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API Gas-Lift

Specifications and
Recommended Practices

Prepared by

Cleon Dunham, Oilfield Automation Consulting


John Martinez, Production Associates
Importance of Gas Lift
in Petroleum Industry
From 2003 International Gas Lift Workshop
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
ExxonMobil
49% of oil production by artificial lift
31% by gas lift 1
2
3

Shell International
39% of oil production by artificial lift
25% by gas lift 1
2
3

Significant industry thrusts


Offshore, sub-sea
Horizontal, often multi-lateral completions
More and more depleting reservoirs
More focus on deliquification of gas wells

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 2


API 11V Gas Lift Task Group
on Gas Lift Equipment

History
Formed in 1979
34 Members from Industry
Operating Companies (11)
Service Companies (14)
Consultants (7) (5 were previously with Operating Companies)
Universities (2)
Ad-Hoc Members (Several others help on specific topics)

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 3


API Gas Lift Work Groups

Eight work groups


API Specification 11V1 Gas lift valves, orifices, dummies
API RP* 11V2 Gas lift valve testing, modeling
API RP 11V5 Gas lift operations (revision in progress)
API RP 11V6 Gas lift design
API RP 11V7 Gas lift valve reconditioning
API RP 11V8 Gas lift systems
API RP 11V9 Dual gas lift (development in progress)
API RP 11V10 Intermittent gas lift (development in progress)

* Recommended Practice

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 4


API 11V1
Gas Lift Valves, Orifices
API Specification
Specifications for manufacture and functional testing of gas lift valves,
orifices, reverse flow valves, and dummy valves
Chair: Wayne Mabry, Schlumberger
Status
2nd Edition: Feb. 1995
Reaffirmed: Jan. 2000
Document: 37 pages, $87.00
Status: Active

Future plans, recommendations


To be replaced by ISO Standards
ISO 17078.1 (mandrels)
ISO 17078.2 (flow control devices)
ISO 17078.3 (running/pulling/kick-over tools, and latches)
Recommend using the ISO documents in the future
Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 5
Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 6
API RP 11V2
Gas Lift Valve Testing, Modeling
API Recommended Practice
Recommended practices for flow performance testing and development
of performance models for IPO & PPO gas lift valves
Chair: Ken Decker, Decker Technology

Status
2nd Edition: Mar. 2001
Document: 56 pages, $80.00
Status: Active

Future plans, recommendations


To be replaced by ISO Standard
ISO 17078.2 (flow control devices)
Recommend using the ISO document in the future

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 7


Conventional Wireline Wireline Retrievable Wireline
Tubing Retrievable Gas Gas Lift Orifice Retrievable
Retrievable Gas Lift Valve Valve Dummy Valve
Lift Valve
IPO
IPO

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 8


API RP 11V5
Gas Lift Operations
API Recommended Practice
Recommended practices for unloading, kickoff, adjustment,
troubleshooting, and location of problems for gas lift operations
Chair: Cleon Dunham, OAC
Status
2nd Edition: Jun. 1999
Document: $87.00
Status: Active

Future plans, recommendations


Currently being updated and expanded
Hope to re-publish in 2007
Recommend using this document for training gas-lift engineers,
technicians, operators
The current draft version can be obtained from www.alrdc.com,
Technical Committees, API Gas-Lift
Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 9
Wireline Retrievable Gas Lift
Equipment

Side Pocket Mandrels


Gas Lift Valves
Valve Latches
Kick-over Tools
Running Tools
Pulling Tools

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 10


API RP 11V6
Gas Lift Design
API Recommended Practice
Recommended practices for design of continuous flow, single string
gas lift systems using injection pressure operated (IPO) gas lift
valves
Chair: Joe Clegg, Consultant

Status
2nd Edition: Jul. 1999
Document: $117.00
Status: Active

Future plans, recommendations


Maintain document as is
Recommend using this document as a guide for gas-lift design

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 11


Gas Lift Design Challenges
PT PCko

Tubing Unloading PCs Must be able to kick-off the


Design
Kick-Off
well.
Line
Safety Must be able to unload the
Factor well.
Unloading Must not damage any valves.
Gradients
After unloading, must keep
Design unloading valves closed.
Mandrel
Spacing Must be able to operate:
Minimum - Deep
Spacing
- Stable
- Optimum

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 12


API RP 11V7
Gas Lift Valve Reconditioning
API Recommended Practice
Recommended practices for repair and reconditioning, testing, and
setting used gas lift valves
Chair: John Martinez, Production Associates

Status
2nd Edition: Jun. 1999
Document: $82.00
Status: Active

Future plans, recommendations


To be replaced by ISO Standard
ISO 17078.2 (flow control devices)
Recommend using the ISO document in the future

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 13


Gas Lift Valve Reconditioning
Challenges

Which components have failed?


