Trrissen

Tim Murphy graceful 21st century


carrier. It means that the
@luimnea I actually am in- @rn198386 Roll on. Then
An excellent article. As British shipbuilding and
clined to agree with you and all the moans and groans
a former AD nav now ancillary industry is fully
the practicalities of NLF will about no aircraft for the
working in digital on the competent and capable of
show its a technology thats carriers can stop. Pity we
fringes of cyber security, it undertaking such gigantic
too high-maintenance. couldnt get the planes
cannot be underestimated naval construction projects
quicker though!
how serious this threat is. in tune with the demands
of the modern sea warfare.
Webspresso What a proud moment @MiguelCastill93 The
two exterior NLF wings @jamesbird Ha! It is great
for all those who burnt A huge 35-40 feet tall
where integrated by but the flexibility of a cats
RAF arguing for a bigger midnight oil to demonstrate Teddy Bear at Hamad
Aernnova, not by Saab and and traps carrier still would
share of the defence this marvelous feat. A ship International Airport in
GKN, that supplied just have preferred the C
budget, how unusual. worthy of its great name. 2015.
leading edges and variant personally!
Ron5 Salim Mehmud Sachin Ramesh upper skins of the wings.

12 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


@RAF_Simmer And who

Cobham
Flying for the Dark Side(8) Brexit and EASA @sheen_alexander
said flying multis was @AeroSociety concludes
boring!? @paul2020 Clear @EASA Membership
@AeroSociety paper on critical for future
benefit of staying in EASA #UK aerospace industry
@egfe Great insight Tim ! post Brexit. Vital for (230,000 direct and
successful UK aerospace indirect jobs) post #Brexit
industry lnkd.in/g86g7rQ

@craig73webster The
Cobham special missions Falcon 20 and RAF Typhoons.
guys there are brilliant,
jamming of all kinds
@KevMarsh An excellent @thomas_embleton D P Davies Handling the Big Jets
article Tim. Cobham Wish NATO had an
provides excellent aggressors unit equipped @dda951 I read Handling
training but ASDOT and with a mix of jets and pilots @JonLake1 Nice piece, the Big Jets years ago.
DOTC(Air) are well get some Polish MiGs, Tim! Possibly an earlier edition.
overdue. Lets hope it RAF Typhoon Tranche 1, Very spot on.
happens as planned! some Mirages and F4s.
@dauphinsky Great to
see what our airfield @GolddogAndrew Read
@4Gleavy 4/5th Gen @Casey_stedman buddies get up to. Vital it!!! I practically know it by
training environment has My squadron uses the training for a very changing heart!
to be so much better than VADER call sign as well world!
this... #legacy (757th AS).
@MaxK_J My copy has a
BOAC 747 on it!
RAeS at Scampton DLR biofuel contrails(9) RAeS Canberra Branch

@JeffGazzard Less. Not @ContractDog Yes I


@felipeherrera43 A must
zero. Impact on contrail have. Its pretty much a
have! Great resource,
formation and longevity? must read for any aspiring
some items are very
Who knows? And still no jet pilot but agreed it does
engineer-oriented but
sign of alternative aviation need updating.
nonetheless great for a
fuel at scale anywhere. curious pilot!

@eqloprtntyhtr Id be @TWPILOT1 Yes I have


more impressed if they read it and there is a real
@kerinjoyce Great @2049197cfi Great book.
could stop making need for somebody to write
@AeroSociety Canberra Used it when instructing
Air Marshal Julian Young, RAF conspiracy theorists think an updated version dealing
brief on @DeptDefence in C-5 Galaxy at School
Air Member for Materiel and they were chem trails. with #automation I very
Chief of Materiel (Air) Joint Helo School from CO House in Altus, OK. Even
much doubt that there is
with Rosalind Azouzi and and Contract Manager. used it when investigating
anybody in the #CAA who
Aditee Desurkar at RAF Thanks Bruce and Mark! wing scrape incident.
could write a new version.
Scampton Air Show. Combating air rage @aiaa
@SBAP1 Honoured to @WayneLCarson [On An archive audio recording of a technical interview with D P
welcome @Chf_Eng_Air to Panorama TV documentary Davies is shortly to be made available on the RAeS website.
our stand this morning! on drunken passengers]
Absolute highlight of Ban selling alcohol at
our show! #engineering airports. Enforce no fly on
#STEM @AeroSociety drunk pax trying to board. 1. AEROSPACE, September 2017, p 54, Obituaries
@BoeingUK Two drink max on aircraft. 2. https://www.aerosociety.com/news/time-for-a-british-third-offset/
3. https://www.aerosociety.com/news/hms-queen-elizabeth-home-in-portsmouth-naval-base/
Simple really. 4. https://www.aerosociety.com/news/preparing-for-electric-flight/
5. https://www.aerosociety.com/news/airport-art/
@Chf_Eng_Air I believe 6. https://www.aerosociety.com/news/blade-runner-wake-up-time-to-fly/

the honour was all mine! Perlan 2 glider record 7. https://www.aerosociety.com/news/uk-f-35b-on-final-approach-to-qec/


8. https://www.aerosociety.com/news/flying-for-the-dark-side/
Great STEM activity at 9. https://www.aerosociety.com/news/greener-biofuels/
@ScampAirshow from @Mr_Bingo_Little Thats
@AeroSociety

Online
incredible!!! Getting a
@BoeingUK boeinguk soaring licence is a huge
#STEM #Engineering dream of mine.
Additional features and content are available to view
online at http://media.aerosociety.com/aerospace-insight

@aerosociety i linkedin.com/raes
Find us on LinkedIn f facebook.com/raes
Find us on Facebook. www.aerosociety.com
www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017 13
AEROSPACE
A340 BLADE laminar flow demonstrator

BLADE Runner
TIM ROBINSON reports from Tarbes, France, as Europe's most ambitious

Airbus
aerospace demonstrator gets set to take on the final frontier of
aerodynamics natural laminar flow.

A
lmost ten years after the start of the Go with the flow
project, a European flying lab will
take-off later this month to explore Advances by civil aircraft manufacturers are
and research the Holy Grail of sometimes taken for granted. Notes Axel Flaig, Head
aerodynamics natural laminar flow of R&T, Airbus, which is the leader on this project:
(NLF). Aviation has achieved a lot in the past 50 years with
The Clean Sky 2 BLADE (Breakthrough more than a 70% reduction in fuel flow, and noise
Laminar Aircraft Demonstrator in Europe) down by 90%. These advances have, however, been
demonstrator, was rolled out of its hangar in Tarbes mostly driven by engine manufacturers, developing,
in the south of France at the start of September. cleaner, quieter, fuel-sipping turbofans. With aero
BLADE is a highly-modified Airbus A340 airliner engine development (at least for conventional
and the culmination of nearly ten years of research, kerosene-powered turbofans) now plateauing in
planning and ground tests by Airbus and its terms of efficiency: The next big step is to look at
industrial and academic partners on this pan- friction" says Flaig. The ball is now in the airframers
European aerospace project. With its outer wings court. Flaig says that BLADEs goal is to reduce wing
removed and replaced by two new panels packed friction drag by a whopping 50%.
with sensors, BLADE is set to study laminar flow in Harnessing natural laminar flow, of course, is not
flight to a level of detail never seen before. a new idea and has been around for decades, with
If successful, its flight tests could lead the way perhaps one of the first attempts being the North
to a step-change in NLF aerodynamics for civil BLADE is a Clean American P-51 Mustang. Simply put, a laminar flow
airliners with up to 8% drag reduction for a short- Sky project, with wing, with a different side-on profile and extremely
range airliner. This would translate into 5% block
fuel burn saving on a typical 800nm single-aisle
the A340 part of
mission. Given that millions are invested each year Airbus new in-
to improve engine fuel efficiency by an average of house FlightLab
1%, exploiting NLF represents a tantalising goal technology
for the industry in helping to meet the challenging
environmental targets set by Europes ACARE demonstrator arm.
2020.

14 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


Airbus
smooth surface, aims to delay the separation of the In addition, the wing sections are separated and Far left, Airbus
air as it races across the top of the wing greatly bookended by aerodynamic pods that both keep the
reducing drag. The longer the flow over the wing NLF airflow separate from the inner wing section A340 MSN001
can be smoothly laminar, sticking to the wings and are also packed with advanced sensors (see has had major
surface, as opposed to turbulent, the better. below). The A340 BLADE also features a pod on surgery to turn
Though the basics are well understood, the vertical tail that houses thermal sensors looking
converting NLF from laboratory or wind-tunnel tests down onto the wings. This pod is a more elegant
it into a laminar
into a practical wing able to be built and survive the and easier location than an earlier concept which flow demonstrator.
rigours of everyday airline operations has proved would have seen a sensor pod mounted on struts Above: The
frustratingly elusive. NLF over a wing in the air above the centre fuselage. prototype was
exists in a very fickle state and can separate into But if the wings being tested are for a single-
turbulent flow by a whole range of microscopic flaws aisle airliner, why use an A340? Using a large rolled out of its
or tiny movements, including wing contamination four-engine design like this offers some advantages, hangar at Tarbes,
(ice, grease, insects, dents) deformation (wing says Airbus. For one, the A340 has a natural France, at the
flexing, joints), loose fastener heads and even junction outboard of the outer engines where a new
beginning of
acoustic disturbances and vibrations. wing can be installed. Secondly, replacing part of
These demanding requirements for an ultra- a larger aircraft's wing in an inflight flying lab, will September.
smooth surface and stiffer wing also mean that new give more predictive and better safety margins than
design and manufacturing techniques are needed if, for example, a smaller entire wing was swapped.
to first, create a wing that is super slippery, and Should the results prove unexpected in some way,
second, build one that can be mass-produced, can the aircraft will still have most of its wing producing
be easily maintained and retains its NLF qualities in lift. It is worth noting that a laminar flow wing
regular airline operations. changes the handling qualities and performance
These challenging requirements for an industrial (stall speeds etc) and thus adding a wing to a larger
wing to be used in everyday service (as opposed airliner provides an additional safety margin. Finally,
to a highly prepared wing in wind-tunnel testing in replacing the outer wings on an existing larger
controlled conditions) explains why it is only now, airliner is a cheaper solution than building entirely
with todays sophisticated CFD flow simulation and new wings for a smaller airliner. An A320 NLF
advances in precision manufacturing, an optimised demonstrator, for example, would also need new
industrial-quality natural laminar flow wing is now nacelles and pylons integrated a far more complex
almost within aerospaces grasp. With BLADE, and expensive project.
Airbus is aiming for laminar flow from the leading
edge to 50% chord. A flood of data No wool tufts
Enter BLADE While Airbus test aircraft are no stranger to measuring airflow
advanced sensors the measurements being here the end
To test this, Airbus and its partners will use a heavily taken by the A340 BLADE test aircraft will break
modified four-engine A340 airliner (in reality new ground in accuracy with 87,000 parameters
pod will use HD
MSN001, the first A340 prototype). This has had measured by some 2,700 sensors. Indeed, some cameras to detect
its outer wings replaced by two reduced sweep (20 measure of how precise measurements of NLF laminar flow.
deg) laminar flow outer wings, that are designed to and laminar/turbulent separation need to be can
be two-thirds the size of a single-aisle airliner wings.
Each of the outer NLF wing upper skins and leading
edges (both wing sections integrated by Aernnova)
are supplied by two different manufacturers (GKN
Aerospace and Saab) with each featuring a different
construction and assembly. GKNs wing, on the
starboard, features a more conventional architecture
with a metal leading edge and composite cover.
Saabs wing on the port wing, on the other hand,
features a one-piece composite surface, with
Airbus

integrated rib feets and spar cap.

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AEROSPACE
A340 BLADE laminar flow demonstrator

be gained in that lasers were rejected as not being The road to Cleaner Skies
accurate enough. It is the most advanced flight
test installation we have ever done at Airbus says It has been a long and winding road to get here.
Daniel Keirbel, the BLADE Project Leader since The BLADE technology project, as part of the EUs
2015. Clean Sky's Smart Fixed-Wing Aircraft Integrated
To study NLF and measure laminar/turbulent IT IS THE MOST Technology Demonstrator (SFW-ITD), has involved
transition on the new wing test sections, thermal ADVANCED a large number of industrial and academic partners
cameras in a pod installed on the vertical tail will from around Europe, from Spain to Sweden, and
FLIGHT TEST
measure tiny differences in temperature that show from Romania to the UK. All told, BLADE features
where the cooler laminar-flow air breaks down into INSTALLATION 21 partners from across Europe including Airbus,
a hotter turbulent flow. WE HAVE Dassault, Saab, Safran, Aernnova, GKN Aerospace,
But this is only half the story. To cross check EVER DONE AT Romaero and EURECAT, as well as SMEs' such as
this laminar flow, HD cameras in the wing pods will Sertc, Asco, Aritx, FTI-Engineering and research
use reflectology to watch a zebra-like test pattern
AIRBUS bodies like DLR, NLR and ONERA.
reflected in the mirror-like wing surfaces looking to Daniel Keirbel Launched in 2008, BLADE saw a concept
see if separation is being caused by tiny flexes or BLADE Project Leader, freeze review in 2010, maturity reviews of the
deformation in the wings surface. Eight cameras Airbus wings between 2010 and 2014. Manufacturing of
will be able to see disturbances on the skin as small the upper covers began in 2015, while the existing
as 20 microns, or almost a quarter of the width of wings were removed and new ones joined in 2016.
a human hair. Meanwhile, spread out underneath This year saw aircraft power on in February and
the wings skin are waviness sensors which, like the flight test instrumentation integration completed in
inside of Yale locks, can measure whether the wing August.
itself is distorting in tiny imperceptible ways. The extensive preparation has also included
Other sensors include 1,200 pressure sensors CFD testing, low-speed wind-tunnel testing, as well
and accelerometers with the aircraft itself is as developing the flight test anti-contamination
expected to generate a staggering 4TB of data device.
each flight, the majority (75%) of this from the
reflectology HD cameras that will scan for tiny Flight test
changes in the aircrafts skin.
Microphones are also fitted to measure acoustic With BLADE now handed over to the flight test
disturbances and the A340 BLADE is also fitted Flight Test team, the aircraft is set to fly for the first time
with an extremely unusual piece of equipment for a Engineers as AEROSPACE goes to press. The flight test
test aircraft a loudspeaker. Such is the sensitivity station. BLADE campaign will consist of two phases, in 2017 and in
of NLF that turbulent separation can be triggered by 2018, with the goal of flying around 120-150 hours.
acoustics. Therefore Airbus will test to see what the will generate up The first phase, in Q4 of 2017, will see aircraft
effect of noisy engines are on laminar flow with a to 4TB of data handling qualities assessed and the flight envelope
series of pure tones. each flight. opened out to obtain initial results from the NLF
wing sections.
Stalls will be tested as the modification to a new
aerofoil section will change the aircrafts handling,
necessitating a careful approach. To incorporate the
NLF sections, the existing wings have also had their
slats disabled, making for a higher landing speed.
As one Airbus source noted, it will be a bizarre
aircraft to fly with wings that are two-thirds 1980s
technology and one-third, the latest cutting-edge.
optimised laminar flow design.
Interestingly, the reflectology measuring sensors
means that there are limitations due to the angle
of the Sun, with a four-hour sweet spot either side
of the zenith where the miniscule deformations
in the skin can be observed by the cameras. For
this reason, from around late October onward, the
aircraft will have to curtail flight testing (or move
south) during winter as the Sun will not be at the
correct angle.
Project engineers will start slowly, with the goal
of flying at the sweet spot for NLF Mach 0.75.
Then the speed will be increased to 0.79 and above,

24 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


Left: close-up of the
Saab (port) one-piece
NLF wing section. Black
stripes on pod help HD
cameras measure tiny
deformations of the upper
skin.

be a body of experience well versed already in some


of the requirements for supporting NLF-winged
airliners when it finally enters the market.

Clipped wings?
Readers from the UK may note the irony that,
just as wing design, testing and development is
set to enter a new era of aerodynamics, Britain
is set to exit the EU in two years time, potentially
hampering a field in which otherwise it would be
considered a natural leader in commercialising and
with the goal of measuring in detail never-before productionising this technology. Airbus in the UK,
recorded when separation happens on a full-size with its Wing of the Future project, is still set to play
wing in flight. a central role and, indeed, should BLADE prove
Sharp-eyed observers will notice that the wing successful, then it is highly likely this technology
sweep of the outer test NLF wings are around 20, could find its way onto Airbus next generation
compared with 30 for the rest of the swept wing. single-aisle product. However, as an EU project, it is
The reason highlights a tricky compromise for future unclear what access UK companies and academic
airliner designers optimise a wing with (shallower institutions may have in the follow-on Clean Sky 3.
sweep) that maintains laminar flow at around Mach Some companies have already begun highlighting
0.75 and save fuel, or fly faster at the usual cruising their European facilities and factories and stressing
speed of Mach 0.82-0.85 and see boundary-layer that they should be considered European, rather
separation as the aircraft goes faster. One solution than UK entities.
might be hybrid laminar-flow, either passive or
active, to suck the airflow to the wing and keep Summary
the drag down at higher speeds. A slower, but more
fuel efficient, straighter wing thus means that the The A340 BLADE flight tests, on Europes largest
first applications could be in narrowbody airliners ever flight test demonstrator are thus set to be a
on short-haul routes, where slower cruise speeds landmark in aerodynamics research as the first
may not make too much of a difference compared industrial transonic laminar flow flight test. The
to long-haul. sheer amount and granularity of data expected
A second phase of flight testing, in 2018, will from this testbed should prove invaluable in
test the robustness of laminarity in representative helping engineers design ultra-efficient wings and
operational conditions. This will include artificially airframes for the next generation of airliners. This
introducing contaminants such as grease, or finding sort of research, with a large flying demonstrator
concentrations of insects to dirty the wing, with the Thermal cameras on the or X-plane, will also help keep Airbus and the
vertical tail pod will detect
goal of seeing when NLF breaks down. A 2m fixed cooler laminar flow airflow
European aerospace sector ahead of rivals, just as
Krueger flap section will also be tested to act as a compared to hotter turbulent the duopoly faces new entrants keen to muscle in
possible anti-contamination device that could be areas. on Toulouse and Seattles turf.
a solution for protecting the wing from insects on Another spin-off benefit is that, having
take-off and landing in regular operations. A peel- developed this flying, instrumented testbed, it
off paper strip, activated by pilots using a cable after could form the basis to explore laminar flow even
take-off will protect the leading edge from dead further, for example, with active or passive hybrid
bugs during flight tests. flow solutions, or perhaps even self-cleaning
BLADE also includes aspects of maintainability nanotechnology coatings in follow-on trials.
with Airbus drawing on its in-house maintenance
experts to judge whether a contaminated wing can
be recognised by eyesight alone and to help define
what airline maintenance requirements might be.
Ease of maintainability will thus be a crucial
factor in selling an airliner with NLF to airline
customers in the future. Oddly, one unexpected
spin-off of Lockheed Martin F-35 in the future will
be a global pool of military maintenance technicians
with experience of looking after an aircraft with
unique coatings and a need to keep the surface
extremely smooth. Some of these will naturally
Airbus

migrate to the civil sector and therefore there may

@aerosociety i Find us on LinkedIn f Find us on Facebook.com www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017 25


DEFENCE
F-35B flight testing

First in the class


The countdown is now on for the return of UK Carrier Strike.
TIM ROBINSON reports from BAE Systems Warton on the behind the
scenes activity to make the Lockheed Martin F-35B ready for the Royal
Navys new Queen Elizabeth class.

