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YOUR GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY

Glossary
Contents

GRAMMAR
UNIT PAGE
VOCABULARY
Present Tenses / Forming Words 3
1 Education and Employment 9
Past Tenses 13
2 People, Relationships and Personalities 15
Future Forms / Question Tags 19
3 Health Matters 20

Review 1 (Units 1-3) 23


Articles / Nouns / Quantifiers / Indefinite Pronouns / Determiners 24
4 Around the Globe 26
Modals / Semi-modals / Modals Perfect 29
5 Technology Today 30
The Passive 33
6 Film, Celebrities and The Press 34

Review 2 (Units 4-6) 37


Making Comparisons / Relative Clauses 38
7 Culture and The Performing Arts 39
Conditionals 42
8 The World Around Us 44
Wishes / Regrets / Other Structures: would rather, prefer, its (about/high) time 48
9 Crime 49

Review 3 (Units 7-9) 52

Reported Speech 53
10 Consumerism Today 54
Gerunds & Infinitives / Make & Let / So, Such, Too, Enough, Very /
57
11 Demonstratives
58
Property and Housing

Contrast & Concession / Purpose / Reason / Manner / Result / it, there, that, what 61
12 The Sporting Life 62

Review 4 (Units 10-12) 64

The Causative / Indirect Questions / Pronouns / Possession / Adjective Order 65


13 Our Society 66
Participle Clauses / Verb + that Clauses / Cleft Sentences / Adverbs / no matter,
69
14 whoever, whatever, etc
70
Natural Habitats
Inversion 73
15 Behaviour 74

Review 5 (Units 13-15) 76

Alphabetical Word List 77


01 Present Tenses / Forming Words

prEsEnt tEnsEs page 4-5 1.16 opponent (n)


person or team you play against
1.1 repeated (adj) Daves opponent plays good tennis so he
done many or more than one time has to try hard to win.
This repeated
standing up and sitting down is the only 1.17 in progress (expr)
exercise he does. happening now The
meeting is in progress and were talking about
1.2 habitual (adj) money plans.
usual, characteristic Having eggs
every day for breakfast is one of his habitual 1.18 drive (v)
routines. use a car or other vehicle Dad
drives to work in his car.
1.3 action (n)
sth that is done , Taking the 1.19 temporary (adj)
train to work every day is a habitual action. for a short time, that will finish
He has a temporary job for a month.
1.4 commute (v)
travel by public transport to work 1.20 situation (n)
sth that is happening The
family are in a difficult situation now that John
It takes her an hour to
has lost his job.
commute to her office in the city.
1.21 university (n)
1.5 fact (n)
place of study for higher education
sth true It is a fact that he comes
He is studying history at
from Greece.
university.
1.6 law of nature (n)
1.22 share (v)
an event in nature which always occurs
use with sb else Sharon and
It is a law of nature that
Fiona share a flat and they like living together.
some plants grow flowers in spring.
1.23 arrangement (n)
1.7 rise (v) plan to make sth happen ,
come up The sun rises in the Were making arrangements for
morning before I wake up. the trip, like how much money to take and
1.8 east (n) where to stay.
where the sun rises, opposite of west 1.24 travel (v)
This room faces east so you can go far from one place to another
see the sun rise. It takes all day for me to travel from the city
1.9 understand (v) to my village by car.
know what sb means 1.25 annoying (adj)
He doesnt understand English so he cant making you angry Stop
help the American tourist. playing that song again and again. Its so
1.10 timetable (n) annoying.
plan of times when things happen 1.26 habit (n)
(, sth you usually do The old man
) Look at the timetable to see has a habit of touching his hat when he says
when the train to Athens leaves. hello. He always does it.
1.11 schedule (n) 1.27 forever (adv)
plan of times when things should happen always Karen is forever
The schedule for the trip forgetting her keys. It happens all the time.
shows we visit the museum in the morning.
1.28 continuously (adv)
1.12 depart (v) all the time , Dad
leave The bus departs in five is continuously telling us to study. It's so
minutes so lets find a seat. annoying!
1.13 narrative (n) 1.29 coach (n)
story of events The events sb who teaches you a sport
described in the narrative are unbelievable! The coach expects every member of the
1.14 joke (n) team to do their best in tomorrow's match.
funny story That joke was very 1.30 normally (adv)
funny. Tell another one. usually I normally wake up at 7
1.15 commentary (n) am, but today I slept late.
description of sporting event 1.31 occasionally (adv)
I listen to the football commentary on the sometimes Steve occasionally
radio so I know whats happening in the match. phones me, but he usually emails.

UNIT 1 3
1.32 rarely (adv) 1.52 fear (v)
 not very often She rarely goes to  be afraid He fears that he will do
pubs because she doesnt drink. badly in his exams.
1.33 seldom (adv) 1.53 matter (v)
 not very often We seldom have a  be important What you think
holiday. Our last one was over a year ago. matters, so its important that you tell me.
1.34 hardly ever (adv) 1.54 wish (v)
 almost never Fred hardly  hope for I wish I could find a
ever eats out. He prefers to eat at home. better job.
1.35 scarcely (adv) 1.55 absolutely (adv)
 almost not at all I could  totally Grandpa absolutely loves
scarcely hear what he was saying. his car so be careful when you drive it.
1.36 at present (adv)
1.56 mental state (n)
 now, at the moment ,
 how you feel
At present Im living with friends, but next
Her mental state before the exams was bad
week Im moving out.
because she was so worried.
1.37 tonight (adv)
 today in the evening and night 1.57 agree (v)
, Were going to a club tonight  think sth is correct Dad agrees
and Ken is meeting us there at 11 pm. with Mum and they both say I have to be
home by 11 pm.
1.38 soon (adv)
 in a moment Shes turning 18 1.58 consider (v)
soon: in a few days time in fact.  believe What do you consider to
be the best subject at school?
1.39 describe (v)
 say what sth is like She 1.59 doubt (v)
described the man as a tall guy with black hair.  think sth might not be true
I doubt that he remembers my name. Weve
1.40 possession (n)
 sth that is yours , Mums only met once before.
favourite possession is her watch. It was a gift 1.60 expect (v)
from Dad.  think will happen I expect all my
1.41 belong to (v) friends will come to my party.
 be yours This book belongs to me. 1.61 forget (v)
Look, it has my name on it.  not remember I never forget a
1.42 own (v) face. I always remember who someone is.
 have as yours Harry owns a flat 1.62 imagine (v)
and hes paying for it himself.  believe but without facts
1.43 owe (v) I imagine you are happy to finish school.
 have because of sb or sth else 1.63 mind (v)
I owe my success to my coach. Without her  worry about I dont mind
help winning the match was impossible.
you using my MP3 player. Its fine.
1.44 possess (v)
1.64 prefer (v)
 have The police arrested him for
 like more than sth else Vanilla ice
possessing an illegal weapon.
cream is nice, but I prefer chocolate. It tastes
1.45 sense (n) better.
 physical ability eg hearing
Her sense of smell is good so she can tell 1.65 realise (v)
you what perfume you are wearing.  understand to be true ,
Now I see your face I realise
1.46 notice (v) who you are!
 see sth is there She never notices
me in the canteen so she never says hello. 1.66 recall (v)
 remember I cant recall her
1.47 sound (v)
name. Can you remember?
 seem, feel A takeaway sounds
like a good idea. Lets get one. 1.67 recognise (v)
1.48 taste (v)  know who sb is Who is that? I
 give a flavour This tea tastes dont recognise her.
horrible. Can I have some sugar? 1.68 suppose (v)
1.49 emotion (n)  think to be true I suppose you
 feeling Love is a strong understand your homework because youre
emotion. good at maths.
1.50 adore (v) 1.69 subject (n)
 love a lot She adores her baby and  school lesson History is my
loves him more than anyone else in the world. favourite subject.
1.51 care (v) 1.70 quantity (n)
 feel about She cares what other  number, amount What quantity
people think and criticism upsets her. of water do we need. Is two litres enough?

4
1.71 cost (v) 1.91 lately (adv)
 have as a price This coffee costs  not long ago Lately he has been
3 euros. sad. I wonder whats wrong.
1.72 equal (v) 1.92 once (adv)
 be the same amount as sth ,  one time Ive only met him once
Two and two equals four. and that was last Sunday.
1.73 measure (v) 1.93 recently (adv)
 have as a size , ,  not long ago I'm tired because
Our garden measures ten metres long. I've been working very hard recently.
1.74 weigh (v) 1.94 so far (adv)
 have as a weight The baby weighs until now Ive read three pages
3 kilos. so far.
1.75 fortune (n)
 lots of money This car costs a
fortune. Its too expensive for me.
Grammar in Action page 6-9

1.76 organise (v) Exercise A page 6


 make plans for sth
Im organising a surprise party for Karen. 1.95 college (n)
 place of study after school, below university
1.77 meet (v) level Shes doing a two year
 see Im meeting John at the chefs course at college.
cinema.
1.96 flight (n)
1.78 appointment (n)  travel by plane The flight will take
 plan to see sb My doctors two hours.
appointment is at 6 oclock.
1.97 exhausted (adj)
1.79 apply (v)
 very tired I have to rest.
 ask for (a job) Im applying
Im exhausted.
for a job at the supermarket.
1.98 revise (v)
1.80 company (n)
 learn sth you have already studied
 business He works in the office of
Im revising for the maths test
a big communications company.
and I have three more pages to learn.
1.81 twice (adv)
1.99 hall of residence (n)
 two times Ask him twice. Hell
 rooms at college or university Chris
say no the first time, but probably agree the
is a student and he lives in a nice hall of
second time.
residence.
1.82 indefinite (adj)
1.100 advertising (adj)
 not fixed The party starts at an
 that aims to sell sth This
indefinite time so you can go whenever
advertising company makes TV adverts for
you like.
juice.
1.83 effect (n)
 what sth does to you , 1.101 campsite (n)
This film is funny so it will have a good  place to stay in a tent ,
effect on you. We like this campsite because
we can put our tents next to the beach.
1.84 emphasise (v)
 show that sth is important 1.102 earn (v)
The teacher is speaking slowly in order to  make money from doing a job
emphasise how to say the words correctly. She earns 6 euros an hour in this job.

1.85 duration (n) 1.103 unfortunately (adv)


 how long sth lasts The duration  sadly Unfortunately, I cannot
of this documentary is one hour. give you a job. Im sorry.

1.86 chat (v) 1.104 colleague (n)


 talk in a friendly way I often  sb who works at the same company
chat for hours on the phone with my friends. We have a new colleague in
the office. Shes just started working here.
1.87 come back (phr v)
 go to where you were John 1.105 encourage (v)
hasnt come back yet. Hes still at work.  say sth is a good idea
His parents are encouraging him to go to
1.88 return (v) university because they are sure he will like it.
 go to where you were She
returns from work at 6 oclock. 1.106 make it (expr)
 manage to do sth Study
1.89 already (adv) hard and youll make it to college.
 done before Ive already seen that
film. I dont want to see it again. Exercise B page 6
1.90 just (adv)
1.107 break (n)
 a moment ago Dad has just got
 short rest I usually take a break
home and hes taking off his shoes.
at 11 o'clock for a cup of tea.

UNIT 1 5
1.108 join (v) 1.126 frequently (adv)
 go with Lets join Harry and sit  many times He frequently phones
with him in the cinema. me when he needs advice, sometimes more
than twice a day.
1.109 race (n)
 a competition to find the fastest person, car, 1.127 environment (n)
horse, etc Hes running so fast I  place around you I like my
think hell win the race. work environment. The office is nice and my
colleagues are friendly.
Exercise C page 7 1.128 become (v)
1.110 appreciate (v)  change into sth Hes become less
 feel thankful about I appreciate friendly since he got a better job than us.
your help. I cant do this on my own. 1.129 aware (adj)
1.111 interested (adj)  knowing He is aware that
 wanting to learn about , Greek is a difficult language because hes
Hes doing a history course having trouble learning it.
because hes interested in the past. 1.130 abroad (adv)
1.112 local (adj)  in another country Pavlos is
 from this place Lets play football studying abroad.
in the local park; its five minutes from here. 1.131 successful (adj)
1.113 enjoy oneself (v)  doing what you wanted to do
 have fun Im really enjoying Hes a successful singer and he has sold
myself. Its a great party. many albums.

1.114 popular (adj) 1.132 face to face (adv)


 liked by many people This  in person
popular band has sold loads of albums. We havent met face to face, weve only
spoken on the phone.
1.115 sign up (phr v)
 become part of sth I want to 1.133 form (n)
sign up for the race.  type E-books are the easiest form
of book to carry around.
1.116 regret (v)
1.134 increase (v)
 wish you hadnt done sth
 become more Prices are
I regret forgetting her birthday. I feel bad.
increasing and everything is getting more
1.117 depict (v) expensive.
 show in a picture This painting
1.135 day by day (adv)
depicts the English countryside.
 every day Sales are
1.118 village (n) improving day by day and so are our profits.
 small country town There are only
1.136 according to (prep)
five houses in this tiny village.
 matching Every person
1.119 hurry up (v) sleeps according to how many hours they
 be quick Hurry up! The train need.
leaves in one minute.
1.137 keen (adj)
1.120 definitely (adv)  wanting to do sth Im keen to
 for sure She definitely wants to learn Greek so I can speak to my friend Dina in
get more education, so shes going to college. her own language.
1.138 find out (phr v)
Exercise D page 7  learn Im reading the news
1.121 in tandem (expr) online so I can find out whats happening in
 at the same time He works and the world.
studies in tandem and it isnt easy to do both.
Exercise E page 7
1.122 approach (n)
 way of doing sth His approach 1.139 urgently (adv)
to the problem is to discuss possible solutions  needing attention right now
with each member of staff. He urgently needs to see a doctor. He is
really sick.
1.123 involve (v)
 be a necessary part Learning 1.140 relative (n)
to speak another language involves a lot of  family member Grandpa is my
hard work. oldest relative.
1.124 partner (n) 1.141 explain (v)
 person you work or collaborate with  give information so sth can be understood
I have to do this school Our teacher doesnt explain the
project with a partner so Im working on it with lesson very well so I dont understand it.
my best friend. 1.142 rock climbing (n)
1.125 mother tongue (n)  sport where you go up mountain sides
 language you learn as a baby Rock climbing is
Maries mother tongue is French dangerous because you can fall and break
because her parents are French. a leg.

6
Exercise F page 8 1.159 come out (phr v)
 start to be shown I want to see
1.143 tool (n)
the next Spider Man film when it comes out.
 object used to do a particular job
The Internet is an excellent tool for finding 1.160 award (n)
out information.  prize for doing sth well I hope my
favourite actor wins an award for his role.
1.144 calculator (n)
 machine for doing mathematical problems 1.161 mainly (adv)
He uses a calculator to do  mostly I watch films at home
his maths homework. mainly, but sometimes I go to the cinema.

1.145 interactive whiteboard (n) 1.162 in touch (expr)


 board that can be used with a computer  in contact He keeps in touch
with his friends on Facebook.
The teacher
can show us pages from our book on the 1.163 strange (adj)
interactive whiteboard.  unusual Its strange that an old
sitcom like Friends is still popular.
1.146 digital camera (n)
 photographic device for taking pictures that go Exercise H page 9
on an SD card He takes
photos with his digital camera and then saves 1.164 gun dog (n)
them on his computer.  hunting dog Hunters use
gun dogs to find and bring back birds they
1.147 common (adj) shoot.
 often used Fastfood places
are common in towns and there are five in this 1.165 originally (adv)
high street.  what used to be He originally lived
in Patras, but now he lives in Athens.
1.148 researcher (n)
 sb who studies to find out new things 1.166 apparently (adv)
The researcher hopes to find  as it seems ,
out why people have sleep problems. Apparently the accident was caused by a
drunk driver, but police are not entirely sure yet.
1.149 benefit (n)
1.167 breed (n)
 advantage One of the benefits of
 type of animal Her favourite breed
working from home is that you don't waste
of dog is the Labrador.
time travelling to the office.
1.168 gentle (adj)
1.150 focus (v)
 kind and calm This dog is gentle
 keep your attention on sth
so he is good with children.
Im too tired to focus on this page. My eyes
keep closing. 1.169 playful (adj)
 liking to play The playful dog
1.151 natural (adj) enjoyed chasing the ball.
 normal Its only natural that
youre tired after working all day. 1.170 mutual (adj)
 shared by two or more people or groups
1.152 replace (v) The partners have a mutual
 use sth new in the place of sth else respect and liking for each other.
He wants to replace his old
car with a new one. 1.171 apart from (prep)
 not including Apart from mice, I
1.153 include (v) like all types of pets.
 also have Her birthday
1.172 detection (n)
presents include a watch and a book.
 finding things The police use
1.154 rapidly (adv) dogs for the detection of drugs.
 very quickly , Prices are
1.173 train (v)
rising rapidly. They go up every day.  teach He has been training his
1.155 develop (v) dog to fetch his slippers.
 change and grow 1.174 the blind (n)
The child is developing well.  people who cannot see
Dogs who guide the blind help them live
Exercise G page 8 normal lives.
1.156 sitcom (n) 1.175 nature (n)
 funny TV series Friends is  character My dog has a kind
her favourite American sitcom. nature so dont be scared of him.
1.157 incredible (adj) 1.176 regular (adj)
 unbelievable Thats incredible  always at the same time
news. I cant believe it. He enjoys his regular workout every evening
1.158 fan (n) at the gym.
 sb who likes sth a lot , 1.177 daily (adj)
Hes a fan of this series and he never misses  every day I don't buy a daily
a show. paper; I prefer to get a weekly news magazine.

UNIT 1 7
1.178 affection (n) FCE in Action page 11
 feelings of love He shows his cat
affection by stroking its ears. 1.195 concert (n)
 music event
Shes going to the Lady Gaga concert to
Forming words page 9-10 hear her sing live.

1.179 glad (adj) 1.196 look forward to (phr v)


 happy  be happy about sth that will happen
Im glad to see you are ok.
Hes looking forward to the weekend
1.180 low (adj) because hes going to a party.
 close to the ground Dont hit your
1.197 immediately (adv)
head on this low entrance to the old shop.
 right now The phone rang just
Exercise I page 10 once and I answered it immediately.
1.198 roommate (n)
1.181 hold (v)
 sb you share a room with
 organise Were holding a party At university I shared a room with a
at the end of the school year. roommate who was very untidy.
1.182 contest (n) 1.199 borrow (v)
 competition The best singer  take and give back
will win the contest and get a prize You can borrow some money but I want it
1.183 take place (expr) back tomorrow.
 happen My party will take 1.200 annoy (v)
place on my birthday.  make angry
1.184 broadcast (v) Rock music annoys my grandma. She really
 send out as a TV or radio signal hates it.
They broadcast the news every evening
at 8 pm. ECCE in Action page 12
1.185 participate (v)
1.201 scary (adj)
 be a part of sth ,
 causing fear This scary film
Hes taking part in a talent contest.
always makes me scream.
1.186 perform (v)
1.202 horror film (n)
 entertain people by singing, acting, etc  film that frightens you
, My daughter will She doesnt like horror films about
perform a dance routine at the school concert. monsters.
1.187 go on (phr v) 1.203 contract (n)
 continue afterwards  work agreement My job
After he finishes his studies he will go on to contract says how much I get paid.
work as a doctor.
1.204 sign (v)
1.188 fame (n)  write your name
 being well-known , , Please sign your name at the bottom of the
The film tells the story of the singer's early page.
career and sudden rise to fame.
1.205 careful (adj)
1.189 profession (n)  trying not to do anything wrong
 job you have trained for Be careful not to make any spelling mistakes.
He plans to enter the teaching profession
1.206 promotion (n)
after graduating from university.
the move to a better job position
1.190 international (adj) He got a promotion from assistant to
 all over the world She works for manager.
an international company that has offices in
1.207 deserve (v)
many countries.
 earn money, praise, etc because you did sth
1.191 compete (v) well She deserves the promotion
 try to win All the athletes because she works hard.
are competing for the gold medal. 1.208 decide (v)
1.192 attract (v)  choose what to do Hes
 make sb like sth The company decided to go to college after school.
should do more to attract younger customers. 1.209 twin (n)
1.193 media (n)  brother or sister born the same day
 TV, radio, newspapers, magazines The twins are 15 today so Happy Birthday
The media reports on what famous people Fred and George.
do every day. 1.210 resemble (v)
1.194 celebrity (n)  look or be like He resembles his
 well-known person The dad in appearance. He doesnt look like his
celebrity has many fans who adore his films. mum at all.

8
1.211 presentation (n) 1.215 excitedly (adv)
 work to be shown to people formally  happily so you cannot relax
Im giving a presentation to The children jumped up and down excitedly
the class today. It took me a month to write it. when they got to the beach because they love
1.212 invite (v) it there.
 ask to come to an event 1.216 laboratory technician (n)
Ive invited all my friends to my party.  sb who works in and looks after a place where
1.213 blockbuster (n) experiments are done
 very successful film The laboratory technician found what the
This blockbuster has made a fortune researcher needed for the experiment.
in ticket sales. 1.217 ring (v)
1.214 excursion (n)  telephone
 (day) trip Were going on a Turn your phone on in case Dan rings.
school excursion to the Acropolis museum.

Education and Employment

Vocabulary in Action page 13-15 1.228 CV (n)


 written account of your education and work
1.218 employment (n) experience When you apply
 having or giving work It can be for a job, you must send a CV as well.
hard to find employment after school so you
are lucky you got a job. 1.229 interview (n)
 formal meeting to ask sb questions
Exercise A page 13 The candidate did well in the
interview and he got the job.
1.219 candidate (n)
1.230 vacancy (n)
 sb applying for a job
 job that is free Shes applied
Four candidates have applied for this job.
for one of the vacancies at the supermarket so
1.220 career (n) she might have a job soon.
 work you do for a long time
1.231 wage (n)
He wants a career as a doctor.
 weekly or hourly pay ,
1.221 certificate (n) Her wage is only 5 euros an hour.
 written proof you studied and passed a course 1.232 cruise line (n)
She put her FCE certificate  company that has cruise ships
on the wall. Shes going on holiday
1.222 graduate (n) around the Greek islands with a well-known
 sb who has successfully finished university cruise line.
He passed all his university 1.233 generous (adj)
exams so he is now a graduate.  giving a lot of sth Grandpas
1.223 native speaker (n) generous gift was a lot of money.
 sb who speaks a language as their mother 1.234 shore (n)
tongue  on land There is a shore trip to the
Carlos is a native speaker of Spanish. He Acropolis when the cruise ship gets to Piraeus.
grew up in Madrid.
1.235 assistant (n)
1.224 reference (n)  helper My assistant helps me
 letter written by sb you know that describes organise the trips that I choose.
your abilities and skills
1.236 requirement (n)
I need a reference from a teacher for my
 thing that is needed ,
college application.
One requirement for this tourist guide job is
1.225 salary (n) perfect English.
 money you earn He earns a high
1.237 arrange (v)
salary so he is quite rich.
 organise Hes arranged a
1.226 foreign (adj) meeting with his employees tomorrow.
 from another country George
speaks two foreign languages; French and Exercise B page 13
Chinese.
1.238 advertisement (n)
1.227 experience (n)  information about sth you want to sell
 knowledge of a job She has two This cruise advertisement says
years experience as a nurse. there are special prices for October.

UNIT 1 9
1.239 degree (n) 1.257 connected (adj)
 university level of education  joined to The computer isn't
She has done a degree in Physics at Athens connected to the Internet yet you have to
University. turn on the modem.
1.240 diploma (n) 1.258 intensive (adj)
 certificate Hes studying for a  doing a lot in a short time
chefs diploma at college. He studied for the FCE in a six month
1.241 employer (n) intensive course.
 sb who gives you a job 1.259 speech (n)
Our employer is increasing our salaries.  ability to talk Little children use
1.242 respond (v) simple words when they first learn speech.
 answer The company I applied to 1.260 accent (n)
responded and invited me to an interview.  the way you speak according to where you are
1.243 qualifications (pl n) from Pierre speaks English with
 education and exams you have passed a French accent.
He needs good qualifications for 1.261 pronunciation (n)
this job so its good he went to university.  the way a word should be said
1.244 skill (n) () The pronunciation of the letter R in
 ability He has amazing English is hard for Chinese speakers.
language skills and speaks six languages. 1.262 fired (adj)
1.245 social networking (n)  having lost your job He got
 meeting people online fired so now he hasnt got a job.
He uses Facebook for social networking. 1.263 reduced (adj)
1.246 purpose (n)  made less My reduced salary
 aim The purpose of a CV is to means I cant buy what I used to because I
make someone want to employ you. have less money.