Why did they fail?
Can some components be re-used?
They must be thoroughly tested before re-
use.

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 14


API RP 11V8
Gas Lift Systems
API Recommended Practice
Recommended practices for designing and predicting the performance of
a gas lift system
Chair: John Martinez, Production Associates

Status
1st Edition: Sep. 2003
Document: 79 pages, $90.00
Status: Active

Future plans, recommendations


Review status in 5 years (2008)
Recommend using this document for training gas-lift engineers,
technicians, operators

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 15


Gas Lift System Layout
System is only as good as
the weakest link

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 16


API RP 11V9
Dual Gas Lift
API Recommended Practice
Recommended practices for design and operation of dual gas lift
systems
Chair: Cleon Dunham, OAC

Status
Under development

Future plans
Hope to publish in 2007
Recommend using this document for training gas-lift engineers,
technicians, operators who are involved in dual gas-lift
The current draft version can be obtained from www.alrdc.com,
Technical Committees, API Gas-Lift

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 17


Dual Gas Lift Challenges

Continuously injecting in both


Dual Gas Lift sides of the dual
Short Long
string string Injecting deep in both sides
Gas is injected down the Testing and diagnosing
common annulus and into
the two dual production
problems with both sides
strings. Choosing the correct gas lift
equipment
Dual
packer Short string
production zone Recommended Practice
Focuses On:
Design
Production Operation
packer Long string
production zone.
Troubleshooting
Optimization

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 18


API RP 11V10
Intermittent Gas Lift
API Recommended Practice
Recommended practices for design and operation of intermittent gas lift
systems
Chair: Ali Hernandez, PDVSA

Status
Under development

Future plans, recommendations


Hope to publish in 2007 or 2008
Recommend using this document for training gas-lift engineers,
technicians, operators who are involved in intermittent gas-lift
The current draft version can be obtained from www.alrdc.com,
Technical Committees, API Gas-Lift

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 19


Intermittent Gas Lift Challenges

Injecting gas at the correct cycle


frequency to optimize production
Injecting the correct amount of gas per
cycle
Operating each well without upsetting
other wells in the system

Recommended Practice Focuses On:


Design
Operation
Troubleshooting
Optimization

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 20


Obtaining and Using API Documents

To obtain copies of the recommended API documents:


Go to the API web site
http://api-ep.api.org/filelibrary/Catalog2004_web.pdf
Go to Series 11 for Production Equipment
Page down to 11V documents
Order via: www.global.ihs.com
Or FAX an order to 1303-397-2740

These documents are good as:


A basis for training classes
Reference documents

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 21


Developing a New API Document
Process Approx. Time (Months)
New idea presented to or conceived by Task Group 11V 24
Approved by API Committees 11 24
New Work Group appointed (volunteers) 24
Developed by Work Group 11Vx 24 - 48
Approved by Task Group 11V 36
Voted by Committee 11 36
Reworked to address comments 36
Re-voted by Committee 11 36
Approved by API 36
Published by API 36
Total 48 96

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 22


Looking to the Future

Other gas lift topics may be addressed in the future


Gas lift design using production pressure operated (PPO) gas lift
valves
Gas lift system and well automation
Surface controlled downhole gas lift systems
Standard gas lift symbols and abbreviations
Selection of artificial lift equipment
Other topics as requested by industry

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 23


Looking to the Future

To continue support of existing API gas lift documents


and develop new ones, we need ..
Active interest and participation by industry gas lift personnel
Operators, Suppliers, Others

Good news
Some members of API gas lift subcommittee have participated
since day #1 so they bring a wealth of experience (4 members)
Some are young enthusiastic engineers (4 members)
Some are from other countries outside the USA (7 members)
Several are also helping to lead and actively participate on the
ISO gas lift international standards committee, so continuity
exists (9 members)
Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 24
ISO Gas Lift
Standards