Patuxent River flight test centre in Maryland.


His role in the US, (like his colleagues Cdr Steve
Crockatt (RN and Team Leader), Cdr Nath Gray
(RN), Sqn Ldr Ben Hullah (RAF) and BAE Systems
own Pete Wizzer Wilson) as a developmental
test pilot is to define the edges of the envelope,
investigate handling and focus on safety.
Edgell stresses that this developmental
testing (higher, faster and, occasionally, slowest) is
separate from the F-35 work undertaken from
the RAF's 17(R) Sqn at Edwards AFB that
concentrates on weapon employment,
combat tactics and how to use the
fighter operationally.
This team (along with UK
engineers, maintainers and

I
support personnel from the RN,
n just over a year's time, one lucky UK test RAF and industry) have been
pilot is set to perform a historic flight the busy this year conducting the
first landing of a new fighter aircraft on a second phase of land-based F-35B
brand-new aircraft carrier a double first that ski-jump testing at Pax River a critical stage in
is a major milestone. "This is the SuperBowl proving that the F-35B is ready to go to sea in
of flight test a once in a lifetime opportunity," 2018. Over 70% of the ski-jumps needed have
enthuses RAF F-35B test pilot Squadron Leader now been completed with the team working on
Andy Edgell. The majestic entrance of HMS Queen the toughest challenges, such as maximum stores
Elizabeth into Portsmouth in August and the pride asymmetry and crosswinds (one drawback of the
and excitement surrounding it, is an indicator of land-based ski jump testing at Pax River is that the
the importance that the first F-35B landing on the team have to wait for the wind conditions to co-
carrier will carry. operate for the correct speed and direction.)
Indeed, while next year it will be eight years These pilots are also tasked with developing
since the retirement of the iconic Harrier, you have and de-risking the new shipborne rolling vertical
to go back over 50 years to 1963 when Hawker landing (SRVL) technique which will allow higher
test pilot Bill Bedford made the first jet fighter bring-back of stores in hot climates than the
vertical landing on an aircraft carrier on HMS Ark traditional hover. This uses a straight-in approach
Royal in the P.1127. The rest, as they say, is history with the aircraft slowing from about 140kt to
with the Harrier, Sea Harrier and AV-8 being approximately 60kt over the carriers stern with
adopted for shipborne operations by the UK, USMC, the aircraft still getting some aerodynamic lift from
Italy, India, Spain and Thailand. the wings. As well as allowing higher bring-back
Fast forward to 2017 and Edgell (UK MoD weights, SRVL also has side benefits, such as
BAE Systems

First of Class Flight Trials (FOCFT) Lead Test Pilot) reduced wear and tear on the LiftFan and less
is one of the UK F-35B test pilots embedded into damage on the same landing deck spot from the
the JSF Integrated Test Force at the US Navys powerful rear-nozzle exhaust.

18 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


BAE Systems

Suhoki
While some critics worry that it could be more
workload-intensive in bad weather or a fouled
deck, others describe it as a doddle in the sim.
One F-35B pilot is sanguine about the technique,
pointing out that a short, slow landing is nothing
new for land-based Harriers and observes: In fact, if
we were still operating Harriers now, we'd probably
be using it. It will thus be for Edgell, Wizzer and the
rest of the team to prove this concept at sea.
squadron expected to have 14 by the end of this
STOVL comes home year. In another sign of a transition to a front-line
Inside the new operational squadron, the first four UK ab-initio
Then, in the fourth quarter of 2018, off the east pilots, direct from fast-jet training at RAF Valley,
coast of the US, will be the main event the first
F-35B/QEC have just joined the squadron. Initial Operating
F-35B at sea testing aboard the Queen Elizabeth. integration Capability is expected at RAF Marham by the end
Edgell says that four pilots will be assigned to simulator at BAE of 2018.
the task, with two aircraft to be used over two Systems Warton. These are the final steps in a journey that
four-week periods with a break in between. With started decades ago with the question: What
a heavy flying schedule, a break in the middle will replaces the Harrier? and has passed through
be welcome for pilots, engineers and deck crew projects like JAST, CALF, X-35/X-32 and now the
to keep concentration at the highest. He expects JSF are nearing the finish line and will see the RN,
that, after getting to grips with the ship and carrier RAF, MoD and industry working together to deliver
qualifications for the pilots, the first four weeks will the UKs new potent carrier strike in around 2020.
see ski-jump take-offs and vertical landings during
the day/night and with the deck dry and wet to get Honing vertical landings in Warton
comfortable.
The next phase in the second four-week period, Supporting the UK developmental flight test team at
will hopefully see the SRVL testing for real, as Pax River is BAE Systems, where some 50+ years
well as more challenging testing, including stores, of Harrier experience is being brought together to
asymmetric loads and high-deck motion STOVL make the F-35B the easiest and safest VTOL fighter
operations. Inert stores will be used in these trials, ever to operate from a ship. Just opened earlier in
as there is no requirement to conduct the testing March, BAE Systems F-35/QEC simulation facility
with live weapons or do firings: Weve already at Warton, Lancashire, is a key part in testing and
proved live weapons will fall off this jet says de-risking fixed-wing naval operations. Simulation
Edgell. Following these two trials next year, a third and modelling is highly critical for QE and F-35B, not
development period is scheduled some nine months just because of the increased fidelity and processing
later in 2019. power available but also with the UK having been
While this testing will mark a milestone in the out of the fixed-wing carrier game for seven years
RNs next-generation Carrier Strike capability, nothing and no detail too small is being taken
early in 2018 will also see the first UK F-35Bs for granted. For example, CFD modelling of wind
with 617 Sqn roar into RAF Marham. This opens interaction around the distinctive twin islands is
a new stealth chapter in the Services history and, incorporated in the simulator.
appropriately enough, the RAFs 100th anniversary BAE Systems test pilot Pete The most challenging area to model, notes
Wizzer Wilson makes a
year. In July saw another UK aircraft (BK-11) BAEs David Atkinson in charge of the new
ski-jump with a fully-loaded
delivered to 617 at MCAS Beaufort, with the F-35B at Pax River. facility, is in the F-35Bs transition phase between
conventional wing-borne and vertical flight.
BAE says that the 2m facility, which includes a
moving platform F-35 cockpit, dome visual system
and a simulated QEC FLYCO (Flying Control), is its
most sophisticated flight simulator yet. It uses 64
processors and 1TB RAM and allows test pilots
to practice, train and rehearse safely before they
even get to the ship. The inclusion of a FLYCO in
the room next door also allows Royal Navy LSO
(Landing Signal Officers) to experience, train and
develop CONOPS in controlling F-35B launch and
recovery operations. Cameras give a gyro-stabilised
US Navy

view of pilots approach with gradient and centreline


guides marked. BAE is also trialling video gaming

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BAE Systems
DEFENCE
Distributed simulation and training

engaged and the aircraft happily matching speed


with the ship, the pilot can even take their hands
off the controls a move that would most likely be
suicidal in the Harrier for the average squadron pilot.
Hitting another thumb switch on the HOTAS
throttle engages a translational controller mode,
enabling the pilot to slide across in the hover and
line up with the centreline. Once in position it
is a case of pushing forward on the sidestick to a
software-controlled stop to descend and put the
The BAE F-35/QEC virtual reality headsets to allow LSOs to immerse aircraft firmly on the deck. At this point, control of
integration facility also has a
themselves in a virtual FLYCO and see exactly what the engine thrust and vertical motion has passed to
virtual FLYCO to help develop
CONOPS before the first they would see onboard the real ship. the right hand, rather than the left hand which on
F-35B at sea trials with QEC So, what is the value of this facility to highly the first occasion is slightly disconcerting to push
next year. experienced test pilots, some of whom have already full forward on what is normally a pitch control, some
taken the F-35B to sea, albeit on US Navy assault 50ft above a deck.
ships? Says Sqn Ldr Edgell: As testers you are Then, feet on the brakes and the aircraft lands
inherently cynical. However good the modelling itself. Effectively with these flight controls you are
is, we have to do it for real. However, it builds flying an aeroplane that cannot stall and where
confidence and tells us where we need to focus our intuitive pull back/go up and push forward/go
efforts. It also potentially allows us to take bigger down still work even when hovering. Says BAE:
steps towards the edge of the envelope. The control philosophy is such that the left-hand
commands go-faster/go-slower while the right-hand
Hands on with the F-35B commands the aircraft to go-up/go-down and go-
left/go-right. Each hand commands a response in the
So, what is the F-35B like to fly? Thanks to the same axis in both wing-borne and jet-borne flight.
pioneering work of UKs DERA (now DSTL/ Taking off is even simpler. Line up on the
HOWEVER QinetiQ) VAAC Harrier testbeds and test pilots centreline for the ramp. Hold feet on brakes move
like Justin Paines and John Farley in developing throttle to detent and then to full and it will take-off,
GOOD THE advanced FBW software for VTOL aircraft it with just rudder pedals used to keep on track. No
MODELLING IS, is extremely simple. Whereas the Jedi-like skills sidestick control movements are needed although
WE HAVE TO needed to control the Harrier in the hover requires pilots will guard the control stick with a hand.
DO IT FOR REAL. movement of throttle, nozzle control and stick and Interestingly, for those wondering about the
has been likened to balancing on the top of a pencil SRVL and stopping a heavy aircraft without an
HOWEVER, while needing three hands, the F-35Bs fly-by-wire arrestor wire on a short deck, this correspondent
IT BUILDS controls are just a sidestick and throttle HOTAS found that the carriers deck proved remarkably
CONFIDENCE with the flight computers doing all the hard work, (it sticky with a fair bit of throttle needed to get the
AND TELLS is noteworthy that the UK is the only country after aircraft moving. BAE says the modelling in the
the US to have its own lines of code in the F-35 simulator includes dry, wet and flooded decks and
WHERE WE software). it has also carried out friction studies with F-35
NEED TO To assist pilots coming into land, there are tyres and the deck material.
FOCUS OUR two velocity vectors a traditional one,and a
ship-shaped one showing where the ship will
EFFORTS. be. The ships speed is also entered into the flight
IT ALSO management computer via the touchscreen display.
POTENTIALLY Approaching the ship from behind at around
ALLOWS US 170kt and 500ft, once at 200ft the pilot hits the
'brake' deceleration button and the aircraft begins
TO TAKE slowing and transitioning to a hover, with the LiftFan
BIGGER STEPS engaging and the rear nozzle swivelling down for
TOWARDS THE vertical flight. Once slowed, the pilot can swing
EDGE OF THE to the left side of the ship. The aircraft's flight
computers now cleverly match the ship's speed, with
ENVELOPE the pilot pushing forward on the control sidestick
Sqn Ldr Andy Edgell (or inceptor) to go down. At 100ft and about a
UK MoD First Of Class wingspan across from the deck, the pilot is thus
Flight Trials (FOCFT) Lead ready to transition sideways over the deck, with fine
Test Pilot hovering control being provided by the moving rear
F-35 Integrated Test Force nozzle, LiftFan and the STOVL roll jets at the tips
NAS Paxutent River of the wings. At this point, with the flight controls

20 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


The UK F-35 supply chain
It is not just in-flight testing where the UK is deeply
involved with F-35. Down the road from Warton at
BAE Systems factory in Samlesbury is evidence of
the huge industrial and supply chain involvement
in this programme with the company machining
and building aft fuselages, horizontal and vertical
tails for almost every F-35 made. This August saw a
significant industrial milestone passed for the F-35
with the 318th rear fuselage section produced

BAE Systems
at Samlesbury rolled off the production line. This
represents just 10% of the final production total.
Inside BAE's Samlesbury facility, a highly
automated, cutting-edge facility building and
assembling precision components for F-35 the Above: BAE Systems F-35 With Britain set to be the home for F-35
rear fuselage and empennage
sheer scale of the programme is apparent. After factory at Samlesbury,
avionics MRO in Europe, sustainment and upgrades
a slow start, Samlesbury is now in the middle of Lancashire, is currently will also be key opportunities over the long life of
production ramp-up, as the F-35 programme goes ramping up production. the programme. Steve Simm, from UK defence lab
into high-gear supplying assembly lines in Fort DSTL, which has been involved from even before
Worth, Texas, Italy and now Japan. This year it will F-35 in giving independent technical evaluations,
ship 92 aft fuselages, 78 horizontal tails and 83 airworthiness and projects like VAAC, notes that
vertical tails (other facilities in Australia and Canada there are three areas that might offer opportunities
building the difference in HT/VT and aft fuselages). for the UK in future F-35 upgrades sensors, all
This represents a 30% increase in the production round survivability and interoperability. Can the
rate, with another 30% increase in 2018. UK exploit some of its aerospace and defence
This is just part of the UK's involvement in the technology innovation to keep the F-35 at the very
gigantic global F-35 programme which eventually tip of spear over the rest of what could be a long
could see over 3,000 aircraft produced. As well service career?
as the aft empennage and wingfold for the F-35C
carrier variant, BAE provides the EW system, HOTAS Summary
(or active inceptors) and vehicle management
computer, as well as being the lead design authority This is not to say that it will all be plain sailing for
for the fuel system, crew escape system and life the UK and F-35. Questions still remain about
support, with 1,525 people directly employed by the affordability of the full buy of 138 F-35s
BAE on the F-35. Looking wider, it is estimated particularly given that being priced in US dollars
that the F-35 will sustain some 25,000 UK jobs in means that the jet is getting more expensive for
500 companies when it hits peak production rate in Britain with the MoD spending on the jet rising by
2020. These range from big names like Rolls-Royce 10% in the past year.
(LiftFan), Martin-Baker (ejection seat) and MBDA/ Yet the return of Carrier Strike marks a new
Raytheon (UK weapons integration) to smaller SMEs. chapter for the UK. QE and Prince of Wales will
give the country a multirole floating airbase, able
to project power, deploy transport and attack
helicopters and operate fixed wing aircraft and,
Lockheed Martin

most probably one day, UAVs. The road has been a


long one and is not over yet but, finally Great Britain
is set to return to its place as a foremost exponent
of naval air power. The UK, which in the post-WW2
Left: The final era invented the steam catapult, carrier angled deck
ASRAAM launch and landing mirror making jet carrier aviation at
as part of the sea viable, along with the iconic jump jet which
MBDA AAM's UK provided a flexibility never seen before, is thus
on the final circuit and approach to Carrier Strike.
F-35B integration Indeed, it needs to be remembered that smaller,
testing was caught cheaper Harrier and Invincible-class were originally
on camera. Note consolation prizes for the supersonic, radar-
equipped Hawker P.1154 jump-jet and the RNs
Paveway IV PGMs,
CVA-01 super carrier being axed in the 1960s. Half
also to equip UK a century later, with F-35B and QEC, the wheel has
F-35s in service. come full circle.

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AEROSPACE
Electric flight standards

Solar Impulse
Zunum
Aurora

Switching on
electric flight
In recent years standards and regulations have lagged behind changes
in new technology but, with passenger-carrying all-electric aircraft,
the regulators are hoping to keep pace to smooth the way for their
introduction. BILL READ FRAeS reports.

