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Waves

Krauss Chapter Nine

Wave
Parameters

Wavelength = = Length between wave crests (or troughs)


Wave Number = = 2/ (units of 1/length)
Wave Period = T = Time it takes a wave crest to travel one
wavelength (units of time)
Angular Frequency = = 2/T (units of 1/time)
Wave Speed = C = / Distance a wave crest travels per unit
time (units of distance/time)
Wave Height = 2a = Twice the wave amplitude
Wave Steepness = Wave Height/Wavelength

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-

Ideal waves Propagate Energy


but not Mass

Wave Equation

Navier-Stokes Equation

Ignoring viscous forces and looking just at the x and z


components

Expanding the terms

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These equations used
Eq. 1 to establish boundary
conditions
(see Krauss)
Eq. 2

This expression
solved to obtain
wave equation
(see Krauss)
Eq. 3

Guess a solution for Eq. 3 of the form


Eq. 4

Plug Eq. 4 into Eq. 3 to yield the following differential equation

Eq. 5

Eq. 5

One solution to Eq. 5 is


Eq. 6

So

The lower boundary condition requires that w (or d/dz) go to


zero at z = h (h is the seafloor depth) (see Krauss)

The boundary condition at the free surface


must satisfy the following expression (see Krauss)

The lower boundary condition requires B=0


The free surface boundary condition requires (see Krauss)

Eq. 7

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Eq. 7

or

or
Also known as the dispersion relation of
Lamb (1945)
or

Given that the phase velocity can be written as C = / it follows that

Phase velocity as a function of wave


number and water depth

note

Therefore

For h < /20

For h > /2

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Wave Speeds -

Deep-Water Waves (Bottom Depth > /2)


Speed is a Function of Wavelength Only
Waves with Longer Wavelength move faster than
Waves with Shorter Wavelength

Shallow-Water Waves (Bottom Depth < /20)


Speed is a Function of Depth Only
Waves Travel Slower in Shallower Water Irrespective
of Wavelength as long as Depth < /20

Deep-Water and Shallow-Water


Wave Regions

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Speed of Deep-Water and Shallow-
Water Waves as a Function of
Wavelength and Depth

Important Consequences of Wave


Speed Dependency on Wavelength
or Bottom Depth

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Wave Dispersion: Self Sorting of Deep-Water Waves Leaving a
Storm Region based on Wavelength. It Occurs Because Longer
Wavelength Waves Travel Faster than Shorter Wavelength
Waves (for Deep Water).

Wave Refraction:

Bending of Shallow-Water Wave


Fronts Due to Change in Bottom
Depth. The Leading Edge of a
Wave Front Enters Shallower
Water and Slows While the
Remaining Front Continues at
Higher Speed. The Net Result is
a Rotation of Wave Fronts To
Become Parallel with Bottom
Depth Contours.

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Consequence of Wave Refraction
Focusing and Defocusing of Wave Energy on Headlands and
Bays, Respectively

Group Velocity

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Group Velocity

Group Velocity

using a trigonometric rule

recall Wave Speed = C = / for:


Then by analogy

In the limit

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C = / or = C

The Main Point: Group velocity for Deep Water Waves is 1/2 the phase
velocity. Group velocity for Shallow Water Waves is equal to the phase
velocity.

Wave Spectra

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Spectral Analysis
Time Domain to Frequency Domain Transformation

Spectral Analysis
Two Sine Waves at 260 Hz and 525 Hz, Respectively

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Spectral Analysis
Time Series derived from the Summation of the Two
Sine Waves

Spectral Analysis
Fourier Transform from Time Domain to Frequency
Domain of Previous Time Series

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Distribution of Wave Energy in the Ocean as a Function of
Wave Frequency or Wavelength

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Aliasing in Wave Sampling

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Wave Generation

Wave Height of Wind-Generated Waves is a


Function of

1. Wind Speed
2. Duration of Wind Event
3. Fetch - the distance over which wind can blow without
obstruction

Full Developed Waves


(Unlimited by Fetch and Duration)

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The Importance of Fetch
Northerly/Southerly Winds Produce a Long Fetch Over
Finger Lakes (A), and Easterly/Westerly Winds Produce a
Short Fetch (B)

A B

Fetch in the Open Ocean is Limited by the Size


of the Storm System

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Lateral Spreading of Wave Energy from a Storm
Source

(95% of Energy Contained Within 45o of Storm Direction)

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