1.247 staff (n) 1.264 compulsory (adj)


 people who work at the same place  sth you have to do Maths is
The hotel staff work very hard. a compulsory subject so all the students take it.

1.248 obtain (v) 1.265 optional (adj)


 get He obtained his ECCE  sth you can choose to do
certificate last year. The optional subject I chose to do is art.

1.249 previous (adj) 1.266 talented (adj)


 past In his previous job  with a lot of skill The
he was an assistant, but in this one he is a talented actor was very good in that film.
manager. 1.267 fluent (adj)
1.250 contact (n)  speaking well ,
 sb you know online He has twenty He is fluent in Japanese so he applied for a
email contacts. job in Tokyo.

1.251 request (n) 1.268 permanent (adj)


 asking for sth He made a request  lasting for ever or a long time
for more money, but his employer said no. She has a permanent job at the post office.
1.269 hire (v)
Exercise C page 14  give sb a job They are
hiring assistants at the shop in town so Ive
1.252 retire (v)
applied for a job there.
 stop working when you reach a certain age
Grandma retired from 1.270 professor (n)
her job when she was 65.  senior university teacher
Apart from teaching, most
1.253 resign (v)
professors are also involved in research
 leave a job Bob resigned
programmes.
because he has found a better job.
1.254 lecturer (n) Exercise D page 14
 university teacher
The students took notes while the lecturer 1.271 application (n)
spoke.  written request for sth He made
an application for a job.
1.255 contribute (v)
 give positive things to sth 1.272 choice (n)
She contributes a lot to the company by  picking sth you want He made the
working hard. choice to go to college.

1.256 impression (n) 1.273 complaint (n)


 opinion you have about sb or sth  saying you think sth was not correct
The candidate made a good impression so The food was horrible so I
she got the job. made a complaint to the waiter.

10
1.274 decision (n) Exercise E page 14
 choice what to do
1.291 fill in (phr v)
She made a decision at last and chose a
 complete You have to fill in
candidate for the job.
this application form and then post it.
1.275 effort (n)
1.292 form (n)
 when you try hard to do sth If
 official paper He filled in the form
you make an effort you will pass your exams.
with his personal details.
1.276 excuse (n)
1.293 hand in (phr v)
 reason for not doing sth
 give to a teacher We handed in
She made an excuse for being late and said
our essays to the teacher.
she had missed the bus.
1.294 print out (phr v)
1.277 a living (n)
 make a printed version I wrote
 work you do to earn money
my essay on my computer and then I printed it
He makes a living by driving a bus.
out on paper to hand in at school.
1.278 profit (n)
 money made We made a profit so Exercise F page 15
we are one hundred euros richer.
1.295 get away with (phr v)
1.279 progress (n)  not get caught (),
 getting better David is making He got away with not doing his
progress at school and he has better grades homework because the teacher was away
now. that day.
1.280 make sb redundant (expr) 1.296 get by (phr v)
 ask sb to leave a job because they are  manage She gets by on a
no longer needed low salary but it isnt easy.
When the company
closed, all the employees were made 1.297 get on (phr v)
redundant.  be friendly with Jack gets
on with his sister so they spend a lot of time
1.281 make up ones mind (expr) together.
 decide Have you made up
your mind? Yes, I have decided. 1.298 get over (phr v)
 become ok after sth bad happens to you
1.282 take advantage (expr) His grandma died and it took him
 use for your own good some time to get over it.
, He should take
advantage of being fluent in languages and get 1.299 get round to (phr v)
a job as a translator.  find time for The teacher
didnt get round to marking our homework so
1.283 risk (n) we still dont know how we did.
 sth that might not happen as you hope
He took a risk when he sat the 1.300 get together (phr v)
exam because he knew he might fail.  meet sb informally
Lets get together at my house and watch
1.284 control (n) a film.
power The new manager took
control of the company. 1.301 put sb down (phr v)
 say negative things about sb ,
1.285 take part (expr) Diana put her sister down and
 participate Lets take part in said she was useless.
the race. We might win!
1.302 put off (phr v)
1.286 take sth for granted (expr)  plan for a later date Ill have to
 not appreciate sth because you think it should put off our dinner date because Im ill. Lets do
happen He takes her it next week.
help for granted and never thanks her.
1.303 put up with (phr v)
1.287 take sth into account (expr)  bear sth difficult How can
 consider, think about you put up with your noisy brother? Hes so
This shop takes parents into account so annoying!
there is a child play area here.
1.304 update (v)
1.288 favour (n)  give the newest information
 sth that helps sb I updated my status on LinkedIn when I got
Dave did me a favour and cooked supper a new job.
because I was busy.
1.305 prospect (n)
1.289 harm (n)  future possibility Your career
 sth that is bad for sb , The prospects will be better with a university
sun can do harm and burn your skin. degree.
1.290 revision (n) 1.306 postpone (v)
 learning sth you have already studied  plan for a later date, put off
She did three hours of revision The boss cannot see you today so youll have
for the test. to postpone your appointment until tomorrow

UNIT 1 11
1.307 tolerate (v) 1.323 opportunity (n)
bear sth difficult, put up with chance A degree gives you the
I cant tolerate rude behaviour. It makes me opportunity to find a better job.
angry.
1.324 improve (v)
1.308 survive (v) get better Shes taking lessons
manage, get by How will I to improve her English.
survive without a salary? I cant buy any food.
1.325 it remains to be seen (expr)
1.309 recover (v) we will have to wait and see ,
become OK after sth bad happens to you, It remains to be seen
get over It took her a while to which candidate will get the job.
recover when she was made redundant, but
she's been feeling more optimistic recently
EccE in action page 17
1.310 steal (v)
take sth that is not yours He was 1.326 cheat (v)
fired because he stole money and mobile break the rules ( )
phones from his colleagues. He cheated in the test by copying his
1.311 escape (v) friends answers.
not get caught, get away with 1.327 get off (phr v)
He escaped his mothers anger by running leave (a bus, train etc)
out of the room. This is our stop so we have to get off the
1.312 punishment (n) tram here.
sth done to you for doing sth wrong 1.328 comprehensive (adj)
The punishment for not doing covering everything This
your homework is an extra essay. comprehensive course covers all the grammar
and vocabulary you need for the ECCE exam.
Exercise G page 15
1.329 depend (v)
1.313 pay attention (expr) be affected by sth How well you
listen carefully , do at school depends on how much you study.
He pays attention in class so he understands
1.330 get into (phr v)
the lesson.
enter He got into university and
1.314 valuable (adj) he starts this October.
very useful Thank you for your
1.331 it's a shame (expr)
valuable advice. It helped me a lot.
it's disappointing , Its a
1.315 proud (adj) shame you didnt get the job. Better luck next
happy about sth you have done time.
Dad is proud of me because I passed all my
exams with an A. 1.332 get up (phr v)
wake up and get out of bed
1.316 extremely (adv) I usually get up in the morning at 7 am and
very much He is extremely take a shower.
good at languages and learns them easily.
1.333 get to (phr v)
1.317 deal with (phr v) arrive at This train gets to the
cope with, face She cant station in half an hour.
deal with failing tests and she gets really angry
when she doesnt do well. 1.334 get through (phr v)
finish He managed to get
1.318 concentrate (v) through all his homework.
focus on Im
concentrating on the test for tomorrow so Im 1.335 take up (phr v)
going to revise for it all evening. start sth new He took up tennis
last year and he loves it.
1.319 for the time being (expr)
for now She isnt going out 1.336 treat (v)
with friends for the time being because she is behave towards If you treat
studying for exams next month. people well they will be nice to you.
1.320 ahead (prep) 1.337 put in (phr v)
in front of Im looking forward to do She put in an extra hours work
the years at college ahead of me when I finish and left the office at 6 pm.
school. 1.338 position (n)
job He applied for a teaching position
at the local school.
FcE in action page 16
1.339 rely (v)
1.321 eager (adj) need sb for sth I rely on my
keen, willing Hes keen to join parents for money because I dont have a job.
the football team because he loves sport.
1.322 dissatisfi ed (adj)
disappointed, unhappy
Our manager is dissatisfied with this month's
sales figures - he thinks we could do better.

12
02 Past Tenses

past tEnsEs pages 18-19 2.18 burglar (n)


a thief who breaks into your house
2.1 completed (adj) The burglar broke the window
finished He put the and stole the TV from our living room.
completed letter in an envelope.
2.19 hurt (v)
2.2 specifi c (adj)
hit and cause pain She hurt her
fixed I always eat lunch at
foot when she fell over and now she cant walk
a specific time because I like routine.
on it.
2.3 set (v)
2.20 barely (adv)
make a piece of equipment ready to turn on at
only just He had barely sat down
a certain time Ive set the DVD
player to record the film at 9 oclock. when the phone rang.

2.4 alarm (n) 2.21 hardly (adv)


device that makes a sound to wake you up almost , We had
Her alarm rings at 7 am every hardly sat down to dinner when all the lights
morning. went out.

2.5 grab (v)


take quickly She grabbed her bag Grammar in action pages 19-22
and ran out the door to catch the bus.
2.6 interrupt (v) Exercise a page 19
stop sb in the middle of sth else 2.22 volunteer (n)
Sorry to interrupt your meeting, but theres sb who does sth without asking for money
a phone call for you. The volunteers who planted
2.7 block (n) trees in the park were locals.
group of buildings between roads
2.23 author (n)
The supermarket is three blocks down from
writer J K Rowling is the
the library.
author who wrote the Harry Potter books.
2.8 bump into (phr v)
2.24 mention (v)
meet by chance I was
say sth about She mentioned
surprised when I bumped into Charles because
her new job in her email so I did know about
I thought he was in Rome.
it, yes.
2.9 plant (v)
put in the ground to grow 2.25 departure lounge (n)
I planted some flowers in the garden. room in an airport where you wait before a
flight We waited for
2.10 guest (n) two hours in the departure lounge for our flight
sb invited to an event to London.
All the guests enjoyed the party.
2.26 board (v)
2.11 softly (adv) get on (bus, plane, ferry, tram, train)
quietly , The baby fell asleep He boarded the plane and sat
with music playing softly in the room. down in his seat.
2.12 background (n) 2.27 cancellation (n)
sounds you can hear but you are not fully end of an arrangement The
listening to We talked over the cancellation of our flight because of bad
sound of the TV adverts in the background. weather meant we didnt leave for Rome that
2.13 back then (expr) day.
in the past Heres a photo of Dad
2.28 rehearse (v)
twenty years ago. He had a beard back then.
practise (for actors) The
2.14 while (conj) actors rehearsed the scene before it was
during a certain time I was watching filmed.
TV while Fred was making supper.
2.29 stage (n)
2.15 shy (adj) place in a theatre where actors perform a play
not sure about talking to other people When the famous actor walked out
He was too shy to speak to the girl he liked. onto the stage everyone clapped.
2.16 confi dent (adj)
sure of yourself Clare is quite Exercise B page 20
shy but her sister is very confident. 2.30 sensitive (adj)
2.17 midnight (n) showing feeling and caring
12 oclock at night It was Shes a sensitive person so try not to
midnight and there was nobody on the street. criticise her too openly.

UNIT 2 13
2.31 missing (adj) 2.46 basement (n)
 cannot be found The cat had  floor or room in a house which is below ground
been missing all night and we didnt know level I walked in the front door
where it was. and then went downstairs to the basement.
2.32 relocate (v) 2.47 it hit me (expr)
 move to another place ,  I got a good idea While I was
When the company surfing the Net it hit me! I should start my own
relocated to Paris, I had to move to France. blog.
2.33 sociable (adj) 2.48 give it a shot (expr)
 friendly and liking other people  try sth You should give it a shot
Shes a sociable person so shell be happy to and take part in the football trials.
meet new people at the party.
2.49 slice (n)
Exercise C page 20  flat piece of sth like bread or cheese
There are two slices of bread left, so thats
2.34 slave (n) enough for one sandwich.
 sb who belongs to sb else and has to work
for them , The slave was 2.50 recipe (n)
forced to work for no money and very little  cooking instructions This is
food. Grandmas recipe for cookies.
2.35 slavery (n) 2.51 corner shop (n)
 the system where people belong to other  small local shop that sells everything
people , Many people lost I bought a newspaper and
their freedom because of slavery. some crisps at the corner shop.
2.36 unbearable (adj) 2.52 ingredient (n)
 impossible to cope with He  food item in a dish The basic
said living in a war zone was unbearable so he ingredients for a cake are flours, eggs, butter
came to Europe for a better life. and sugar.
2.37 endure (v) 2.53 delicious (adj)
 experience sth very bad She  very tasty This soup is
couldnt endure the bullies at school so she delicious. Can I have some more?
asked to move to another school.
2.54 pasta (n)
2.38 humiliation (n)  food made from eggs, water and flour eg
 feeling of shame He couldnt macaroni, ravioli, etc The pasta
bear the humiliation when the class laughed at I use when I make carbonara is macaroni
his new haircut. number 6.
2.39 cruelty (n) 2.55 reputation (n)
 unkind treatment that causes pain  what people think of you He has a
He treated his poor dog with terrible cruelty good reputation as a coach because his team
by kicking it and not feeding it properly. won the championship.
2.40 rescue (v)
 save The fire fighter rescued a man Exercise E page 22
from the burning building and took him to 2.56 keep fit (expr)
safety.
 exercise to stay healthy
2.41 offer (v) She runs in the park
 ask if sb wants sth Jack offered every day to keep fit.
me a coffee but I said no thank you.
2.57 results (pl n)
2.42 drug (v)  exam grades My exam
 give sb sth that makes them sleep or become results come out tomorrow. I hope Ive got
unconscious The victim was high marks.
drugged by the kidnapper and doesnt
remember anything about his time as a 2.58 experiment (n)
prisoner.  test to check if sth works or is true
The students did a biology experiment at
Exercise D page 21 school to test the effect of sunlight on plants.

2.43 inspirational (adj) 2.59 solution (n)


 making you want to do the same because  answer to a problem The solution
you admire it He is an to this maths problem is 42. So 43 is not the
inspirational teacher and he is the reason why right answer.
I became a musician. 2.60 jewellery (n)
2.44 trial (n)  decorations we wear to look nice eg earrings
 test in sport to see your skill Shall we get Julie some jewellery
He did well in the rugby trials and is now on for her birthday earrings or a necklace?
the team. 2.61 audience (n)
2.45 come true (expr)  group of people watching a film, play or sb
 become real My speaking The audience stood up at
dream came true when I got into university. the end of the play and clapped.

14
Exercise F page 22 2.72 unselfish (adj)
 thinking about others before yourself
2.62 campus (n)
Giving money to people in
 place where university buildings are
need is an unselfish thing to do.
The engineering
building is on the other side of the campus. 2.73 mature (adj)
 in an adult way
2.63 doubt (n)
People think he is older than 15 because he
 feeling of not being certain
is mature for his age.
There is no doubt that he passed the test
because the teacher just told him he did well. 2.74 responsible (adj)
 acting correctly and judging well
2.64 alike (adv)
They are responsible parents
 including both groups He is loved
who look after their children very well.
by family and friends alike. Everybody thinks
hes a great guy. 2.75 confide (v)
 tell sb a secret Dont confide
2.65 refuse (v)
in Janet. She cant keep a secret.
 say no Tina refused to talk to Katy
after their fight and wouldnt answer her calls.
2.66 discuss (v) ECCE in Action page 24
 talk about If you want to discuss 2.76 book (v)
your problems, I can talk to you about them.  arrange to have a room, flight, etc at a
2.67 to cut a long story short (expr) particular time Ive booked a room
 say in a few words To cut at a hotel in London for three nights.
a long story short, after our troubles we got 2.77 sail (v)
home safely.  travel by boat The ferry sailed at 9
2.68 raise (v) am and took four hours to reach the island.
 take care of a child while they grow , 2.78 stairs (pl n)
The couple are raising two children.  indoor steps Do you want to take
2.69 embarrassed (adj) the lift or walk up the stairs?
 ashamed She felt embarrassed 2.79 transfer (v)
about coming from a poor family, but I told her  send sb or sth to a new place
not to be ashamed. Jack was transferred from the New York
2.70 dishonest (adj) office to the European office in Paris.
 not telling the truth It was 2.80 fog (n)
dishonest of you say you are 25 when in fact  low cloud I cant see where Im
you are 20. driving in this fog.
2.71 behaviour (n) 2.81 brochure (n)
 the way sb does sth Johns  small magazine with information about a
behaviour towards us was unfriendly so we company Lets look through
knew he was angry about something. this holiday brochure and see if there are any
breaks we like.

People, Relationships and Personalities

Vocabulary in Action pages 25-27 2.85 act (v)


 behave , He is acting
Exercise A page 25 in a strange way. Whats the matter with him?
2.86 logically (adv)
2.82 willing (adj)
 with reason He spoke logically
 happy to do sth
when he said we needed to earn more money
Im willing to help you clean the house if it
before renting a bigger apartment.
doesnt take all day.
2.87 sensible (adj)
2.83 truthful (adj)
 making good decisions It was very
 telling the truth I want a
sensible of you not to go out in this terrible
truthful answer, so dont lie to me.
weather.
2.84 fair (adj)
2.88 duty (n)
 right It isnt fair to make me do all
 sth you must do Its a doctors
the housework while Toby does nothing.
duty to look after the sick.

UNIT 2 15
2.89 practical (adj) 2.105 responsibility (n)
 acting correctly for a situation  duty or job you have to do
The practical solution is to let me drive you I can teach you what I know but its your
to work while your car is being fixed. responsibility to learn it.
2.90 judgment (n)
 ability to decide well He showed Exercise F page 26
good judgment when he saved his money. 2.106 break down (phr v)
2.91 honest (adj)  start crying She broke down
 truthful He decided to be honest when he said he wanted to leave her.
and tell her the truth. 2.107 break up (phr v)
2.92 patient (adj)  end a relationship Mary and Fred
 calm and willing to wait broke up after being together for two years
You have to be patient when fishing because and Mary moved out.
it takes time to catch something. 2.108 bring up (phr v)
2.93 reasonable (adj)  raise My mum brought me up
 logical Hes a reasonable person on her own because my father died when I was
so Im sure he will give you an extra day for very young.
your assignment. 2.109 fall through (phr v)
2.94 respectful (adj)  not go ahead ,
 treating sb correctly Our holiday plans fell through when the
Its important to be respectful when you are flight was cancelled.
a guest, so please behave politely.
2.110 fall out (phr v)
2.95 selfish (adj)  have an argument ,
 caring only about yourself The Neil and Simon have fallen out
selfish driver had parked over two spaces. and now theyre not speaking.
2.111 grow up (phr v)
Exercise C page 25
 slowly become an adult from a child
2.96 upset (adj) She grew up in Athens but
 angry and unhappy Jeff moved to Paris when she was 18.
was very upset when he lost his wallet.
2.112 hand down (phr v)
2.97 unemployed (adj)  pass from one generation to another
 not having a job Tina lost her job ( ),
so shes unemployed again. Traditional recipes
are often handed down from generation to
Exercise D page 25 generation.
2.98 waste (v) 2.113 let down (phr v)
 use in an inefficient way, often when there isnt  fail to do what you said you would do
much of something , John let us down when
Dont waste your money on things you dont he didnt take us to the theatre as he had
need. promised.
2.99 persuade (v) 2.114 rely on (phr v)
 make sb believe or do sth  depend on He relies on his
I persuaded Katy to see the play with me, brother to feed and walk his dog when he goes
even though she doesnt like the theatre much. away on business.
Exercise E page 26 2.115 take after (phr v)
 look and/or be like sb She takes
2.100 jealous (adj) after her mother in appearance but shes more
 wanting what sb else has Pauline like her father in character.
is jealous of my new earrings. She always
wants to have the same things as me. 2.116 similar (adj)
 almost the same The twins are
2.101 cant stand (expr) similar but they dont look exactly the same.
 dislike a lot I cant stand the
rain because it means I cant play tennis. 2.117 looks (pl n)
 physical appearance He has
2.102 demanding (adj) good looks and all the girls find him attractive.
 needing a lot of attention
Ruby is a very demanding child and needs 2.118 disappoint (v)
constant attention from her mother.  fail to do what you said you would do
He disappointed his parents
2.103 be fond of (expr)
when he didnt get a place at university.
 love, like , Im fond of my
sister even though she is difficult to get 2.119 childhood (n)
on with.  years as a child She
spent her early childhood in Ireland but
2.104 pressure (n)
when she was eight her family moved to
 too much work or worry The teacher
Scotland.
put a lot of pressure on the students and set
far too much homework.

16
Exercise G page 27 2.135 offend (v)
 hurt or make angry with your words or
2.120 look after (phr v)
behaviour He offended
 care for Mum looked after me
her when he suggested she should go on
when I was ill by making me tea and giving me
a diet.
medicine.
2.136 offence (n)
2.121 look back on (phr v)
 hurt feelings Im sorry if I
 think about the past Grandpa
caused offence. I didnt mean to be rude.
looks back on his childhood with great
happiness. 2.137 offensive (adj)
 rude and unkind
2.122 look down on (phr v)
Shes an offensive woman who makes rude
 think you are better than sb else
comments about peoples looks.
She looks down on people who are poor.
Shes such a snob. 2.138 satisfy (v)
 please sb The performance
2.123 look to (phr v)
was good enough to satisfy the most critical
 go to for help You should
audience.
look to your dad for advice about being a
father. 2.139 satisfactory (adj)
 good enough ,
2.124 look up to (phr v)
Your marks are satisfactory so you can
 admire , He looks up to
continue to the next level.
his older brother and admires his success.
2.140 unsatisfactory (adj)
2.125 look out for (phr v)
 not good enough
 care for My sister is younger
Your essay is unsatisfactory because
than me and I always look out for her at
you have not answered all the parts of the
school.
question.
2.126 alive (adj)
2.141 satisfying (adj)
 living I wish Grandma was still
 making you feel pleased
alive. I really miss her.
I find it very satisfying to see the
2.127 fondness (n) vegetables which I planted growing bigger
 love and affection , every week.
He has great fondness for his elderly aunt
2.142 satisfied (adj)
and often visits her.
 pleased The boss is
2.128 tough (adj) satisfied with my report and told me to keep
 difficult , Being a single up the good work.
parent is tough because you have to cope
alone with many problems. Exercise I page 27
2.143 seat belt (n)
Exercise H page 27
 a belt you wear for safety in a car or other
2.129 accept (v) vehicle Please fasten your
 say yes, believe sth is true , seat belt before we set off.
He asked her to get married
2.144 confirm (v)
and she accepted. The wedding is in  say an arrangement already made is true
December. The hotel confirmed the
2.130 acceptable (adj) booking I had made, so the holiday is now
 good enough to be accepted arranged.
The business agreement was acceptable to 2.145 overweight (adj)
both companies so they signed the papers.  too heavy He is overweight
2.131 unacceptable (adj) and needs to lose at least 10 kilos.
 not good, not welcome
Your bad behaviour is unacceptable. Dont
shout in class again. FCE in Action page 28

2.132 annoyed (adj) 2.146 real-life (adj)


 angry Dad was annoyed  sth that happens in reality
because I arrived late for dinner. This isnt a film, its a real-life problem so
we have to deal with it.
2.133 indecision (n)
 inability to choose , 2.147 reaction (n)
The mayors indecision  behaviour that results from sth else
over the new shopping centre means that we Steves reaction when he won
still dont know if it will be built. the lottery was really funny. He just stood
there in silence.
2.134 indecisive (adj)
 being unable to choose 2.148 value (v)
Hes so indecisive that he cant even decide  consider to be important
whether to drink tea or coffee! I value our friendship and Im glad you are
here for me.

UNIT 2 17
2.149 at your fi ngertips (expr) 2.154 thoughtful (adj)
available for immediate use lost in thought He is very quiet
, Greg has all and thoughtful. I hope everything is alright.
the latest business information at his fingertips 2.155 rational (adj)
so why dont you ask him for financial advice? reasonable Please be rational
and accept the fact that I cant go with you on
holiday because I have no money.
EccE in action page 29
2.156 careless (adj)
2.150 resemblance (n) not showing enough care
the way things are like each other When she dropped her mobile phone, she
The resemblance between you and Tina is was just being careless.
amazing. Are you sisters?
2.157 impatient (adj)
2.151 identity (n) not able or liking to wait
who you are The man had no Im impatient to hear from Diana. I cant
documents to show the police which would wait to hear her news.
prove his identity.
2.158 unavailable (adj)
2.152 similarity (n) not able to see sb, meet sb, do sth, etc
the way things are the same Im sorry but the doctor
Although there are some similarities is unavailable at the moment. Can I take a
between the two cities, in most ways they are message?
very different.
2.159 unable (adj)
2.153 anxious (adj) not able Hes unable to drive at
worried He felt a bit anxious the moment because he has hurt his leg.
before seeing the dentist, but in the end there
was nothing to worry about.