F
ollowing widespread publicity generated (Taurus G4, EADS/Airbus Cri-Cri and E-Fan2.0), Top from clockwise: The XV-
24A LightningStrike Created
by the 40,000km round the world odyssey ultralights (ElectraFlyer Trike), multiple rotor rotary by Aurora Flight Sciences
of the Solar Impulse 2 experimental solar- wing (Volocopter) and even a VTOL jet (Lilium). and partners Rolls-Royce and
powered aircraft in 2015-2016, one of the Up to now, all these electrically-powered aircraft Honeywell, the Solar Impulse
most asked questions from the general have been relatively small in size, either being and its solar skin and the
Zunum Aero-4 hybrid-electric
public was: When will we see the introduction of unmanned or only able to carry a limited number of
airplane.
large passenger-carrying electric-powered aircraft? people. However, plans are now afoot to develop
The answer given by informed experts who knew much larger electric-powered aircraft. Airbus has
something about the research and technical abandoned plans to develop a larger version of the
advancements still needed before commercial E-Fan to work on a project to develop a hybrid-
electric aircraft become a practical proposition, was: electric version of a demonstrator using a BAE 146
no time soon. However, while the first commercial regional jet. Meanwhile, Boeing is one of a number
passenger flight on an all-electric aircraft is still some of companies supporting Zunum Aerospace in its
way off into the future, development of electrically- development of a hybrid business aircraft.
powered aircraft has begun to move much faster than
was originally anticipated. More-electric aircraft
Zu
nu

The past ten years has seen the development of


m
Ae
ro

a series of new electrically-powered aircraft, powered Meanwhile, the development of small electric
s
pa
ce

either by batteries, solar cells or a combination of aircraft has been accompanied by technological
Zunum Aerospaces concept
both. These new aircraft have included solar-powered upgrades to larger commercial aircraft in which
for electric commuter/
UAVs (QinetiQ/Airbus Defence Zephyr), power- electrically-powered systems have been used to business aircraft variants.
assisted gliders (EGenius), fixed-wing light aircraft replace equipment previously powered by bleed air

22 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


from the engines, including cabin pressurisation, air them to address that or approve that particular
conditioning and de-icing. Electric power is also being technology or product or whether they should start
used to replace pneumatic and hydraulic systems, thinking of something a bit more creative.
such as flight controls, brakes and landing gear. One
of the major pioneers of these more-electric aircraft Sharing knowledge
systems has been the Boeing 787 which uses
electric systems to replace those previously powered There are sometimes problems when companies
by hydraulics or bleed air from the engines. researching new technology are not keen to share
their findings with each other which may result in
The dead hand of regulation? duplication of effort. That is definitely an issue,
agrees Alexander. Different companies have
A complaint often heard in discussions about new different cultures regarding intellectual property (IP)
aerospace research and technology has been and sharing. Its natural. Technology developments
the slow development of regulations. While new in industry will happen at a different pace with
technology can develop at a fast pace, the time different objectives depending on the organisation
needed to develop new production standards and and their ambitions. Theres always a sweet spot
introduce new safety and certification rules by the in standardisation where its early enough in the
regulators which will actually permit the new product development of a particular technology, product or
or process to be used in a commercial aircraft are process for the standardisation process to be used
much slower. Examples of this in the aerospace in a very productive way for the industry to set out
industry have been seen in the development of some basic principles that will enable all of them
composites, 3D printing and in flying cars. to be faster, particularly when youre looking ahead
to certification but late enough in the process that
Standards to the rescue companies are willing to come together and sit round
the table and share what they have with partners,
However, in the case of fully-electric aircraft, the customers and suppliers.
standards and regulatory authorities are planning to
keep pace with the cutting edge of technology, to Steering towards electric aircraft
help co-ordinate their development and reduce the
time needed for their introduction into service. One To facilitate the development of new commercial
organisation current very active in the development of electric aircraft, SAE International has created
electric aircraft is SAE International, an international the Electric Aircraft Steering Group (EASG). The
global standards developing organisation that Group meets online every month and twice a year
advances self-propelled vehicle and system face to face and includes representatives from
knowledge in a neutral forum for the benefit of society. major aerospace companies and organisations,
David Alexander, Director of Aerospace including Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, Embraer,
Standards at SAE, explains how the organisation is WHILE EASA, FAA, GE, Honeywell, Lockheed Martin and
helping to pave the way for electric aircraft: While STANDARD- Rolls-Royce. The aim of the Group is to: strategically
standardisation may not be seen as one of the most ISATION MAY identify, landscape and co-ordinate the various
exciting aspects of aviation, it is becoming more standardisation activities necessary to support full-
NOT BE SEEN
high profile, as it is more used and needed by the electric and more electric aircraft applications at the
regulatory authorities. Certification authorities are AS ONE OF THE top level system, subsystem and component levels.
looking towards more performance-based industry MOST EXCITING Currently, the EASG is working on defining the
standards and industry is playing a much greater role ASPECTS OF standardisation landscape needed to support the
in the regulatory process. Rather than waiting until power and infrastructure backbone for electric
a product is mature and then describing it, industry
AVIATION, IT aircraft and system functions, to develop a matrix of
is using the standardisation process to develop a IS BECOMING existing or in-progress standards which will highlight
consensus on practices and standards for technology MORE HIGH where work is still needed and to liaise with existing
that is not yet proven. Its an environment in which PROFILE, AS standard developing committees. The EASG is
industry is working collaboratively with various looking at such subjects as types of vehicle, energy
industry stakeholders, regulatory authorities and IT IS MORE and power storage, hybrid/electrical propulsion,
responsible military agencies. USED AND more electric engines, safety, power generation,
One of the great things about our work is NEEDED BY THE maintenance, operations, testing, controls, power
that we have the regulators and industry together. electronics and modular open architecture.
REGULATORY
Regulators such as the European Aviation Safety
Agency (EASA) are very keen to meet industry AUTHORITIES
Work in progress
as early as possible in the process to hear what David Alexander
theyre looking at and what theyre hoping to do and Director of Aerospace The development of larger all-electric aircraft is
then starting thinking about whether the existing Standards, already well advanced. The more that people are
regulatory framework and existing rules will allow SAE working on the more-electric systems, the more

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AEROSPACE
Electric flight standards

ElectraFlyer
progress we are making towards an eventual all- and also have a very wide wingspan which might not
electric aircraft, said Alexander. We already have fit into a conventional airport gate. Airport space is
many electric systems on aircraft, including electric going to still be at a premium, said Alexander.
actuators for flight controls, brakes and landing
gear, as well as (on bleedless engines) APU start, Hybrid aircraft
cabin pressurisation, engine start and ice protection
systems. One recent example is the electric brakes As more research is conducted into larger electric
on the new Bombardier CSeries regional jet. aircraft, one factor that is becoming clearer is that
Bombardier says that these brakes have proved the first passenger-carrying designs are unlikely
ElectraFlyer

more reliable compared to hydraulic systems to rely solely on electric power due to safety
which is very promising for the future. considerations. What happens should the batteries
Weve already started with the use of electric run out or fail to work? How could an electric aircraft
power in more-electric aircraft, says Alexander. cope with a longer route diversion as a result of
Already weve produced reports, recommended an airport or airspace closure? There is also the
practices and some standards on such topics as problem that aircraft need to use a lot of power for
higher voltage applications, electric braking and take-off and climb out which would take a lot of
electric acuation. power from the batteries at the beginning of a flight.
It would also take longer to reach take-off speeds,
The shape of electric aircraft to so an all-electric aircraft might require a longer
ElectraFlyer

come runway.
Because of these concerns, current research is
While it is not the purpose of this article to look in focusing on hybrid designs which would also have
detail how a future all-electric aircraft might look, conventionally powered engines as well as electric
the current focus of the SAEs deliberations does engines. Because a hybrid aircraft does not rely on
provide some general pointers. one source of power, it would be easier to certify
It is likely that the engines will be mounted from a safety point of view. The need for redundant
in different places on the wing or fuselage with, systems is certainly there, says Alexander. No
possibly, a number of multiple distributed power matter how proven battery technology is in 15 or
Floridas Electric Aircraft electric engines. The electric engines will turn 20 years, youve still got that ability to switch should
Corporation has developed a
propellers which will make the aircraft fly slower anything happen.
set of pioneering electrically-
powered aircraft. than a jet aircraft. An example of a hybrid design can be seen with
Top: ElectraFlyer-ULS, Airbus development of the E-Fan into the hybrid
ElectraFlyer Trike,
Power of the Sun? power E-Fan Plus which flew in the summer of
ElectraFlyer-C Prototype. 2016. Fitted with a thermal combustion engine in
Where will the electricity come from from batteries the rear cockpit that can generate enough electricity
or from solar-electric cells? Currently, its likely to to sustain the E-Fan Plus in level flight at maximum
come mostly from batteries, says Alexander. Power cruise speed in addition to charging its lithium-ion
generated from solar cells is limited by the amount batteries.
of surface area you can fit them onto and also the
availability of sunlight. A commercial electric aircraft Size is everything
will have to fly at night as well as in the day.
The shape of the wings is also under discussion. Another characteristic of a future all-electric aircraft
Pure solar-powered aircraft, such as the Solar would be its size and range. Current research
Impulse 2, were fitted with very long thin wings suggests that, while electric propulsion is feasible
designed both to keep the aircraft aloft and to for larger aircraft, there is an upper limit beyond
maximise the number of solar cells. However, such which they would become technologically and
long straight wings would make an aircraft very slow economically impossible. At the moment we are
Dirk Schwarz

The Airbus E-Fan.

24 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


only focusing our attention on medium-sized short couple of years is looking at the transport of lithium
range aircraft, said David Alexander. Nothing that batteries in air cargo and ICAO asked us to develop
Ive seen or heard suggests that industry would be a packaging standard for which we are hoping for a
confident to develop anything above a short-range final draft by the end of the year.
regional aircraft running with some form of hybrid
power. While the E-Fan is propelled by two 60Kw Technology breakthroughs needed
power fans, a 747-sized aircraft would need up to
90Mw to take-off, which one of my colleagues has However, the development of standards cannot
calculated would need a power equivalent to 4m guarantee the creation of larger electric-powered
laptop batteries. aircraft. The development of such aircraft also
depends on the development of new technology
Where do the batteries go? which does not yet exist, including major
improvements in the energy density of batteries
The e-Genius is a manned
Another area of research is where the batteries to and even high efficiency, more powerful electric
electric aircraft, developed by
power the aircraft might go. Should they be in the the Institute of Aircraft Design motors capable of producing jet-like propulsion.
wings where jet fuel is stored in conventionally- at the University of Stuttgart. New designs will depend on new batteries being
powered aircraft or in the fuselage? In a hybrid
powered aircraft, batteries in the wings would
make the wings heavier and space there might still
be needed for liquid fuel. Storing batteries in the
fuselage would take up space which could be used
for seating passengers or storing luggage. David
Alexander says that the answers to such questions
still lie in the future. The jury is still out there in
terms of what the manufacturers want, he said.
At present were not particularly concerned with
how the shape of the aircraft might look but we are
interested in safety and operational considerations.
Should the batteries be recharged in situ on
the ground or taken out to be replaced by fresh
batteries? How easy will it be to install or remove
batteries for recharging? In terms of battery life, it is
better to have a slower recharge to maximise battery
Andreas Doerr

life. Recharging the batteries within the aircraft


will take time and low-cost operators like to utilise
aircraft several times a day.
We also have to consider the concentration
and proximity of batteries to other critical systems.
Currently, our standardisation work is looking developed which do not exist at present, says
at environmental and installation requirements Alexander.
rather than on physical fitting. While operators Other technical advances are also needed in
and manufacturers would eventually like to have a cooling technologies, high power density electronics
choice of interchangeable batteries, that is a later and new high temperature-resistant lightweight
consideration. materials.

Battery safety But will they make money?


Related to this issue are concerns over battery A final important factor is that of economics. Not
safety, particularly with high energy batteries, such only must a commercial electric aircraft be safe to
as lithium ion which run the risk (as was evident in fly, it must also make money for an airline. Investing
the early days of the 787 in service) of catching fire. in a completely new paradigm for air travel must
A lot of work is being done now to ensure the safety make economic sense, said Alexander. He admits
of batteries, assures David Alexander. The 787 that current low oil prices are not helping. Talking
did have problems with lithium batteries and that to people in the industry, there is obviously a lot of
is still a concern. Its not so much that the battery thrust towards electric aircraft when fuel price is
technology itself is not safe but the way they are high, he says. With low oil prices, fuel consumption
used. The battery manufacturers are working hard is less of an economic driver and an all-electric
and we have hope and expectation that they will find aircraft is not currently going to be competitive.
a solution. Interestingly, one of the most high profile However, this may change in the future as fuel
activities that weve been working on over the past becomes more expensive.

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BUSINESS AVIATION
Africa

Out of Africa
Pilatus Aircraft
AfBAA

How business aviation in the fast-growing African market is set to soar.


RADY FAHMY, CEO African Business Aviation Association (AfBAA),
reflects on the first five years of this organisation.

F
ive years ago, the African Business The Association uses a variety of mediums including
Aviation Association was launched at advocacy, events, communications and networking
the business aviation industrys leading relationships, to promote the understanding and
European event, the European Business benefits that the industry brings to the continents
Aviation Conference and Expo, EBACE. economic development and prosperity.
Joined by ten fellow founding members, the
Founding Chairman Tarek Ragheb and myself, Chief Development potential
Executive Officer, Rady Fahmy, announced the
formation of an Association that would act as a pan- Africa remains a continent with the potential for
African voice to advocate the benefits of business significant development. The African Economic
aviation to the continents nations. Outlook 2017 states that medium term prospects
The Associations vision is focused on are favourable and notes that entrepreneurs have a
establishing business aviation as an asset that is key role to play in its economic acceleration. As with
recognised, valued and supported by governments, many international countries, several African nations
their respective Civil Aviation Authorities, have suffered from the fall in commodity prices,
enterprises, entrepreneurs and business leaders yet the majority of the continents non-commodity
across Africa, from north to south, and east to west. based economies continue to grow. Data coming

26 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


Asian Sky Group
Opposite page; Main picture:
Pilatus PC-24 the commodity price downturn. In
Lower pictures (from left Nigeria, the mining business is
to right): AfBAA Founding beginning to really develop and we
Chairman Taerek Ragheb; imagine that well see a higher call for rotary
CEO AfBAA Rady Fahmy;
AfBAA launches the Ethiopia
services in this area as exploration continues.
Chapter at its first Country Angola is upping its interests in agriculture
Roundtable; and which, with vast swathes of land to be
Segun Demuren, Nuno managed, requires aerial transportation.
Pereira, Gavin Kiggen and
The diversification within industries
Rady Fahmy.
such as mining, agriculture,
finance, construction
and telephony are
out of the World Bank and the also maximising the
World Economic Forum this efficiencies offered.
year both indicate that a number One of the fascinating
of non-commodity producing countries things about Africa is that it
including Morocco, Cte dIvoire, Ethiopia, is made up of 54 countries, it is
Kenya, Mali, Rwanda, Senegal and Tanzania not one country, and consequently
are exhibiting economic resilience. These the countries developmental pace
nations are recognising that diversification is key to surges and recedes at different rates
economic growth and looking to renewable energy, making it a challenge to
manufacturing and industrialisation as platforms for always predict where the
success. next growth element will
Africa is also experiencing a rapid urbanisation come from.
with the WEF suggesting that by 2050 the African
population will have grown to 2.2bn, of which 80% East African lead
will be living in cities. The population continues to
get younger with 70% of the population aged under The landscape has
30 years of age. The WEF also notes that there are shifted recently with East Africa undergoing
around 200 African innovation hubs, 3,500 new economic development. With less dependency
tech-related ventures and $1bn spent in venture on hydrocarbon wealth it has perhaps even more
capital each year indicating an innovative business opportunities than in other established business
community. Africa will continue to grow and the aviation markets like Western Africa or Southern
opportunities are abundant for international and Total number of Africa.
continental business. In fact, according to the WEF Ethiopia is the
business jets
worlds fastest growing economy and it is therefore
operating in no surprise that AfBAA launched its first Country
Oil power
African countries Chapter in Addis Ababa in 2016. When AfBAA
In terms of business aviation, it was initially the in 2015 (from launched, Ethiopia wasnt deemed to be an active
hydrocarbon markets that spurred the sectors area but it has become incredibly vibrant and
growth. There was a rapid rise in business jet
ASG Africa we want to support the potential. The Ethiopian
use in countries such as Nigeria and Angola Business Jet country chapter operates under the guidance of
until fluctuating oil prices took their toll. Jet sales Fleet Report). AfBAA, but focuses on supporting and enabling the
have slowed, partly due to slowing economies in predicted development by providing a platform for
these nations, but also because the initial capital stakeholders who have an interest in the country
expenditure had been made investing in new aircraft to debate and discuss challenges and solutions for
in the previous decade. Prior to this, Africa was a sustainable development.
dumping ground for old jets, however, these days Ethiopia is home to the African Union (AU)
serious businesses maximise their jets, not buying a and is increasingly attracting business interest
new one each year, but making sure the assets are from the international community, partly fuelled by
delivering good returns on their investment. the rapid growth of its national carrier Ethiopian
We are also seeing business aviation growth Airlines. AfBAA held its third regional symposium
from other sectors. Medevac operations delivering in Addis Ababa and it was clear that the AU had
passengers to centres of medical expertise; a rise focused on commercial aviation development, as
in UAVs being used for functional tasks such as opposed to business aviation. After attending our
surveying, mapping, delivering badly needed medical symposium, ministers openly agreed that business
supplies; and within tourism itself theres increasing aviation was an area that needed their attention.
demand for sight-seeing flights and shuttle services This change in Ethiopia perfectly reflects the
between safari destinations and principal airports. power of AfBAA and our approach to advocating
There is also diversification in the regions hit by for the sector.

@aerosociety i Find us on LinkedIn f Find us on Facebook www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017 27


EAN
BUSINESS AVIATION
Africa

develop training offerings that can be delivered


through credible training organisations at international
and continental levels.
JAA TO and AATO are well known, active
entities in Africa, and it is anticipated the MoUs will
support AfBAAs ongoing aim of developing the
understanding by African operators, regulators and
governments about the value of business aviation.
AfBAA plans to initiate a signature Business Aviation
101 course, that will create awareness about the
specific requirements of the business aviation sector in
Commercial growth Africa, and how it differs from the commercial market.
With these new relationships in place we are
Commercial airline growth is also one of the strongest Nigerias EAN better positioned to improve access to standardised
factors supporting the sustained development of Aviation offers information, provide credible courses continent
business aviation in Africa as business and leisure wide, and encourage African professionals to be
travel is developing beyond country borders. With a modern FBO trained in, and then subsequently work in, African
a burgeoning middle-class analysts suggest that lounge and holds business aviation. As part of our training commitment
well over 100m Africans now manage discretionary IS BAH status. we have encouraged our members to adopt and
income and have heightened travel requirements. adapt international safety standards to convey
This in turn drives economic growth that requires the commitment the continents suppliers have to
infrastructure support. However, commercial aviation providing international levels of service.
is still very restricted on the routes that can be flown.
Often if you need to get from point A to point B you
must fly via point C and D. What should be a simple
two-hour flight between countries can turn into a day-
long voyage. This is driving a rising demand for the
benefits of business aviation from those developing
commercial enterprises.