Prepared by

Cleon Dunham, Oilfield Automation Consulting


ISO (International Organization for Standards)

Purpose
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies).
International Standards are prepared by ISO technical committees.
Each member body may be represented on these committees.
Both governmental and non-governmental international organizations
may participate.
The task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are
circulated to the member bodies for voting.
Publication as an International Standard requires approval by 75 % of
the member bodies that vote.
Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 26
ISO Gas Lift Task Group 17078
on Gas Lift Standards

History
Formed in 1998
Works under ISO Work Group #4 (Technical Committee)
Chair: Wayne Mabry, Schlumberger
Secretary: Cleon Dunham, Oilfield Automation Consulting
Meetings: 7 or 8 per year

33 Members from Industry


Operating Companies (10)
Service Companies (19)
Consultants (4) (3 were previously with Operating Companies)
Universities (0)
Ad-Hoc Members (Several others help on specific topics)
Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 27
ISO Standards for Gas Lift Equipment
Purpose
These International Standards are developed by a task group of
users/purchasers and suppliers/manufacturers of gas lift equipment.
This equipment is intended for use in the worldwide petroleum and
natural gas industry.
These International Standards are intended to provide requirements
and information to all parties who are involved in the specification,
selection, manufacture, testing, and use of gas lift equipment.
Further, these International Standards address supplier/manufacturer
requirements that set the minimum parameters with which each
supplier/manufacturer shall comply, in order to be able to claim
conformity with these International Standards.

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 28


ISO Standards for Gas Lift Equipment
Structure
These International Standards are structured to allow different quality
control grades to support quality control, design validation, design
verification, and product functional testing.
These variations allow the user/purchaser to select the grades that are
required for a specific application.
If the user/purchaser does not specify a specific grade for the following
categories, the supplier/manufacturer shall meet the requirements of
grade 3 (the lowest grade).
- Well environmental service grade
- Design validation grade
- Product functional testing grade
- Quality control grade

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 29


ISO Gas Lift Standards

Four standards (so far)


- ISO 17078.1 --- Side-pocket mandrels
- ISO 17078.2 --- Flow control devices for side-pocket mandrels
- ISO 17078.3 --- Running, pulling, and kick-over tools, and
latches for side-pocket mandrels
- ISO 17078.4 --- Practices for side-pocket mandrels and related
equipment

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 30


ISO 17078.1
Side-pocket mandrels
Status
Published by ISO in December, 2004
Document: 48 pages, $110.00

Outline
Main clauses Normative annexes
1. Scope A. Environmental service
2. Normative references requirements
3. Terms and definitions B. Design validation
4. Abbreviated terms requirements
5. Functional specification C. Product functional testing
6. Technical specification requirements
7. Supplier/manufacturer D. Quality control requirements
requirements

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 31


Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 32
ISO 17078.2
Flow control devices
Status
Is in Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) status
(The document has been approved by the ISO International Committee and
is ready for publication)

Outline
Main clauses
1. Scope
2. Normative references
3. Terms and definitions
4. Abbreviated terms
5. Functional specification
6. Technical specification
7. Supplier/manufacturer
requirements

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 33


ISO 17078.2
Flow control devices
Outline (Continued)
Normative annexes
A. Design validation and product functional testing requirements
B. Environmental service classes
C. Design validation grades
D. Product functional testing grades
E. Interface testing requirements
F. Insertion testing requirements
G. Probe and travel testing, and load rate determination
H. Dynamic flow testing and flow coefficient (Cv) calculation
I. Back check testing
J. Open and closing pressure testing
K. Bellow actuation life cycle testing
L. Erosion testing
M. Shelf testing
N. Port/seat leakage rate testing
Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 34
ISO 17078.2
Flow control devices
Outline (Continued)
Informative annexes
O. Performance testing test facility recommendations
P. Performance testing prediction correlations

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 35


ISO 17078.2
Flow control devices
Flow Control Device Group Flow Control Device Types

I IPO, Balanced IPO, IPO with choke


II PPO, PPO with choke
III Pilot, Differential
IV Orifice, Nozzle Venturi, Shear Orifice,
Dump/Kill
V Dummy
VI Chemical Injection, Chemical Injection
Spring Loaded
VII Surface Controlled Hydraulic, Surface
Controlled Electric, Smart
VIII Liquid Injection
IX Other
Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 36
Wireline Wireline Retrievable Wireline
Retrievable Gas Gas Lift Orifice Retrievable
Lift Valve Valve Dummy Valve
IPO