18
03 Future Forms / Question Tags

FuturE tEnsEs pages 30-31 Exercise B page 32


3.1 threat (n) 3.14 approximately (adv)
suggestion that sth bad will happen to sb about The drive takes
Dad forgave me and didnt carry approximately 3 hours, but it might take
out his threat of taking away my phone. longer if there is traffic.
3.2 warning (n)
Exercise c page 32
statement or action that informs sb that sth
bad or dangerous might happen 3.15 dissertation (n)
There is a warning on long piece of writing done at university
cigarette packets that smoking is bad for Anthony spent four months
your health. writing his dissertation in his final year.
3.3 tracksuit (n) 3.16 extinct (adj)
top and trousers worn for sport dead, no longer existing
She put on her tracksuit and Dinosaurs are extinct.
then went out for a run. 3.17 awful (adj)
3.4 prediction (n) terrible , She has an
statement about what might happen in the awful cold so she decided to stay home in bed.
future Weather forecasters 3.18 fl u (n)
predictions dont always come true. illness with a fever and tiredness
3.5 intention (n) He has a temperature of 39 and I think he
sth you plan to do After college has flu.
his intention is to find a job in a bank. 3.19 on board (expr)
3.6 conference (n) on a ship, plane, train or bus
formal event with talks and seminars , , There were only two
The teacher gave two talks at passengers on board when the bus reached the
the education conference on lesson planning. end of the line.
3.7 be on the verge of (expr)
Exercise D page 32
be going to happen very soon
Scientists are on the verge of 3.20 advisor (n)
finding a cure for this horrible disease. sb who gives advice Many
3.8 cure (n) schools have advisors who help students to
therapy There is no cure for the make career choices.
common cold all you can do is rest and take 3.21 medical (adj)
plenty of hot drinks. related to health care You should
3.9 be about to (expr) ask your doctor for medical advice if you often
be going to happen very soon , feel very tired.
Im about to serve supper. Are 3.22 pill (n)
you ready to eat? a kind of solid medicine you swallow with water
3.10 be on the point of (expr) Why dont you take a headache pill if
be going to happen very soon your head is hurting?
, The train is on the 3.23 quote (v)
point of leaving so lets get on now. repeat sth that has been said
3.11 be due to (expr) He quoted Shakespeares play Hamlet when
be going to do sth planned he said To be or not to be.
The plane is due to take off at 10 am. 3.24 lack (n)
not having sth or not having enough of sth
She is suffering from a lack of
Grammar in action pages 31-33 iron in her system and feels weak and ill.

Exercise a page 31 Exercise E page 33


3.12 condition (n) 3.25 until further notice (expr)
illness or health problem that lasts a long time until sb announces that there is a change
He has a condition that makes his () The clinic
skin sensitive to the sun. will be closed until further notice.
3.13 victory (n) 3.26 virus (n)
the fact of winning something a tiny living thing that enters your body and
The team won the match 20, which is their makes you ill Your headache and high
first victory of the season so far. temperature are probably caused by a virus.

UNIT 3 19
3.27 epidemic (n) 3.36 nasty (adj)
 a situation in which a disease spreads very  not nice, bad It was a nasty cut
quickly to many people The flu and needed two stitches.
epidemic spread fast and soon people all over
the country were ill. Exercise H page 34
3.28 coughing (n) 3.37 operation (n)
 force air from your lungs because of an illness  medical procedure in a hospital
Symptoms of this illness are Grandpa had an operation on his heart and
coughing and pain in the chest. the doctor says it went well.
3.29 high temperature (expr) 3.38 prescription (n)
 high body heat Youve got a high  written instructions from a doctor for pills or
temperature; the thermometer reads 38.5. medical care I took my
3.30 go down with (phr v) prescription to the chemist where I bought the
 get an illness Dads gone antibiotics I needed.
down with the flu so he has to rest in bed.
Exercise I page 34
3.31 officially (adv)
 formally, according to people in authority 3.39 martial arts (pl n)
The working day officially starts  Asian forms of fighting
at 9 am, but you can arrive earlier if you like. He has taken up the martial art of Tae Kwon
Do.
3.32 extend (v)
 make longer They extended the
meeting because they needed an extra hour to FCE in Action page 35
talk about marketing.
3.40 purchase (v)
Exercise G page 33  buy I couldnt purchase the coat
because it was rather expensive.
3.33 industry (n)
 area of business , The 3.41 assignment (n)
tourist industry provides jobs for thousands of  written homework My history
people in this country. assignment is 5 pages long.

Question Tags page 34 ECCE in Action page 36

3.34 confirmation (n) 3.42 judge (n)


the process of checking that sth is true  sb who makes a decision about a performance
I called the hotel to get in a competition The talent show
confirmation of my booking. judge gave the performer 10 points.

3.35 plaster (n) 3.43 sunscreen (n)


 sticky cover to protect a cut  cream sb puts on their skin to protect it
Can you give me a plaster to put on from the sun He forgot to put
this cut? sunscreen on his nose and now its red and
burnt.

Health Matters

Vocabulary in Action pages 37-39 3.47 injection (n)


 medicine given to sb with a needle and syringe
Exercise A page 37 He had to have a tetanus injection
in his arm after he was bitten by a dog.
3.44 allergy (n)
 condition that makes your skin or body react 3.48 lotion (n)
badly to sth He has an allergy to  water-like cream for the skin This
strawberries and if he eats them he gets pink hand lotion spreads easily onto the skin.
marks on his skin. 3.49 vaccination (n)
3.45 cream (n)  act of putting a substance into sbs body, often
 soft butter-like material for the skin by injection, to prevent them from getting a
She uses a face cream every day to keep disease Before you travel to
her skin looking younger. India you will need a cholera vaccination.
3.46 infection (n) 3.50 wrinkle (n)
 disease caused by bacteria or virus  line on your skin Grandma has lots
The doctor prescribed antibiotics to fight the of wrinkles on her face, but thats natural at
infection in her lungs. her age.

20
Exercise B page 37 3.66 handkerchief (n)
 piece of material you use to wipe your nose
3.51 exhaustion (n)
She took a silk handkerchief from
 extreme tiredness The athletes
her bag and used it to cover her nose because
were weak with exhaustion after completing
of the smell.
the triathlon.
3.67 speedy (adj)
3.52 exhaust (v)
 quick Nick made a speedy recovery;
 make very tired That run
he got better in just two days.
exhausted me. I dont have any energy left.
3.53 exhausted (adj) Exercise D page 38
 feel very tired Carol was
3.68 enhance (v)
exhausted after her long day at work.
 improve, strengthen Vitamins
3.54 exhausting (adj) can enhance health by boosting your immune
 tiring The trek through the system.
mountains was exhausting.
3.69 heal (v)
3.55 nutrition (n)  cure, make better ,
 the process of eating healthy food The cut on my hand has healed and you
A dietician can offer you advice on nutrition cant even see a mark there.
and menu planning.
3.70 essential oil (n)
3.56 nutritious (adj)  oil taken from a plant used for perfume or
 giving what you need to grow and live massage For a relaxing
Children need a nutritious massage try using lavender essential oil.
diet that includes meat, fish, fruit and
3.71 function (v)
vegetables.
 work Do you know how this
3.57 treatment (n) device functions?
 medicine and doctors instructions to make sb
3.72 evidence (n)
well The treatment
 proof that sth is true
for flu is plenty of rest, lots of liquids and
The only evidence that suggests she was
medication to keep your temperature down.
here is her card which was found at reception.
3.58 treatable (adj)
3.73 claim (v)
 (of a disease) which can be cured by medical
 say that sth is true The man
treatment ,
claims to be able to heal headaches with his
Luckily, this cancer is one of the more
hands, but I dont believe him.
treatable kinds and we think that she will make
a full recovery. 3.74 anxiety (n)
 worry If you worry a lot, try a
3.59 recovery (n)
relaxing massage to reduce your anxiety.
 the act of getting better from an illness
Although she was very ill, she
Exercise E page 38
eventually made a full recovery.
3.75 come round (phr v)
Exercise C page 37  become conscious again The
footballer who got hit on the head came round
3.60 infectious (adj)
a few minutes after blacking out.
 (of a disease) easily spread from one person to
another , 3.76 cut down on (phr v)
This cold must be very infectious because  reduce You should cut down on
everyone at work has caught it. coffee; ten cups a day is far too many.
3.61 sore throat (n) 3.77 give up (phr v)
 when the back of your mouth hurts  stop She tried to give up
Tea with lemon and honey chocolate but it was impossible for her to stop
helps when you have a sore throat. eating it.
3.62 pregnant (n) 3.78 come down with (phr v)
 carrying a baby inside you  become ill Mum has come
Tina is pregnant and the baby is due in down with a cold and she cant stop sneezing
December. and coughing.
3.63 effective (adj) 3.79 go off (phr v)
 having a positive result  become too bad to eat The yogurt
This medicine is very effective. I feel much must have gone off because when I opened
better already. the pot it smelt terrible.
3.64 sneeze (v) 3.80 go through (phr v)
 to suddenly force air from your nose  experience , Tony has
Kevin sneezed as soon as the just gone through a divorce so hes a bit down.
cat sat on him. Hes allergic to cats you see. 3.81 pass out (phr v)
3.65 tissue (n)  lose consciousness When the
 piece of soft paper you use to wipe your nose girl passed out on the tram, a man caught her
Have you got a tissue? I before she fell to the floor.
think Im going to sneeze.

UNIT 3 21
3.82 faint (v) 3.97 benefit (v)
 lose consciousness I fainted  be a good thing for sb or sth
from shock and the next thing I knew I was Most of us could benefit from a little more
lying on the sofa feeling weak. exercise in our daily routine.
3.83 regain (v) 3.98 digest (v)
 get sth back He regained the feeling  break down food in your stomach
in his hands a few days after the operation. I havent digested my lunch yet so I dont
feel like going out jogging.
3.84 consciousness (n)
 contact with your surroundings 3.99 release (v)
Gerry lost consciousness for a few seconds  make sb or sth free When
after the ball hit him in the head. the birds wing had healed, we released it back
into the wild.
Exercise F page 38
3.85 in moderation (expr) FCE in Action page 40
 not too much of sth Salt should
be used in moderation as consuming large 3.100 opt for (phr v)
quantities can lead to high blood pressure.  choose He had a choice of fish or
meat, but he opted for fish which he prefers.
Exercise G page 39 3.101 alternative (adj)
3.86 dizzy (adj)  giving you a choice Honey
 feeling that everything is turning round and is a healthy alternative to sugar if you want to
round I feel so dizzy I think I sweeten your tea.
might faint. 3.102 be rich in (expr)
 contain a lot of sth Milk is rich
Exercise H page 39 in calcium and is therefore good for your teeth
and bones.
3.87 pomegranate (n)
 fruit with many red seeds inside it 3.103 strict (adj)
Pomegranate juice is a beautiful red colour  with precise rules He is a strict
and tastes very fruity. vegetarian so he would never eat anything
3.88 sensation (n) containing meat.
 sth that amazes people ,
The company hopes its hand cream will ECCE in Action page 41
become the new sensation and everyone will
want to buy it. 3.104 liquid (n)
3.89 high blood pressure (n)  sth that runs like water The dark
 condition where your blood moves through you liquid she poured into my cup looked like
with too much force coffee, but it didnt smell like it.
The medicine he takes reduces his high 3.105 substance (n)
blood pressure.  material of any type This hand cream
3.90 property (n) is a very thick substance so it feels very oily.
 quality Lavender has calming 3.106 mixture (n)
properties so it can help you relax.  a combination of two or more ingredients,
3.91 medicinal (adj) things, feelings, etc Ive put flour,
 healing One medicinal butter, eggs and sugar into the cake mixture.
property of chamomile tea is its ability to calm 3.107 avoid (v)
a sore stomach.  stay away from He avoids salty
3.92 ulcer (n) food because its bad for his heart.
 sore place on an organ or skin that does not 3.108 reject (v)
heal easily He has a stomach ulcer  say no to sth She rejected
so he cant eat spicy food. my offer to pay for the meal and said she
3.93 heart disease (n) preferred to share the cost.
 illness that affects your heart 3.109 prevent (v)
A balanced, healthy diet can help to protect  stop from happening ,
you from heart disease. A day in bed resting prevented my cold from
3.94 indigestion (n) getting worse.
 pain caused when the stomach cannot process 3.110 nut (n)
food easily I ate too much of  seed from a tree inside a hard shell
that curry and now I have indigestion. Pistachio nuts are my favourite kind
3.95 teaspoon (n) of salty snack.
 amount that fills a small spoon 3.111 ache (n)
I used to put two teaspoons of sugar  dull pain Ive got an ache in my leg
in my coffee, but Ive reduced it to one. from an old football injury.
3.96 iron (n) 3.112 essential (adj)
 chemical element that is found in our blood  extremely necessary Vitamins
Her iron levels are low because and minerals are essential for our health and
she never eats meat. well-being.

22
3.113 suffer (v) 3.116 well-being (n)
 experience pain She suffers  state of good physical health ,
from allergies so she has to be careful what A healthy diet is essential for our well-being.
she eats. 3.117 herbal (adj)
3.114 lifesaver (n)  connected with or made from healing plants
 sth that enables you to deal with a difficult , Chamomile tea is a
situation , This diet has herbal drink that has many medical benefits.
been a lifesaver for me and I feel healthier 3.118 gain (v)
than Ive ever done.  get sth useful , The
3.115 shape (n) most useful thing I have gained from this first
 physical fitness I joined a gym in aid course is how to cope with an emergency
order to get into shape. situation.

Review 1

FCE Part 1 page 43 3.129 amount (n)


 quantity He eats a large
3.119 productive (adj) amount of fast food which surely cant be
 able to work well or get good results good for him.
, The company
believes that if its staff are happy and healthy 3.130 overnight (adv)
they will be more productive.  instantly, very quickly
Changing peoples dietary habits
3.120 demonstrate (v) is not something which can be done overnight
 show He demonstrated his it can sometimes take months or years.
language skills by speaking in French and
German. 3.131 portion (n)
 amount of food served You will lose
3.121 range (n) weight if you eat smaller portions of food.
 variety She has a range of office
skills so she is perfect for the job. 3.132 adopt (v)
 take on She decided to adopt a
3.122 modify (v) new weekend routine and to get up early for a
 change a little They have morning run.
modified the course to include computer
programming in order to provide students with
workplace skills. ECCE in Action page 45
3.123 motivate (v) 3.133 resignation (n)
 make sb feel enthusiastic about sth  the act of leaving your job Paul
, The hope of going handed in his resignation and he will leave the
to college is motivating him to study hard. company at the end of the month.
3.134 decent (adj)
FCE Part 2 page 43  good and respectable Bettys
got a job with a decent salary so she can
3.124 bond (n) afford a larger apartment.
 strong emotional attachment My
sister and I have a very close bond. 3.135 projector (n)
 machine for showing films on a screen
3.125 sibling (n) , The geography
 brother or sister , Mum is teacher used a projector to show the class
pregnant so soon I will have a sibling. images of mountains and valleys.
3.126 conduct (v) 3.136 supervisor (n)
 do, carry out The school conducted  sb who is in charge of other employees
a survey on healthy eating amongst its pupils. Our department supervisor
3.127 majority (n) gave us all new projects to work on.
 largest number of sth 3.137 suitably (adv)
The majority of the class voted to go to  correctly You should wear
Thessaloniki for the school trip. smart clothes if you want to be suitably
dressed for an interview.
FCE Part 3 page 44 3.138 average (n)
 usual standard Im afraid that
3.128 mineral (n)
40% is below average. You must get 50% or
 natural substance in food that is good for us
more to pass this class.
(eg iron) ,
Women are advised to take extra vitamins
and minerals during pregnancy.

UNIT 3 / REVIEW 1 23
04 Articles / Nouns / Quantifiers /
Indefinite Pronouns / Determiners
articlEs / nouns / QuantiFiErs / 4.16 loaf (n)
bread in a round or square shape that can be
inDEFinitE pronouns / sliced Dont forget to buy a
DEtErminErs pages 46-49 loaf of bread from the bakers.
4.1 fl ight attendant (n) 4.17 sightseeing (n)
sb who serves people on a plane visiting places of interest, especially for
The flight attendant made tourists We
sure everyone had fastened their seatbelts. visited the Parthenon and Plaka when we went
sightseeing in Athens.
4.2 unique (adj)
one of a kind This diamond 4.18 destination (n)
necklace is unique as only one of them was place where you are going
ever made to this design. We fly from London at 8 am and will arrive
4.3 mountain range (n) at our destination, Athens, 4 hours later.
group of mountains in the same area 4.19 sink (v)
It will take us three weeks to go down under water
walk along the mountain range. The ferry hit a rock and sank, but luckily all
4.4 endangered (adj) the people on board were saved before it went
at risk of becoming extinct down.
Pandas are endangered and may soon 4.20 lifeguard (n)
become extinct. person who protects swimmers at the beach or
4.5 species (n) pool
animal or plant group There are The lifeguard saved a young child who got
many species of insect in my garden. into difficulties in the sea.
4.6 match (n) 4.21 triplets (pl n)
small wooden stick used to make fire three children born on the same day to the
We need matches to light the fire. same mother
4.7 caravan (n) Fiona has just had triplets. How will she
mobile home We prefer cope with three babies?
staying in a caravan because its easier than 4.22 passenger (n)
putting up a tent. person travelling in a car, plane, train, etc
4.8 baggage (n) The passenger asked the flight
travel bags I have two pieces attendant to show him to his seat.
of baggage; a suitcase and a small rucksack. 4.23 site (n)
4.9 news (n) place of historical interest
information about recent events , ,
Did you watch the news last night? I want to see all the sites when I go to
Rome.
4.10 permission (n)
the right to do sth If you need to go 4.24 coast (n)
to the toilet during the lesson you must ask where land and sea meet His flat is
permission from the teacher. on the coast and there is a lovely view of the
4.11 bar (n) sea from his living room.
rectangular piece of sth , I 4.25 seafront (n)
wanted a snack so I bought a bar of chocolate. land area along the coast ,
4.12 basket (n) Lets go for a walk along the
container used for carrying or storing things, seafront to get some fresh air.
often with a handle Can you carry 4.26 within walking distance (expr)
my shopping basket? Its too heavy for me. easy to reach on foot
4.13 carton (n) ,
container made of cardboard or thick paper You dont need to drive to the beach. Its
I took a carton of juice with within walking distance from the hotel.
me on the picnic.
4.14 jar (n) Grammar in action pages 49-51
glass container with a lid for marmalade, etc
, Is there any honey left in Exercise a page 49
the jar?
4.27 travel agency (n)
4.15 tin (n) company that sells holidays
metal container to keep food in for a long We booked a holiday to Rome at
time He opened a tin of food for the local travel agency.
the dog.

24
Exercise B page 50 4.42 extraordinary (adj)
 very unusual ,
4.28 luxurious (adj)
This extraordinary site is the most unusual
 expensive and comfortable
place I have ever visited.
Their luxurious home has thick Persian
carpets and silk curtains.
4.29 resort (n) Exercise E page 51
 place where lots of people go for a holiday 4.43 volcanic (adj)
They stayed for a week at a related to volcanoes You can
lovely summer resort in the south of France. buy pieces of black volcanic rock in the shops
4.30 wisdom (n) in Santorini.
 knowledge acquired through experience and 4.44 eruption (n)
the passing of time Grandpa gave  when lava comes out of the top of a volcano
me some words of wisdom before I left home,
and what he said was very good advice.
The eruption of Vesuvius took the
inhabitants by surprise and hundreds of people
Exercise C page 50 were killed.
4.31 coach (n) 4.45 bury (v)
 kind of bus used to take people on long  completely cover sth The skier who
journeys The tour guide asked was buried under snow was very lucky to be
the tourists to board the coach at 9 am outside rescued.
the hotel. 4.46 ash (n)
4.32 practically (adv)  grey dust left after sth is burned
 almost , Practically The volcano erupted and soon everything
everyone I know has visited the Acropolis was covered in ash.
museum.
4.47 breathtaking (adj)
4.33 monument (n)  amazing in a surprising way
 important historical building The Theres a
monument he liked best in Paris was the Eiffel breathtaking view from the top of this building.
Tower.
4.48 picturesque (adj)
4.34 magnificent (n)  attractive, esp because it is old or traditional
 wonderful The view of the We stayed in a picturesque
snowy mountain range from the plane was village near the sea.
magnificent.
Exercise F page 51
Exercise D page 50 4.49 mend (v)
4.35 fort (n)  fix sth that is broken
 building with walls designed to be protected My watch stopped so I took it to the
from attack , Soldiers used jewellers to be mended.
to guard the fort from behind these high walls. 4.50 flat tyre (n)
4.36 located (adj)  a tyre that has no air in it
 found in a certain place The My bike has a flat tyre.
island of Tinos is located in the Aegean Sea. I think I rode over some broken glass.
4.37 exclusively (adv) 4.51 limited (adj)
 only This expensive  few, not much/many
restaurant is visited exclusively by the rich and There are a limited number of tickets for
famous. the play because there is only going to be one
4.38 sandcastle (n) performance.
 model tower or castle made of sand on a beach 4.52 availability (n)
The children built a  state of being able to be found or bought
sandcastle on the beach. Ill look at the hotel website
4.39 suite (n) to check the availability of rooms in July.
 set of rooms, usually in a hotel
For their honeymoon, Jennifer and Ben
booked a suite of rooms in a luxury hotel. FCE in Action page 52
4.40 courtyard (n) 4.53 be worth (expr)
 area that is surrounded by buildings on all  be important enough
sides , The hotel has a This restaurant is worth visiting again; the
beautiful courtyard where visitors can sit under meal was delicious.
shady trees and enjoy a cool drink. 4.54 palm tree (n)
4.41 blend in (phr v)  tree that grows in hot countries with a long
 look the same as things around you trunk and long pointed leaves at the top
, We sat under a palm tree on the
The white hotel blends in well with the tropical island.
traditional white houses.

UNIT 4 25
ECCE in Action page 53 4.58 charity (n)
 organisation that helps people in need
4.55 unforgettable (adj)
 which cannot or will not be forgotten She gave money to a charity that helps
This was an unforgettable day; homeless young people.
Ill always remember it with great happiness.
4.59 raise (v)
4.56 anniversary (n)  collect money for a specific purpose
 annual celebration of a special occasion
The couple celebrated their Our class raised three hundred euros for the
wedding anniversary; theyve been married for Childrens Hospital.
twenty years.
4.57 deal (n)
 good opportunity, special offer
She got a good deal on her holiday when the
travel agency gave her a discount.

Around the Globe

Vocabulary in Action pages 54-56 4.70 indulge (v)


 enjoy I usually indulge in a
Exercise A page 54 long lie-in on my day off.
4.60 globe (n) 4.71 leisurely (adj)
 the world , This  slowly and in a relaxed way ,
documentary is about historical monuments We went for a leisurely walk in the
around the globe. park.
4.61 accommodation (n) 4.72 scuba-diving (n)
 place where you stay ,  swimming under water with breathing
The hotel accommodation was rather basic, equipment When he went
but the rooms were cheap so we didnt mind. scuba-diving he saw the wonderful colours of
the coral reef.
4.62 faraway (adj)
 at a great distance Pavlos 4.73 half-board (n)
would love to travel to a faraway country like  holiday package at a hotel which includes a
Australia. room, breakfast and one meal
Weve booked half-board,
4.63 full-board (n)
so well have to find somewhere to eat at
holiday package at a hotel which includes a
lunchtime.
room and all meals
The cost for full-board is quite high, so I Exercise B page 54
dont think Ill book dinner at the hotel.
4.74 get back (phr v)
4.64 surroundings (pl n)
 return They got back from
 the area around or near a place
The surroundings in this school at 2.30 pm.
mountain resort are picturesque and there are 4.75 get on (phr v)
some lovely views.  enter a bus, train, coach, etc
4.65 trek (n) We couldnt get on the train because it was
 long walk , The long already crowded with people.
trek up the mountain made my legs ache. 4.76 pick up (phr v)
4.66 vast (adj)  collect with your car
 very large , This vast , Can you pick me
nature reserve covers hundreds of square up from the airport tomorrow morning?
kilometres. 4.77 set off (phr v)
4.67 consist of (phr v)  begin a journey Ted set off early
 be made of, include This because he was taking a morning flight.
small resort consists of two hotels and a 4.78 see off (phr v)
beach.  go to a station, airport, etc to say goodbye to
4.68 hut (n) sb Her parents saw Cindy off
 small wooden house Grandpa lives at the bus station.
in a hut in the forest during the summer. 4.79 stop off (phr v)
4.69 spectacular (adj)  make a short stop Lets
 amazing to see The view from stop off at caf and get some coffee and a
the top of the mountain was spectacular. sandwich.