Business facilitator
The continents executives are realising that executive
aviation is not a luxury but a facilitator in conducting
business as the benefits of privacy, security, time
saving, efficiency and productivity are realised.
Conversely the legacy of these strong airlines,
including Ethiopian Airlines, Kenya Airways, and the
upcoming RwandAir, equates to the need for highly
trained and qualified human resources.
This remains a key theme for AfBAA, the
recruiting, training and retention of skilled workers. The
association has a very active training committee which
THE
has made great strides in the past year as it has drawn CONTINENTS
attention to the needs of the market. It is an area full BUSINESS
of challenges, that we share with the commercial AVIATION
airline sector. Finding the right people, with the right
skills to build the African aviation community.
SECTOR IS
The continents business aviation sector is OFTEN HELD
often held back owing to a lack of understanding BACK OWING
of its benefits, sometimes from within aviation itself. TO A LACK OF
To strengthen our commitment to educating the
African business aviation sector AfBAA signed two UNDERSTANDING
significant Memos of Understanding (MoU), with OF ITS BENEFITS,
leading international aviation training organisations SOMETIMES
earlier in 2017. The agreements with the Association
of African Aviation Training Organizations, AATO and
FROM WITHIN
the Joint Aviation Authorities Training Organisation, AVIATION
JAA TO, enable AfBAA to identify, design and ITSELF

28 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


The first dedicated African business
aviation show, AfBAC EXPO will take
place at ExecuJet South Africas
Lanserias facility on 29 Nov -1 Dec.

Improving safety

Zipline
Weve seen significant improvements in the
ground infrastructure in some countries since we
launched, while in others nothing has changed at all.
However, if we talk generically there is certainly a

Execujet
greater awareness about safety, the value of safety
management systems and how to effectively use
them. We are delighted to see that a couple of our
members have invested time, money and training
Zipline humanitarian medical
into improving their offering. Bestfly now holds IS- will run in parallel, as will an afternoon session
UAV delivery service is an BAO accreditation while EAN, and ExecuJet hold dedicated to the booming area of remotely piloted
example of aviation innovation IS-BAH accreditation. The value of safety cannot aerial systems, RPAS.
now taking place in Africa. be underestimated and there is a perception that
African safety standards are lower than elsewhere, Five years of progress
our mission is to alter this perception and support our
members in reaching world-class operating standards. In our five years, we have achieved much, and brightly
Passion continues to support the growth of shone the spotlight on the potential for business
business aviation in Africa. We are pleasantly aviation in Africa. We have generated collective
surprised to receive feedback about the dynamism energy, experience, and resources to support,
of our conferences and events, that the rooms are improve, and fuel the continued growth of African
always full not just of people, but of people with Business Aviation. We have achieved this thanks
passion for what they do. They are committed to to the participation of our members both national
making Africa respected as an aviation community and international. After all, Africa does not operate
and will continue to contribute their own valuable in global isolation. All have contributed to creating
time, as well as their business acumen, to improving a professional, effective, credible organisation that
the industry. is dedicated to upholding the long-term vision and
values of AfBAA, and all those it represents. To
Wide membership ensure this continued development into the future,
we believe it is crucial that we continue to create
Five years on, AfBAA welcomes 119 members frameworks on which the future of African business
representing the full gamete of aviation. OEMs, aviation can be laid out. The Association is committed
international trip planners, fuel providers and to identifying, addressing and implementing solutions
manufacturers sit alongside Africa-based operators, across a range of critical issues, which support the
FBOs and suppliers. Many have continued to sustainable growth of our industry.
grow and evolve along with the Association by We are actively seeking solutions to simplify
augmenting the network, experience and knowledge the aviation experience for business aviation users.
AfBAA brings to them. One of our proudest We recognise the need to improve the quality of
achievements is the networking opportunities we human capital through efficient access to safety
provide through the series of symposia, forums management system information and specialised
and events that we organise which brings together training. We will continue to advocate on behalf of
stakeholders to be educated, informed and inspired. our industry at national, regional, intra-continental
Informal information exchange is vital. and international levels. Most importantly, as
AfBAAs sterling portfolio of events which business cannot develop strategy without facts,
launched in Morocco four years ago with our first we will continue to identify and report on industry
regional symposium, really adds value to member trends and topics
networking and expands the knowledge base. This
year, to mark our fifth anniversary, we launched Sunny future
AfBAC Expo, Africas first dedicated exhibition,
static and conference which will take place at Looking forward we only see sunshine on the
Lanseria International Airport, Johannesburg, horizon. We are working closely with IBAC to
South Africa, from 29 November until 1 December become members, we will continue to expand our
2017. The conference objective is to inspire and events collection and for our members we will be
inform through a variety of mediums including creating new benefits. We plan to establish several
presentations from industry leaders, dynamic panel valuable white papers and research projects that
discussions from experts in their field, as well as will enhance strategic decision making. We will
a selection of workshops that will discuss current continue to remain focused on our overall guiding
Textron

topics affecting business aviation development in vision, and are committed to the continent for the
Africa. Training sessions on safety and regulation long term.

@aerosociety i Find us on LinkedIn f Find us on Facebook.com www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017 29


SHOW REPORT
TADTE 2017

Taiwan aims for


space at latest show

TADTE
TADTE

At the TADTE (Taipei Aerospace & Defence Technology Exhibition)


show held recently in Taipei, a focus on finding joint partners, as well as
developing national capabilities to conduct low-cost space research, was
very much in evidence. ANDREW DRWIEGA reports.

T
he 14th biennial Taipei Aerospace defence development, he praised the National
& Defence Technology Exhibition Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology
(TADTE) was staged at the Taipei World (NCSIST), noting that many new projects were on
Trade Centre (17-19 August) and show at the exhibition, including a Taiwanese-made
organised by the Taiwan External Trade submarine which would be operating within a decade
Shiann Jung Yu, Deputy
Development Council (TAITRA). The show featured (a model of it was being shown in the dedicated
Director General,
141 national and international exhibiting companies NCSIST diplay area for the first time).
National Applied
that are predominantly involved in air, naval, land, Taiwans NCSIST area presented numerous
Research Laboratories
unmanned and space. International participants displays, including a model of the XAT-5 Blue
stands by a full-size
included Rockwell Collins, Harris, Lockheed Martin, Magpie advanced jet trainer which is scheduled
model of the recently
General Dynamics Mission Systems, Honeywell for service entry in 2019. In February this year,
launched Formosat-5
Aerospace and Chemring, among others. $2.2bn of contracts were signed between the
satellite.
One of the main special interest exhibits was Republic of China Air Force (RoCAF), the National
the SpaceTech area, which comprised organisations, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology
companies and universities involved in all aspects (NCIST) iNCSIST and Taiwans Aerospace
of satellite development, sensor development and Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC) for
space research. Other areas included Drone Taiwan the development and production of 66 jet trainers.
2017, which was dedicated to unmanned systems Based on the AIDC F-CK-1 Ching Kuo Indigenous
for mainly civil applications and featured a netted Defense Fighter (IDF). It still requires some
UAV flying zone. structural modifications to reduce weight and up
The opening was performed by Vice President to four wing-tip configurations are currently under
Chien-Jen Chen who gave a welcome address in review.
which he stated that technological developments Also on display was an NCSIST ASRD MALE
made by TADTE companies gave him confidence UAV, together with a Taiwanese-developed
Via author

about the future contribution of aviation and defence simulation system for ground control operators and
towards the nations economy. In the area of general pilots.

30 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


All images TADTE

Upward to the stars four-metre multi-spectral resolution images. The


main payload was developed domestically by a team
The Taiwanese government has set a course including NSPO institutions and commercial partners:
to grow its indigenous defence and aerospace ITRC (Instrument Technology Research Center),
platforms, often as a result of frustrations caused by CIC (National Chip Implementation Center), CSIST
International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). While (Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology),
it has a plethora of defence ambitions, one sector AIDC (Aerospace Industrial Development
that is visibly taking off is its satellite development Corporation), CIS (CMOS Sensor Inc), and CAMELS
programme which has been under way for over two Vision Technologies.
decades.
On 24 August at 11:51am Taiwans latest
Earth observation satellite was blasted into orbit
from Space Launch Complex 4 East (SLC-4E) at
Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB) in California.
Advanced Jet Trainer
It was deployed using a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch
Via author
vehicle which deployed the satellite approximately 11
minutes after launch into its targeted orbit.
The Formosat-5 satellite is the latest of its
kind to be sent into space by Taiwan's National
Space Organisation (NSPO) and replaces the older
Formosat-2 which was launched in May 2004 and is
now at the end of its lifetime. It is unique in being the
first satellite to be completely designed by Taiwanese
industry through NSPO.
The cost of the launch was around $23m with
the Taiwanese satellite being the only payload
onboard. Weighing around 450kg, it is a Low Earth
Orbit (LEO) satellite and will operate around 720km
The new Advanced Jet Trainer a collaboration between ASRD within NCSIST.
from Earth. There was originally another satellite
Contracts for the new Advanced Jet Trainer for the Taiwan Air Force were signed
due to go on the same launch but its timeline was between the Republic of China Air Force (RoCAF) and the National Chung-Shan
advanced and moved to an Indian launcher instead. Institute of Science and Technology (NCIST) in February this year. The ROCAF
Formosa-5 is a high resolution, Earth remote require around 66 trainers which are based on the Indigenous Defense Fighter (IDF).
optical sensing satellite that uses a remote sensing As yet there is no set date for first flight.
imager (RSI) to provide two-metre panachronic and

@aerosociety i Find us on LinkedIn f Find us on Facebook www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017 31


Via author
SHOW REPORT
TADTE 2017

The Formosat-7 is a
Taiwan-US collaboration
between Taiwan's National
Space Organisation and the
US National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) to provide a
12-satellite constellation
measuring atmospheric and
ionosphere soundings.

Taiwans satellite more than 2.5m images over 12 years of operation


before it was decommissioned in August last year.
programme Formosat-3, a collaborative project between
NSPO and UCAR (University Corporation for
NSPO was founded in 1991 by the Taiwan Atmospheric Research) in the US, was initiated in
government under the Ministry of Science and December 1997 to launch a constellation of six
Technology with the aim of developing a national micro satellites which would collect atmospheric
space programme for Taiwan, explained Shiann-Jeng remote sensing data for operational weather
Yu, Deputy Director General of NSPO, talking to prediction, climate, ionospheric and geodesy
AEROSPACE at the organisations stand at this years research (and which is now being replaced by
Taipei Aerospace & Defence Technology Exhibition Formosat-7).
(TADTE 2017). Formosat-7 is a joint project between the
Yu explained that the Formosat-5 project began United States and Taiwan which supplied the space
in 2009. The bus and payload are both built by bus and satellite operation control centre. We
NSPO. The sensor is the most critical element and wanted to build a high resolution satellite with a
the hardest part that had to be built by Taiwans synthetic aperture radar with both civil and military
industry. He revealed that one satellite programme applications. It still weighs less than 450kg and uses
typically takes around five years to develop through a constellation of 12 remote sensing micro satellites
to launch. NSPO does not build satellites specifically to collect atmospheric data for weather prediction
for military use, said Yu. There was hope that the and for ionosphere, climate and gravity research.
Formosat-6 satellite would have a launcher built by The programme will eventually comprise a
the Ministry of Defence but that did not happen. 12-satellite constellation for atmospheric and
The original plan was to source the sensor ionospheric measurement (replacing the six
A Reconfigurable from the international community but, due to ITAR satellites of Formosat-3). Another US satellite will
Combat Simulation restrictions, it meant that internal resources had make up the other part of the payload which will be
to be identified and used. In addition to the main launched by a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. The
System (RCSS)
sensor payload, an advanced ionospheric probe projects cost is estimated at around $3bn Taiwanese
from NCSIST (AIP) has been included which was developed by the dollars ($100m).
based on a National Central University (NCU). This will be used Software development has been key to the
generic helicopter to examine the influence of the ionospheric physical whole satellite programme, said Yu. Miniaturisation
cockpit features a parameters on space climate and communication. has played an important part in terms of software for
cylindrical screen Most of the research is for government, around the satellite and the Taiwanese ground control centre
with 7 metre 90%, with only 10% being open to domestic and has also benefited from a software upgrade which
international users, said Yu. will carry it through the Formosat-5 and Formosat-7
diameter and 200 The sequence of satellite development has projects.
degrees horizontal progressed numerically. Formosat-1, an Earth One of the main missions Formosat-7 will deliver
field of view. observation satellite weighing just over 400kg, was is to further advance global weather analysis and
launched by Lockheed Martin in January 1999 and prediction. This will again be achieved through the
was decommissioned in July 2004. As Yu points collection of atmospheric and ionospheric data. The
out: it was a science experiment, with a colour 12-satellites constellation for an operation mission."
Via author

motion sensor to monitor oceans, a developmental As for the future, Yu said: We are trying to get
step towards Ka-band communications, as well as approval for our future programme. We want to build
ionosphere research. a micro satellite weighing only 200kg. It will give a
Formosat-2 (being replaced by Formosat-5) was 1m resolution for civil use but cannot comment on
a high-resolution photographic surveillance satellite any possible military application. We want to build
launched in May 2004 on a Taurus XL rocket. It had a higher resolution satellite with SAR application for
remote sensing imager that could provide resolution combined civil/military use. The launch vehicle for
to 8m, and black and white resolution to 2m. future projects is likely to be SpaceXs Falcon Heavy,
Formosat-2 was very successful in that it produced which was chosen by the US Air Force.

32 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


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SHOW REPORT
TADTE 2017

Right: An anti-UAV Defence


SpaceX

Via author
System (AUDS) based on
an integrated UAV catcher
vehicle with threat alert
radar detection, electro-
optical imaging and GPS/RC
jamming in a management
system. The detection will
operate up to 4km while the
remote system suppression
is up to 2km although GPS
signal interference reaches
Formosat-5 is deployed in sun synchronous out to 10km. The UAV
orbit at 723km. catcher has a range of 1km.

Via author
Sounding rocket micro sats (cube sats are miniaturised satellites for
space research that are made up of multiples of 10
research 10 10cm cubic units).
Tsung-Lin Chen, one of the project leaders within
The HTTP-3 Sounding Rocket Project, backed by the department of engineering and science at the
the Advanced Rocket Research Centre (ARRC), is Chiao Tung University, explained that: we see the
a collaboration between professors and students of future space market for this type of rocket as huge
the National Chiao Tung University to produce a two- launching small satellites up to around 500km. Next
stage rocket that will reach 100km. Sounding rockets years launch of a two-stage rocket will reach over
typically fill the research void from the maximum 100km.
height of weather balloons that go up to 50km above The project has involved a core of six to seven
the Earth, to beyond 300km where regular space professors in the university backed by a variety of
activity takes over. students as they pass through during their academic
Although Taiwans rocket research programme lives. Being academic and not commercial, they
began in 1997 under the NSPO, it can be always face the twin challenges of lack of funding
categorised into three phases. The first ran from the and not having teams working all day, every day on
inception date to 2003 and involved three sounding the project.
rocket launches. The second, from 2003 until the Alongside NSPO in the SpaceTech area of
end of 2018, saw 10-15 launches in the early days TADTE was a company called Liscotech, who are
with many failures and has been hampered by a lack producing a MicroEye high performance camera
of funding which has gradually seen it devolve to a system for use in micro sats.
relatively amateur team of professors and students. The MicroEye imaging system can provide
In recent times there has only been one successful 5.5m monochrome image or 11m colour at a
launch three years ago of a single stage rocket which distance of around 500km through an 8 megapixel
achieved a height of several tens of kilometres. colour sensor. It would be installed in a 2U
However, the team is currently working towards a CubeSat alongside NSPOs x-band transmitter.
more reliable two-stage rocket for a possible launch Applications would include disaster warning, farming,
date to be established next year. If the project is environmental management, as well as military
successful, it would be used to launch cube sats and surveillance.

34 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


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TECHNOLOGY
Aircraft humidity systems

Swedish air

CTT Systems
control
BILL READ FRAeS visits Swedish aircraft cabin humidity control specialists
CTT Systems to see the products being made and to discover the secrets
of the companys success.

N
ykping is a small town in central products the zonal drying system which prevents
Sweden near the Baltic coast condensation from forming inside aircraft structures
between Norrkping and Stockholm. and the humidification system which increases
The town boasts a picturesque humidity inside the aircraft cabin to improve
river, a medieval castle and passenger comfort. The company supplies systems
the headquarters of CTT Systems, a Swedish for installation on new aircraft, retrofits for aircraft
company specialising in the manufacture of aircraft already in service and systems for VIP aircraft.
humidification and dehumidification systems. Tucked These include zonal dryers for the Boeing 737,
away in a small industrial estate, CTTs facility is 787, 777X, Airbus A320, A350 and A380 and
responsible for the management, marketing, testing, humidifiers for the 787, 777X, A320, A350 and
final assembly and after-sales service for all its Irkhut MC-21. Despite its relatively small size, CTT
aircraft systems. now has OEM 2000 products installed in aircraft
CTT manufactures two different but operated by 50 airlines and on more than 600
complementary aerospace humidity control products retrofitted in 30 airlines.

36 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


CTT Systems

CTT Systems
Above: More passengers create more water. Zonal drying units are often installed in the crown area for
Left, opposite page: Cutaway of a CTT zonal dryer. widebodies and in the cargo area on narrowbodies.