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 37


ISO 17078.3
Running, pulling, and kick-over tools, and latches
Status
Is in Draft International Standard (DIS) status
(The document has undergone one round of review by the International
ISO Committee and is ready for a second round)

Outline
Main clauses
1. Scope
2. Normative references
3. Terms and definitions
4. Abbreviated terms
5. Functional specification
6. Technical specification
7. Supplier/manufacturer
requirements

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 38


ISO 17078.3
Running, pulling, and kick-over tools, and latches
Outline (Continued)
Normative annexes (tentative)
A. Purpose of annexes and device classes
B. Environmental service grades
C. Design validation grades
D. Product functional testing grades
E. Interface testing requirements
F. Functional testing requirements
G. Slick line testing requirements
H. Pre-trigger testing requirements
I. Tension testing requirements
J. Jarring testing requirements
K. Erosion testing requirements
L. Kick-over tool activation testing requirements
M. Kick-over, flow control device, etc. catcher testing requirements

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 39


Wireline Retrievable Gas Lift
Equipment

Running Tools
Pulling Tools
Kick-over Tools
Latches

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 40


ISO 17078.4
Practices for side-pocket mandrels and related
equipment
Status
Is in Committee Draft (CD) status
(The document has been drafted and is ready for review by the
International ISO Committee)

Outline
Main clauses
1. Scope
2. Terms and definitions
3. Symbols and Abbreviated terms
4. Guidelines for application of side-pocket mandrels and related
equipment

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 41


ISO 17078.4
Practices for side-pocket mandrels and related
equipment
Outline (Continued)
Informative annexes
A. User/Purchaser functional specification templates for side-pocket
mandrels and related equipment
B. Supplier/Manufacturer product data sheets for side-pocket mandrels
and related equipment

C. Guidelines for setting up and calibrating flow control devices

D. Guidelines for test sites for flow control device performance testing
E. Guidelines for setting up reconditioning shops and selecting shop
personnel for side-pocket mandrels and related equipment

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 42


ISO 17078.4
Practices for side-pocket mandrels and related
equipment
Outline (Continued)
Informative annexes
F. Guidelines for pre- and post-installation inspection and testing of
side-pocket mandrels and related equipment
G. Guidelines for reconditioning side-pocket mandrels and related
equipment
H. Guidelines for selecting and training gas-lift User/Purchaser
personnel
I. Guidelines for understanding interface compatibility issues
J. Engineering units conversion

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 43


Obtaining and Using ISO Documents

To obtain copies of these documents:


Go to the ISO web site, www.iso.org
Use the search feature on the top of the page, enter 17078
Select the specific document desired
Currently, only 17078.1 is available for purchase
Price is 130.00 CHF (US $110.00)
Drafts may be obtained from www.alrdc.com, Technical
Committees, ISO Gas-Lift

These documents are good for:


Specifying the quality of device required for an application
Assuring the quality of the manufactured product

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 44


Developing a New ISO Document

Document Approx. Time (Months)


ISO 17078.1
First meeting Feb. 1998
First draft completed July 2001 42 months
Document published Dec. 2004 83 months

ISO 17078.2
First meeting May 2001
First draft completed Sept. 2004 41 months
Document published Est. mid 2007 74 months

ISO 17078.3 and 17078.4


First meeting Oct. 2003
Documents published Est. end 2008 63 months

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 45


Looking to the Future

Other gas lift topics may be addressed in the future


New topics may be proposed for the future
This will depend on pull from the user/purchaser companies
and some push from the supplier/manufacturer companies

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 46


Looking to the Future

To continue support of existing ISO gas lift documents,


complete the ones in draft form, and develop new ones,
we need ..
Active interest and participation by industry gas lift personnel
Operators, Suppliers, Others

Good news
Some members of ISO gas lift task group have participated since
day #1 so they bring a wealth of experience (5 members)
Some are young enthusiastic engineers (2 members)
Some are from other countries (7 members)
Several are also helping to lead and actively participate on the
API gas lift recommended practices committee, so continuity
exists (9 members)

Feb. 6, 2007 2007 Gas-Lift Workshop 47