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(WS2-01-47)

SEMESTER 3

2017/2018

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS i

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS i

LIST OF SYMBOLS ii

INTRODUCTION 1

THEORY OF OPERATION 1

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT 5

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 6

REFERENCES 9

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

i

LIST OF SYMBOLS

B Center of buoyancy

axis

K Keel

KOy Mass radius of gyration of floating body about its longitudinal axis

M Transverse metacenter

m Mass

T Period of oscillation

Greek Symbols:

Density of seawater

ii

INTRODUCTION

configuration if inclined or perturbed by an external force (Figure 1). For different

operating conditions, stability can be classified into the following categories: Intact

stability (static stability and dynamic stability) and damage stability. It is imperative

to ascertain the overall stability of a floating body during the design phase.

Objectives

height of a body floating on water.

(b) To investigate the effects of placing a weight vertically above the C.G. on the

stability of a floating body.

(c) To investigate the effects of free surfaces on the stability of a floating body.

Scope

In this experiment, only intact static stability of a vessel at small inclination angles (

< 10) will be investigated. The theory of operation and the experimental procedure

adopted to evaluate the static stability are provided in this manual.

THEORY OF OPERATION

Referring to Figure 1, the weight W of the floating body passes through its center of

gravity G. The upthrust or buoyancy force FB acting on the floating body passes

through the center of buoyancy B, which corresponds to the centroid of the displaced

fluid. When the floating body is subjected to a small angular displacement or

perturbation about its equilibrium upright configuration, the center of buoyancy

shifts from B to B, while the center of gravity of the floating body remains

unchanged at G. A vertical line drawn upward from B intersects the line of symmetry

at M, known as the metacenter. GM is known as the metacentric height.

(a) If M is above G (GM > 0), a restoring couple acts on the floating body in its

displaced position tending to restore it to its original position. Hence, the body

is in stable equilibrium.

(b) If M is below G (GM < 0), an overturning couple acts on the body. Hence, the

body is in unstable equilibrium.

(c) If M coincides with G (GM = 0), the resultant couple is zero, and the body has

no tendency to return to, nor move further away from its original position.

Hence, the body is in neutral equilibrium.

1

Figure 1 Static stability of a floating body.

If the body floats stably, it may be shown that the period of oscillations for small

angles of displacement is given by

KOy

T 2 , (1)

g GM

where KOy is the radius of gyration of the floating body about its longitudinal axis.

Hence, larger values of GM give rise to more rapid oscillations, thus subjecting

passengers to higher levels of discomfort. However, the larger the value of GM, the

more stable the floating body is. The above are two conflicting requirements for the

choice of GM. A good design should thus entail adequate but not excessive values of

GM.

In this experiment, a mass m is moved transversely across the deck through a known

distance d, as shown in Figure 2.

2

Figure 2 Inclined experiment to determine GM and KG.

mgd

GM , (2)

gVsub tan

where Vsub is the volume of fluid displaced, and is the density of the fluid in which

the body floats.

3

From geometry,

KM KB BM KG GM .

Hence,

KG KB BM GM . (3)

I Oy

BM ,

Vsub

where IOy is the second moment of area of the plane of floatation about the

longitudinal axis Oy of the floating body (see Figure 3).

body with a rectangular cross section is used. In this case,

1

KB draught ,

2

where the draught (draft) corresponds to the depth of submergence.

seawater, fuel, engine oil, etc.) of density f . If the tank is not completely filled with

the liquid, the liquid will move across the tank in the same direction as the vessel

during rolling (see Figure 4). The center of gravity of the vessel is no longer fixed, but

will be shifted away from the centerline plane from G to G1. The moment-arm of the

restoring couple will thus be reduced from GZ to G1Z1 . Note that G1Z1 G2 Z 2 .

4

Figure 4 Effects of free surface.

It can be shown that the virtual reduction in metacentric height due to effects of the

free surface is

f i

GG2 , (4)

Vsub

where i is the second moment of area of the liquids free surface in the tank about the

tanks own centerline. Note that f is the density of the liquid in the tank. If there is

more than one tank not completely filled with liquid of density f , the second

moments of area of the liquids free surfaces due to the individual tanks will have to

be summed up.

G2 M GM GG2 . (5)

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT

compartments. The inclining moment is provided by means of masses which can be

moved transversely on either side of the amidship section of the barge, of which the

distance from the centerline can be measured. The angle of heel is taken by means of

a precision inclinometer.

5

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. Ballast the barge evenly around its C.G. with the given 10 x 1 kg masses and

place the given 5 kg mass at the C.G of the barge.

2. Check that the barge is at even keel with the spirit level meter.

4. Measure the mean draught dl, and hence determine the displacement of the

barge.

Note that the length (l) of the barge is 1.0 m, whereas the width (b) of the

barge is 0.5 m.

approximately 200 mm and note down the heeling angles (angles of

inclination) of the vessel for a trimming moment of md = 5 kg x 0.2 m = 1.0

kg-m, say.

7. Time the period of oscillation T for small heeling angles using a stopwatch

and compare the result obtained with equation (1).

Note that the radius of gyration of the barge about its longitudinal axis is

KOy 0.29 m (without the raised mass).

Note that the second moment of area of the plane of floatation about the

1

longitudinal axis Oy of the floating body I Oy lb3 , where l 1.0 m and

12

b 0.5 m .

I Oy 1

Also, note that BM and KB draught .

Vsub 2

10. Slide and fasten the 3 kg mass along the mast vertically at a distance of about

700 mm above the deck.

Note that with the raised mass, the radius of gyration of the barge about its

longitudinal axis is KOy 0.39 m .

6

12. Compare the values of GM and KG obtained in (6) and (9) (with and without

the raised mass) and comment on the stability of the vessel when a mass is

raised vertically above the C.G.

13. Place the 3 kg mass along the mast back to the deck of the barge and also

remove all the ballasting weights.

15. Evenly ballast the following 20 compartments of the barge with 1/2 litres of

water each, as shown in Figure 5.

keel should be approximately the same as in step (4).)

17. What conclusions can be made regarding the effects of free surface on the

stability of the vessel with the same displacement and same KG of a similar

vessel?

18. Using equation (4), check the virtual reduction in metacentric height using

analytical (theoretical) calculations.

Useful information:

Length of each compartment lc 0.195 m

Width of each compartment bc 0.097 m

In the presence of the free surfaces, the radius of gyration of the barge

about its longitudinal axis is KOy 0.28 m .

7

Second moment of area of the free surface in each compartment about

1

the compartments centerline is given by i lc bc3 .

12

Note that there are a total of 20 compartments filled with water.

body. For the rectangular barge used in this experiment, explain whether you

expect the transverse or longitudinal metacentric height to be greater.

3. A solid cone of uniform density 0.5 floats in a liquid of density with its

axis upright and its apex submerged in the liquid. The radius and height of the

cone are R and 3R, respectively. Determine the metacentric height and analyze

the static stability of the floating cone.

REFERENCES

Marine Engineers, 1967.

Rawson K. J. and Tupper E. C., Basic Ship Theory, Longman, 4th Edition, 1994.

Stokoe E. A., Reed's naval architecture for marine engineers, Thomas Reed, 4th

Edition, 1991.

Edition, 2004.

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