Everything under one roof on the use of an aircraft the more passengers
you have, the higher the humidity level you get,
The top floor of the building contains CTTs comments Peter Landquist. If you are operating
administrative departments, including technical, in Northern Europe where you have long cold
finance, quality, engineering, customer support winters, then the aircraft never dries out. The
and product design. We are not a design fuselage material doesnt make much difference
organisation but we do all the design ourselves, you still get condensation forming on both
explains CTTs VP Sales & Marketing Peter metal and composite surfaces.
Landquist. When were working on a system for CTT has tackled this problem with its Zonal
a new aircraft type we design everything in CAD. Drying System which prevents excess moisture
Using Pro Engineer 3D software, we can create from being formed by producing dry air with
designs for units in different aircraft, together a low dewpoint. Using the drying system we
with structural and electrical installation, as well prevent the moist air from reaching the aircraft
as testing. We talk to aircraft manufacturers structure, explains Landquist. We do this by
such as Boeing and Airbus to try to get as much taking the moisture out of the crown area and
information from them as possible and ask if we creating a constant flow of air. The process can
can send a team to see the aircraft. Sometimes be compared to what happens when you dry out
we have to buy technical drawings but the a wet towel outside the reason it is drying is
problem is that you cant see all the different because dry air is passing through it.
design options. It is often faster if you go to Zonal dryers consist of a cylinder fitted to a
the aircraft where you can get more accurate fan which draws in air through one end. The air is
information. diverted into two streams, 80% of the air passing
CTT is also an EASA 21 production facility. through a rotating glass fibre sorption rotor fitted
From top: Absorption rotors
When we do retrofits, we work with Lufthansa with axial holes. The holes are filled with silica waiting to be fitted into zonal
Technik (LHT) in Hamburg which acts as our gel crystals which absorb moisture, so that dry air drying units; An empty zonal
design organisation, says Peter Landquist. We emerges from the other end. The remaining 20% drying rotor; A digital plan
do the work, LHT looks at what we have done and of the air is heated up to around 110deg C which for a retrofit designed to fit
into the crown of a Boeing
then they seek the necessary approval from the also passes through the drum. As the drum slowly
777; Retrofit zonal dryer for
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and rotates at around 10-11 laps per hour, water from the Boeing 787 showing the
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). the moist air is absorbed into the crystals which exits for dry air and heated air;
are then dried out again by the heated air. Zonal dryers for the Airbus
It is a constant process, producing dry air and A350.
Water on the plane
regenerating the rotor, Landquist explains. The
The first humidity control product made by CTT water remains in the aircraft but it is vapour rather
is the zonal drying system. During flight, the than liquid. When the aircraft is in flight, the trick
differences in temperature between the inside is to produce air with a dewpoint lower than
and outside of an aircraft create large amounts the -25deg C outside. Our system can reduce
of condensation. Each passenger adds to this condensation by 75-80% but there will still be
by exhaling around 70 grams of water an hour. some condensation because the dry air cannot
Water created on the inside skin of the aircraft reach all the areas of the aircraft. However, once
can cause damage to the insulation and be a the aircraft lands, the system is operating as long
nuisance to both passengers and crew, while the as there is power on the aircraft and continues to
extra weight of water costs the airline in higher evaporate the condensation.
fuel consumption. Many aircraft fitted with CTTs zonal drying
Depending on the number of passengers, system only need one basic unit but the ducting
operation and climate zone, condensation can needs to be customised for different aircraft. The
increase the aircraft weight by over half a ton. A320, 737 and 757 only need one unit but the
How much water you have in an aircraft depends A330 and the 787 use two and the 747-8 four.

@aerosociety i Find us on LinkedIn f Find us on Facebook www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017 37


TECHNOLOGY
Aircraft humidity systems

CTT Systems
CTT Systems

Left: A diagram showing function to enable the humidifier to operate. The


Comforting first class and business the principle of a humidifier
passengers water is sprayed on the pad for 1-1.5 seconds and
adding moisture to dry air.
then the pad is dried, says Landquist.
Right: The cabin
The second of CTTs product line are humidifiers. humidification system is only The humidifiers are controlled by a CAIR control
While the job of zonal dryers is to remove water used during flight while the unit (CCU) that can communicate with the aircraft
from inside cabin structures, the aim of the zonal drying system is used system or with a cabin-management system. The
humidifier unit is to put it back again into areas both in the air and on the CCU also communicates with the zonal drying
ground.
of the passenger cabin which are too dry. Cabin system for on/off functions. Some of the water is
humidity is dictated by the number of people automatically drained after each operation to ensure
within the cabin, explains Landquist. Its a little- no build-up of any bacteria while the complete
known fact that the air quality in Economy class water system is disinfected and drained at regular
is generally a lot better than that in Business or intervals.
First. The optimum comfort zone is between 20
to 50% relative humidity but in most First class Under test
cabins it is around 5%, 7-10% in Business and
12% in Economy. A large VIP aircraft cabin will have CTTs Nykping facility also includes areas
significantly lower humidity than a first class cabin dedicated to testing, both for developing new
due to the fewer number of passengers. CTT claims products and for testing existing ones. We test
that its CAIR Humidification System can change the everything very carefully before we deliver it,
relative humidity to 22% in First and Business and says Landquist. In the testing area we can create
16% in Economy. different temperature and humidity conditions. We
The heart of a humidifier unit is a glass fibre have to do this because the big OEMs, such as
honeycomb pad through which the air passes. The From left to right: A CTT
Airbus and Boeing, require that we do significant
pad is fitted with a tubing system which sprays humidifier unit case being testing to see how the unit performs under different
water onto the pad from the aircrafts potable water assembled by hand; A pad conditions. We have to design the system so we
supply. To avoid the risk of refilling the whole aircraft ready for insertion into a dont get too much of a pressure drop, so every
humidifier; Peter Landquist
with moist air, the unit is fitted with a software system is designed with a margin. If you go above
demonstrates how the pad is
controller that speaks to the main controller located inserted into the humidifier that margin, then you have to recalibrate that
on the zonal dryer, so the drying system needs to case. system. Sometimes airlines have to cool down the

38 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


cabin and we have to test that this wont cause any Top right: An A350 cabin
freezing conditions. When we retrofit aircraft we humidifier and cabin crew rest
humidifier under test.
have to know what limits we have to work within, Lower right: Zonal drying
such as pressure, temperature and humidity levels. systems fitted to different
We also look at the lifetime of pads and for any aircraft types.
signs of leakage. In addition to proving the system
to the OEMs and airlines, we learn from the testing
as well and the more testing we can do, the better
we can develop.
There are also testing areas where the humidity
systems are shaken for prolonged periods of time or
subjected to very cold temperatures to simulate the
conditions that might be experienced in flight.
CTT also has a computer programme which
can calculate different humidity levels for aircraft
not fitted with its systems, compared to aircraft
with the system. We can enter numbers for the

CTT Systems
airflow, relative humidity, cabin pressure and number
of passengers per cabin zone - allowing for a 70g
evaporation rate for each passenger, Landquist
remarks. Using this programme, we can show
airlines not only that their premium cabin area is dry
but also how dry.

Free maintenance
CTTs Nykping facility also includes a maintenance
department which repairs used units and then tests
them on its own test rig. Typical repairs include fixing
issues such as broken fans, gearboxes or heaters. OUR BUSINESS
This department is deliberately separate from the CASE TO
production area, so that there is no risk of an old AIRLINES IS
part being used in a new unit, states Landquist. BASED ON FUEL
Some airlines can get their units repaired for free if
they are still under warranty (the one for the 787 is
SAVINGS AND
four years) while those carriers with units more than INCREASED
four years old have to pay for repairs. LIFETIME OF
AIRCRAFT
OEM options COMPONENTS
CTTs systems are either installed new by the OEM AND
or as retrofits. Our systems dont come as standard INSULATION
on new aircraft except for the 787, airlines still have Peter Landquist
to order the system separately, Landquist explains. CTT, VP Sales &
For example, our equipment can now be ordered Marketing 300s, in July from Pobeda Airlines for 14 Boeing
with the 737NG and Boeing will install it as BFE on 737-800s and in August from Novair for two Airbus
the production line. We are hoping that it will also A321neos.
be available as an option for the 737 MAX, as weve Our business case to airlines is based on
got MAX operators interested in buying the system. fuel savings and increased lifetime of aircraft
components and insulation, concludes Peter
Air drying is good business Landquist. However, we are having some problems
because the fuel price is too low, so the savings
Business for CTT continues to look good with made by reducing aircraft weight are not high
the company winning a number of additional new enough. We are currently concentrating on the
contracts this year. In January CTT was selected low-cost airlines that operate in a cold environment
by Boeing to provide humidification systems for where more condensation is generated. However,
the flight deck, crew rests and premier class cabin we think our time is coming for other parts of the
zones for the new 777X. Orders for zonal drying world, as more airlines are flying high density aircraft
systems were received in May from AZUR Aviation CTT VP Sales & Marketing which carry an excess of between 300-350kg of
for two Boeing 757-200s and seven Boeing 767- Peter Landquist. water.

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ONLINE VISITOR THE DESTINATION
REGISTRATION FOR AEROSPACE
NOW OPEN

1 2 - 16 NOV E M BER 2 0 1 7
DWC, DUBAI AIRSHOW SIT E

W W W. DUBA IA IRSH OW.AE R O


Afterburner
www.aerosociety.com

Diary
21-22 November
Commercialisation of
Space: Realising UK
Goals for Innovation
and Growth
2017 Presidents Conference

SpaceXs Dragon cargo craft is seen during final


approach to the International Space Station. The
commercial spacecraft launched on 19 February and
carried about 5,500lb of experiments and supplies.
NASA.

42 Message from RAeS 44 Book Reviews 50 N


 ew Corporate Partners
Two new companies join the Societys Corporate
- President Russian Aviation, Space Flight, and Visual Culture,
VC10 Icon of the Skies and The Avro 748. Partner Scheme.
I would like to encourage all of our members to
consider how our programme of events can be more 52 Diary
inclusive and hence more effective for all of us. For 47 Library Additions Find out when and where around the world the
example, last year the Presidents Conference on
Technology in Aerospace, raised a wide range of Books submitted to the National Aerospace Library. latest aeronautical and aerospace lectures and
issues for the future. events are happening.
48 IT FLIES UK
- Chief Executive The 2017 IT FLIES UK competition at The 56 Elections
Coming up this month we have the Sopwith University of Manchester was the most international New Society members elected in the past month.
Lecture in London when Tony Wood FRAeS, COO yet.
at Meggitt, will look at the concepts of uncertainty
and disruption and how the aerospace and defence
industry are facing those challenges.

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Afterburner
Message from RAeS
OUR PRESIDENT
ACM Sir Stephen Dalton
This summer has seen a fascinating range of

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute


developing aerospace concepts take significant
steps forward and many of them have been
showcased at the various airshows around the
globe. With the first deployment of the Lightning
IIs (F-35) here in the UK and Europe, the
demonstrations of new airliners, such as the Airbus
A350 variants, and the announcement that new
corporate jets, such as the Gulfstream 600, are
in production, the aviation industry is clearly still
growing and developing.
Indeed, there are a number of major trade
shows, such as Dubai 2017, still to come this
year and in Singapore in early 2018. The big A feature on Saturns rings known informally as Bleriots propeller.
The photograph was taken by the Cassini probe on 12 April. Are
aircraft and aero-engine manufacturers use these
the last few days of the Cassini mission the end of the beginning
shows to demonstrate their aircraft/engines to one aspect of early spaceflight?
performance and, while any potential purchaser will
look to analyse the performance figures in much
more detail away from the air show, the smaller the, as yet unrealised, opportunities that will come
component level manufacturers and suppliers from greater commercial approaches to the use of
value and use these shows to raise their profile. space. As we watch the amazing images of Saturn
These trade shows allow the SMEs to demonstrate taken in the last few orbits of the Cassini probe, we
to manufacturers and customers alike that they are watching the end of the beginning to one aspect
have a great deal to offer and can be effective and of early spaceflight. Over the next few years, there
valuable partners by using innovation and employing will be many more nations and commercial players
unique skills and knowledge to enhance aircraft seeking to maximise the use of space vis--vis the
and business performance. Equally, the Royal UKs Government intent to establish a commercial
Aeronautical Society uses its extensive programme spaceport and for such actors to take advantage of
of lectures, conferences and seminars to offer what space offers, scientifically, technologically and
ALL operators, manufacturers, suppliers, logistics yes, economically as well. The Royal Aeronautical
companies and academics the opportunity to raise Society has the opportunity to project the future
and discuss relevant issues with their peer groups uses of space and to raise those issues that need
across the aerospace discipline and beyond. addressing internationally, if the drive for greater
I would like to encourage all of our members commercial use of space is to be to the benefit of
to consider how our programme of events can all and not the source of unnecessary and wasteful
be more inclusive and hence more effective for disagreement among those entering this fantastic
all of us. For example, last year the Presidents world of discovery and potential.
Conference on Technology in Aerospace, raised At the recent New Fellows Reception, I and
a wide range of issues for the future. Of particular members of the Council had the opportunity to
note was the fascinating session on safety and personally welcome the newly elected Fellows to the
non-cognitive failure among decision makers and Society. In discussions, we identified to them that
THE ROYAL operators, leading to an animated discussion on the Council and the Medals and Awards Committee
AERONAUTICAL the role of pilots and computers in safely handling are constantly looking for opportunities to recognise
aircraft emergencies. As we prepare for this years the extra work of RAeS members in promoting
SOCIETY HAS THE Conference on Greater Commercialisation of Space the aerospace community and our Society. While
OPPORTUNITY and the broader access to space that technology not every case/individual contribution can be
TO PROJECT THE is increasingly going to allow, I would like to think recognised, we are keen to seek recommendations,
that our membership has a great deal to offer. Many particularly from the Societys Fellows and then,
FUTURE USES
of our members have the expertise to help ensure judged against the excellent work of our members,
OF SPACE AND that the global community is ready and prepared for to identify and honour those specific members
TO RAISE THOSE greater and greater use of space. We should be able who have made an extraordinary contribution to
ISSUES THAT to put forward coherent advice and impartial opinion our profession and/or our Society. I would like to
on what is needed to guide and assist governments, encourage such nominations by and across our
NEED manufacturers and commercial operators as they membership; there is so much great work being
ADDRESSING seek to propel more and more of us into the space done and so few opportunities to recognise those
INTERNATIONALLY dimension and to take advantage, responsibly, of special contributions by our members.

42 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


OUR CHIEF EXECUTIVE
Simon C Luxmoore
As Sir Stephen has referred to in his editorial, Future Aerospace Workplace. The conference
this years RAeS Presidents Conference will programme provided delegates with a series
explore the key role space plays for the wider of interactive lectures delivered by a wide
society and role of commercial space activities range of experienced speakers from across
in contributing to government ambitions the aerospace industry. Workshops and
for innovation and growth in the UK space presentations managed to cover a huge variety
economy. I hope many of our members will join of subjects, including aircraft maintenance,
us in London from 21-22 November, especially cockpit design, additive layer manufacturing
as we will host the 2017 RAeS Awards and 3D design. The event was a great
Ceremony on the evening of 21 November to success and attracted over 100 early-career
celebrate excellence and achievement across professionals from a diverse range of aerospace
the global industry. organisations. Many thanks, once again, to Willis
THE 2017 YOUNG Coming up this month we have the Sopwith Lease Finance Corporation for kindly sponsoring
PERSONS Lecture in London when Tony Wood FRAeS, the event.
CONFERENCE COO at Meggitt, will look at the concepts of Although autumn is only just beginning, were
TOOK PLACE ON uncertainty and disruption and how the aerospace starting to get ready for Christmas with our
and defence industry are facing those challenges. range of merchandise and Christmas cards on
6 SEPTEMBER The following month we welcome Alan Joyce sale via our online shop at www.aerosociety.
AND WAS FRAeS, CEO of Qantas to give the Brabazon com/shop and well be hosting Christmas
ENTITLED Lecture. I hope many of our members will be able parties at No.4 Hamilton Place throughout the
to join us for these events and participate in some festive season. If you are looking to organise an
THE FUTURE event for your clients or colleagues, then get in
interesting discussions and networking.
AEROSPACE The 2017 Young Persons Conference took touch to find out about our delicious seasonal
WORKPLACE place on 6 September and was entitled The menus to celebrate the end of the year.

RAeS 2018 MEMBERSHIP SUBSCRIPTIONS


Membership Grade 2018 Notes
Subscription Rate 1. CPI Rate Average 12 months to July 2017 1.9%.
2. 2017 Membership Subscriptions increased by CPI (rounded up/down to
Fellow or Companion 347 nearest ).
Fellow or Companion 20% discount 278 3. Members who have or will be reaching normal retirement age in 2018 are
Member 234 entitled to pay subscriptions at the Baseline Rate.
Member 20% discount 187 4. Members who have or will be retiring during the course of the year can apply
Associate Member 145 for the 20% discount on their subscriptions. Note if the 20% discount takes
Associate 133 the subscription below the Baseline Rate then the Baseline Rate will apply.
E-Associate 47 5. Student (full time) and Apprentice Affiliates can either choose online
Affiliate 120 membership only (Free) or membership which includes a subscription to the
Student Affiliate 0/45 Societys AEROSPACE publication at 45pa see the Societys website for
Apprentice Affiliate 0/45 more information.
Baseline Rate 120 6. Members have the option to pay their subscriptions by Direct Debits either in
one sum in January 2018 or in ten monthly instalments from January 2018.
Administration Fees
Grade Application Transfer Note 1: Please note the admin fees are paid in advance and are non-refundable.
Fee Fee Note 2: Employees working for companies which belong to the Societys
Fellow or Companion 146 53 Corporate Partner Scheme have the Entry and Transfer Admin Fees waived
All other grades 73 53 check www.aerosociety.com/Corporate for details.

2018 Engineering Council Registration Fees


2018 Annual Fees 2018 Entry Fees
Category CEng IEng EngTech/ CEng IEng EngTech/
ICTTech ICTTech
Full 39.00 33.00 19.00 50.70 42.80 17.50
Interim 13.90 13.90 13.90 10.40 10.40 10.40
Reduced 17.60 14.70 8.40 - - -

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Afterburner
Book Reviews
RUSSIAN AVIATION, SPACE FLIGHT, AND VISUAL CULTURE
Edited by V Strukov and
H Gosclio
Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2 Park Square,
Milton Park, Abingdon OX14 4RN, UK. 2017.
295pp. 100. ISBN 978-1-1389-5198-3.

Between the Wright brothers first flight in 1903


and Lindberghs solo Atlantic crossing in 1927,
air transportation came of age. In Russia, another
upheaval was in progress that had far-reaching
political and social consequences. After the
failure of 1905, in 1917 the Bolshevik revolution
succeeded and, by the mid-1920s, Stalin ruled.
In the years that followed, the USSR sought to
use aviation and then space as symbols of Soviet
modernity.
Russian Aviation, Space Flight, and Visual
Culture explores how these themes have been
depicted in Russian films, animation, art, architecture
and digital media. The extended introduction by the
editors Vlad Strukov and Helena Goscilo traces a Left: Front cover of First International
coherent path from the ancients association of the Aeronautical Exhibition held in St Petersburg
sky with divinity, via the Icarus myth, avian symbolism 1911 organised by the Imperial Russian
in literature and the modernity of the avant-garde. Technical Society. Right: Front cover of Nasha Stikhia (Our Sphere) No1 August 1920 published by
the Air Department of the South Russian Army. RAeS (NAL).
They conclude with the hypothesis that flight in
Russian culture not only defines the celestial space
but, more pragmatically, has been used to expand
the ideology and represent geopolitical aspiration.
The case studies that make up the remainder
of the anthology attempt to theorise visual
culture in an era of transition from analogue to
digital technologies and propose ideas about the ROYAL AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY
relationship of contemporary Russia, both with its No.4 Hamilton Place, London W1

Aviation Book Fair


own past and with other countries and their pictorial
traditions.
Soviet and post-Soviet eras are treated
separately. Part one of the book chronicles the
saga of flight expressed in painting, drawing, Monday, 20 November 2017 11am 6pm
sculpture and architecture. Part two concentrates
on the narrative found in the moving images of film,
animation and computer gaming.
This rather esoteric collection of essays recalls
that among the many triumphs of Soviet aviation
and space flight there have also been some tragic
failures. But aviators and cosmonauts have always
been held in high regard, in part because they have
provided the Soviet state and its successor with
iconic heroes with which to promote the governing
regime as forward-looking and futuristic.