26
4.80 take off (phr v) 4.96 attractive (adj)
 leave the ground and start to fly  pleasing, beautiful ,
As the plane took off I This flower garden is very attractive and the
closed my eyes because I felt frightened. roses are particularly pretty.
4.81 disembark (v) 4.97 confirmed (adj)
 leave a ship There were  arranged, known to be true or accurate
such a lot of passengers that it took a long The hotel booking is
time for them all to disembark. confirmed and they are expecting us next
4.82 delay (n) weekend.
 unexpected wait 4.98 enjoyment (n)
We were supposed to take off at 6 am but  pleasure The rain didnt spoil
there was a delay and the plane departed an our enjoyment of the excursion because most
hour later. of the time we were indoors.
4.83 register (v) 4.99 enjoyable (adj)
 put your name and other information on a list  which you like We spent a very
When we moved house, we enjoyable day at the park.
had to register with a new doctor. 4.100 impress (v)
 make sb admire sth because it is very old,
Exercise C page 55
good, pretty, etc The quality
4.84 contain (v) of the service at the hotel really impressed us.
 have inside This album contains 4.101 impressive (adj)
all my holiday photos.  admirable because it is very old, beautiful, etc
4.85 presence (n) The Parthenon is a very
 the fact that you are in a place impressive monument.
The presence of a shark in the sea made me 4.102 impressed (adj)
too scared to go scuba-diving.  full of admiration
4.86 via (prep) The guests were impressed by the luxurious
 using You should order a takeaway rooms in the hotel.
via the Internet because you get a discount. 4.103 informative (adj)
4.87 crossing (n)  which gives you a lot of information
 short journey across the sea , ,
The crossing from Costa to Spetses The tour guide was very informative and
takes just 15 minutes. told us all about the history of the palace and
the gardens.
4.88 border (n)
 frontier between two countries
Exercise E page 55
Our passports were checked at the border
between Greece and Turkey. 4.104 enormous (adj)
4.89 step (n)  very big You certainly wont feel
 one stage in a process The first step hungry after eating at that restaurant as the
when booking a holiday online is to choose portions they serve are enormous!
your destination. 4.105 look over (phr v)
4.90 straightforward (adj)  have a view of Our hotel room
 simple, easy , The looks over the sea.
instructions are straightforward so I wont have 4.106 airline (n)
a problem following this recipe.  company that owns planes and organises
4.91 insert (v) flights The airline she prefers
 type in When you insert your pin to travel with is Aegean Air.
number, make sure nobody sees it.
Exercise F page 56
4.92 reservation (n)
 booking I made a reservation 4.107 air fare (n)
for a table because this restaurant often gets  price of a plane ticket
crowded. I cant afford the air fare to the
island so I will take the ferry instead.
4.93 boarding pass (n)
 card that allows you to get on a plane 4.108 charter flight (n)
You must show your boarding  plane journey which is usually cheaper than
pass in order to get on the plane. other flights Many tourists
arrive on charter flights that only run during
Exercise D page 55 the summer months.

4.94 appeal (v) 4.109 itinerary (n)


 be likeable, please ,  programme of planned visits ,
Holidays on the beach dont appeal to me The itinerary includes sightseeing,
because my skin is sensitive to the sun. shopping and free time at the beach.

4.95 appealing (adj) 4.110 reasonable (adj)


 pleasing I dont find the idea of  not expensive The coach tickets
visiting museums all day very appealing. are reasonable, so I can afford to buy one.

UNIT 4 27
4.111 departure (n) EccE in action page 58
act of leaving a place The
departure time is 9.45 am but we need to be 4.120 scheduled (adj)
at the airport two hours earlier. timetabled
The scheduled flight to London leaves every
4.112 effi cient (adj) day at 8 am.
organised , The new
club secretary is very efficient and organised 4.121 break down (phr v)
everything perfectly. stop working ,
His car broke down so hes been taking the
4.113 recommend (v) bus to work all week.
say sth is worth doing
I recommend a relaxing beach holiday to get 4.122 seaside (n)
away from the stress of work. beach Lets take the kids to
the seaside where they can swim and build
Exercise G page 56 sandcastles.
4.123 shallow (adj)
4.114 jellyfi sh (n)
not deep The water is shallow here;
soft sea animal which can sting ,
it only reaches my knees.
There must be jellyfish in the sea.
Look at this red mark on my leg. 4.124 imposing (adj)
large and impressive
4.115 differ (v)
The most imposing building in Syntagma
be different Skiing holidays differ
Square is the large Parliament building.
from relaxing summer holidays because they
are so active. 4.125 fee (n)
price charged for sth He paid a
fee of 25 euros to take an extra suitcase on
FcE in action page 57 the plane.
4.116 furnished (adj) 4.126 package holiday (n)
with furniture He wants to holiday for which you make one payment
rent a furnished apartment so he doesnt have and where everything is included
to buy a bed or a sofa. This package holiday includes the
4.117 penthouse (n) flight, hotel, all meals and excursions.
expensive top floor apartment or room 4.127 toll (n)
The famous singer booked a room amount which drivers have to pay to use a
in the penthouse suite on the top floor of the road This is a toll road so we have
hotel. to pay to use it.
4.118 ensure (n) 4.128 explode (v)
make certain Booking six blow up like a bomb ,
months in advance ensured that the room I Something exploded outside the bank and
wanted was available. the police say it was a bomb.
4.119 hesitate (v) 4.129 emerge (v)
wait because you are unsure come out of ,
Dont hesitate to call me if you need He emerged from the car looking hot and
somewhere to stay in Rome. tired after driving all day.

28
05 Modals / Semi-modals / Modals Perfect

moDals / sEmi-moDals / Grammar in action pages 62-63


moDals pErFEct pages 59-61
Exercise B page 62
5.1 assumption (n)
5.14 look into (phr v)
sth you think is true without having proof
Dont make assumptions about find out information about sth
Penny. Being a cleaner doesnt mean she isnt I dont know how much the air
educated. fare is so Ill visit the airline website and look
into it for you.
5.2 photo shoot (n)
occasion where a photographer takes many Exercise c page 62
photographs (often for a fashion magazine)
The photographer did a 5.15 apologise (v)
photo shoot for Vogue magazine. say sorry I really must
apologise for being late.
5.3 refusal (n)
act of saying no I dont Exercise D page 62
understand his refusal to accept help. Why
does he keep saying no? 5.16 heavy (adj)
strong (for accents) Pierre has
5.4 lend (v)
a heavy French accent so his English is
give sb sth that you want back later
sometimes hard to understand.
Ill lend you 50 euros if you promise to pay
me back before the weekend. 5.17 forbidden (adj)
5.5 obligation (n) not allowed Running
sth you have to do She has in the school corridors is forbidden because
many obligations because she has promised to somebody could get hurt.
help a lot of people.
Exercise E page 63
5.6 outcome (n)
result We arent sure what 5.18 external (adj)
the outcome of the operation will be, but we outside of sth This lotion is for
are hoping for the best. external use only, so dont drink it!
5.7 prohibition (n) 5.19 confi dential (adj)
act of not allowing sth There secret , Your PIN
is a prohibition on drinking under the age of number is confidential and should not be
18, but many bar owners break the law and revealed to anyone.
serve younger teens. 5.20 plumber (n)
5.8 regardless (adv) sb who mends water pipes, bathrooms, toilets
without considering the consequences etc I called the plumber in to
, I asked her not fix the kitchen taps.
to open the window, but she ignored me and
5.21 fl ood (n)
opened it regardless.
when sth gets covered in water by accident
5.9 exhibition (n) Luckily there wasnt any water
show in a museum or art gallery in the washing machine when it broke so we
I saw an impressive exhibition of modern didnt have a flood in the house.
art at the local gallery.
5.22 lock (v)
5.10 necessity (n) close sth with a key so that it cannot be
need for sth The doctor opened You can lock the
stressed the necessity of losing weight. cupboard with this key.
5.11 type up (phr v) 5.23 play truant (expr)
copy sth that is written by hand onto a not go to school when you do not have
computer or typewriter permission to be away
I want to type up these handwritten notes,
Mark didnt come to school today. Is he
so can I use your laptop?
playing truant or is he ill?
5.12 certainty (n)
sth you cannot doubt Exercise F page 63
The police cannot say with certainty if they
5.24 it department (n)
will catch the thieves.
part of a business that deals with computer
5.13 criticism (n) systems ()
negative reaction or comments Paul works as a computer technician in the
The main criticism the teacher made about IT department of this bank.
my essay was that it should have been longer.

UNIT 5 29
FCE in Action page 64 5.30 issue (n)
 matter, problem
5.25 anticipate (v) Providing education for all children across
 expect sth to happen , the globe is the issue we will be discussing
The farmers have been anticipating wet today.
weather all week, but it hasnt rained yet.
5.31 charger (n)
5.26 therefore (adv)  device that gives power to a battery
 for this reason We were late and Is this charger working? The
therefore missed the train. battery on my phone is still low.
5.27 surface (n) 5.32 nervous (adj)
 top of sth When a volcano erupts,  worried The actor was nervous
hot lava is forced to the surface of the Earth. before going on stage, but when the show
started he felt more confident.
ECCE in Action page 65 5.33 fence (n)
5.28 in private (expr)  wooden or metal division between areas of
 without anyone else present land The old fence between the
He asked to talk to the teacher in private two gardens fell over in the wind.
because he didnt want his classmates to hear. 5.34 translate (v)
5.29 solve (v)  change into a different language
 find an answer to a problem Pedro can translate this
The student solved the maths problem. Spanish poem into English for you.

Technology Today

Vocabulary in Action pages 66-67 5.43 crack (v)


 get a thin line where sth breaks
Exercise A page 66 The glass cracked when I dropped it, so I
threw it away before it broke completely.
5.35 breakthrough (n)
 important discovery 5.44 edit (v)
The discovery of penicillin was an important  change text or pictures
medical breakthrough. The magazine article had to be edited
because it was too long to fit on the page.
5.36 expert (n)
 sb with lots of knowledge about sth 5.45 run out (phr v)
We need the advice of an expert who is  finish, become empty , ,
knowledgeable about the law. We have to stop at a petrol station
before we run out of fuel.
5.37 impact (n)
 effect Exercise had a positive 5.46 telecommunications (pl n)
impact on her life because it helped her to lose  sending and receiving messages by phone,
weight. computer, etc
Telecommunications allow us to contact
5.38 network (n) people all over the world.
 system of connected people, computers, roads,
etc She has a network of friends 5.47 significant (adj)
throughout the country.  important The Internet
has had a significant impact on worldwide
5.39 satellite (n) communications.
 device in space used to receive and send
information Many satellites Exercise B page 66
orbit the Earth.
5.48 browse (v)
5.40 software (n)  look through She browsed
 computer programs This through different news pages online.
software allows me to create pdf documents on
my computer. 5.49 scroll (v)
 move up or down a page on a screen
5.41 padded (adj) Scroll down the page and
 with extra material to protect from cold or click on next to go to the following page.
damage This padded jacket
is very warm because it has feathers in the 5.50 get rid of (expr)
lining.  throw away
If you want to get rid of your old mobile
5.42 case (n) phone you can put it in recycling bin at the
 flat bag He carries his tablet to work electronics store.
in a small case.

30
Exercise C page 66 Exercise D page 67
5.51 combine (v) 5.66 scar (n)
 mix two or more things together  mark left on the skin after a cut, etc is better
You shouldnt combine eating , Thats a deep cut. I think it
and swimming because you can get a cramp in will leave a scar.
the water.
Exercise E page 67
5.52 undiscovered (adj)
 not yet found 5.67 carry out (phr v)
The marine biologist hopes to find an  do The medical expert is carrying
undiscovered species of fish in the deep out research into the AIDS virus.
oceans. 5.68 catch on (phr v)
5.53 exploration (n)  become popular ,
 searching for sth Exploration The new skinny jeans quickly caught on and
of other planets will teach us many things soon everyone was wearing them.
about the universe. 5.69 cut off (phr v)
5.54 exploratory (adj)  stop providing electric power ,
 done in order to find out more about sth Our electricity was cut off for a
, I will try and day while repairs to the network were being
done.
make some exploratory enquiries without
making them suspicious. 5.70 get round to (phr v)
 find time for I didnt get
5.55 invent (v)
round to cooking so lets order a pizza.
 create sth new The telephone
was invented over one hundred years ago. 5.71 keep up with (phr v)
 not get behind ,
5.56 inventive (adj)
He missed four lessons so hes finding it
 good at thinking of new ideas hard to keep up with the class.
It takes an inventive person to design a new
electronic device. 5.72 look up (phr v)
 search for information in a book or online
5.57 notice (v) You can look up new words in an
 see sth for the first time , online dictionary.
Did you notice the strange hat she was
wearing? 5.73 disconnected (adj)
 without power
5.58 noticeable (adj) Your phone wont charge because the
 easily recognisable , charger is disconnected.
There has been a noticeable change in
his behaviour since you had a serious talk Exercise F page 67
with him.
5.74 aid (n)
5.59 observe (v)  help With Dads aid I managed to
 watch sth or sb , fix my car. I couldnt have done it without him.
The teacher observed the class as they got
5.75 properly (adv)
on with their individual assignments.
 correctly Is this phone working
5.60 observer (n) properly? I cant get through to the number I
 sb who watches sb or sth want.
International observers made sure the 5.76 insight (n)
elections were carried out legally.  understanding of sth , The
5.61 observant (adj) actors autobiography gave me some insight
 noticing things because you watch carefully into the world of Hollywood fame and fortune.
An observant person would 5.77 settle (v)
have realised that she was upset.  live somewhere My parents
5.62 occur (v) moved to the USA when I was five and we
 happen The accident occurred settled in Chicago.
late last night. 5.78 virtual reality (n)
5.63 occurrence (n)  environment created by a computer that
 event, thing which happens seems real Play
Violent crime is a rare occurrence in our this game wearing these virtual reality glasses
small community. and youll feel youre actually there.

5.64 predictable (adj) 5.79 plug in (phr v)


 easy to say will happen  connect sth to an electrical source
I plugged in my laptop to charge the
The end of the story was predictable and we
battery.
all guessed what was going to happen.
5.80 convert (v)
5.65 react (v)
 change from one form to another
 act in a way because of sth else that happened
This program converts a Word document
He reacted calmly to the news.
into a pdf.

UNIT 5 31
5.81 capable (adj) 5.93 conversion (n)
able Hes capable of higher the act of changing from one thing to another
academic achievement if he studies harder. There is an online website that
5.82 tip (n) gives you the conversion of dollars into euros.
piece of advice or information , 5.94 dispose (v)
, If you need any tips throw away You should dispose of
on revision, ask your teacher. old electronic goods properly so they do not
5.83 entrepreneur (n) harm the environment.
business person who starts their own business 5.95 cut down (phr v)
Robert is a successful do, eat, use, etc less of sth ,
entrepreneur who has built this company from He has cut down on smoking, but
nothing. hed like to stop completely.
5.96 cut up (phr v)
FcE in action page 68 cut into pieces She cut up the
photo of her old boyfriend into tiny pieces.
5.84 shower (v)
5.97 cut out (phr v)
fall in great number
not include ,
Sparks from the forest fire showered to the
The editor cut out my only scene, so now
ground and started smaller fires elsewhere.
Im not in the film.
5.85 the press (n)
5.98 confuse (v)
newspapers and magazines The
make sb unsure about sth ,
story of the actors death is all over the press
Youre confusing me. Can you
this morning. I read about it in the Times.
explain the maths problem more clearly?
5.86 await (v)
5.99 odd (adj)
expect, wait for We are awaiting
strange ,
news of the birth of the baby.
Mum thinks my blue hair looks odd, but I
5.87 witness (v) dont see whats strange about it.
see , We were
5.100 recollection (n)
lucky to witness dozens of shooting stars in the
memory of sth He has no
clear night sky.
recollection of the accident. He cant remember
5.88 shooting star (n) a thing.
a meteor that makes a path of light across the
5.101 incentive (n)
night sky ,
reason to want to so sth
You are more likely to see shooting stars at
Getting into the team is the best incentive
certain times of the year.
for her to train hard.
5.89 keep your fi ngers crossed (expr)
5.102 invest (v)
wish for luck
putting time or money into sth
Keep your fingers crossed that she passes
Investing money in this company is a risk
her driving test!
because you might lose a lot.
5.90 reward (v)
5.103 inversion (n)
receive sth nice in return for being good or
change to the opposite
patient Patient fans were
Thats an inversion of the facts. The time
rewarded when the stars arrived to sign
was midday not midnight.
autographs before the film.
5.104 prevention (n)
5.91 vision (n)
stopping sth happening
ability to see He wears glasses
Crime prevention could reduce the number
because his vision is not perfect.
of thefts in this area.
5.105 dish (n)
EccE in action page 69 large round object that receives transmissions
In order to watch many TV channels
5.92 advancement (n)
from abroad you need a satellite dish.
progress , Advancements
in technology mean that computers are much
more powerful today than in the past.

32
06 The Passive

tHE passiVE / impErsonal & pErsonal 6.13 distribute (v)


send out, give to people The
passiVE structurEs pages 70-71 textbooks havent been distributed to schools
6.1 part (n) yet so students cant start their lessons.
role The actor was given a small
part in the film. Exercise c page 72
6.2 suspect (v) 6.14 sequel (n)
believe sth is true The police film, book ,play, etc that follows the first in a
suspect that the young shop assistant may be series and continues the story
involved in the robbery. ,
6.3 convincing (adj) I liked the first film, but the sequel wasnt as
believable Your explanation good.
is convincing so I think your parents will 6.15 script (n)
believe you. words for a film or play The actor
6.4 spy (n) read the script before deciding if he wanted a
sb who secretly finds out information about part in the film.
another country James Bond 6.16 permit (n)
is a famous fictional spy. official document giving permission to do sth
6.5 cast (v) You cant park here without a
choose actors for a play or film permit. This car park is for employees only.
, Brad Pitt was cast as an 6.17 allowance (n)
Englishman in the film, but I think they should amount of money given to somebody as pocket
have chosen an English actor. money , Dad stopped
6.6 shoot (v) Gregs weekly allowance because of his poor
film a scene , exam results.
The film was shot on location in the 6.18 newscaster (n)
Australian desert. person who presents the news
The newscaster announced
Grammar in action pages 71-73 the main news stories at the start of the
broadcast.
Exercise a page 71
Exercise D page 72
6.7 glossy (adj)
6.19 renowned (adj)
shiny and good quality
well-known Greece is
The glossy magazine she
renowned for its beautiful islands.
likes to buy each month is Vogue.
6.20 release (v)
Exercise B page 71 make a film, game, play, etc available for
people to buy or see The new
6.8 lead (n)
Spider-Man movie will be released next week,
main role in a film, play, etc
so lets go and see it on Friday.
Bob got the lead in the play and hes
very excited about being the main character. 6.21 fl ock (v)
6.9 capture (v) go somewhere in great number
catch a person or an animal Hundreds of shoppers flocked to the
The zoo keepers managed to capture the mall on the first day of the sales.
escaped lion and put it back in its cage.
Exercise E page 72
6.10 promotional (adj)
for advertising purposes 6.22 investigate (v)
The band made a short promotional video to try to find out facts or information about sth
advertise their tour. or sb The robbery is being
investigated by police, but so far they do not
6.11 slogan (n) have any suspects.
spoken phrase used to advertise an idea,
product, etc , The 6.23 composer (n)
students marched through the streets shouting sb who writes music
anti-government slogans. He favourite classical composer is Mozart.
6.12 leafl et (n) 6.24 novelist (n)
piece of paper with information on it sb who writes fiction books
Katy has a job handing out Charles Dickens was a novelist who wrote
pizza leaflets in the high street. the famous story A Christmas Carol.

UNIT 6 33
Exercise F page 73 ECCE in Action page 75
6.25 producer (n) 6.34 fountain (n)
 sb who arranges a film to be made  decorative water feature
The film producer liked the Theres a pretty fountain in the town square
script, so she contacted a movie studio to try with different coloured lights in the water.
to make a deal.
6.35 soundtrack (n)
6.26 select (v)  music and songs of a film
 choose He was selected for the ,
part from one hundred actors. The soundtracks for Disney films often have
lots of catchy songs.

FCE in Action page 74 6.36 record (v)


 make an electronic copy of music
6.27 event (n) The band recorded their new song at the
 thing which happens Fashion shows recording studio.
are popular events among the rich and famous.
6.37 donate (v)
6.28 exposure (n)  give sth as help (often money to charity)
 discussion in the press The scandal Jack donated a thousand euro to a
got plenty of media exposure in the popular charity for homeless people.
newspapers.
6.38 cover (n)
6.29 numerous (adj)  outside pages of a book, magazine, etc
many Numerous celebrities There is a photo of Brad Pitt on
attended the film premiere. the cover of this magazine.
6.30 preview (v) 6.39 shortly (adv)
 see a film, show, exhibition, etc before other  soon Ill phone Kenny shortly.
people Just give me five minutes.
,
6.40 reveal (v)
- The film will be previewed in a
 make sth secret known
private screening for the directors friends.
The presenter opened the envelope, pulled
6.31 attend (v) out the card and revealed the name of the
 go to an event She winner.
attended the film premiere, but she didnt go
6.41 audition (n)
to the party afterwards.
test of your singing, dancing or acting ability
6.32 launch (v) , Lily is feeling nervous
 show or sell a product, play, etc for the first because she has an audition for a part in an
time , The play was important film today.
launched in London, but it will move to New
6.42 accuse (v)
York for a second season.
 say sb has done sth wrong
6.33 nominate (v) Paul was accused of stealing, but Im sure
 suggest sb for sth he didnt do it.
Five actors have been nominated for the
Oscar, but only one can win.

Film, Celebrities and The Press


Vocabulary in Action pages 76-78 6.46 crew (n)
 group of people who work together on the
Exercise A page 76 same thing , ,
The film crew prepared the studio for the
6.43 rival (n) scene.
 sb you compete against
Olympiakos and Panathinaikos have always 6.47 round of applause (n)
been rivals.  a time when people are clapping
At the end of the performance
6.44 commentator (n) we gave the singer a round of applause.
 person who explains and comments on a
sports event () , 6.48 ice-rink (n)
The commentator sounded  place where you can ice skate
very excited when the first goal was scored. There are hockey games at the ice-rink
every weekend.
6.45 status (n)
 sbs position in society , , 6.49 editor (n)
Justin Biebers celebrity status  sb who makes changes to films or books
means that he cant go anywhere without before they are released The
being surrounded by hundreds of fans. editor had to shorten the film by ten minutes.

34
6.50 edition (n) 6.63 appalling (adj)
 a set of books, newspapers or magazines  terrible Your behaviour at the
published at the same time party was appalling. You shouldnt have thrown
Did you buy the October edition of Madame food all over the place.
Figaro? 6.64 controversial (adj)
6.51 publish (v)  causing discussion Lady
 to produce a book for sale Gagas controversial clothes are often talked
The writers new book will be published about in the press.
shortly so it should be in the shops next month. 6.65 circulate (v)
 spread around The story that
Exercise B page 76
is circulating around the class is that our maths
6.52 meaningful (adj) teacher is leaving.
 important, significant , 6.66 outburst (n)
He wants a meaningful  sudden angry reaction His
relationship instead of just someone to hang insensitive words provoked an angry outburst
out with. from his girlfriend.
6.53 highlight (n)
 most important or interesting part Exercise D page 77
You can watch the highlights 6.67 censor (v)
of this weeks matches on Football World.  remove all or part of a film, book, etc that is
6.54 press conference (n) thought to be unsuitable The
official meeting where sb makes a statement series was censored because it contained parts
about sth and journalists can ask questions which might have offended people with special
The reporters asked needs.
the President many questions at the press 6.68 critic (n)
conference.  sb who gives an opinion about films, books
6.55 commercial break (n) etc In his article, the film critic
 short pause in between TV programmes for recommends the movie Frozen for all the
adverts family.
Ill make a cup of coffee during the 6.69 critical (adj)
commercial break and then we can carry on  saying sth is bad
watching the film. My father is often critical of my fashion
6.56 suspect (n) choices.
 person who is believed to have done something 6.70 communicative (adj)
wrong or criminal  wanting or being able to give people
Police are keeping the suspect at the station information or to talk ,
for questioning. Jamies parents are worried
6.57 source (n) because he is not very communicative.
sb who provides information 6.71 entertainer (n)
The journalists source for the story was a  sb who performs The
friend of the famous singer. entertainer sang so well that the audience
6.58 deadline (n) clapped for ages at the end of the show.
 time when sth must be ready 6.72 entertaining (adj)
The deadline for my assignment is next  enjoyable to watch ,
Friday, so I must finish it by then. Im enjoying reading this
6.59 censorship (n) entertaining book.
 removal of parts of films or written works that 6.73 hesitation (n)
are thought to be unsuitable the act of pausing because you are not sure
When the film was shown on TV, it was a about sth My supervisor
victim of censorship because some scenes answered my question after a slight hesitation
were missing. as she thought about what to say.
Exercise C page 76 6.74 hesitant (adj)
 acting or speaking slowly because you are
6.60 box office (n) not sure about sth He was
 phrase used to describe a successful film or hesitant to offer his help because she had
play refused so many times before.
, The movie was a box office
hit and it made millions of dollars. 6.75 influence (v)
 have an effect or power over sb
6.61 headline (n)
 title of a news story The headline in My mum influenced my career choice
todays newspaper is just one word: Crisis! because I want to be a nurse just like her.
6.62 rumour (n) 6.76 influential (adj)
 story that spreads that might or might not  powerful The President
be true There is a rumour going of America is an influential person whose
round that Janet is seeing John, but who decisions affect the whole world.
knows if its true.

