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So what, then, is morality?

We can define morality as the standards

that an individual or a group has about what is right and wrong, or good
and evil. To clarify what this means, let us consider a concrete case.
Several years ago, B.F. Goodrich, a manufacturer of vehicle parts,
won a military contract to design, test, and manufacture aircraft brakes
for the A7D, a new airplane the Air Force was designing. To conserve
weight, Goodrich guaranteed that its compact brake would weigh no
more than 106 pounds, contain no more than four small braking disks or
rotors, and stop the aircraft within a certain distance. The contract was
potentially quite lucrative for the company and so manager were anxious
to deliver a brake that qualified by successfully passing tests showing it
could stop the aircraft as required. Kermit Vandivier, a Goodrich
employee, was given the job of working with Goodrich engineers to write
up the report of the tests run on the brake, which the government was
unlikely to question and even less likely to repeat. Unfortunately,
Vandivier later wrote, when the small brake was tested, the brake linings
on the rotors repeatedly disintegrated because these simply was not
enough surface area on the disks to stop the aircraft without generating
the excessive heat that caused the linings to fail. His superiors, however,
told him that, Regardless of what the brake does on test, were going to
qualify it. After several tests were run, Vandivier was told to write up a
report stating that the brake had passed the tests. Vandivier explained to
his superior that, the only way such a report could be written was to
falsify test data, to which his superior replied that he was well aware of
what was required, but that he had been ordered to get a report written
regardless of how or what had to be done. Therefore, Vandivier had to
decide whether he would participate in writing up the false report. He
later stated:
My job paid well, it was pleasant and challenging, and the future
looked reasonably bright. My wife and I had bought a home.If I
refused to take part in the A7D fraud, I would have to either resign or be
fired. The report would be written by someone anyway, but I would have
the satisfaction of knowing I had had no part in the matter. But bills arent
paid with personal satisfaction, nor house payments with ethical
principles. I made my decision. The next morning I telephoned my
superior and told him I was ready to begin the qualification report.
As he worked on the report, Vandivier said, he talked with the senior
executive assigned to the project and asked him if his conscience would
hurt him if such a thing caused the death of a pilot, and this is when he
replied that I was worrying about too many things that did not concern
me and advised me to do what youre told.

B F Goodrich
a7d Goodrich
106 4

Kermit Goodrich


Characteristic to state of moral standard.

1. Moral standard dead couth matters that we think can seriously injure
or seriously benefit human being.
2. Moral standard are not established or changed by the decisions of
partswlar authoritative bodies.
3. Perhaps most striking, we feel that moral something should be
preferred to other ruler including self-interrest this case should chosen
the moral value of keeping his well-paid pleasant & challenging .
4. Moral standard based on impartial consideration-will benefit from a
lie and that I will be harmed irrelevant to whether lying is wrong
5. Moral something are associated with special emotion and a special

1 couth
2 partswlar

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