Andrew Lovett 100s of donated aviation books, biographies,


FRAeS memoirs and magazines for sale
FREE ADMISSION
T +44 (0)20 7670 4345
E conference@aerosociety.com

44 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


VC10 ICON OF THE SKIES

BOAC, Boeing and a Jet Age The first Vickers VC10,


G-ARTA, makes its maiden
The authors strongest chapters are in his
description of the design and development process
Battle flight at Weybridge on 29
June 1962. RAeS (NAL). the critical interplay of some gifted individuals
By L Cole and a design team working at the top of its game.
I would have liked some insight into Vickers cost
Pen & Sword Aviation, Pen & Sword Books, 47 estimation problems that Sir George Edwards
Church Street, Barnsley, S Yorkshire S70 2AS, UK. admitted the company got so very wrong and
2017. 240pp. Illustrated. 25. ISBN 978-1-47387- which formed the heart of later problems with both
532-6. The authors customer and the Government.
The political context is not so well drawn
This is an enthusiasts book written by an enthusiast
strongest and less than dispassionate. In particular, I was
albeit a well-informed and diligent researcher. The chapters disappointed that the author did not get to grips
technical evolution of the VC10 is superbly detailed are in his with the links between the VC10 and Vickers
and full of insight. Its weakness as a book on the description of growing financial problems and the merger with
British aircraft industry in the 1950s and 1960s English Electric to form British Aircraft Corporation
is to fall into the trap of so many books about the
the design and (BAC) and the pressure applied on BOAC to adapt
period to lament the what might have been and development its order. The author might well have looked to the
to assert an alternative future centred on a series of process National Archives at Kew for some of these aspects.
cancelled aircraft projects. the critical But this is to carp too much. Coles book ends
Lance Cole starts with a solid review of strongly with what is the wonderful paradox of the
the context in which the VC10 was launched, interplay of VC10. Although not a commercial success for the
primarily the impact on industry and of BOAC of some gifted manufacturers and bad-mouthed by the customer in
the combined affect of the Comet failure and the individuals and its early days, it was a truly wonderful aircraft to fly
cancellation of the Vickers V.1000. He also sets and fly in!
the scene for the problematic relationship between
a design team
Vickers and BOAC with a brief history of the airlines working at the Professor Keith Hayward
imperial roots. top of its game FRAeS FAAEF

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Afterburner
Book Reviews
THE AVRO 748

The Full Story of the 748,


Andover and ATP
By R J Church
Air-Britain (Historians), Unit 1A, Munday Works
Industrial Estate, 58-66 Tonbridge, Kent TN9 1RA,
UK. 2017. 304pp + diskette. Illustrated. 34.95
(Air-Britain members); 47.50 (non-members).
ISBN 978-0-85130-492-2.

When the prototype Avro 748 took to the air on 24


June 1960 few would have predicted that, over the
next 28 years, the 748 would prove so successful
that a total of 381 civil and military versions of the
aircraft would be manufactured. Regrettably, the
748s successor, the ATP, failed to emulate it and
only 65 were built.
This large tome details the history, flight testing, With the ATP (Advanced Turboprop) BAe sought Main picture: The prototype
British Aerospace 748-2B,
production, sales, airline service and continuing to emulate the solid success of the 748. The ATP
G-BGJV.
development of the 748 and the RAFs Andover was a larger, re-engined and updated aircraft but Above: Merpati Nusantara
under Hawker Siddeley and British Aerospace. It entered a competitive market in which it failed to Airlines put its first of
further examines and amply illustrates 748 licence make much headway. A small number remain in five ATPs into service on
production agreed in July 1959 with the Indian passenger service but with the addition of a freight Indonesian domestic routes
on 4 March 1992.
Government, even before the 748 had flown. door the ATP has shown its mettle. The author RAeS (NAL).
The Indian aircraft were initially provided in kit provides a similarly detailed and well-illustrated
form but later full-scale manufacture was taken survey of the ATP as he has done for the 748.
on by Hindustan Aeronautics. A total of 88 were Richard Churchs comprehensive, well-illustrated
constructed in India, many of which are still active. history of the 748, Andover and the ATP does full
Projected versions of the 748 and the ATP justice to them. I strongly recommend this book to
are not overlooked and three-view drawings show those interested in the types.
examples of civil, military, STOL and jet 748 variants
that never left the drawing board. Stephen Skinner

46 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


Library Additions
BOOKS
AERODYNAMICS GAS DYNAMICS HUMAN FACTORS Workshop Manual series. 2016: Proceedings of the
D Baker. Haynes Publishing, 26th AAS/AIAA Space
Real Gas Flows with High Aviation Psychology and Sparkford, Yeovil, Somerset, Flight Mechanics Meeting
Velocities. V Lunev. CRC Human Factors Second BA22 7JJ. 2017. 204pp. held 14-18 February 2016,
Press, Taylor & Francis Group, edition. M Martinussen and Illustrated. 22.99. ISBN 978- Napa, CA (4 vols). Advances
6000 Broken Sound Parkway D R Hunter. CRC Press, Taylor 1-78521-064-8. in the Astronautical Sciences
NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, & Francis Group, 6000 Broken Illustrated throughout Vol 158. Edited by R Zanetti
FL, 33487-2742, USA. 2017. Sound Parkway NW, Suite with numerous photographs et al. Univelt, PO Box 28130,
Distributed by Taylor & Francis 300, Boca Raton, FL, 33487- and other diagrams, a detailed San Diego, CA 92198, USA.
Group, 2 Park Square, Milton 2742, USA. 2017. Distributed description of the engineering 2016. 4762pp + CD-ROM.
Park, Abingdon OX14 4RN, by Taylor & Francis Group, design of the pioneering Illustrated. $810. ISBN 978-0-
UK. 735pp. 59.99. [20% 2 Park Square, Milton Park, American space capsule 87703-633-3.
discount available to RAeS Abingdon OX14 4RN, UK. (including its structure and Attitude Determination
members via www.crcpress. 347pp. 92. [20% discount electrical/environmental and Control of ITASAT
com using AKQ07 promotion available to RAeS members control/attitude control/ CubeSat, Unscented
code]. ISBN 978-1-138- via www.crcpress.com using communications/rocket/ Evolution Strategies for
11614-6. AKQ07 promotion code]. ISBN astronaut systems), concluding Solving Trajectory Optimization
978-1-4987-5752-2. with a chronological summary Problems, Interplanetary
HISTORICAL of its missions and the launch Parking Method and its
PROPULSION vehicles used. Application to Dual Launch
Reinventing the Propeller: Trajectory Design of Multiple
Advanced Flight Dynamics Aeronautical Speciality Fundamentals of Rocket Explorers, Potential Effects
with Elements of Flight and the Triumph of Propulsion. D P Mishra. of a Realistic Solar Sail and
Control. N K Sinha and N the Modern Airplane. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Comparison to an Ideal Sail,
Ananthkrishnan. CRC Press, Cambridge University Press, Group, 6000 Broken Sound A Nonlinear Controller for
Taylor & Francis Group, 6000 University Printing House, Parkway NW, Suite 300, Boca Low Thrust Stabilization
Broken Sound Parkway NW, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge Raton, FL, 33487-2742, USA. of Spacecraft on CRTBP
Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL, CB2 8BS, UK. 2017. 368pp. 2017. Distributed by Taylor & Orbits, Feasibility Regions
33487-2742, USA. 2017. Illustrated. 90. ISBN 978- Francis Group, 2 Park Square, of Boundary Value Problems
Distributed by Taylor & Francis 110-714286-2. Milton Park, Abingdon OX14 of Low-Thrust Trajectories,
Group, 2 Park Square, Milton 4RN, UK. 461pp. Illustrated. Transfers to a Sun-Earth
Park, Abingdon OX14 4RN, 89. [20% discount available Saddle Point: An Extended
UK. 348pp. 60. [20% to RAeS members via www. Mission Design Option for
discount available to RAeS crcpress.com using AKQ07 LISA Pathfinder, Active
members via www.crcpress. promotion code]. ISBN 978-1- Vibration Suppression
com using AKQ07 promotion 4987-8535-8. in Flexible Spacecraft
code]. ISBN 978-1-138- during Attitude Maneuver,
74603-9. Powering the Eagle ... Over Interplanetary Nanospacecraft
90 Years and Counting: Travel Capabilities, Maven
AIR TRANSPORT Pratt & Whitneys Outposts on the Frontier: Navigation Overview, Mission
Inspirational Women. a Fifty-Year History of Design Considerations for
Missing Aircraft: an Issue N Allen. American Institute of Space Stations. J Chladek. Mars Cargo of the Human
Facing Air Transport Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Nebraska Press, Spaceflight Architecture
(English-French text). AAE Reston, VA. 2017. 139pp. 1111 Lincoln Mall, Lincoln Teams Evolvable Mars
Dossier 41. Academie de lAir Illustrated. ISBN 978-162410- NE 68588-0630, USA. 2016. Campaign, Jupiter Tour
et de lEspace (AAE), Ancien 383-4. Distributed by Combined of the Jupiter Icy Moon
observatoire de Jolimont, 1 A pictorial history of the Academic Publishers Ltd, Explorer, Trojan Asteroid
avenue Camille Flammarion, key contribution which the Windsor House, Cornwall Mission Design, Orion Entry
31500 Toulouse, France female employees of Pratt & Road, Harrogate HG1 2PW, Monitor, Boundary Model
(http://www.academie-air- R J Mitchell at Whitney have made over the UK. 494pp. Illustrated. 33. for Satellite Breakup Debris
espace.com). 2017. 42pp. Supermarine: from decades to the success and [25% discount available to Clouds, Control of High
15. ISBN 978-2-913331- Schneider Trophy to development of the company, RAeS members via www. Fidelity Linearized Model for
70-9. Spitfire Revised edition. concluding with concise combinedacademic.co.uk using Satellite Formation Flight
In response to the J K Shelton. Standon Books, biographical profiles of the CS314FLIGHT promotion Using Aerodynamic Drag,
inflight disappearance of the The Lodge, Standon Hall, Maer companys current and recent code]. ISBN 978-0-8032- Study on Impact Experiment
Malaysian Airlines MH370 Lane, Standon, Staffordshire eminent women managers and 2292-2. of Hayabusa2 Mission,
Boeing 777 on 8 March ST21 6QZ, UK. 2017. xviii; engineers. Delta-V Assisted Periodic
2014, the findings of an AAE 353pp. Illustrated. 27.50. STRUCTURES AND Orbits around Small Bodies,
working group established to ISBN 978-0-9956781-0-1. SERVICE AVIATION MATERIALS Initial Navigation Analysis
reviewed issues concerning for the Europa Multiple Flyby
the technical status of George Hartley Bryan The Royal Flying Corps, Aerospace Materials Mission Concept, Space
aircraft positioning systems Prophet without Honour?: the Western Front and the and Technologies. Vol 1: Object Collision Probability via
and air-ground aircraft Ballard Matthews Lecture, Control of the Air, 1914- Aerospace Materials. Monte Carlo on the Graphics
communications. Bangor University, 2 1918. J Pugh. Routledge, Edited by N E Prasad and Processing Unit, GTOC8
November 2011. T J M Taylor & Francis Group, 2 Park R J H Wanhill. Springer. 2017. and Absolute Navigation
FLIGHT TESTING Boyd. Orphean Press, 10 Square, Milton Park, Abingdon 586pp. Illustrated. 112. ISBN Performance of the Orion
Heath Close, Polstead Heath, OX14 4RN, UK. 2017. xviii; 978-981-10-2133-6. Exploration Flight Test 1 are
Hucknall: the Rolls-Royce Colchester CO6 5BE, UK. 190pp. Illustrated. 105. ISBN among the subjects discussed.
Flight Test Establishment. 2017. 42pp. Illustrated. ISBN 978-1-1389-5198-3. 978-1- Additive Manufacturing of
D Birch. The Rolls-Royce 978-1-908198-18-1. 472-45972-5 Metals: the Technology,
Heritage Trust, PO Box 31, A concise biography of Materials, Design and
Derby, DE24 8BJ (E heritage. G H Bryan and his pioneering SPACE Production. L Yang et al.
trust@rolls-royce.com; T research undertaken with Springer. 2017. 168pp. For further information
+44 (0)1332 240340). William Ellis Williams into NASA Mercury 1956 Illustrated. 64.99. ISBN 978- contact the National
2017. 414pp. Illustrated. aerodynamic stability which to 1963 (all models): an 3-319-55127-2. Aerospace Library.
45 (Rolls-Royce Heritage culminated in the publication insight into the design T +44 (0)1252 701038
Trust members), 60 of his classic book Stability and engineering of Project SYMPOSIA or 701060
(non-members) inclusive of in Aviation (Macmillan and Mercury Americas
postage/packing. ISBN 978- Co, Limited. 1911) and of his first manned space Guidance, Navigation and
E hublibrary@aerosoci-
1-872922-43-0. relations with F W Lanchester. programme. Owners Spaceflight Mechanics ety.com

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Afterburner
Society News
IT FLIES UK
ATLAS carries off
first prize
IT FLIES since its inception in 2000, has been
held at several different locations, including
universities, the Empire Test Pilots School and the
Royal Aeronautical Society. The competition format
of the entries giving a ten-minute design project
presentation followed by a test flight of their aircraft
design is challenging, and has produced some great,
practical and innovative ideas, especially in the past
two years.
This years Competition was held for the first
time at The University of Manchester. As three
teams from the US and The Netherlands flew in to
compete, this proved to be an excellent location with control characteristics over a wider flight envelope. Dave Southwood in the
cockpit.
great facilities and the international airport close This competition was, once again, a fascinating
by. With students from several different countries flight testing opportunity for the judges.
present a friendly, international atmosphere was Students from The University of Manchesters
prevalent during the day, conversations were in Flight Simulation Society played a large role in the
English, French, Dutch, and Spanish but the organisation of the day and also rounded up the
students had a common thread the love of aircraft. international and visiting UK teams for a meal the
As usual, a brilliant competition, this time with evening before.
students from The Amsterdam University of Applied The winner was Sam Le Poole from the
Sciences winning three prizes. Test pilot judges Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences with
were Dave Southwood and Gordon McClymont from ATLAS, an unmanned blended wing body cargo
The Empire Test Pilots School. Our judge for the freighter. This was the first time that students
project presentations was Mike Southworth from from Amsterdam had competed in an IT FLIES
the Royal Aeronautical Societys Flight Simulation competition. Sam said:
Group. I am very honoured to say that I won the IT
Dave Southwood, who has judged for a number FLIES competition 2017 in Manchester. It was
of years, remarked: This years IT FLIES competition the first time the University of Applied Sciences of
featured some very strong and fascinating entries. Amsterdam took part in this competition.
It was a multi-national event with teams from After a great educational day with presentations
The Netherlands and the US, as well as from the and flight testing of seven different models, it turned
THIS VARIETY
full range of the UK. There was a philosophical out that the ATLAS had the best handling qualities ADDED SO
difference in the context of the entries from each and won the competition. MUCH TO THE
nation. The UK entries were models derived from This success, of course, also reflects on
internal university department requirements, the students of the Faculty of Aerospace of the RICHNESS OF THE
the original concept for the competition. The Technical University of Delft, who made the original COMPETITION. AS
Netherlands entries were simulator models of design. Another factor of success is the tests which EVER, THE SCOPE
designs from a different university and the US entry were performed on the simulators in Amsterdam.
from Dayton was a model developed as part of the The flight tests were executed by a real (test) pilot. OF THE AIRCRAFT
design process for a future crop spraying aircraft. Because of the test by real pilots, the feedback TYPES MODELLED
This variety added so much to the richness of the is very useful and is used to improve the handling
competition. As ever, the scope of the aircraft types qualities. It was a great learning experience.
RESULTED
modelled resulted in marked differences in what the Second place went to the other Amsterdam IN MARKED
students managed to achieve in the time available. entry, Mike Hartmans E-SPARC an electrically DIFFERENCES
Simpler, low-speed aircraft models were able to sustainable propelled aerobatic racing aircraft
be developed in greater depth to a higher level of designed with Red Bull Air Races in mind. Gordon
IN WHAT THE
fidelity than the supersonic and variable geometry McClymonts test pilots notes on this design ended STUDENTS
types. However, the teams that attempted to come with: Would like to buy one!! MANAGED TO
to terms with the very capable supersonic modelling Sam and Mikes aero lecturer at AUAS is Raymond
of the current Excalibur software learned at least as Teunissen who is a member of the RAeS Flight ACHIEVE IN THE
much by tackling a greater breadth of stability and Simulation Group and an ex-KLM training captain. TIME AVAILABLE

48 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


Hunter Johnston and Jacob Korczyk from The and student membership of The Royal Aeronautical
University of Dayton, Ohio, brought over their entry Society Sam Le Poole, Amsterdam University of
from IT FLIES USA this year the appropriately Applied Sciences
named SWARM, a crop duster aircraft created and
designed for an industrial client. This design was Second Prize
entered over at Dayton in April but, having refined 300 and also the 200 prize for The Most
the design from the US test pilots comments, it Innovative Design
enabled Dave Southwood to make a couple of low Mike Hartman, Amsterdam University of Applied
altitude spray runs over Heathrow! Sciences
Very many thanks to our sponsors this year, the
Royal Aeronautical Society Flight Simulation Group Third Prize
(second and most innovative design prizes), and The Copies of The Aviation Historian
Aviation Historian (third prize). Ugne Kiudulaite and Ruta Marcinkeviciute, The
As ever, the combination of their project University of Manchester, single-engine, closed-
presentations, plus the test flights of their aircraft The Harrier Trophy is wing aircraft.
designs, showed the students more of a real world presented to Sam Le Poole.
scenario after all, paper designs dont always Prize for the Best Project Presentation
translate into practical solutions. It is also noticeable Copies of John Farleys book A View from the Hover
that, over the 17 years that the Competition has Hunter Johnston and Jacob Korczyk, The University
been running, there is a growing interest in flight of Dayton
simulation and its purposes and even as a career
opportunity. This year, in particular, it has been a real Finally, a huge thank you to all our judges
pleasure to work with so many talented and capable for giving up their time, and to the University of
students. Manchester for hosting the lunch, and for their
impeccable organisation of the day.
The official results
Marion Neal
First Prize Marketing Director
1,000 from Merlin Products Ltd, the Harrier Trophy Merlin Flight Simulation Group

Not AlreAdy A MeMber?