UNIT 6 35
6.77 justify (v) 6.91 take pride in (expr)
 explain your behaviour or actions to others  feel satisfied about sth
Harry tried to justify his , She takes pride in her
cruel behaviour but nobody was willing to students and is happy to see them doing
forgive him. so well.
6.78 justification (n) 6.92 mistake sb for (phr v)
 reason for sth There can be  wrongly think a person is sb else
no justification for being cruel to animals. Its Oh, its you Penny. I mistook
unacceptable. you for your cousin Katy.
6.79 justifiable (adj)
Exercise G page 78
 with good reason I think
her reaction was justifiable when she hit the 6.93 bring about (phr v)
man who was trying to steal her bag.  cause sth to happen Serious
6.80 nomination (n) injury brought about an end to the tennis
 suggestion that sb should get an award or stars career.
prize , 6.94 call for (phr v)
There are five nominations for the prize, but  ask for sth to be done (usually in public)
only one film will receive it. This good news calls for an
6.81 nominee (n) announcement. Listen everyone; Larry is
 sb suggested for an award or prize getting married.
The nominees for the award 6.95 fall back on (phr v)
are all talented footballers.  have as an alternative
6.82 persuasion (n) The actor has a law degree so he has
 process of making sb agree to do sth another career to fall back on if his dream of
, It took lots of Hollywood fame doesnt work out.
persuasion to make Tony watch a romantic 6.96 get out of (phr v)
comedy, but in the end he agreed.  avoid She didnt manage to get
6.83 persuasive (adj) out of doing the cleaning because her mum
good at or able to make others do what you caught her as she was trying to leave the
want The saleswoman was very house.
persuasive and I ended up buying several car 6.97 keep at (phr v)
cleaning products.  continue to do sth (which may be difficult or
6.84 sympathise (v) boring) You have to keep at it
 feel that you can understand sbs problems or and practise every day if you want to get into
situation I really sympathise with music school.
you because I had similar difficulties at work 6.98 pull off (phr v)
myself.  succeed at sth difficult
6.85 sympathetic (adj) The jewel thief failed to pull off the
 caring and understanding robbery as he was recognised and caught by
The boss was sympathetic about my cold and passers-by.
said I didnt have to come into work that day. 6.99 stand in for (phr v)
 take sbs place (for a short period of time)
Exercise E page 77 () I had to stand in
6.86 exploit (n) for Trevor at the start of the meeting because
 sth unusual sb does Daves he was delayed in traffic.
craziest exploit was surviving in the desert
Exercise H page 78
alone for four days.
6.87 insist (v) 6.100 support (v)
 keep saying that sth must happen or be done  encourage and help sb Her
Mary insists on people taking off parents supported her decision to go to drama
their shoes when they enter her flat. school, but her grandpa wasnt happy about it.

6.88 injury (n)


 harm to sbs body The FCE in Action page 79
footballer cant play today because of an injury
to his knee. 6.101 invade sbs privacy (expr)
 become involved in sbs life without permission
6.89 versatile (adj) , (
 able to do many things , ) Photographers who take pictures
The versatile actor has played of celebrities on family holidays invade their
many different types of roles. privacy.

Exercise F page 78 6.102 pursue (v)


 chase , The police
6.90 ashamed (adj) pursued the robbers in a high-speed car chase.
 embarrassed or guilty
6.103 tend (v)
Tom is ashamed of his behaviour and he
 be likely He tends to talk a lot about
wishes he hadnt been so rude.
himself; its a bad habit he has.

36
ECCE in Action page 80 6.109 inflamed (adj)
 red and sore That cut looks
6.104 consecutive (adj) inflamed. You need to put some antiseptic on it.
 one following the other This is
the fifth consecutive day that youve been late! 6.110 collapse (n)
If this continues, you will lose your job!  process or sudden act of falling apart
This old building is in danger
6.105 promising (adj) of collapse. It could fall down at any moment.
showing that you have or that there are good
future possibilities , 6.111 correspondent (n)
Victor is a very promising young  journalist who reports on a particular subject
player and we may see him playing for his The financial correspondent
country in the future. gave a report on the economic problems in
Europe.
6.106 inspection (n)
 official visit to check sth carefully 6.112 genre (n)
An inspection of the school laboratory was  kind or type of writing, cinema, music, etc
carried out to make sure it was safe. (, ) I enjoy most
genres of writing but I must admit that I dont
6.107 speaker (n) really like science fiction.
 electronic device that produces sound
I was standing next to a speaker at the 6.113 imply (v)
concert. It was really loud!  say indirectly , He
implied that she was lying when he said she
6.108 era (n) didnt seem to know what she was talking about.
 period of time She thinks the Internet
is the most amazing invention of our era.

Review 2

FCE Part 1 page 82 FCE Part 3 page 83


6.114 announce (v) 6.120 glimpse (n)
 officially say sth The head  quick look Fans only got
teacher announced that the exam period would a glimpse of the star as she left her car and
begin on 15th June. quickly entered the hotel.

FCE Part 2 page 82 FCE Part 4 page 83


6.115 maintain (v) 6.121 applaud (v)
 keep sth at the same level  clap to indicate enjoyment, congratulations,
Its important to maintain young childrens etc We all applauded
interest if you want them to learn. the orchestra at the end of a wonderful
6.116 brainstorm (v) performance.
think up many ideas quickly
The students brainstormed a list of healthy ECCE in Action page 84
foods and wrote them on the board.
6.122 finalise (v)
6.117 trend (n)
 finish making decisions about or arranging sth
 tendency, fashion Texting was a
I havent finalised my plans
trend that caught on many years ago and is
for the weekend yet because I dont know if
still popular today.
Ken is free or not.
6.118 implement (v)
6.123 identical (adj)
 put into practice Some schools
 totally the same ,
have implemented the use of e-books in their
We wore identical dresses to the party and
lessons.
we looked like twins.
6.119 institution (n)
 organisation such as a school, hospital, etc
, Oxford University is a
renowned educational institution.

UNIT 6 / REVIEW 2 37
07 Making Comparisons / Relative Clauses

comparatiVE & supErlatiVE aDJEctiVEs / 7.12 comedian (n)


sb whose job is to entertain people by making
comparatiVE & supErlatiVE aDVErBs / them laugh The comedian was
otHEr Forms oF comparison pages 85-86 very funny in his stand-up show.
7.1 fascinating (adj)
very interesting I watched rElatiVE clausEs pages 87-88
a fascinating documentary on TV that might
interest you too. 7.13 sculptor (n)
sb who shapes stone, wood, etc to make
7.2 expressively (adv) pieces of art A sculptor has been
in a way which shows your thoughts and commissioned to create a statue for the town
feelings She sang the song so square.
expressively that she brought tears to
my eyes. 7.14 curator (n)
sb who is in charge of a museum
7.3 degree (n) The curator arranged for the
amount, extent To a certain museum to have a special exhibition of Roman
degree youre right, but a lot of what you said jewellery.
is not logical.
7.15 be in charge of (expr)
7.4 expose (v) be responsible for ,
make sth become known (a scandal, criminal Who is in charge of this project?
activity, etc) , The
new mayor has promised to expose corruption 7.16 omit (v)
in the police force. leave out, not include
He omitted the chilli from the recipe because
7.5 rehearsal (n) he doesnt like spicy food.
practice for a play We have one
more rehearsal before the first performance of 7.17 parcel (n)
our play. packet you post I posted a parcel of
birthday presents to my sister.
7.6 easy-going (adj)
relaxed , , Exercise D page 88
Shes such an easy-going person that she
never gets stressed out about work or family. 7.18 instrumental (adj)
with music only This song is
instrumental so there are no words to learn.
Grammar in action pages 86-87 7.19 access (v)
be able to see information on a computer
Exercise a page 86 In order to access your
7.7 convenient (adj) email account you must log on with your
useful for a particular purpose username and password.
The bus is more convenient for me than the 7.20 back-stage (n)
train because it stops outside my house. behind the scenes in a theatre
7.8 wealthy (adj) The back-stage work included
very rich He became a wealthy costume changes and lighting.
man when he sold his business for a large
amount of money. Exercise E page 89
7.9 admission (n) 7.21 sum (n)
amount of money you pay to enter a place amount He won a large sum of
(museum, zoo, etc) , money in the lottery.
Admission to this museum is free so you 7.22 free of charge (expr)
dont have to buy a ticket to get in. for which you do not have to pay
7.10 queue (n) Local people can enter the museum free of
line of people waiting I stood in the charge but visitors have to pay.
queue at the bank for 20 minutes before I was
served. Exercise F page 89
7.23 dedicate (v)
Exercise B page 86 say sth is in honour of sth or sb
7.11 watercolour (n) The author dedicated her book to her children.
painting done with water-based paint 7.24 golden age (n)
This watercolour depicts a view particularly happy or successful time
over the valley and distant mountains. The 1950s are considered to be the
golden age of rock and roll.

38
7.25 query (n) ECCE in Action page 91
 question , If you have any
queries about your assignment, see me at the 7.32 niece (n)
end of the lesson.  your brother or sisters daughter
My sister is having a baby so soon I will
7.26 host (n) have a niece.
 sb who receives visitors The
host welcomed the guests to the charity event 7.33 competent (adj)
he had organised.  able to do sth properly Tina is a
very competent events manager so you dont
Exercise G page 89 need to worry about anything going wrong
with the product launch.
7.27 double-decker (n)
7.34 decorate (v)
 bus with two floors
 make a place attractive with colours and
This double-decker has an open top where
objects They decided to
tourists can get a great view of the city.
decorate the living room so they bought paint
7.28 ordinary (adj) and new curtains.
 normal , He had
7.35 climate change (n)
an ordinary day at work. Nothing unusual
 change in the worlds weather
happened.
He said that winters are colder
worldwide as a result of climate change.
FCE in Action page 90 7.36 exceed (v)
7.29 thrive (v)  be more than (in number or amount)
 grow successfully Her business , He was stopped by
is thriving so she will open more shops to sell the police for exceeding the speed limit.
her products. 7.37 rise (n)
7.30 on end (expr)  increase in pay She asked
 continuously, without stopping her boss for a rise but he refused to give her
Jeff has been working on that essay for more money.
hours on end; all day in fact. 7.38 accompany (v)
7.31 promote (v)  go with Dad accompanied me
 support and advertise The band to the dentist because I didnt want to go on
promoted their new album with radio adverts. my own.

Culture and he Performing Arts


Vocabulary in Action pages 92-94 7.44 row (n)
 line of seats I hope we
Exercise A page 92 can get tickets for the front row at the concert
because I want to see the band close-up.
7.39 performing arts (pl n)
 forms of entertainment eg dancing, acting, etc 7.45 on display (expr)
(for a painting, product, etc) in a place where

visitors can see We saw a
He is studying performing arts at drama
collection of traditional clothes that are on
school.
display at the Benaki Museum.
7.40 exhibit (n)
7.46 lines (pl n)
 sth being shown at a museum or gallery  words in a play or film I practised
Visitors must not touch any of the my lines for months before the performance so
exhibits as they are extremely old and fragile. I would remember everything I had to say.
7.41 inauguration (n) 7.47 interval (n)
 official start of sth  short break at the theatre or cinema
The inauguration of the new museum was After the first act there was a
broadcast on TV so I watched the opening from fifteen minute interval during which I got a
the comfort of my home. lemonade.
7.42 masterpiece (n)
 excellent work of art Exercise B page 92
I think this sculpture is a masterpiece. Its 7.48 illustrator (n)
the best statue I have ever seen.  sb who draws artwork for publications
7.43 portrait (n) The illustrator for these
 painting of a person She had to childrens books draws lovely pictures.
sit still for hours on end while the artist painted 7.49 marble (n)
her portrait.  a type of hard rock There are
many marble statues in the Acropolis Museum.

UNIT 7 39
7.50 playwright (n) 7.65 turn down (phr v)
 sb who writes plays  refuse She turned down the
Oscar Wilde was a brilliant playwright whose part in the play because she didnt think it was
comedies for the stage are still performed right for her.
today. 7.66 turn out (phr v)
7.51 contribution (n)  unexpectedly be sth
 sth successful you offer or do , I thought this
Picasso made a major contribution to book would be boring, but it turned out to be
modern art. fascinating.
7.52 literature (n) 7.67 clap (v)
 written works which have artistic value  show you like sth by hitting your hands
, When she studied together We clapped for ages
English literature at school, she discovered the at the end of the performance.
novels of Jane Austen. 7.68 amateur dramatic society (n)
7.53 conductor (n)  group of actors who act for fun and not as a
 sb who directs an orchestra The job
conductor raised his hands and the musicians My maths teacher is a member of an
picked up their instruments. amateur dramatic society and Ive seen him
7.54 gracefully (adv) act in Hamlet.
 in a smooth and attractive way 7.69 expectation (n)
The dancer moved gracefully across the floor.  sth you hoped for The band
7.55 ease (n) has high expectations for their new album and
 ability to do sth without difficulty , believe their fans will love it.
He finished the test with ease 7.70 unexpectedly (adv)
because he knew all the answers.  happening in a way which surprises you
7.56 extra (n) , The food at
 actor in a film without a speaking part that cheap restaurant was unexpectedly fresh
, He works as an extra on and tasty.
TV so he often appears in crowd scenes. 7.71 role model (n)
7.57 understudy (n)  sb you admire and want to copy or be like
 actor who learns a part in order to replace Messi is my role model and one
another actor if they cannot perform day I want to be a football star like him.
The understudy
Exercise D page 93
has to perform tonight because our lead actor
has flu. 7.72 appreciative (adj)
7.58 substitute (n)  grateful or showing that you think sth is good
 sports player who replaces another player , Thanks. Im very
In a football match a appreciative of your help.
maximum of three substitutes can be used to 7.73 appreciated (adj)
replace players during the game.  receiving gratitude ,
7.59 choreographer (n) He wanted her to feel
 sb who creates dance routines appreciated so he bought her flowers to thank
After a career as a successful dancer, Sarah her for her support.
went on to become a choreographer. 7.74 expectant (adj)
 hoping for sth good ,
Exercise C page 93 You could see from the childrens
7.60 be cut out (phr v) expectant faces that they hoped Santa had
 have the right qualities Hes visited in the night.
a very shy person so I dont think hes cut out 7.75 signify (v)
to be a performer.  show, mean If we knew what the
7.61 come on (phr v) number in this code signified, we could find out
 appear on stage When the famous the meaning of the whole message.
actor came on stage, the audience applauded. 7.76 significance (n)
7.62 live up to (phr v)  importance, meaning ,
 be as good as expected , Dealing with climate change is of
The film was amazing; it great significance for the whole world.
lived up to all my expectations. 7.77 insignificance (n)
7.63 put on (phr v)  lack of importance My own
 present a performance Were problems fade into insignificance when I think
putting on a play at the end of term. I hope of the terrible situation she is facing.
you come to see it. 7.78 replaceable (adj)
7.64 stand out (phr v)  if sb or sth is replaceable, a new thing or
 clearly be better The first person can be put in their place
contestant in the talent show stood out We were burgled, but
because he had the best singing voice of all. luckily the TV is replaceable so Ill get a new
one tomorrow.

40
7.79 irreplaceable (adj) 7.92 contender (n)
 impossible to replace if lost or broken because  competitor ,
it is so valuable The He won the championship last year so hes
painting which was stolen is irreplaceable as it considered to be a serious contender for gold.
was by one of the great impressionist masters. 7.93 gifted (adj)
 naturally talented Shes a
Exercise F page 94
gifted singer whose voice is really beautiful.
7.80 passion (n) 7.94 exceptional (adj)
 extreme interest in sth Hes had  extremely good My art teacher
a passion for ballroom dancing ever since he said my painting was exceptional and gave me
joined a dance school last year. an A.
7.81 approach (v) 7.95 mastermind (n)
 come near (in time or space)  clever person who arranges sth (usually a
The day of the exam was approaching and crime) The mastermind behind
Richard was getting more and more nervous. the robberies was the local mafia boss.
7.82 out of tune (expr) 7.96 masterclass (n)
 with the wrong musical note ,  class taught by an expert for talented students
Youre singing out of tune! It ,
sounds terrible. The gifted musician
7.83 panel (n) took a masterclass at the Royal Academy of
 group of people who judge others or make Music.
decisions about them , 7.97 on call (expr)
The candidates will be interviewed by a  available for work if needed ,
panel of three company managers. Firefighters are on call 24 hours a
day in case of an emergency.
FCE in Action page 95 7.98 on show (expr)
 available to be seen by the public
7.84 potential (adj) His paintings are on show at the local art
 possible Some potential gallery.
clients have shown interest in my paintings. I
hope one of them buys one. 7.99 on location (expr)
 away from a TV or film studio
7.85 pull out (phr v) ( ) This movie was
 no longer take part, leave filmed on location in London where the actual
The tennis player had to pull out of the crimes took place.
match because of a foot injury.
7.100 on a placement (expr)
7.86 subsequently (adv)  working in a temporary job often for experience
 afterwards, at a later time or date while you are a student The
Although she began as a student worked on a placement at a hotel
player, she subsequently became a coach in during the summer holidays.
the same sport.
7.101 charge (n)
7.87 vital (adj)  sum of money you pay for a service or to visit
extremely important Appearance a place There is a charge of 80
plays a vital role in the fashion industry so you cents when you pay a bill at the post office.
need the latest look.
7.102 stand (n)
7.88 dramatically (adv)  stall where you can buy sth or get information
 very much, to a great extent ,
Their lives changed dramatically after the I bought a hot dog at a stand outside the
baby was born. football stadium.
7.103 column (n)
ECCE in Action page 96  tall post made of wood, stone, etc
The balcony is supported by four marble
7.89 in advance (expr)
columns.
 before a particular event, time, etc
, You will have to 7.104 inspector (n)
pay two months rent in advance before you sb whose job it is to check things
move into the house. The school inspectors
checked the standard of teaching by looking at
7.90 Bronze Age (n)
pupils exam results.
 period when tools where made of the metal
bronze , 7.105 hereby (adv)
This documentary about the Bronze Age  with these words, this action, this letter, etc
explains how humans made tools back then. I hereby pronounce the
new hospital officially open!
7.91 extract (n)
 short part of sth written 7.106 interference (n)
Listen to this extract from my favourite  unwanted help or opinion Mum
poem; its only the first part so it wont take thinks shes helping me but her interference in
long. my social life is really annoying.

UNIT 7 41
08 Conditionals

conDitionals witH IF / conDitionals 8.14 set sail (expr)


start a journey by boat
witHout IF pages 97-98 The ferry sets sail in half an hour, so we
8.1 command (n) should board now.
order When the soldier heard the 8.15 litter (n)
command to run, he ran. rubbish in the street or other public place
8.2 solar power (n) Dont drop litter in the park.
suns energy used to create electricity Take your rubbish home with you.
We use solar power to 8.16 drown (v)
heat our water and provide electric light in the die underwater because you cant breathe
evenings. Luckily nobody drowned when
8.3 unless (conj) the ferry sank. All the passengers were saved.
if not Dad wont let me go to the 8.17 coastguard (n)
party unless I promise to be home by 11 organisation that helps ships or people in
oclock. trouble near the coast
8.4 power plant (n) The coastguard stopped the boat and
building(s) where electricity is produced checked it for illegal goods.
There was
a blackout in the area because of a technical Exercise B page 99
problem at the power plant. 8.18 install (v)
8.5 provided/providing (conj) put a machine or piece of equipment in a place
if and only if Ill help you study and make it work We installed
maths providing that you help me with my air conditioning in the flat.
history assignment. 8.19 solar panel (n)
8.6 as/so long as (expr) device that uses energy from the sun to make
if and only if She promised to heat or power
cook as long as I washed up. We have a solar panel on the roof that heats
our water.
8.7 on condition that (expr)
if and only if I will get into 8.20 tap (n)
university on condition that I pass my exams device water flows out of
with high grades. The tap on the left is for cold water.
8.8 suppose/supposing (conj) 8.21 turtle (n)
imagine that Suppose he sea animal with a shell on its back
asked you out to dinner. Would you accept?
Many turtles get caught in plastic bags that
8.9 in case (expr)
people drop in the sea because they mistake
if sth happens Take an
them for jellyfish.
umbrella in case it rains.
8.22 shipwreck (n)
8.10 otherwise (adv)
sunk boat Divers who found the
differently Turn on the TV now,
shipwreck at the bottom of the sea think it is a
otherwise well miss the start of the film.
very old boat.
8.23 consequence (n)
Grammar in action pages 98100 result (often negative)
One serious consequence of the forest fire
Exercise a page 98 was that the area got flooded with the first
winter rain.
8.11 devastating (adj)
catastrophic, causing a lot of damage 8.24 inhabitant (n)
The flood had a person who lives in a particular place
devastating effect on the area and many There are only two hundred
homes were badly damaged. inhabitants living in this village.
8.12 storm (n) 8.25 compass (n)
very bad weather with lots of rain and wind device that shows magnetic north
A tree fell on my car during the The hikers used a compass to make sure
storm. they were walking in the right direction.
8.13 weather forecast (n) 8.26 safe and sound (expr)
prediction for the weather for the next few in no danger
days I watched the Nobody was injured in the coach accident.
weather forecast after the news to see if it will All the passengers are safe and sound.
be warm tomorrow.

42
Exercise C page 99 8.41 be situated (expr)
 be placed, located The city
8.27 sting (v)
of Heraklion is situated on the island of Crete.
 (for an insect, animal or plant) hurt you by
sticking sth sharp into your skin 8.42 disastrous (adj)
This red mark on my hand is where a bee  catastrophic, causing a lot of damage
stung me. The disastrous tsunami
destroyed towns all along the coast.
8.28 global warming (n)
 increase in temperatures around the world 8.43 gain (v)
because of more carbon dioxide in the  get more of sth Research into
atmosphere how Ebola spreads will allow doctors to gain a
Global warming cannot be dealt with unless better of understanding of how to prevent the
all countries reduce the amount of carbon disease.
dioxide they produce.
Exercise E page 100
8.29 hurricane (n)
 violent storm with strong winds and heavy rain 8.44 dump (v)
The hurricane destroyed many  throw away (often illegally) ,
buildings when it hit the east coast of America. Sea life is endangered in this area because
dangerous chemicals are being dumped in
8.30 frequency (n)
rivers that flow to the sea.
 how often sth happens
Im worried because the frequency of my 8.45 net (n)
daughters asthma attacks is increasing.  material made of strings creating holes
When the fisherman pulled in the net, he
8.31 iceberg (n)
was pleased to see that it was full of fish.
 large mass of ice in the sea An
iceberg hit the Titanic and the hole it made in 8.46 conserve (v)
the ship caused it to sink.  protect sth from being wasted ,
In hot countries it is important
8.32 glacier (n)
to conserve water so there is enough for
 large mass of moving ice (like a frozen river)
people to drink.
This glacier is slowly moving
and cutting a valley into the land below it. 8.47 natural resource (n)
 materials found on earth that people can use
8.33 polar ice shelf (n)
Wood is a natural resource
 thick floating platform of ice at the edge of
that is often used to make furniture.
the polar ice cap We
didnt sail close to the polar ice shelf in case a 8.48 procedure (n)
large block of ice broke off.  way of doing sth Employees
must follow safety procedures in case of fire.
8.34 melt (v)
 become liquid when heated The 8.49 operate (v)
snow melted in the warmth of the morning  work The airport operates all
sun. day and all night and flights arrive and depart
24 hours a day.
8.35 attempt (n)
 the act of trying hard to do sth 8.50 toxic waste (n)
Any attempt to stop global warming will fail  poisonous material that is thrown away
if factories continue to pollute the atmosphere. The toxic waste that was
dumped in the sea has killed all the marine life
8.36 resolve (v)
in the area.
 find a solution Dramatically
reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the
Exercise F page 100
atmosphere will help to resolve the problem of
global warming. 8.51 under threat (expr)
8.37 adequate (adj)  endangered Polar bears are
 enough She didnt have adequate under threat because the ice where they live is
time to do her assignment so she asked her melting.
teacher for a few more days. 8.52 marine (adj)
8.38 attitude (n)  related to the sea The most
 opinion and feeling, behaviour He beautiful marine animal I have ever seen is a
has a lazy attitude towards school and hardly dolphin.
studies at all. 8.53 be to blame (expr)
 be responsible for ,
Exercise D page 100 The local factory is to blame for polluting the
water because it dumps chemicals in the river.
8.39 massive (adj)
 very big This cruise ship 8.54 hazard (n)
is massive. It so big that it can take four  danger that can cause damage
thousand passengers. Cigarettes thrown from car windows are a
hazard as they can start forest fires.
8.40 active (adj)
 that might erupt (for a volcano) 8.55 fatal (adj)
Scientists monitor active volcanos in order  deadly The driver was killed
to try to predict when they might erupt. in the fatal accident.

