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GROUND ANCHORS

7. Tests
There are 3 types of tests: Generally at least 3 control tests must be performed for
each structure.
Tests to failure
Tests to failure are carried out either to determine the Acceptance tests
ultimate resistance of the ground, or to test a new kind Every prestressed anchor in a structure must undergo an
of anchor. The precise nature of the tests is determined acceptance test.
contractually on a case-by-case basis. The aims are as follows:
- show that a proof load can be borne by the anchor
Control tests - make sure that the actual lock-off load (Po), exclu-
These are non-destructive tests, and tested anchors can ding friction, is in line with the design lock-off load.
therefore be used in the structure. The aims of a control Design lock-off load (P):
test are as follows: | Po-P | Max (50KN; 5% P)

- to confirm the behaviour obtained in the tests to The cyclic method used by Soletanche Bachy for tensio-
failure, ning is described in the following paragraph.
- to determine the critical creep load when no test to
failure is performed.

8. Tensioning using the cyclic method


Description Interpretation
A conventional cycle comprises: Monitoring the pressure in the loading jack allows the
- one load increase (in 3 or 4 stages), following assessments to be made:
- one partial load decrease: ideally with minimal shor- - initial pressure, representing friction in the head at
tening of the strand (to assess the friction in the system) the outset,
(1 stage), - maximum test pressure; the Pi-Pe segment must fall
- further load decrease with shortening of the strand within the range corresponding to the design free
(in 2 - 3 stages), length,
- one reloading without extension of the strand (to - constructed point : represents two times the friction
assess the friction in the system) (1 stage), in the head (jack + head + pressure gauge),
- one reloading with extension of the strand, up to - the mid point of the segment PeX gives the maxi-
lock-off pressure (2 - 3 stages), mum anchorage test load,
- measurement of residual deformation. (See figure) - lowest point of unloading cycle Pm,
- constructed point Y and mid point of PmY,
- pressure at lock-off; segments XPm and YPb must be
essentailly parallel; the segment Y'X represents the true
values of the loads for the measured extensions, i.e.
excluding all friction,
- L1 is set a few millimetres above measured L, to
factor in the extension of the part of the cables between
the lock-off head and the jaws of the jack,
- point R constructed from X'Y' and L1, gives the
actual final anchor load, or residual load; the graph also
allows to determine the load loss and bedding-in of the
bearing plate at lock-off.

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