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If you are working, studying or interested in the aeronautical or


aerospace sector, then there is a membership grade for you

Demonstrate experience and skill in Enjoy our diverse range of Specialist Are you an Engineer or Technician?
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Afterburner
Corporate Partners
NEW PARTNERS EVENTS
Please note: Attendance at Corporate Partner Briefings is strictly
exclusive to staff of RAeS Corporate Partners.

FROST & SULLIVAN Monday 2 October 2017 / London


Chiswick Park Building, 566 Chiswick High Road, Punching above our weight the role of FlybeO
O and E Dregional airline industry
Kthe
Y B
London W4 5YF, UK in a rapidly evolving European F U LLmarket
airline
I Sby Christine
T +44 (0)20 8996 8500 Corporate Partner E N T
Briefing Ourmires-Widener FRAeS, Chief
E enquiries@frost.com H I S EV Flybe
T
Executive Officer,
W www.frost.com
Contact Wednesday 8 November 2017 / London
Scott Clark, VP Consulting Aerospace, Defence Partnering with UK MoD to deliver weapon capability now and into the future
& Security Corporate Partner Briefing by Keith Garden BA FRAeS, Portfolio Programme
The Frost & Sullivan Aerospace, Defence and Director & Deputy MD UK and Rear Admiral Simon Charlier CBE FRAeS,
Security (AD&S) business works with both Senior Defence & Political Adviser UK, MBDA Missile Systems
government organisations and aerospace and Sponsor:
defence companies, from platform primes,
subsystem suppliers through to the supply
chain, providing market research and insights to
support planning, new product development and Thursday 23 November 2017 / London
business capture. Our research programme is Overview of the sub 150-seat market (title tbc)
exclusively focused on growth opportunities for Corporate Partner Briefing by John Slattery FRAeS, President & Chief
our clients, requiring an innate understanding Executive Officer, Embraer Commercial Aviation
of our customers capabilities and portfolio. The
breadth of industry coverage means we can take Monday 4 December 2017 / London
learnings across multiple sectors and apply them Corporate Partner Parliamentary Reception
to an AD&S context and real-world situations. House of Commons

www.aerosociety.com/events
For further information, please contact Gail Ward
E gail.ward@aerosociety.com or T +44 (0)1491 629912

THE AIM OF THE RAeS Corporate Partner Scheme


ORIENS AVIATION LTD
Building 510, Churchill Way, London Biggin Hill
CORPORATE The RAeS is the ONLY professional body
Airport, Kent TN16 3BN, UK PARTNER dedicated to the entire aerospace community.
T +44 (0)20 3770 3828 SCHEME IS TO It retains a sense of history and tradition,
E info@oriensaviation.com while maintaining its energy and relevance and
W www.oriensaviation.com BRING TOGETHER ability to contribute to todays environment and is
Contact ORGANISATIONS ideally placed to face the challenges of the future.
Charlotte Wroe, Office Manager TO PROMOTE By joining the Societys Corporate Partner
Scheme, your organisation aligns itself to the
As exclusive, British Isles, Pilatus distributor, BEST PRACTICE Charter of the Royal Aeronautical Society and
Oriens Aviation is a relatively new business,
founded and run by an experienced aircraft owner
WITHIN THE demonstrates a commitment to professional
development of engineering and technical staff
and pilot, with a passion for flying, quality, value INTERNATIONAL within the aerospace community.
and exceptional customer service. We are ready AEROSPACE
and keen, to exceed your expectations!
Heres why the Swiss-built Pilatus was, hands- SECTOR AIM
The aim of the Corporate Partner Scheme is to
down, the winning product for us to support: The
bring together organisations to promote best
Swiss as a national, pride themselves in producing
practice within the international aerospace sector.
products of the highest quality in a competitive,
With over 200 members worldwide, the scheme
global market and they pride themselves in
provides a respected and recognised independent
Pilatus, which is a revered household name, with
Contact: forum of discussion and information exchange
the average Swiss citizen.
Simon Levy on issues facing the aerospace sector, as well as
Head of Business Development providing unique networking opportunities with
E simon.levy@aerosociety.com influential figures in the industry, government and
T +44 (0)20 7670 4346
M +44 (0)7775 701153
public sector.

50 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


GENERAL AVIATION GROUP

Royal Aeronautical Society


International General Aviation
Design Competition 2017/2018
This is the second in a series of competitions aimed at Your entry will be assessed using the following criteria:
promoting major innovation in the General Aviation aircraft Radical innovation
sector. Potential application or market
Industrial design (including functionality, aesthetics
The task is to demonstrate design innovation either for an and ergonomics)
existing or potentially new general aviation market. The Reasonable estimates of mass, aerodynamics,
competition focus is manned flying machines. (They could stability, control, performance, life-cycle costs and
be autonomous but passenger-carrying). The scope of the environmental impact.
innovation can range from an entire aircraft to a specific
component or system which could be incorporated into an You dont have to address all of these issues but will score
existing airframe. Propulsive and lift generation systems better if you do.
may be of any type.
However, account will be taken of the entrants
The scope is constrained to meeting the requirements of background experience, so all can win a prize.
the CAAs E Conditions which enable the rapid design,
build and experimental flight testing of piloted aircraft up The entries will be judged by a team of professional
to 2,000kg maximum mass within the UK. aeronautical engineers. The winners will be announced at
the RAeS General Aviation Groups Design Conference in
Entries are invited for this competition from everyone; November 2018.
students, enthusiasts and professionals. You may enter as
an individual or a team. We encourage entries from teams The final date for entries is midnight on 30 June 2018.
of engineering students and youth organisations.

Want to enter?
Just send an email titled design competition to conferences@aerosociety.com to receive an entry pack

Find us on Twitter i Find us on LinkedIn f Find us on Facebook www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017 51


Afterburner
Diary
EVENTS www.aerosociety/events LECTURES www.aerosociety/events

5 October
Technologies Against Late Detected Earth Impacting Bodies
John R Pearce, Corresponding Member of RAeS WS&T
Committee
Weapon Systems & Technology Group Lecture

9 October
Digitalisation
Conference

11 October
Handley Page Lecture
Dr Bill Brooks, Technical Director, P&M Aviation
Named Lecture

12 October
Aircraft Noise Can we Build Community Tolerance?
Conference

16-17 October
CFD and MDO State of the Art and the Future
Aerodynamics Group Conference

16 October
Lanchester Lecture: The Discovery and Prediction of Vortex
Flow Aerodynamics The Lockheed Martin F-35 assembly line at Fort Worth, Texas. Jonathan Evans will discuss F-35
Dr James Luckring, Senior Research Engineer, NASA Langley manufacture and delivery at Farnborough on 17 October and in the John Boyd Dunlop Lecture at
Research Center Coventry on 18 October. Lockheed Martin.
Aerodynamics Group Named Lecture

18 October ADELAIDE Systems, 5000 Solihull Michael Mansell. 7pm.


Sopwith Lecture: The concepts of uncertainty and disruption University of South Australia, Parkway, Birmingham Business 8 November Branch AGM
and how history has much to teach us Building MM 1-05, Mawson Park, Birmingham B37 7YN. followed by The filmmaker pilot
Tony Wood, Chief Operating Officer, Meggitt Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Pre-registration and photo ID how drone technology has
Named Lecture Lakes, SA 5095. 5.30pm. required. opened our eyes. Jonathan
24 October State rescue 21 December Richards, cameraman, director
18-19 October helicopter pilot. Kevin Berry, Development and operation and editor.
Realising Market Opportunities Pilot, MAC State Rescue of the English Electric 13 December Trawler
UAS Group Conference Helicopter Service. Lightning. Richard Norris, Man Memorial. Peter Naylor.
MoD/Crown copyright (2017)

28 November Adelaide Founder member, Lightning Joint lecture with IMechE.


Airport airside tour. Preservation Group. Robert Blackburn Building, Hull
Univesity. 7pm.
BEDFORD BOSCOMBE DOWN
ARA Social Club, Manton Lecture Theatre, MoD CAMBRIDGE
Lane, Bedford. 7pm. Marylyn Boscombe Down. 5.15pm. Lecture Theatre 0, Cambridge
Wood, T +44 (0)1933 Visitors please register at University Engineering
353517. least four days in advance Department, Trumpington
11 October Technology, (name and car registration Street, Cambridge. 7.30pm.
innovation and changing required) E secretary@ Jin-Hyun Yu, T +44 (0)1223
product strategies in BoscombeDownRAeS.org 373129.
aeronautics and aviation. Prof 10 October 30th Sir Henry 12 October Tiltrotor
Chris Atkin, RAeS Past- Tizard Lecture: Britain and the technologies. Dr Andrea
President. Jet Age: 1945 to 1965. James Angelo, Leonardo.
8 November Lights, Holland. 2 November Gravitational
19 October camera, data optical 7 November Competition waves Pathfinder and LISA.
Watching, Killing: The Evolution of RAF Drone Warfare in measurement techniques for gliding. Brian Birlison. by Christian Trenkel, Airbus
the modern wind tunnel. Neil 21 November F-35B ski Defense & Space. Joint lecture
the 21st Century
Stokes, Aircraft Research Ltd. jump testing. Gordon Stewart. with IMechE and IET.
Dr Peter Lee, University of Portsmouth Reader in Politics
13 December Airlander: 5 December Reaction 23 November Advanced
and Ethics and Assistant Director (Academic) at Royal Air
imagine the possibilities. Paul Engines. Gerrie Mullen. fast-jet helmets STRIKER
Force College Cranwell
Hammond, Hybrid Air Vehicles. II. Kevin Hill, BAE Systems,
Air Power Group Lecture
BRISTOL Rochester.
BIRMINGHAM, Concorde Room, BAWA 14 December The C-17
24 October WOLVERHAMPTON AND Leisure Centre, 589 and aeromedical airlift. Sqn
Future of UK Airfields COSFORD Southmead Road, Filton, Ldrs Chris Powell and Jon
Conference National Cold War Museum, Bristol. 6.30pm. Anna Pugh, Vollam, No99 Squadron, RAF.
RAF Museum Cosford, T +44 (0)117 9361643.
24 October Shifnal, Shropshire. 7pm. 19 October The Faradair CANBERRA
The 1957 Defence Review: The Riddle of the Sandys Chris Hughes, T +44 (0)1902 BEHA: The future of domestic Military Lecture Theatre, ADFA.
Historical Group Seminar 844523. air travel. Neil Cloughley, 6pm.
19 October Regaining the Managing Director, Faradair. 10 October Joint briefing
10 November World Water Speed Record for by CASA and ADF on
Careers in Aerospace LIVE Britain. Nigel MacKnight. BROUGH regulating unmanned aircraft.
16 November The Cottingham Parks Golf Club. 14 November Branch AGM.
development of aero engine 7.30pm. Ben Groves, T +44
All lectures start at 18.00hrs unless otherwise stated. control systems. Chris Weir, (0)1482 663938. CARDIFF
Conference proceedings are available at Engineering and Technology 11 October 63rd Sir Swansea University. 7pm.
www.aerosociety.com/news/proceedings Executive, Rolls-Royce Control George Cayley Lecture. From E lecture@raescardiff.org.uk
Systems. Rolls-Royce Control VSTOL to ASTOVL and stealth. 18 October RR F-35B lift

52 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


system. Gareth Jones, Rolls- The Airbus family of
Royce. commercial jet aircraft.
15 November Airlander. Jrgen Thomas HonFRAeS,
Chris Daniels, Hybrid Air will describe Airbus, the
Vehicles. USW Conference &
realisation of a visionary
Events Services, University of
South Wales, Pontypridd. dream, in the Willy
6 December Lightning. Messerschmitt Lecture in
Rhys Phillips. Queens Campus, Munich on 22 November.
Cardiff University. Airbus.

CHESTER
Room 017, Beswick Building,
University of Chester, Parkgate 22 November From Easy
Road. 7.30pm. Keith Housely, Jet to Costa Froth. Andrew
T +44 (0)151 348 4480. Harrison, ex CEO, easyJet and
11 October XX177 Whitbread.
Hibernations in the machine. 13 December African
Alan OConnor, former MoD bush flying. Capt Brian Pill,
Type Airworthiness Authority MAF.
(TAA) for the Hawk T1.
8 November Beluga XL HEATHROW
oversize transport for the British Airways Theatre,
21st century. Mark Cousin, Waterside, Harmondsworth.
former Head of Directorate 6.15pm. For security passes
and Beluga Chief Engineer please contact Dr Ana Pedraz,
and currently Head of Group E secretary.raeslhr@gmail.com
Demonstrators, Airbus CTO, or T +44 (0)7936 392799.
Airbus. 12 October Future space
strategy. Mark Swan, CAA
CHRISTCHURCH Director and Group Director of
Cobham Lecture Theatre, Airspace Policy.
Bournemouth University, Talbot 9 November Personal
Campus, Wallisdown. 7.30pm. experiences of the T2 and T5
Roger Starling, openings. Andy Garner, LHR
E rogerstarling593@btinternet. T2 Operations & Programme
com Director.
26 October How the UK 14 December The role of
investigates aircraft accidents a Rolls-Royce test pilot. Phil
and serious incidents. Scott ODell, Rolls-Royce.
Wilson, Senior Inspector, AAIB.
23 November The quest LOUGHBOROUGH
for a flyable spacecraft. John Room U020, Brockington
Gough, Weybridge Branch. Building, Loughborough
14 December The University. 7.30pm. Colin Moss,
Icarus Project. Dr Angelo T +44 (0)1509 239962.
Niko Grubiic, University of 10 October MQ-9
Southamption. Reaper UAV operations. Paul
Clark, UAS Flight Operations
COVENTRY Manager, QinetiQ.
Lecture Theatre ECG26, 7 November Bloodhound
Engineering & Computing Land Speed Record. Daniel
Building, Coventry University, Jubb.
Coventry. 7.30pm. Janet Owen, 5 December Corporate
T +44 (0)2476 464079. DERBY Systems research programme. high performance electric jet cabin evolution. David
18 October John Boyd Nightingale Hall, Moor Lane, Prof Chris Goff, DSTL and flight. Roger Targett, CEO, Velupillai, Marketing Director,
Dunlop Lecture. F-35 Derby. 5.30pm. Chris Sheaf, Sarah Day, QinetiQ. Electroflight. Airbus Corporate Jets,
manufacture and delivery the T +44 (0)1332 269368. 5 December Toulouse.
current situation. Jonathan 18 October The Rise of Aerodynamics of future HAMBURG
Evans, Operations Manager the bomber (how Britain nearly commercial aircraft. Rob Hochschule fr Angewandte MANCHESTER
F-35 Assembly, BAE Systems. lost the Battle of Britain). Greg Greg III, Boeing Commercial Wissenschaften Hamburg, 7pm. Bryan Cowin, T +44
9 November Annual Baughen. Airplanes. Hrsaal 01.12 Berliner Tor 5 (0)161 799 8979.
Dinner and Talk. Capt 15 November Queen (Neubau), 20099 Hamburg. 4 October UAS
Bryan Pill, Mission Aviation Elizabeth-Class aircraft carriers GLOUCESTER AND 6pm. technologies past, present and
Fellowship. Citrus Hotel, Flagships for the Future. T CHELTENHAM 12 October Hybrid Air future. Dr Rashid Ali. Salford
London Road, Ryton on M Dannatt. Joint lecture with Safran Landing Systems, Vehicles the Airlander University, Newton Building,
Dunsmore, Coventry. EMESP. Restaurant Conference Room, project. Chris Daniels, Room 233. 5pm.
6 December Powering off Down Hatherley Lane. Head of Partnerships and 22 November Flying for
the Airbus A400M, the Rolls- FARNBOROUGH 7.30pm. Gary Murden, T +44 Communications Hybrid Air science. Prof Guy Gratton.
Royce TP400. Jerry Goodwin, BAE Systems Park Centre, (0)1452 715165 Vehicles. Joint lecture with Manchester Metropolitan
Chif Engineer, Rolls-Royce Farnborough Aerospace 17 October F-35B DGLR, VDI and HAW. University (MMU). 6pm.
TP400. Centre. 7.30pm. Dr Mike Lightning II Rolls-Royce Lift 6 December Recent
Philpot, System, Gareth D Jones, Head HATFIELD developments in Martin-Baker
CRANFIELD T +44 (0)1252 614618. of Engineering, Rolls-Royce Lindop Building, Room A166, ejection seats. Phil Rowles.
Vincent Auditorium, Building 17 October F-35: the Defence UK. University of Hertfordshire, Manchester University.
52a, Cranfield University. 6pm. challenges of one-a-day 21 November College Lane, Hatfield. 7pm.
Craig Lawson, E C.P.lawson@ manufacture. Jon Evans, Airlander, Chris Daniels, Maurice James, T +44 MEDWAY
cranfield.ac.uk BAE Systems, Military Air Head of Partnerships and (0)7958 775441. Staff Restaurant, BAE
17 October Reaction (Samlesbury). Communications, Hybrid 25 October Modern Systems, Marconi Way,
Engines hypersonic propulsion. 14 November Green Air Vehicles Ltd. ejection seats. Dave Robinson, Rochester. 7pm. Robin Heaps,
Rob Davies. Lecture. The MoD Aircrew 19 December Electroflight Martin-Baker. T +44 (0)1634 377973.