UNIT 8 43
8.56 mammal (n) 8.62 starvation (n)
 animal that is not born from an egg and feeds  the situation of an animal or person dying
from its mothers milk Dolphins because they have no food The
are mammals rather than fish, even though animals will die of starvation if the farmer
they live in the sea. cannot afford to buy food for them.
8.57 annually (adv) 8.63 emergency (n)
 every year Levels of dangerous  sudden event (often dangerous) that
chemicals in the river are checked annually requires action In case
and sadly in the last twelve months they have of a medical emergency, you should call an
risen. ambulance.
8.58 figure (n) 8.64 button (n)
 number Figures for the first half  switch you press on a machine I
of the year show that the company has made a pressed the on button to turn on my laptop.
profit. 8.65 present (adj)
8.59 swallow (v)  being in a place now Two election
 move sth from your mouth to your stomach officials must be present before we can count
He put the vitamin on his tongue the votes.
and swallowed it with a little water. 8.66 drought (n)

long period of time with no rain
FCE in Action page 101 The ground was dry and nothing could grow
because of the drought.
8.60 adverse (adj)
8.67 victim (n)
 bad and damaging Adverse
 sb who suffers sth bad The hurricane
weather conditions made it too dangerous for
victims have nowhere to live because their
planes to take off, so all flights were cancelled.
homes were destroyed.

ECCE in Action page 102


8.61 thick (adj)
 made of heavy warm material ,
I put on a thick pullover because it
was a cold day.

The World Around Us

Vocabulary in Action pages 103-105 8.74 cap (n)


 covering The ice caps that cover
Exercise A page 103 the north and south pole are slowly getting
smaller.
8.68 quake (v)
 shake She quaked with fear during 8.75 resident (n)
the storm. Her hands wouldnt stop shaking.  sb who lives in a particular place
Are you a resident of Athens?
8.69 conservation (n) No, I live in Thessaloniki.
 stopping sth from being wasted
We need to plant more trees 8.76 erosion (n)
to ensure the conservation of our forests.  removal of soil by natural causes (wind, rain,
water) The shape of these rocks
8.70 protection (n) is created by wind erosion.
 keeping sth safe Sunglasses
provide your eyes with protection from the 8.77 irrigation (n)
sun.  system of giving water to crops
Without proper irrigation the crops would die
8.71 organic (adj) in this dry area.
 natural, without the addition of chemicals
I prefer to buy organic 8.78 geothermal (adj)
produce because it doesnt contain dangerous  related to heat from the earth
pesticides. The water in this pool is
warm because of geothermal activity in the
8.72 level (n) rocks below.
 height After days of rain, the
water level in the river is dangerously high. 8.79 nuclear (adj)
 powered by splitting the atom
8.73 lid (n) When the nuclear power station was
 top If you put a lid on the damaged, the whole area was threatened by
saucepan, the water will boil more quickly. radioactivity.

44
8.80 lightning (n) 8.95 downpour (n)
 flash of light in the sky during a storm  when lots of rain falls in a short time
Lightning struck a tree and set it on fire. The downpour only lasted five
minutes but it flooded the street.
8.81 thunder (n)
 loud noise in the sky during a storm 8.96 famine (n)
The sound of the thunder got louder as the  lack of food (often causing death)
storm got closer. Thousands of people starved to death during
the famine.
8.82 strike (v)
 hit He suffered serious burns when 8.97 heatwave (n)
he was struck by lightning.  very hot period Were having
a heatwave. The temperature has been over
8.83 illuminated (adj) 40C all week.
 lit up The night sky was
illuminated by fireworks at the New Year 8.98 humidity (n)
celebrations.  amount of water in the air The
humidity in tropical areas is very high so it is
8.84 current (n) hard to cool down.
 direction water moves in The sea
8.99 torrential (adj)
currents here are so strong that it is dangerous
 very heavy (for rain) The
to swim in these waters.
torrential rain caused the river levels to rise.
8.85 habitat (n)
8.100 pose (v)
 natural environment of a particular animal  create He believes the nuclear
Pandas have become power station poses a threat to the area.
an endangered species because their habitat is
slowly being destroyed. Exercise D page 104
Exercise B page 103 8.101 consume (v)
 use Humans are consuming
8.86 disaster (n) the worlds natural resources so quickly that
 event that causes damage there is a danger they will run out.
The flood, which was the worst natural
disaster to hit the town in years, caused 8.102 consumption (n)
terrible damage.  use This car has a much
higher petrol consumption than my older car
8.87 greenhouse effect (n) so its more expensive to run.
 process where heat is trapped in the
atmosphere and the temperature of the earth 8.103 emit (v)
rises The  give out (gas, radiation, etc)
earth suffers from the greenhouse effect, which Mobile phones are believed to emit radiation
means temperatures are rising everywhere. which may damage the brain.
8.88 ozone (n) 8.104 emission (n)
 form of oxygen found high in the earths  sending sth out (eg a gas)
atmosphere The ozone layer protects Emission from cars must be checked so they
us from the sun. do not pollute the air too much.

8.89 renewable (adj) 8.105 installation (n)


 which does not run out because it can be  putting a machine in place and connecting
made again Wind power is a it to power, water, etc The
renewable source of energy which is endlessly installation of the washing machine is quite
available from nature. difficult so a plumber is going to do it.

8.90 rate (n) 8.106 pollutant (n)


 amount, speed ,  damaging chemical or other substance
Pollutants from this factory are
The rate of his progress is slow, but he will
damaging the area.
get better in the end.
8.107 populate (v)
8.91 landslide (n)
 live in a particular area This city
 when rock and earth slip down a slope
is populated by people from many different
The road is blocked because
countries.
of a landslide.
8.108 overpopulation (n)
8.92 ultraviolet (adj)
 too many people living somewhere
 light that causes damage to the skin
Overpopulation has made
We cannot see ultraviolet light
this city far too crowded to live in.
but it can damage the skin.
8.109 preserve (v)
8.93 ray (n)
 keep sth the way it is by protecting it from
 beam of light The suns rays are
damage , Locals want
warm, but they are also dangerous. to preserve the village, so they are unhappy
about the plan to build new houses.
Exercise C page 103
8.110 preservation (n)
8.94 alert (n)  the act of protecting sth in order to keep it the
 warning The coastguard way it is , ,
issued an adverse weather alert to warn people Harold is interested in the preservation of
not to go out to sea. local vegetable and fruit varieties.

UNIT 8 45
8.111 survival (n) 8.125 as opposed to (expr)
 staying alive The survival of this  rather than, instead of
species can only be ensured if hunters stop Wind power, as opposed to fossil fuels, does
killing the animals for their fur. not create pollution.
8.112 survivor (n) 8.126 generate (v)
 sb who stays alive even though they could  create power This power plant
have been killed There were only generates enough electricity for the whole city.
two survivors of the terrible accident the rest 8.127 destructive (adj)
of the passengers were killed.  damaging The destructive
storm blew down trees which blocked roads
Exercise E page 104 and smashed cars.
8.113 harmful (adj) 8.128 tidal (adj)
 which cause damage The hole  connected to the daily rise and fall of the sea
in the ozone layer allows harmful rays of There is a tidal power
ultraviolet light through, which can damage station by the sea near my house.
our skin.
8.129 sustainable (adj)
8.114 common practice (expr)  which can continue to be used without running
 a way of doing sth that is normal out , Sustainable forms
It is common practice for people in of energy need to be developed because one
hot countries to install air conditioning in their day fossil fuels will run out.
houses.
8.130 tide (n)
8.115 fossil fuel (n)  daily rise and fall of sea level
 natural source of power (eg coal, gas, oil) When the tide goes out, the children look for
Natural gas is a fossil fuel shells in the wet sand.
that can be used for heating instead of oil-
8.131 hence (adv)
based fuels.
 therefore Green energy is
8.116 mankind (n) more difficult to produce, hence it is more
 humans Mankind is to blame expensive.
for global warming because it is the pollution
people cause that has created the problem.
FCE in Action page 106
8.117 human race (n)
 the species of people Do 8.132 the public (n)
you think the human race is endangered or will  ordinary people Climate change
people populate the earth for ever? affects everyone so all members of the public
should be concerned.
Exercise F page 105 8.133 widely (adv)
 by many people or in a lot of places
8.118 clear up (phr v)
Human activities are widely believed to be
 (for the weather) improve
the main cause of global warming.
I hope the rain stops soon and the weather
clears up, so I can play tennis. 8.134 fumes (pl n)
 dangerous gases that smell bad
8.119 come up (phr v)
, I cant stand the
 rise The sun comes up at
smell of petrol fumes.
around 6 am at this time of year.
8.135 alteration (n)
8.120 leave on (phr v)
 change , The report
 not turn off If you leave
needs a few alterations before we can present
your computer on without using it, it will go into
it to the public.
sleep mode, but it wont turn off completely.
8.136 origin (n)
8.121 live through (phr v)
 where sth or sb comes from ,
 survive sth bad We lived through a
Marcos grew up in Australia but
terrible time in the war, but we were lucky not
hes of Greek origin because his parents are
to be killed.
from Rhodes.
8.122 wipe out (phr v)
 kill completely Dinosaurs
ECCE in Action page 107
may have been wiped out by cold weather
conditions they could not survive in. 8.137 indication (n)
8.123 herd (n)  sign that sth will happen The
 group of cows, elephants, buffalo, etc markets showed some indications that the
The farmer has a herd of fifty cows. economy was getting stronger.
8.138 suspended (adj)
Exercise G page 105  stopped temporarily The
8.124 greenhouse gas (n) train service has been suspended until a fallen
 gas such as carbon dioxide which increases the tree can be removed from the tracks.
earths temperature 8.139 revitalised (adj)
We must try to reduce the emission of  given energy again He
greenhouse gases if we want to reduce global always feels revitalized and ready for work
warming. again after a relaxing weekend.

46
8.140 flow (n) 8.149 overestimated (adj)
 direction a liquid moves in (eg a river)  too favourable, or too highly valued
The lava flow from the volcano was moving I think thats an
slowly down the mountain side. overestimated price for the car. Im sure its
8.141 convention (n) cheaper than that.
 formal meeting of an organisation 8.150 overwhelmed (adj)
The Democrats are holding their convention  moved by emotion
this week. She felt overwhelmed by everybodys
8.142 overcast (adj) kindness and she tried not to cry.
 grey and cloudy with no sun 8.151 overseen (adj)
Overcast days are so depressing. I wish the  supervised
sun would come out again. Your work will be overseen by the boss until
8.143 topical (adj) you learn what to do.
 about sth happening now He 8.152 restrict (v)
always watches the evening news because hes  limit The sale of a film rated 18
interested in topical matters. is restricted to adults only.
8.144 frame (n) 8.153 extinguish (v)
 edge around sth The window  put out (for fire) The firefighters
frame is made of old wood so Im afraid it managed to extinguish the fire before any
wont hold the glass for long. serious damage was caused.
8.145 erase (v) 8.154 leave out (phr v)
 delete, rub out , She  omit, not include
wrote in pencil, so she could erase any Have I left out anyone from the wedding
mistakes with a rubber. list? Yes, you forgot Aunt Margaret.
8.146 erode (v) 8.155 ultimately (adv)
 cause rock, soil, etc to slowly disappear or be  in the end, as a final goal
damaged The sea and wind Ultimately, the town council wants to recycle
have eroded the coastline so the island is in every piece of rubbish produced by inhabitants
fact getting smaller. of the area.
8.147 considerably (adv) 8.156 revival (n)
 a lot, by a large amount ,  becoming popular again
Jennifers marks were considerably better Miniskirts are back thanks to a revival of 60s
this term the extra lessons have made a big fashions.
difference. 8.157 surrender (n)
8.148 boundary (n)  stop fighting and give up
 line (maybe imaginary) between two pieces of They couldnt fight without guns so their
land, countries, etc , only choice was surrender.
Hadrians Wall forms an ancient boundary
between England and Scotland.

UNIT 8 47
09 Wishes / Regrets / Other Structures:
would rather, prefer, its (about/high) time
wisHEs / rEGrEts page 108 9.12 case (n)
legal matter The lawyer has a
9.1 admit (v) new murder case to deal with.
agree sth is true She
admitted that she had broken the vase even 9.13 be guilty of (expr)
though at first she said it wasnt her. having done sth wrong or illegal
Henry was guilty of stealing money from his
9.2 frustrating (adj) classmates.
which makes you feel annoyed because you
cant do it , Exercise E page 111
She just wont listen to my ideas its so
frustrating! 9.14 distraction (n)
sth that takes your attention away from sth
else Pickpockets often use a
Grammar in action page 109 distraction so people dont notice them stealing.
9.15 gadget (n)
Exercise a page 109 useful or fun device ,
9.3 newsagents (n) This torch is a useful gadget.
shop that sells newspapers and magazines
I bought two magazines Exercise F page 112
from the newsagents. 9.16 facilities (pl n)
9.4 blackmail (v) services , This town
force money from sb by threatening to reveal has shops and a cinema, but it needs more
their secrets The celebrity was facilities such as a library and a sports centre.
blackmailed by somebody who threatened to 9.17 youth (n)
sell photos of her to the press. young people The towns youth
spend most of their time after school at the
Exercise B page 109 mall with other young people.
9.5 commit (v) 9.18 local council (n)
do sth against the law The man government of a village, town or area
who committed murder was sent to prison The local council claims there is no money
for life. available for more facilities.
9.6 confess (v)
admit you have done sth wrong Exercise G page 112
He confessed to stealing the money. 9.19 purse (n)
9.7 pickpocket (n) small container for coins and paper money
sb who steals from peoples pockets (usually carried by a woman)
The pickpocket stole a wallet () I only have 10 euros in my
from a man on the bus. purse.
9.20 patrol (v)
otHEr structurEs page 110 move around an area to check for trouble
The police regularly patrol the
9.8 statement (n) town centre after midnight so there is little
sth you say officially He made crime.
a statement about the robbery and a police
9.21 observe (v)
officer recorded what he said. watch closely ,
The security guard observed the shoppers to
Exercise c page 110
make sure nobody was stealing.
9.9 casually (adv) 9.22 creep (v)
in an informal way , move quietly and carefully The
You can dress casually for the party jeans pickpockets hand crept into the bag without
and a T-shirt will do. the woman noticing.
9.10 on a daily basis (expr)
every day She checks EccE in action page 114
her emails on a daily basis.
9.23 riverbank (n)
Exercise D page 111 land at the edge of a river
They sat on the riverbank and watched the
9.11 cooperate (v) ducks swim in the river.
be helpful by doing what sb asks
He cooperated with the 9.24 falsely (adv)
police and told them everything he knew. wrongly She was falsely
accused of stealing.

48
Crime

Vocabulary in Action pages 115-117 9.37 ransom (n)


 money demanded in return for a kidnapped
Exercise A page 115 person The man on the phone
asked for a ransom of a million dollars to
9.25 detain (v) return the little girl.
 hold sb somewhere for a time
He was detained overnight at 9.38 reward (n)
the police station, but they let him go in the  money given in return for helping return sb or
sth The family offered a reward
morning.
to anyone who could find their daughter.
9.26 mug (v)
9.39 kidnapping (n)
 attack sb in a public place and steal from them
 grabbing sb by force and asking for money
A man mugged my
The kidnapping ended when
friend. He stole her bag after pushing her to
the family paid a ransom and their son was
the ground.
returned home.
9.27 disturb the peace (expr)
 make a noise and trouble in a public place Exercise B page 116
/
9.40 deny (v)
The teenagers were warned against
 say you didnt do sth He denied
disturbing the peace so they turned down the
killing the man and I believe him.
music.
9.41 burgle (v)
9.28 judge (n)  break into a house and steal things
person who makes decisions in a court My house was burgled while I was
The judge sentenced the man to on holiday my computer, TV and jewellery
three years in prison. were stolen.
9.29 motive (n) 9.42 vandalise (v)
 reason for doing sth He owes  break or damage public property
money so he has a motive for stealing the Some local boys
money. vandalised the park and broke all the swings.
9.30 trial (n) 9.43 arson (n)
 hearing evidence for a legal case in court  setting fire to sth on purpose
During the murder trial many people The fire wasnt an accident; it was arson.
were asked questions by the lawyers.
9.44 fraud (n)
9.31 witness (n)  getting money by cheating The rich
 sb who sees a crime The doctor went to prison for fraud when he was
witness said she saw a man enter the building caught for not paying his taxes.
through a broken window.
9.45 hijacker (n)
9.32 case dismissed (expr)  sb who takes control of an aeroplane by force
 legal matter cancelled The hijacker took out a gun
Its a matter of case dismissed and threatened the flight attendant.
because there is no evidence to use in the trial.
9.46 agent (n)
9.33 prime (adj)  sb who represents sb in business
 most important , The prime This London company has an agent you can
suspect for the murder was the womans contact in Athens.
husband.
9.47 hostage (n)
9.34 testify (v)  sb taken prisoner by a person or people
 speak in court about a crime , The bank robber grabbed a
He testified in court that the customer and took him hostage.
suspect was at his restaurant on the evening
of the crime. 9.48 offence (n)
crime , It is an offence
9.35 clue (n) to drive without wearing a seatbelt.
 piece of evidence
This fingerprint is an important clue if it 9.49 sentence (n)
belongs to the murderer.  prison punishment The sentence for
murder is life imprisonment.
9.36 investigation (n)
 examination of a crime The 9.50 shoplift (v)
murder investigation is being carried out by  steal sth from a shop
police detectives. If you try to shoplift in this store, the
security guards will catch you.

UNIT 9 49
9.51 rob (v) 9.65 hack into (phr v)
 steal from The newsagents was  illegally get into a computer system
robbed by two men in masks who stole five ( )
hundred euros. He hacked into the banks files and stole
9.52 verdict (n) customers account numbers.
 court decision At the end of 9.66 incident (n)
a trial the judge has to reach a verdict and  event, sth that happens Two
decide what sentence to give. fans were injured during a violent incident at
the match.
Exercise C page 116
9.67 harsh (adj)
9.53 accusation (n)  tough The banker believes the
 statement saying sb has done sth wrong harsh sentence he got for fraud is unfair.
Her accusation that I broke her
phone is unfair I didnt even touch it! Exercise E page 117
9.54 cooperation (n) 9.68 break in (phr v)
 working well with sb  enter illegally Somebody broke
The robbers were caught because of the into my car and stole the CD player.
cooperation local people gave the police.
9.69 break out of (phr v)
9.55 cooperative (adj)  escape from The police are
 helpful, willing to work with sb trying to catch the prisoners who broke out of
The man was cooperative with the police prison last night.
and answered all their questions truthfully.
9.70 get back at (phr v)
9.56 denial (n)  hurt sb in return for what they have done to
 statement that you didnt so sth you Tim got back at his
I dont believe the bankers denial that he sister for breaking his phone by hiding hers.
committed fraud; I think he did cheat the
9.71 give yourself up (phr v)
system.
 surrender The murderer gave
9.57 undeniable (adj) himself up and confessed to the crime.
which is definitely true, which cannot be
ignored/denied His guilt 9.72 let off (phr v)
is undeniable he was caught with the stolen  not punish ,
goods in his hands. The police officer let the man off for
dropping litter, but warned him that he would
9.58 identify (v) pay a fine next time.
 recognise sb and say who they are
The witness recognised the 9.73 put away (phr v)
man as being the person who had attacked  send to prison The murderer
her. was put away for life.
9.59 identification (n) 9.74 see through (phr v)
 the act of recognising sb ,  not be tricked by sb The
The identification of the murder teacher saw through my story and realised
victim was carried out using dental records. that I was lying about the dog eating my
homework.
9.60 identifiable (adj)
 recognisable The robbers 9.75 take in (phr v)
were identifiable because their faces were  trick , The fraudster took
photographed on CCTV. in numerous elderly people by stealing their
PIN numbers.
9.61 punishable (adj)
 sth you can be punished for , 9.76 by force (expr)
In some US states murder is  using violence The cashier was
punishable by death. made to hand over the cash by force.
9.62 suspicion (n) 9.77 traffic warden (n)
 belief that sb has committed a crime  sb whose job it is to control illegal parking
He was stopped by the security guard on The traffic warden fined me
suspicion of shoplifting, but in fact he hadnt for parking on the pavement.
stolen anything. 9.78 deceive (v)
9.63 suspicious (adj)  trick , You cant deceive
 in a way that makes others think you have me I know that youre lying.
done sth wrong/illegal , 9.79 take revenge (expr)
His suspicious behaviour made the  hurt sb because they have hurt you
police think he was up to no good. The victims family vowed to
take revenge for the attack on their son.
Exercise D page 116
9.80 fool (v)
9.64 multinational (adj)  trick She was fooled by the
 all over the world The students lies and believed that he was a
multinational company I work for has offices in
wealthy businessman.
London, Paris and New York.

50
Exercise F page 117 9.92 guarded (adj)
 protected These guarded
9.81 on duty (expr)
facilities are impossible to break into.
 working at that moment
Daves on duty at the hospital until 9.93 contain (v)
midnight, so he wont be home from work until  stop sth from getting out of control
1 am. , ,
Police were unable to contain the angry
9.82 imprisonment (n)
crowd who broke through the front door into
 the punishment of being in prison
the government building.
The sentence for murder in this country is
life imprisonment.
9.83 behind bars (expr) ECCE in Action page 119
 in prison The criminal will 9.94 refrain (v)
stay behind bars for two years.  prevent yourself doing sth
9.84 charge (v) She refrained from telling the policeman
 officially accuse sb of a crime anything until her lawyer arrived.
The suspect was charged with robbery when 9.95 confession (n)
the police had enough evidence to prove he  when you admit you did sth
was guilty. She made a confession and admitted that
9.85 on record (expr) she had stolen from the shop where she
 kept in an official public document worked.
, 9.96 cell (n)
Although the man wasnt arrested, his  room prisoners are locked in
activities will be kept on record by the police. The prisoners spend hours locked in their
9.86 overspend (v) cells and only come out for meals.
 spend more money than you have 9.97 jail (n)
Fiona often overspends  prison He was sent to jail for
and she has to ask her family to lend her murder and will remain locked up for years.
money to pay her bills.
9.98 accomplishment (n)
9.87 in debt (expr)  successful thing you do
 owing money She is in debt Running a successful company is my
because she spends so much money on foreign greatest accomplishment.
holidays.
9.99 approval (n)
 positive opinion that shows you agree
FCE in Action page 118 They showed their approval by
clapping and cheering loudly.
9.88 take pleasure (expr)
 enjoy The prisoners take 9.100 remind (v)
pleasure in visits from relatives and always  make sb remember Please
look forward to them. remind Jane to record the film tonight I
wont be here.
9.89 courtroom drama (n)
 TV programme or film about a crime and 9.101 refer (v)
trial in court I like the  mention The lawyer referred to
actor who plays the suspect in this exciting the accused mans clean record.
courtroom drama. 9.102 submit (v)
9.90 jury (n)  formally give sth to sb
 people who decide in court if sb is guilty or I have to submit this assignment on Friday
innocent The jury heard all the so I have two days to finish it.
evidence before leaving the courtroom to
discuss their verdict.
9.91 timeless (adj)
 never ending This song is
timeless; it was released in the 60s and it is
still popular today.

UNIT 9 51
Review 3

FcE part 1 page 121 9.108 insurance (n)


payment in case of accident or damage
9.103 throughout (adv) I hope the damage to the car is
for the whole of a period of time covered by my insurance.
, She stayed
by Erics side throughout his ten-day stay in 9.109 acre (n)
hospital. measurement of the size of land (10
) The house comes with two acres
9.104 go off (phr v) of land.
make a sound, ring (
) I woke up at exactly 7 am when 9.110 woodland (n)
my alarm clock went off. area covered with trees You are not
allowed to build in woodland areas because it
is illegal to cut down trees.
FcE part 2 page 121
9.105 minor (adj) FcE part 3 page 122
unimportant ,
Spraying graffiti is considered to be a minor 9.111 proportion (n)
offence by many people. amount , A large
proportion of my salary goes on paying bills.
9.106 set fi re to (expr)
make sth burn on purpose 9.112 shortage (n)
Did someone set fire to the building or was lack of sth There is a shortage of
it an accident? water every summer because it doesnt rain for
months.
9.107 insult (n)
offensive comment Saying shes 9.113 assistance (n)
fat was a horrible insult. Why were you so help I need some assistance.
rude? Could you help out please?

52
10 Reported Speech

rEportED statEmEnts / rEportED Exercise D page 128


QuEstions / rEportinG VErBs 10.13 garment (n)
item of clothing This dress shop
pages 124126 doesnt have any garments that I like.
10.1 blame (v) 10.14 refund (n)
say that sb is responsible for an accident, money back I took
problem, etc Don blames me the jeans back to the shop for a refund, but
for the accident he says I shouldnt have they refused to give me my money back.
been driving so fast.
10.15 be sbs fault (expr)
10.2 discourage (v) when an accident, problem, etc is sbs
make sb not want to do sth responsibility It isnt your fault the
He discouraged me from entering the talent printer broke. Its had problems for ages.
contest he said I would be disappointed.
10.3 propose (v) Exercise E page 128
suggest I propose ordering a 10.16 match (v)
takeaway because the fridge is empty. go well with, be the same colour, style, etc
10.4 beg (v) This pale blue shirt matches your
ask strongly David begged me to dark blue suit. They look nice together.
forgive him for forgetting my birthday.
Exercise F page 128
10.5 instruct (v)
tell sb what to do , The 10.17 changing room (n)
coach instructed the players to warm up first. place in a shop where you can try on clothes
Ill try on these jeans in the
10.6 demand (v)
changing room before I decide whether to buy
ask with force The police officer
them.
demanded that I show him my driving licence.
10.18 tiny (adj)
very small This caf is tiny;
Grammar in action pages 127128 it only has three tables!
10.19 catering (n)
Exercise a page 127 the job of providing food and drinks (for a
10.7 withdraw (v) party, wedding, etc) ,
take out money from the bank The catering for the wedding was
I withdrew 20 euros from the done by her best friend who is a chef.
cashpoint machine.

Exercise B page 127 FcE in action page 129

10.8 instalment (n) 10.20 receipt (n)


one of many payments which make up a total piece of paper that is proof you bought sth
amount I can only afford to buy a You can only return the items if
tablet if I pay in four instalments. you have a valid receipt.

10.9 branch (n) 10.21 treat (v)


office that is part of a larger group pay for sth (eg a meal) for sb Paul
Theres a branch of your treated me to dinner at a fantastic restaurant.
bank in the town centre. 10.22 necklace (n)
jewellery you wear around your neck
10.10 cash (n)
The stone hanging from her necklace is a
money in notes and coins The
diamond.
only cash I have in my wallet is a 10 euro note
and few coins.
EccE in action page 130
Exercise c page 127
10.23 belongings (pl n)
10.11 remove (v) things that are yours It took
take off I removed the price that ages for me to pack all my belongings into
was stuck on the sole of the new shoes. boxes when I moved house.
10.12 price tag (n) 10.24 fl ea market (n)
label that says how much sth costs open air market selling old or cheap goods
The price tag says this costs 50 euros, I bought this old teapot at
but its on sale so I hope its cheaper. the flea market.

UNIT 10 53
10.25 librarian (n) 10.26 bank clerk (n)
 sb who works in a library  sb who serves customers in a bank
He asked the librarian how he could become The bank clerk asked me to sign
a member of the library. my name on the bank withdrawal form.

Consumerism Today

Vocabulary in Action pages 131133 Exercise B page 131


10.39 go with (phr v)
Exercise A page 131  match, suit I dont think pink
10.27 consumerism (n) goes with orange.
 society based on buying and selling things 10.40 give out (phr v)
Some people dislike  hand sth to people She gave out
consumerism at Christmas, but shops benefit leaflets in the high street advertising a new
from the increase in business. electronics store.
10.28 bargain (n) 10.41 live on (phr v)
 sth sold cheaply These trainers  survive on , Hes finding
were half price so I feel I got a good bargain. it hard to live on his salary so hes thinking of
10.29 guarantee (n) getting a second job.
 written promise to replace sth you buy if it 10.42 make out (phr v)
doesnt work or breaks This  fill in information on a cheque
phone has a one year guarantee which covers She made the cheque out to
faults but not breakages. Mr Smith.
10.30 haggle (v) 10.43 pick up (phr v)
 discuss the price of sth and try to reduce it  improve If business doesnt
He haggled over the price and pick up, I might have to close my shop.
bought the carpet for half the asking price.
10.44 put up (phr v)
10.31 value (n)  increase Theyve put up the
 how much money sth is worth price of petrol again. Its 5 cents more
A bike is great value because it costs expensive now.
nothing to run.
10.45 take out (phr v)
10.32 vendor (n)  get sth official from a bank or insurance
 seller Lets buy a hot company (,
dog from the street vendor over there. ) They took out a mortgage to
10.33 item (n) buy a house, but now they cant afford to pay
 object , There is a till at the it back.
supermarket for customers who have bought 10.46 try on (phr v)
less than five items.  wear to see if sth fits You can
10.34 second-hand (adj) try on a garment in the changing room to see
 not new My car is second- if its the right size.
hand; I bought it from my sister. 10.47 department store (n)
10.35 rug (n)  large shop with many sections that sell
 small carpet In the winter, we put different things I do all
rugs on the floor to keep the apartment my Christmas shopping at a big department
warmer. store in town because I can find everything I
need under one roof.
10.36 vintage (adj)
 sth of quality from the past () 10.48 loan (n)
 money borrowed Every month,
I got these jeans from a vintage store that they pay a sum of money to the bank for the
sells clothes from the 1970s. loan they took out to buy a car.
10.37 beware (v) 10.49 floral (adj)
 be careful When buying a  flowery Which floral pattern
second-hand car, beware of dishonest sellers do you prefer? I like the pink roses.
who will try to cheat you. 10.50 cheque (n)
10.38 faulty (adj)  printed form from a book you use to pay sb
 not working properly If you pay by cheque, it usually
This clock must be faulty because the alarm takes three working days for the amount to
doesnt go off. be paid.

54
Exercise C page 132 10.65 pricey (adj)
 rather expensive I like these
10.51 in stock (expr)
shoes, but theyre a bit pricey. Have they got
 available in a shop The shop
anything cheaper?
assistant told me that my size was not in
stock, but they could order me the item I 10.66 worthless (adj)
wanted. of no value , This
10.52 superstore (n) painting is worthless if it doesnt have the
 very large shop IKEA is artists signature on it.
a popular superstore where people shop for
household items. Exercise F page 133

10.53 household appliance (n) 10.67 deposit (n)


 electrical device used in the home  small amount paid in advance before paying
Id like a new toaster. Do you know the full amount He left a
a good household appliances store? 20% deposit on the jeans and went back the
next day to buy them.
10.54 on impulse (expr)
 suddenly, without planning , 10.68 till (n)
She bought the shoes on impulse  place where you pay in a shop
when she happened to see them in the shop Where do I pay? At the till over there.
window. 10.69 valid (adj)
 legally acceptable
Exercise D page 132
I cannot accept this credit card because it is
10.55 apologetic (adj) not valid. It expired last month.
 in a way which shows you feel sorry
Stop saying sorry all the Exercise G page 133
time. Theres no need to be so apologetic.
10.70 tip (n)
10.56 astonishment (n)  extra money left for sb who serves you
 great surprise You should leave the waiter a
To my great astonishment, he bought a tip because he served us very politely.
Jaguar I didnt know he had that kind of
money! 10.71 waterside (n)
 by a river, lake or the sea
10.57 astonishing (adj) ,
 very surprising This is Charles lives in a waterside apartment that
astonishing news. I had no idea you were overlooks the lake.
moving abroad.
10.72 handicraft (n)
10.58 astonished (adj)  sth artistically made by hand
 very surprised He was
They sell beautiful hand-made necklaces and
astonished to hear that he had been promoted.
other handicrafts in this shop.
10.59 payable (adj)
10.73 cosy (adj)
 which is due to be paid The
 comfortable and warm
full amount for the computer is payable in ten
Lets sit inside this cosy caf and get warm.
interest-free instalments.
10.74 delicacy (n)
10.60 suggestive (adj)
 sth special to eat
which makes you think of a particular thing,
feeling, idea, etc , This restaurant sells delicacies such as
The painters work is suggestive of smoked fish and local caviar.
cave paintings and primitive art. 10.75 beat (v)
 be better than Nothing beats
Exercise E page 132 a meal at this local tavern. The food here is
10.61 priceless (adj) delicious.
 beyond value It is impossible 10.76 outfit (n)
to put a value on this priceless work of art.  clothes you wear together
10.62 ruined (adj) () She bought a new outfit
 destroyed This phone is to wear to the party.
ruined. You cant fix it after dropping it in the
sea.
FCE in Action page 134
10.63 sincere (adj)
 honest I sent her my sincere 10.77 overcrowded (adj)
apologies for missing the wedding.  with too many people ,
The mall is so overcrowded on Saturdays
10.64 affordable (adj)
that you cant get into the shops.
 that you can buy because you have enough
money This supermarket stocks
quality products at affordable prices.

UNIT 10 55
EccE in action page 135 10.82 beforehand (adv)
before a particular time or event
10.78 complex (n) You should decide what to wear
group of buildings together which make up a beforehand, so you dont have to rush at the
hotel, shopping area, etc last minute.
Im going to the new shopping complex this
afternoon. Do you want to come? 10.83 fi rm (n)
company The first company he
10.79 hypermarket (n) worked for was a catering firm.
large store This hypermarket
has everything you could want, but it takes 10.84 gap (n)
ages to walk round such a large store. empty space between two things ,
Please mind the gap between the
10.80 leggings (pl n) train and the platform.
stretchy skin-tight trousers She
wore black leggings instead of trousers 10.85 tights (pl n)
because they showed off her slim legs. tight clothing worn by women that cover feet,
legs and waist
10.81 exchange (v) She doesnt like thin tights because they
change money of one country for money of tear so easily.
another () You
can exchange your dollars for euros at the
airport.

56
11 Gerunds & Infinitives / Make & Let /
So, Such, Too, Enough, Very / Demonstratives
GErunDs & inFinitiVEs / 11.15 permit (v)
allow They werent permitted
MAKE & LET pages 136-138 to go into the cinema because they were too
11.1 hiking (n) young to see the film.
walking long distances in the countryside 11.16 cant bear (expr)
Jeff asked me to go hiking in hate He cant bear staying in
the mountains, but I dont like walking long all weekend. He gets so bored.
distances.
11.17 mansion (n)
11.2 its pointless (expr) large luxurious house There are
sth has no purpose twenty bedrooms in this mansion!
Its pointless phoning her after 11 pm.
Shell be asleep. 11.18 stain (n)
mark left by wine, coffee, etc that wont wash
11.3 its no use (expr) out I spilt coffee on this shirt and,
sth is not useful, will not be effective unfortunately, its left a stain.
, Its no use
talking to George he wont listen. 11.19 estate agent (n)
sb whose job is to sell property
11.4 its no good (expr) The estate agent took us
sth is not useful, will not be effective to see a house that he was selling in our area.
Its no good knocking on her
door shes away on holiday.
11.5 its (not) worth (expr) Grammar in action pages 138-139
sth is (not) useful, will (not) be effective
() Its not worth arguing with Exercise a page 138
Mum- she wont change her mind. 11.20 landlord (n)
11.6 theres no point (in) (expr) owner of a house or flat you rent
sth is not useful, will not be effective The landlord wants us to
() Theres no point in arriving at 6 pay more money for the flat each month.
oclock because the film doesnt start until 7. 11.21 renovate (v)
11.7 delighted (adj) fix to make like new The old
very pleased My parents mansion was renovated, so it now looks the
were delighted to meet my friends and way it did when it was first built.
welcomed them into the house. 11.22 pull down (phr v)
11.8 face (v) destroy a building This old
deal with I cant face taking factory will be pulled down and a shopping
my exam again. What if I fail it this time, too? mall built in its place.
11.9 fancy (v) Exercise B page 138
feel like doing sth I fancy eating out.
Shall we go to that new Chinese restaurant? 11.23 penalty point (n)
bad mark which is put on a drivers licence
11.10 pretend (v)
for careless driving (
act in a certain way so others believe you are
) He got 3 penalty points
sth you are not
for speeding in the town centre.
He pretended to be confident but actually he
was feeling very nervous. 11.24 offender (n)
sb who has broken the law The
11.11 challenge (v)
offender was told by the judge that if he broke
test your ability to do sth
the law again he would be sent to prison.
He likes exams because they challenge him
to do his best. 11.25 tenant (n)
sb who rents a house or flat ,
11.12 convince (v)
Im looking for new tenants for my
make sb believe sth He convinced
flat in London.
the doorman to let him in, even though he
didnt have an invitation to the event. 11.26 attic (n)
room in the roof We dont have
11.13 dare (v)
storage space above our bedroom because we
not be afraid to do sth dangerous or difficult
converted the attic into a third bedroom.
We dare not leave the door
unlocked because we are afraid of thieves. 11.27 suspend (v)
punish a student by not allowing them to go to
11.14 enable (v)
school for a certain time
cause sth to be able to happen
The student was suspended for two days for
, Her degree enabled
smoking in the toilets.
her to find a good job after she left university.

UNIT 11 57
11.28 clear out (phr v) So, Such, Too, Enough, Very page 140
 clean and throw away things you dont want
She cleared out her room and 11.37 pitch (n)
gave some of her toys to the kids next door.  place where you play football
The football pitch was muddy and the
Exercise C page 139 players got filthy during the game.
11.38 deep (adj)
11.29 a must (n)
 going down a long way The water is
 sth that is recommended
deep in this pool. I cant reach the bottom with
This gorgeous dress is a must
my feet.
for the Christmas party season.
11.30 cul de sac (n) Exercise E page 141
 road that does not lead anywhere
You cant get out of town along 11.39 bungalow (n)
that road its a cul de sac.  house with only one storey
( ) Grandma moved
11.31 back onto (phr v) into a bungalow because she was finding it
(for a house, garden, etc) which has sth difficult to manage the stairs at her old house.
behind it ,
Their new house backs onto a
busy road so its quite noisy there. Demonstratives page 141
11.32 terraced house (n) 11.40 scarf (n)
 house that is joined to other houses on both  long piece of cloth you wear around your neck
sides (often in a row of houses) to keep warm or look attractive
We can hear the Put this scarf around your neck so you dont
neighbours through the walls on both sides of get cold.
our terraced house.
11.33 spacious (adj)
 with lots of room This spacious
FCE in Action page 142
living room is large enough for two sofas and 11.41 suburb (n)
three armchairs.  residential area outside a city
11.34 communal (adj) The suburb he lives in is a twenty-minute
 for everybodys use The train ride from the city centre.
communal areas outside these flats are often
dirty because the tenants dont clean up
ECCE in Action page 143
outside their front doors.
11.35 asking price (n) 11.42 concrete (n)
 price which a buyer wants for sth ()  hard material used for building ,
The asking price is 200,000 Concrete is a strong material to
euros but I think the owners might accept build with but it can look grey and dull.
180,000.
11.36 modernise (v)
 make new and modern
He wants to modernise his kitchen with
some newer appliances.

Property and Housing


Vocabulary in Action pages 144-145 11.45 footpath (n)
 a small road used only by people walking (not
Exercise A page 144 by cars, bikes, etc) There is a
footpath for pedestrians from the car park to
11.43 leafy (adj) the shopping centre.
 green and with many trees
There are many parks and gardens in this 11.46 attachment (n)
leafy neighbourhood.  sth added I added the photos
as an attachment to the email I sent you.
11.44 storey (n)
 floor , I work in an office 11.47 extension (n)
building that has 30 storeys but Ive never  extra part added to a room or building
been higher than the ninth floor. We need a bigger kitchen, so
were thinking of building an extension on the
back of the house.

58
11.48 conversion (n) 11.62 insulate (v)
 change to a room or building  cover or fill walls in order to make a building
The conversion of the garage into a warmer The walls in this building are
playroom for the kids was a great idea. insulated, so the flats here are warm in winter.
11.49 look out (onto) (phr v) 11.63 fire brigade (n)
 have a view of or over ,  organisation that fights fires
/ Unfortunately, my flat looks out Luckily the fire brigade arrived fast and put
onto a car park. the fire out.
11.50 maintenance (n) 11.64 break out (phr v)
 work which you do to keep a house or garden  start (for fire) The fire that broke
in good condition My husband out at the hotel might have been caused by an
is very good with his hands so he does all the electrical fault.
maintenance around the house. 11.65 distinguish (v)
11.51 studio flat (n)  see the difference between things
 apartment that contains only one room Can you distinguish between the twins?
The studio flat she rents is No, they look the same to me.
tiny, but living in one room means that she
pays less rent. Exercise C page 144
11.52 outskirts (pl n) 11.66 back out of (phr v)
 edge of a town or city ,  not do sth you had agreed to do ,
The bus journey from the town centre to the John backed out of the wedding
outskirts where I live takes 50 minutes. because he had doubts about getting married.
11.53 shed (n) 11.67 do up (phr v)
 small wooden building, often in a garden  decorate He has done up his
, I keep the garden living room and now it looks much brighter and
tools in a shed at the bottom of the garden. welcoming.
11.54 drawer (n) 11.68 put up (phr v)
 box shaped space in a piece of furniture that  give sb a place to stay in your home
you store things in Clean T-shirts Dont book a hotel room. I can
go in the top drawer, and socks in the next put you up at my house.
drawer down.
11.69 demolish (v)
11.55 mortgage (n)  destroy a building
 loan to buy a house or flat There used to be a school here but it was
The couple want to take out a mortgage demolished last year.
because they can only afford a home if they
borrow money from the bank. Exercise D page 145
11.56 fund (n) 11.70 detached (adj)
 collection of money Pension  house that does not share walls with other
funds have been hit hard by the crisis because houses , They
people cannot afford to pay money into them. are moving to a detached house which has a
garden all around it.
Exercise B page 144
11.71 indoor (adj)
11.57 manor house (n)  inside The hotel has an indoor
 large country house with lots of land , pool, so guests can swim in winter without
The aristocrats who own the getting cold outside.
manor house claim that they are related to the
11.72 interior (n)
Queen.
 inside The interior of this manor
11.58 renew (v) house is beautiful and has been photographed
 replace sth old He renewed his for lots of magazines.
gym membership for another year.
11.73 rural (adj)
11.59 snooker table (n)  related to the countryside They
 table covered in green material for playing live in a rural area so they need a car to get to
snooker or billiards on the nearest town.
The green material on this snooker table is
11.74 urban (adj)
old, so the balls dont roll well.
 related to the city This car is best
11.60 promenade (n) suited to travel within urban areas as it is
 a place to walk, especially by the sea small and easy to park.
We walked
11.75 cottage (n)
along the promenade and watched the children
 small country house ,
playing on the beach.
He lives in a small cottage in a mountain
11.61 overlook (v) village.
 have a view of ,
11.76 bustling (adj)
The front window of my flat overlooks the
 full of people, busy The
park and in spring the view of the trees is
bustling town square is where people meet up
lovely.
all day, so it is always crowded.

UNIT 11 59
11.77 a stones throw (expr) FcE in action page 146
very near She lives a stones
throw from school; just across the road in fact. 11.92 concierge (n)
sb who looks after an apartment building
11.78 district (n) The concierge, who was sitting
area The houses in this wealthy by the lift, asked who I had come to visit in the
district are very expensive. block of flats.
11.79 eco-friendly (adj)
not damaging to the environment
EccE in action page 147
Solar panels are eco-friendly because they 11.93 sky high (adj)
use a sustainable form of energy. very expensive Rents are sky
high in the centre of town so many shops cant
Exercise E page 145 afford to stay open.
11.80 connect (v) 11.94 zone (n)
join two people or things together area The factory I work at is in an
You can use this cable to connect industrial zone outside town.
the DVD player to the TV.
11.95 excel (v)
11.81 connecting (adj) be very good at ,
which joins two things He excels in many subjects so he will no
I booked connecting rooms at the hotel and doubt get a place at a top university.
Jenny kept coming in and out of my room; it
11.96 intervene (v)
was really annoying!
get involved in The teacher
11.82 convertible (adj) intervened and told the students to stop
that can be used for sth different arguing.
This convertible sofa-bed is
11.97 advance (n)
ideal for a studio flat.
amount of money which you pay first (a part
11.83 converted (adj) of the full payment) The
changed from its original use newspaper will pay him an advance of 100
This converted office euros and the rest when he finishes the article.
used to be a storeroom.
11.98 internal (adj)
11.84 developing (adj) happening within one country, organisation,
growing Developing etc The manager said that the
technologies are making home living more and problem was an internal company matter.
more comfortable.
11.99 isolated (adj)
11.85 furnish (v) far away from other places, people, etc
put furniture into a room or house Richard doesnt like the
They couldnt afford to furnish village he has moved to he says he feels
the house so Helens parents gave them some very isolated.
money to buy the basics.
11.100 cosmopolitan (adj)
11.86 furnished (adj) connected to the whole world
(for a room or house) which has furniture in They like living in a cosmopolitan city where
it I want to rent a furnished people from all over the world reside.
flat in the centre of town.
11.101 see sb through (phr v)
11.87 reside (v) make it possible for sb to continue, survive,
live She grew up in Madrid, but etc Ive got
she now resides in Rome where she also works. enough money to see me through about two
11.88 residence (n) months I hope I find a job before then.
building where you live 11.102 removal (n)
This house is the Prime Ministers residence connected to moving house ,
when he is in town. () The removal firm
11.89 residential (adj) moved all my furniture to the new flat in just
where people live , one lorry.
This residential area with its spacious houses 11.103 restoration (n)
is a great place for families to live. the process of repairing sth old ,
11.90 stylish (adj) The restoration of the old
of high quality and style painting is very difficult, but with patience it will
Those silk curtains are very stylish. They eventually look as it first did.
look hand-made.

Exercise F page 145


11.91 in the vicinity (expr)
near to a place ,
The only shop in the vicinity is a small
greengrocers. All the other shops are a few
miles away.

60
12 Contrast & Concession / Purpose / Reason /
Manner / Result / it, there, that, what
contrast & concEssion / purposE / Grammar in action pages 150-152
rEason / mannEr / rEsult /
Exercise a page 150
IT, ThErE, ThAT, WhAT pages 148-150
12.14 overworked (adj)
12.1 contrast (n) made to work too much
difference between things Hes so overworked that he has no
The contrast between the brothers time or energy to go out in the evenings.
characters is very noticeable; Bob is confident
12.15 secure (v)
whereas Greg is very shy.
make sure you have sth
12.2 concession (n) By doing well in her interview, she feels she
admitting sb is right has secured the job.
The boss made no concessions to his
employees and he refused to listen to their Exercise B page 150
demands for a pay rise.
12.16 slope (n)
12.3 whereas (adv) side of a mountain, often used for skiing
while, in contrast Angela is tall and The skier was a beginner, so he
dark whereas her sister is short and blond- started on a gentle slope.
haired.
12.17 paragliding (n)
12.4 nevertheless (adv) sport where you fly on an air current with a
however He isnt keen on type of parachute
science fiction. Nevertheless, he watched Star , He is keen
Wars with us.
on paragliding because he loves flying high
12.5 inexperienced (adj) above the countryside.
with little experience She is an
12.18 major (adj)
inexperienced public speaker. Shes only given
large and important ,
a speech once before.
The German football team is a major
12.6 strike (n) competitor in the European Cup and a
refusal to work (as a protest) favourite to win.
The trains are not running today because
of a strike. The drivers are demanding better 12.19 wrestling (n)
working conditions. sport where you use your strength to throw
your opponent to the ground
12.7 on account of (expr) Wrestling is a sport that requires skill and
because of We lost our jobs on strength.
account of the fact that the factory closed down.
12.8 owing to (expr) Exercise c page 151
due to She is in debt owing to 12.20 bear in mind (expr)
the fact that she hasnt made two mortgage consider Bear in mind that
payments. Greece is cold in the winter, so take suitable
12.9 seeing as (expr) clothing on holiday with you.
because , Seeing as Im
12.21 safety (n)
making all the food for the party, I think you
related to how safe sth is
should do the drinks and the games.
Seat belts are important for your safety so
12.10 native speaker (n) please fasten them.
person who has spoken a language from
12.22 off-piste (expr)
birth ,
Shes not a native not on the designated ski slope
speaker of English so she may make some Dont ski off-piste because rocks hidden
mistakes. under the snow are a hazard.