Find us on Twitter i Find us on LinkedIn f Find us on Facebook www.aerosociety.com OCTOBER 2017 53


Diary
18 October Airfix modelling.
15 November John
Shepherd Lecture. BAE
Systems Hawk.

MELBOURNE
Flight Deck Bar and Grill, 37
First Avenue, Moorabbin, Vic
3194. 7pm.
11 October Hargrave
Lecture. Starlets and
Australian aerospace. John
Corby, designer of the Starlet
light aircraft.

MONTREAL
Conference Room 3 (CR3),
International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO)
headquarters, 999 Robert-
Bourassa Boulevard, Montral,
Qubec H3C 5H7. 6pm.
7 December 14th
Assad Kotaite Lecture. The
Honorable Robert L Sumwalt
III, Chairman, United States
National Transportation Safety
Board (NTSB).

MUNICH
Deutsches Museum Mnchen,
Ehrensaal. 7pm.
22 November Willy
Messerschmitt Lecture.
Airbus Von der Realisierung
eines visionren Traumes.
Herr Dipl-Ing Jrgen Thomas. Hawker P1067 Hunter prototype, WB188, the first of nearly 2,000 produced. Richard Gardner will discuss post-WW2 aircraft
Voranmeldungen an Hon development at Prestwick on 9 October. James Holland will discuss Britain and the jet age in the Sir Henry Tizard Lecture at
Secretary (secretary@ Boscombe Down on 10 October. RAeS (NAL)..
raes-munich.de) bis zum
15 November notwendig.
Begrenzte Anzahl von Pltzen. lecture with IMechE. Sea. 8pm. Sean Corr, T +44 SYDNEY British Embassy, 3100
11 December Flying for (0)20 7929 3400. The Powerhouse Museum, Massachusetts Avenue NW,
OXFORD life. Tim Allen. 10 October An 500 Harris Street, Ultimo, Washington, DC.
Magdalen Centre, Oxford independent RAF, inspiration NSW 2007. 6pm.
Science Park, Oxford. 7pm. QUEENSLAND or aberration? Greg Baughen, 18 October 59th Sir WELLINGTON
Nigel Randall, E oaktree. Hawken Auditorium, Author and Historian. Charles Kingsford Smith 26 October The Skyhawk
cottage@btinternet.com Engineering House, 447 14 November The air war Lecture and Annual Branch in RNZAF service post-Kahu
21 November IAF Vintage Upper Edward Street, Spring over Korea 1950-1953. Sqn Dinner. Future direction of update. Steve Moore.
Flight. Mike Edwards, Chief Hill, QLD 4000. 6.30pm. Ldr Mike Pugh-Davies (Retd). commercial aviation, including
Adviser to Indian Air Force and 21 November Flight 12 December Gone the developing trends in YEOVIL
Royal Jordanian Air Force. planning yesterday, today bush! recollections of a bush low-cost carrier operations Dallas Conference Room 1A,
and tomorrow. Capt Allen pilot. Capt Paul Catanach, Line and the inter-relationship with Leonardo Helicopters, Yeovil.
PRESTON Dickinson, Head of Flight Training Captain, TAG Aviation. full-service operators. Jayne 6.30pm. David Mccallum,
Personnel and Conference Operations Systems, Flight Hrdlicka, CEO, Jetstar Group. E david.mccallum@
Centre, BAE Systems, Warton. Operations, Qantas Airways. SWINDON leonardocompany.com
7.30pm. Alan Matthews, The Montgomery Theatre, TOULOUSE 19 October The RAF
T +44 (0)1995 61470. SHEFFIELD The Defence Academy of the Symposium Room, B01, Airbus Halton Aircraft Apprentice
11 October BAE Systems AMRC Knowledge Transfer United Kingdom, Joint Services HQ/SAS, 1 rond point Maurice Scheme. Gp Capt Min Larkin.
future or similar. Dave Short, Centre, Brunel Way, Command Staff College, Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac. 16 November The AW101
Engineering Director, Combat Advanced Manufacturing Shrivenham. 7.30pm. New 6pm. Contact: Pass@RAeS- for Norway. Steve Vellacott.
Air, BAE Systems. Park, Rotherham. 7pm. E attendees must provide details Toulouse.org for a security pass.
8 November Synergistic raesenquiries@amrc.co.uk of the vehicle they will be using 17 October Drones Ethics. YEOVILTON
Air Breathing Rocket Engine 31 October 100 years not later than five days before Prof Jean-Marc Moschetta, The Nuffield Sports Centre,
(SABRE). Sophie Harker, BAE of Brough John Newton and the event. Photo ID will be Institut Suprieur de RNAS Yeovilton. 6.30pm.
Systems Warton. Steve Blee, BAE Systems. required at the gate (Driving lAronautique et de lEspace Lt Marc Stone RN, T +44
13 December Memories 28 November Inaugural Licence/Passport). Advise (ISAE). Joint Lecture with the (0)1935 456241.
of the Moor flight testing for Sir Eric Mensforth Lecture. attendance preferably via email 3AF Rgion Midi-Pyrnes. 28 November Bush flying
the Cold War. Dennis Morley, From ancient origins to to raeswindon@gmail.com or 14 November Subject and operations. Bryan Pill.
ex Flight Test Engineer HSA/ the worlds most advanced Branch Secretary Colin Irvin, speaker TBC.
BAe Holme Upon Spalding SX casting foundry. Steve T +44 (0)7740 136609. 12 December Flight
Moor. Irwin, Associate Fellow: 4 October The Rosetta tracking. Claude Pichavant,
Manufacturing Casting mission landing on a comet. Airbus.
PRESTWICK Processes, Rolls-Royce. Dr Andrew Morse, University of
The Aviator Suite, 1st Floor, Sir Eric Mensforth Building, Southampton. WASHINGTON DC
Terminal Building, Prestwick Sheffield Hallam University. 1 November PanAm Embassy of New Zealand,
Airport. 7.30pm. John Wragg,
T +44 (0)1655 750270.
12 December Yorkshire
Air Ambulance Service. Tracey
103 Lockerbie accident
investigation. Mike Charles,
37 Observatory Cir NW,
Washington, DC. 6pm.
Copy date
9 October Post WW2 Gregory. Lead Investigator AAIB. 5 October Commercial for the next issue
aircraft development. Richard 6 December Never drive unmanned systems. Panel of AEROSPACE is
Gardner. SOUTHEND faster than your guardian angel Discussion.
13 November Taranis The Royal Naval Association, can fly. Sqn Ldr (retd) Derek 9 November Counter-UAS
3 October.
flight testing. Jon Wiggall. Joint 79 East Street, Southend-on- J Sharpe. (military) panel discussion.

54 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


Avro Lancastrian, G-AGLS, Nelson, takes off from
Westland WS-55 Series 2. Heathrow on the first commercial flight. Miles M39B Libellula, U-0244.

The Journal of Aeronautical History


The aim of the online Journal of Aeronautical History is to cover topics particularly relating to the history of aeronautics and space
science. These include the history of air and space vehicles, power plants and equipment, histories of aeronautical organisations
and enterprises, biographies of people who have contributed to aeronautical and space activities, accounts of particular episodes,
incidents, campaigns and commercial developments, and the development of aeronautical knowledge and space science. Since
2010 it has published 29 papers on topics ranging from Halleys calculations in 1691 on the feasibility of manned flight to the
development of satellite communications systems for civil aviation and all of these are freely available on the publications page of the
Societys website.

The editors would welcome more material and encourage authors to submit papers. All contributions are reviewed, and to date the
great majority have been judged suitable for publication.

If you are interested, please contact Dr Kit Mitchell at kitmitch@googlemail.com

Meeting your event needs


in the heart of London
Home to the Royal Aeronautical Society, No. 4 Hamilton
Place is a stunning venue, centrally located in Mayfair,
with a choice of event spaces. The venue offers:

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State of the art conference facilities for up to 250
Versatile meeting rooms
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Catering by foodbydish, one of Londons leading
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Let our dedicated team take care of your event


requirements.

For more information visit www.4hp.org.uk or contact


the Venue Team on 020 7670 4314 or hello@4hp.org.uk

No. 4 Hamilton Place, London W1J 7BQ


Afterburner
Elections
FELLOWS Charles Cade
Kahagala Hewage
Ciaran McAndrew
Harry Price SOCIETY OFFICERS
Gordon Andrews Damith Thilanka
Jonathan Baliff Kasagala E-ASSOCIATES President: ACM Sir Stephen Dalton
John Bayley Simon Dixon President-Elect: Rear Admiral Simon Henley
Bicky Bhangu Lucy England Irisa Chiu
Eamonn Brennan Neil Fleming Vincente DAmbrosio BOARD CHAIRMEN
Ian Fairclough Jason Gill Christopher Frazer
Michael Gadd Damion Hadcroft Ben Gibson Learned Society Chairman:
Stuart Hill Jordan Hunter Thomas Grant Air Cdre Peter Round
Simon Hocquard David Lednicer Phillip Knight Membership Services Chairman:
Rodney Irvine Alessandro Migliaccio Joshrun Mann Philip Spiers
Thomas Jordan Philip Moore Ryan Mason Professional Standards Chairman:
Nigel McKenna Matthew Shields Oliver Spriggs Prof Jonathan Cooper
Dean Moore Richard Simkins Matthew Stubbs
Steven Murray John Tennick Eddie Wilson-Chalon DIVISION PRESIDENTS
Nigel Pamby Daniel Wilkie
Kirsten Riensema AFFILIATES Australia: Andrew Neely
Anil Sabharwal ASSOCIATE
MEMBERS New Zealand: John MaciIree
Bob Simmons Joerg Oberhofer Pakistan: AM Salim Arshad
Richard Varvill Naree McNeill South African: Dr Glen Snedden
Cameron Stewart STUDENT AFFILIATES
MEMBERS
ASSOCIATES Isaac Caletrio Berridge
Sakhr Abu Darag
Andrew Arnold Richard Lynch
Sacha Ghebali
Martin Mitev
WITH REGRET
The RAeS announces with regret the deaths of the
The newly reassembled following members:
French Air Force Mirage IV
was on show at the Yorkshire Alwyn Edward Atkinson Affiliate 95
Air Museums annual Allied
Eric John Butcher IEng AMRAeS 88
Armed Forces Memorial Day
on 3 September. The event Peter John Gerard Hollier MRAeS 86
included representatives
from the US, Russia, David Henry Gason Ince DFC FRAeS 96
France, Germany, Finland,
The Netherlands and the Alan Jones MRAeS 57
Commonwealth.
Bruce Kevin Jones FRAeS 63
Roy Clifford Parsons CEng MRAeS 90
TRUSTEE TALK John David Price MRAeS 81

At the Trustees second meeting of the Council year and my second meeting as David John Smith AMRAeS 52
Chair, I am pleased to report that the Society continues to maintain a strong and John Peter Tanswell Affiliate 91
stable position in its financial reporting.
The Trustees reviewed its governance position against the now-published Michael Henry Lewin Waters CEng MRAeS 89
third edition of the Charity Governance Code (the Code) and I am happy to
report that following a mapping exercise against the key recommendations,
the Society can demonstrate its compliance. To maintain governance best
practice, we would continue to monitor our progress against the Code making
improvements where appropriate.
Following on from the last Trustees meeting, there was a continued
discussion around the Societys risks. The Trustees agreed to hold annual and
detailed discussions around risks to ensure we are mitigating but also accepting
certain risks in meeting the Societys strategic goals and by extension our
Charitable Purpose and Objects. The Trustees also approved the Risk Register
presented at the meeting.
At the last Trustees meeting, we approved the Societys registration as an
End Point Assessment for the Trailblazer Apprenticeship initiative we have
been successful in our application and will be shortly included on the register.
The Trustees received its standard reports from the Boards and Committees
of the Board of Trustees. The RAeS was among the exhibitors at the DSEI (Defence and
Security International) show at the London ExCel on 12-14
September. Seen here answering an enquiry from a visitor to the
Martin Broadhurst OBE MA CDir FIoD FRAeS stand are RAeS Membership Development Officers, Neeral Patel
Chairman, Board of Trustees (left) and Emily Self.

56 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


Greener by Design Conference UAS Conference

REALISING MARKET
AIRCRAFT NOISE - HOW CAN WE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DRONES
BUILD COMMUNITY TOLERANCE?

LONDON / 12 OCTOBER 2017 LONDON / 18 - 19 OCTOBER 2017


This one-day conference
For nearly 10 years Unmanned
focusses on aircraft noise
Aircraft have been seen, at
and the challenge of getting
least by some, as the major
community engagement,
new growth sector in aviation.
understanding and ultimately
tolerance at a time of growing
The annual UAS Group
and modernised airspace
conference will include
operation near our busiest
presentations from the
airports.
organisations that are leading
these developments as well
Keynote Speaker:
as those that are building
Lord Callanan,
commercial success upon the
Aviation Minister,
results.
Department for Transport

www.aerosociety.com/events www.aerosociety.com/events
Sponsors
Sponsor

Society Conference Presidents Conference

COMMERCIALISATION OF SPACE
FUTURE OF UK AIRFIELDS

REALISING UK GOALS FOR INNOVATION AND GROWTH

LONDON / 24 OCTOBER 2017 LONDON / 21 - 22 NOVEMBER 2017

The Society wants to help The 2017 Presidents


the sector answer some of conference will give
the key questions outlined in innovators, manufacturers,
the UK Governments draft operators and users the
Aviation Strategy. opportunity to engage in an
unbiased discussion with
We are pleased that Rt Hon government, regulators,
Grant Shapps MP will open investors and educators
this conference and we will on the growing impact of
cover the key issues facing commercial space activities
UK airfields and aim to to the benefit of the UK
provide practical solutions economy and society in
and ways forward. general.

www.aerosociety.com/UKAirfields www.aerosociety.com/space2017
Sponsors
Sponsorship opportunities are available for this conference.

Please contact conferences@aerosociety.com for more information.


The Last Word
COMMENTARY FROM
Professor Keith Hayward
FRAeS

Airbus 50 Years of Collaboration

J
ust over 50 years ago, France, Britain a policy of picking winners and the history of UK
and Germany signed a Memorandum of public investments in high technology has had too
Understanding (MoU) launching a 250-seat many losers for comfort. However collaborative civil
airliner designated A300, the Airbus. It would aerospace bidding for a mainstream airline market
have two newly designed Roll-Royce intuitively offered the right combination of high value
engines and the three nationalised airlines technological returns and profitability.
would buy it. With little ceremony (but some protests Such engagement is anathema to the Chicago
from BEA) a potential all-British competitor, the BAC School economic theory that infused the World Trade
2-11 was quickly dumped. Three years later the same Organization (WTO) subsidy code and drove US
Labour Government bailed out of the programme and opposition to European repayable launch investment
was a whisker away from supporting a more direct schemes. Yet, as several recent studies have noted
competitor the BAC 3-11. (echoing arguments presented back in the 1970s),
With Concorde costs hurtling skywards and sales even the US has actively stimulated technological
prospects moving in a diametrically opposite direction innovation through Federal funding largely in the
and, facing the appalling consequences of the Rolls- form of a defence R&D budget. The results have
Royce bankruptcy, the new Conservative Government included much of solid-state electronics and many of
kicked the 3-11 into touch. The two remaining Airbus the building blocks of the IT age.
governments stuck with the A300 and paid for a
lovely Hatfield-designed wing to keep it in the air.
DIRECT Ten years later, with a newly nationalised Airbus looking at a centenary of
POLITICAL company looking for a civil project, a Labour production
Government placeman as chairman of British
ENGAGEMENT Aerospace backed his professional board and chose
As far as Airbus is concerned, it has become one arm
HAS DIMINISHED officially to re-join the Airbus instead of a politically
of a global duopoly and a core European aerospace-
defence transnational company. Direct political
(ALTHOUGH better favoured American option. Within another
engagement has diminished (although perhaps not
PERHAPS NOT decade, convincing a highly sceptical Mrs Thatcher
that even more money for a fly-by-wire Airbus A320 without some fundamental long-term consequences
WITHOUT SOME was not going to be another Concorde, Chester which, as seen in retrospect, a German veto in the
FUNDAMENTAL and Bristol were up and running towards a massive naughties of a possible merger with BAeS might
prove to have been).
LONG TERM commercial success.
Half a century onward, Airbus might yet have
CONSEQUENCES, to face the ultimate test of a politically independent
WHICH AS SEEN A personal interest company: to terminate a member of its airliner family
IN RETROSPECT, I must declare an interest: the Airbus programme before its technological time. Ending the A380 may
still be a long way off but time and money is running
A GERMAN provided me with material for two peer-reviewed
articles and a substantial chunk of two books, as well out. There would be political consequences driven
VETO IN THE as some media exposure. Visiting Toulouse provided by lost employment and a bundle of public money
NAUGHTIES my first factory tour and an extraordinary good lunch. will ensure that Heads of Government will have
OF A POSSIBLE As a result I have been observing Airbus for all of my interests in maintaining the status quo. But this is
MERGER WITH professional life. neither 1967 nor 1971: Airbus is more than one
More than just a subject, the programme has also aircraft and has an order book worth billions of dollars
BAES MIGHT satisfied an ideological preference for advocating stretching out decades ahead. With or without the
PROVE TO HAVE appropriate investment by the state in high A380, Airbus has more than enough to keep it in the
BEEN technology activity. This can get dangerously close to Sporty Game for the foreseeable future.

58 AEROSPACE / OCTOBER 2017


15 Reinventing Space
th

Conference
2426 October 2017 Glasgow, Scotland
The Space Industry is constantly changing
how do we keep up to date with current
thinking and innovations?
RISpace focuses on technological
trends and how they are increasing the
commercialisation of space. Sessions
include lower cost launch systems, mega-
constellations and a range of novel satellite
applications for LEO and beyond.
RISpace brings together industry, agency, government, financiers,
academia, and end users in an unparalleled, catalytic environment.

www.rispace.org

Reinventing Space is organised by The British Interplanetary Society


2729 South Lambeth Road, London SW8 1SZ, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 20 7735 3160 www.bis-space.com

City of
Glasgow