12.11 consequently (adv) 12.23 exercise (v)


as a result Some people drink use a skill or ability You should
and drive after socialising. Consequently there exercise your own judgement in this case.
are often accidents at the weekends. 12.24 caution (n)
12.12 semi-fi nal (n) care He exercised caution and
game or match before a final If drove slowly in the heavy rain.
she wins this semi-final, she will play against
the world champion in the final on Sunday. Exercise D page 151
12.13 bracelet (n) 12.25 slightly (adv)
jewellery you wear on your arm a little You are only slightly
I wont wear a watch today because I want to taller than me. There are just two centimetres
wear my new gold bracelet instead. between us.

UNIT 12 61
Exercise E page 152 12.33 a great deal (expr)
 a lot , I have a great deal of
12.26 be familiar with (expr)
respect for the doctors at this hospital.
 know sth very well ,
I am not familiar with this program so it might 12.34 self-defence (n)
take me a few days to learn how to use it.  protecting yourself by fighting
She is taking self-defence classes in order to
12.27 sound (adj)
learn how to protect herself against muggers.
 healthy Grandpa is getting weaker
physically, but his mind is as sound as it was 12.35 get along (phr v)
when he was a young man.  have a good relationship with sb
She doesnt get along very well with
12.28 assume (v)
her sister.
 suppose to be true People
assume that Janet is my sister because we 12.36 decline (n)
look alike, but in fact shes my cousin.  decrease ,
There has been a decline in the number of
12.29 attribute (v)
members at this gym because people can no
 connect a quality to sb Although
longer afford the fee.
this piece of music is usually attributed to
Mozart, some experts believe it was written by 12.37 track and field (expr)
a student of his.  athletics His favourite track and
field event is the 100 metre sprint.
12.38 spectator (n)
ECCE in Action page 154
 sb watching a sport All the
12.30 ace (n) spectators clapped and cheered when the
 top player The basketball ace football team came onto the pitch.
scored the most points in the game yet again. 12.39 be concerned (expr)
12.31 disqualify (v)  be worried We were concerned
 not allow sb to continue in a competition that she wouldnt recover from her injuries but
The athlete was disqualified for in fact shes much better now.
starting too soon, so now he cant compete in 12.40 doubles (pl n)
the final.  match with two people on each team
12.32 rowing (n) We faced two of the best tennis
 the sport of moving a boat through water with players in the tournament in the doubles
oars Shall we go rowing on the match.
lake? Ive got a boat and two sets of oars.

The Sporting Life


Vocabulary in Action pages 155-157 12.46 ring (n)
 place where a boxing match happens
Exercise A page 155 The boxers entered the ring and waited for
the bell to ring for the fight to start.
12.41 court (n)
 place where a sporting match happens, eg 12.47 bowling alley (n)
tennis, basketball, volleyball, squash  place where you go bowling
Lots of youngsters like
The basketball players stood at the edge of
socialising at the bowling alley where they can
the court for a timeout.
bowl for fun.
12.42 course (n)
12.48 prestigious (adj)
 land used for sporting race
 admired and respected ,
The horses ran fast down the course The Olympic Games are a prestigious
towards the finishing line. event that athletes feel proud to compete in.
12.43 track (n) 12.49 viewer (n)
 paths or roads used for sports racing eg  sb watching TV This TV series
athletics, car racing, etc , has more viewers than any other show.
The Formula 1 car drove along the track at
top speed. 12.50 supporter (n)
 fan The supporters were delighted
12.44 arena (n) when their team scored a goal.
 large area used for sports with seats around
the edge The gymnastics event 12.51 pastime (n)
 hobby, sth you do in your free time
took place in the indoor Olympic arena.
His favourite pastime is
12.45 figure skating (n) playing rugby with his friends.
 skating that includes jumps and other set
12.52 umpire (n)
moves Figure skating  referee for tennis and cricket The
is a sport that demands balance, strength and tennis umpire called out the score: 40-15.
skill on the ice.
62
Exercise B page 155 Exercise F page 156
12.53 underdog (n) 12.67 financial (adj)
 team or competitor that is not expected to  connected to money ,
win , My He is having financial problems because he
team is the underdog because they have never cannot afford to pay back his loan.
managed to beat a major team like Juventus.
Exercise G page 157
12.54 draw (n)
 equal score The score is a draw 12.68 qualify for (expr)
at the moment. Both teams have 65 points.  become accepted for a race, competition,
12.55 dedicated (adj) etc ,
 giving lots of energy and time to sth you like If he wins this race,
Hes a dedicated teacher he will qualify for the national championships.
who is passionate about his work. 12.69 out of practice (expr)
 not good at sth because you have not done or
Exercise C page 155 played it for a long time Im
afraid Im a bit out of practice so Ill be a bit slow.
12.56 call off (phr v)
 cancel The race was called off 12.70 out of breath (expr)
because it was too dangerous to drive in the  breathing with difficulty because you have
fog. been running # I was out of
breath after I had to run all the way up the hill.
12.57 count sb in (phr v)
 include sb If you need 12.71 out of the question (expr)
somebody for the game on Sunday, you can  definitely not possible
count me in. Im free this weekend. A foreign holiday is out of the question we
simply cant afford it.
12.58 go in for (phr v)
 take part He went in for the 12.72 at all costs (expr)
local marathon, but he had to train properly in  whatever happens We must
order to take part. win this match at all costs otherwise well be
out of the championship.
12.59 hold out (phr v)
 last The exhausted boxer couldnt 12.73 at a loss for words (expr)
 not knowing what to say because you are
hold out any longer and fell down just before
surprised, shocked, etc ,
the bell.
When she told me she emigrating to
12.60 knock out (phr v) Australia I was at a loss for words.
 beat a team or competitor, so they are out of
12.74 squash (n)
the competition , -
 indoor sport where opponents use rackets to
He was knocked out of the tournament when
bounce a ball off a wall Do you
he lost the semi-final.
fancy a game of squash? Theres a court at this
12.61 miss out (phr v) sports centre.
 fail to take part She missed out on 12.75 lap (n)
the game because she had a leg injury.  one complete trip round a course or a track
12.62 play away (phr v) The 1500m race is four laps of the
 play a match in your opponents field track.
Real Madrid is playing away at 12.76 backgammon (n)
Barcelona this weekend.  board game for two people with dice and
12.63 eliminate (v) counters Grandpa likes playing
 beat a team or competitor, so they are then backgammon with his friends at the coffee shop.
out of the competition My 12.77 stamina (n)
team was eliminated in the first round of the  physical strength It takes a lot of
competition. stamina to run a marathon.

Exercise E page 156 12.78 amateur (adj)


 not professional Most of the
12.64 inspiration (n) players on this amateur cricket team are local
 sth or sb that you admire a lot businessmen.
The coach has been an inspiration to the
whole team. We owe our success to him. Exercise H page 157
12.65 inspiring (adj) 12.79 give sb the boot (expr)
 sth or sb that makes you feel enthusiastic  throw sb out If I dont perform
and provides you with ideas well, Im afraid Ill be given the boot and told
Famous sportsmen are often an inspiring to leave the team.
example to youngsters who want to achieve
12.80 give the game away (expr)
the same success.
 reveal sth Dont give the game
12.66 rewarding (adj) away by telling her about the surprise party.
 satisfying Training the
12.81 blow the whistle on sth (expr)
kids at the local football club was a rewarding
 betray sth criminal Jeff blew the
experience because I saw them grow in skill
whistle on the match fixing when he went to
and confidence.
the authorities with evidence.

UNIT 12 63
12.82 doping (n) EccE in action page 159
use of illegal drugs in sport ,
The sports council is running a 12.90 round (n)
campaign against doping in sports. part of a competition The next
round of the tournament is the semi-final.
12.83 the ball is in your court (expr)
sth is now your responsibility 12.91 bend (n)
The ball is in your court. Its up to round section of a road, river, etc
you to decide what to do. Slow down here because there is a bend in
the road.
12.84 throw in the towel (expr)
give up The wrestler threw 12.92 curve (n)
in the towel and said he couldnt compete any a line or shape with a bend
more at his age. The curve on the graph shows that the sales
figures are improving.
12.85 track record (n)
past achievements 12.93 stretcher (n)
This player has a good track record. He has frame used for carrying injured people
scored six goals in seven games. The injured footballer had to be
carried off the pitch on a stretcher.
12.94 reserve (n)
FcE in action page 158 soldiers who fight only if they need to replace
12.86 a cross between (expr) other soldiers Grandpa was a
mix of two things This pink reserve in the army, but luckily the war ended
rose is a cross between a white and a red one. before he was called to fight.

12.87 initially (adv) 12.95 invincible (adj)


at first Initially I found it hard to unbeatable My team is invincible.
run one lap of the track, but after training for a Theyve won every match so far this season.
few months I got fitter. 12.96 current (adj)
12.88 get the hang of sth (expr) of the present time ,
get used to sth I cant get the The current champions won last years final
hang of cricket. I just dont understand the rules. with a score of 3-2.

12.89 ground (n)


area of land used for particular sport
We play football at the local sports ground
every Saturday.

Review 4

FcE part 1 page 161 12.101 state-of-the-art (adj)


latest, most modern ,
12.97 car boot sale (n) , This state-of-the-art
market where people sell second-hand goods computer is the newest model in the shop.
from the backs of cars -
Im taking these old clothes and 12.102 fi tting (n)
books to the car boot sale. piece of equipment ,
We need to replace these old bathroom
12.98 gather (v) fittings. The taps in particular are in a
get together, meet bad state.
Many fans gathered outside the stadium to
see the team arrive.
EccE in action page 163
FcE part 2 page 161 12.103 patterned (adj)
with colours and/or shapes
12.99 quarter-fi nal (n) Of all the patterned sofa covers, I like these
game or match that is two games before the floral ones best.
final , They
won the match in the quarter-final, which 12.104 shabby (adj)
means their next match is the semi-final. old and in a bad condition ,
Dont wear that shabby jacket to
the interview. You should wear something that
FcE part 3 page 162 looks smart.
12.100 loft (n)
storage space in the roof of a house ,
He climbed up the ladder to the loft
above the bedroom.

64
13 The Causative / Indirect Questions /
Pronouns / Possession / Adjective Order
Grammar in action page 165 13.12 old-fashioned (adj)
not modern Where did
Exercise a page 165 you get that old-fashioned dress? It looks like
something from the 1970s.
13.1 determined (adj)
unwilling to let sth or sb stop you from doing 13.13 committee (n)
sth Shes determined small group that represents a larger group
to pass all her exams so she studies hard The school committee discussed
every day. how to raise money for new lab equipment.
13.14 quarrel (v)
Exercise B page 165 fight with words The brothers
13.2 groom (v) often quarrel about whose turn it is to play on
brush an animal , , the computer.
You can groom the pony with this 13.15 make up (phr v)
brush. become friends again after a disagreement
13.3 town hall (n) , You two should
building where the local council is make up you cant stay angry with each
She went to the town hall for a meeting with other for ever.
the mayor.
Exercise E page 168
Exercise c page 165 13.16 quotation (n)
13.4 stand for (phr v) famous words from a book, play, or said by a
represent , person , To be or not
The letters UN stand for United Nations. to be is a famous quotation from the play
Hamlet.
13.17 accurately (adv)
pronouns / possEssion / precisely, correctly The police
aDJEctiVE orDEr pages 166-167 asked the witness to accurately describe what
he saw, but he couldnt remember.
13.5 reunion (n)
13.18 joy (n)
social meeting of a group of people who
great happiness , I cant
havent met for a number of years
describe the joy I felt when I was reunited with
, At the class reunion she
my daughter.
met classmates she hadnt seen for twenty
years. 13.19 depressed (adj)
very unhappy ,
13.6 lead (n)
Hes depressed about failing his exams.
long piece of rope, chain, etc attached to a
dogs collar Im going to take the 13.20 confi de in (phr v)
dog for a walk where is his lead? tell sb private information or secrets
, I feel lonely
13.7 gender (n)
because I have nobody to confide in.
being male or female Do you have a
preference for the gender of your new kitten? 13.21 undoubtedly (adv)
Yes, wed prefer a male. for sure, without a doubt
The Acropolis is undoubtedly the most
13.8 ancient (adj)
impressive monument I have ever seen.
relating to sth from many years ago
Archaeologists have found ancient writing 13.22 stick up for (phr v)
carved into the walls. support Friends should stick
up for each other, so why didnt you say you
13.9 silk (n)
agreed with me?
soft shiny material These silk
curtains shine in the light. 13.23 a shoulder to cry on (expr)
sb who listens to your troubles
13.10 steel (n)

kind of strong metal We had to
My best friend always comes to me if she
wear steel helmets to protect our heads while
has problems and needs a shoulder to cry on.
we were on the building site.
Exercise F page 168
Exercise D page 167
13.24 selection (n)
13.11 run into (phr v)
variety, choice
meet sb by chance, without planning to
There is a selection of different main courses
Guess who I ran into
to choose from.
while I was in town yesterday.

UNIT 13 65
FCE in Action page 169 13.27 protest (v)
 demonstrate, openly disagree
13.25 community centre (n) Workers are protesting about pay cuts in a
 place where local people can gather and march through the centre of town.
socialise Many locals go
to the community centre to play chess or have
dance lessons. ECCE in Action page 170
13.26 proposal (n) 13.28 lawn (n)
 suggestion The supervisor liked  flat area of tidy grass in a garden or park
my proposal and asked me to present my ideas , The children played tennis
to the manager. on the lawn.

Our Society

Vocabulary in Action pages 171-174 13.39 elderly (adj)


 old Please give up your seat
Exercise A page 171 on the bus if an elderly person needs it.
13.29 association (n) Exercise B page 171
 group of people working together for sth
, The parents association 13.40 outspoken (adj)
organised a Christmas bazaar at the primary  saying what you think
school. The outspoken movie critic said he thought
the film had a bad script.
13.30 civilisation (n)
 organised human society 13.41 emotional (adj)
Im studying ancient civilisations in history  showing your feelings
and I find ancient Greek society the most Mum gets emotional easily so shell probably
fascinating. cry at the wedding.
13.31 orphanage (n) 13.42 uneasy (adj)
 home for children who do not have parents  worried and unsure We felt
The child from the uneasy after the earthquake in case there was
orphanage wished he had a mother and father. another one.
13.32 tribe (n) 13.43 maintain (v)
 group of related people who live together in  keep sth the same Even
a community The people who were though we live far apart, I maintain a close
part of a tribe in the Amazon had never left the relationship with my siblings.
forest. 13.44 stressful (adj)
13.33 charitable (adj)  causing worry Exams are
 intended to help people in need always a stressful experience.
We attended a charitable 13.45 argumentative (adj)
event that was raising money for cancer  enjoying disagreements ,
research. He is argumentative and often
13.34 poverty (n) quarrels with people over nothing.
 the state of being poor 13.46 mind your own business (expr)
Many families have no income and live in  not want to know about other peoples affairs
poverty. You should mind
13.35 abandon (v) your own business instead of asking everyone
 leave alone for ever Many what they did last night.
large dogs are abandoned by owners who cant 13.47 curious (adj)
cope with them.  wanting to find out more about people, things,
13.36 disqualification (n) etc The curious child wanted
 being thrown out of a competition to know what was inside all the Christmas
Being caught for doping led presents.
to his disqualification from the competition. 13.48 considerate (adj)
13.37 chief (n)  thoughtful about others ,
 leader The chief spoke for all the It was very considerate of you to
members of his tribe. phone and ask if I needed any help.
13.38 be made up of (expr) 13.49 timid (adj)
have as members  not confident Bob is rather timid
The choir is made up of men and women so he didnt talk to anyone on his first day at
from our village and the surrounding area. school.

66
13.50 arrogant (adj) Exercise D page 172
 thinking you are more important than other
13.64 sort out (phr v)
people She is often arrogant
 find a solution Ive sorted things
and behaves as if shes the only person here
out with Mark and we are now friends again.
with a university education.
13.51 grateful (adj) Exercise E page 173
 feeling thankful Thanks for
your help. Im extremely grateful. 13.65 break off (phr v)
 end Terry broke off his
Exercise C page 172 relationship with Susan when he found out she
was married.
13.52 betray (v)
13.66 call by (phr v)
 harm sb who trusted you She
 visit Ill call by and see Gran
betrayed me when she stole my designs and
on my way home from work.
presented them as her own.
13.67 give in (phr v)
13.53 betrayal (n)
 agree finally to do sth After a
 harm through lack of support
number of meetings, management gave in and
Telling everyone my age was a betrayal. You
agreed to give staff a pay rise.
knew I wanted it to be a secret.
13.68 hang around (phr v)
13.54 exclude (v)
 stand in or walk around a place with no real
 keep sb out Children with
purpose Many youths were
learning difficulties should not be excluded
hanging around outside the stadium before the
from mainstream education.
match.
13.55 exclusion (n)
13.69 take over (phr v)
 situation where sth or sb is not included
 take control When Katy retires,
I was surprised by the
I hope I will be able to take over her job.
exclusion of Meryl Streep from the Oscar
nominations. Why wasnt she included? 13.70 loiter (v)
 stand in or walk around a place with no real
13.56 ignorance (n)
purpose The police
 lack of knowledge or understanding of sth
officers told the teens not to loiter in the high
Her ignorance of politics is
street after the shops closed.
incredible she doesnt even know who the
prime minister of the country is! 13.71 engagement (n)
 promise to marry Tom and Bella
13.57 ignorant (adj)
are having their engagement party tomorrow.
 not knowing ,
Hes ignorant of yesterdays disaster
Exercise F page 173
because he hasnt seen the news.
13.58 intrude (v) 13.72 bright side (expr)
 be somewhere that you are not wanted  positive aspect Looking on
, the bright side, your car was damaged in the
Im sorry to intrude. I did call to say I was accident, but nobody got hurt.
coming, but your phone isnt working. 13.73 associate (n)
13.59 intrusion (n)  partner If I buy half your
 unwanted presence company, well be business associates.
My parents constant intrusion in my life is 13.74 manner (n)
really annoying.  way of behaving ,
13.60 intruder (n) She didnt behave in a very welcoming
 sb who enters or goes somewhere when they manner, did she? She didnt even offer us a
are not wanted We felt like glass of water!
intruders when it was clear that she didnt
Exercise G page 174
want us at her party.
13.61 intrusive (adj) 13.75 combat (v)
 being in the way ,  fight against More medicine and
You shouldnt ask him so many personal doctors are needed in poor countries in order
questions. Its a bit intrusive. to combat disease.
13.62 unintrusive (adj) 13.76 union (n)
 discreet The photographer  joining How many countries are
tried to be unintrusive in order to get some members of the European Union?
natural shots of the party guests. 13.77 intimidate (v)
13.63 judgmental (adj)  frighten using aggression
 having strong opinions about other peoples The boss intimidated the new employee by
behaviour You shouldnt be threatening to fire him.
so judgmental he might have a reason for 13.78 interfere (v)
reacting so aggressively.  get involved when you are not wanted
Dont interfere with their
private lives. Its not your problem.

UNIT 13 67
13.79 encounter (v) 13.91 found (v)
meet, find He encountered an start sth new The charity was
unhappy atmosphere when he started work at founded by a wealthy lady who wanted to help
the orphanage. animals.
13.80 deliberate (adj) 13.92 wild (adj)
planned That was a deliberate in a natural habitat The only wild
lie. Its clear that you arent telling the truth. animal I have seen in this residential area is a
13.81 hostile (adj) fox.
unfriendly The politician got 13.93 lose your temper (expr)
a hostile reaction from the crowd when he get angry ,
announced higher taxes. Neil lost his temper when he crashed his
13.82 gossip (n) car. I cant believe how angry he got.
unkind talk The articles in 13.94 administrative (adj)
this magazine are full of gossip about stars. I related to running an organisation
bet none of it is true. The school secretary has lots
13.83 humiliate (v) of administrative work to do at the start of the
make sb feel ashamed , school year.
Why did you humiliate me in front of my
friends by telling them my weight? EccE in action page 176
13.84 distress (n)
13.95 integration (n)
pain and unhappiness Bullying at
mixing within a society
school causes students a lot of distress.
, The school is helping
13.85 anonymous (adj) with the integration of the refugee children into
unnamed Who posted the local community.
that horrible comment? I dont know. Its
13.96 ancestor (n)
anonymous.
member of your family who lived a long time
13.86 suffering (n) ago My familys ancestors first
physical or mental pain , came to this country from Ireland.
Her suffering was made worse by the unkind
13.97 outgoing (adj)
comments on her Facebook page.
sociable, friendly Harry is
13.87 ignore (v) very outgoing and enjoys meeting new people.
not listen to, speak to, etc Parents
13.98 spiteful (adj)
should not ignore signs that their children are
unkind It was spiteful of you
unhappy.
to say her hair looks weird just because she
13.88 reassure (v) didnt say yours looks nice. Dont be so mean!
make sb feel safer, happier, etc
13.99 imitate (v)
He reassured the elderly lady that her
copy sbs voice, behaviour, etc
pension would arrive in time.
He shouldnt imitate Elvis when he sings. He
has a great voice of his own.
FcE in action page 175 13.100 surpass (v)
13.89 royal (adj) be better than This film
connected to a king or queen surpassed my expectations. It was much
The prince is a member of the royal family. funnier than I thought it would be.

13.90 welfare (n) 13.101 assembly (n)


well-being, care Grandpa is meeting of all school students before lessons
looked after properly in this old peoples home After assembly all the
because they really care about his welfare. students went to their first lesson.

68
14 Participle Clauses / Verb + that clauses / Cleft
Sentences / Adverbs / no matter, whoever, whatever, etc

participlE clausEs pages 177-178 14.13 web (n)


trap that a spider makes The spider
14.1 fl ock (n) had caught many insects in its web.
group of sheep, birds or goats
There was a flock of sheep in the field. 14.14 stray (adj)
(for animals) homeless
14.2 scream (v)
The stray dog was sleeping on the street
shout out loudly from pain, fear, etc
corner.
She screamed when I jumped
out from behind the door. 14.15 take in (phr v)
14.3 casualty (n) allow sb to stay in your home
sb that is hurt or killed in war or an accident I took in a little cat I found in the street.
Ten casualties from the train
accident had to be taken to hospital. Exercise D page 181
14.16 biodiversity (n)
Grammar in action page 179 variety of plants and animals
The biodiversity of this area is threatened
Exercise a page 179 because many species are disappearing.
14.4 dusk (n) 14.17 footwear (n)
time when the sun goes down shoes, boots, etc Boots are the
At dusk its best to stay indoors as there are best footwear to have when you go walking in
clouds of mosquitoes outside at that time. places where there are snakes.
14.5 undergrowth (n)
Exercise E page 181
low level plants Be careful of
snakes hiding in the undergrowth. 14.18 obey (v)
14.6 have the fi nal say (expr) do what sb tells you to do
be responsible for making the final decision You should obey the teacher and do your
Jerry is the boss homework.
and he always has the final say. 14.19 fl uent (adj)
14.7 take sth into consideration (expr) able to speak a language very well
think about a fact, detail, etc of a particular ,
situation Have you He is a fluent speaker of both Arabic and
taken into consideration the fact that some of French.
the guests are elderly and cant hear very well?
Exercise F page 181
Exercise B page 179
14.20 kennel (n)
14.8 suffi cient (adj) small house where a dog sleeps
enough , I didnt have If its raining, our dog can go into his kennel
sufficient time, so I didnt finish the last to keep warm and dry.
question in the test.
14.9 adapt (v)
FcE in action page 182
change so you can manage in different
situations , 14.21 fauna (n)
When Sam moved to France, it took a while animals which live in an area
for him to adapt to his new school. Harold is studying the fauna of the area.
14.10 reserve (n) 14.22 fl ora (n)
protected area We visited a plants which grow in an area
reserve where we saw animals that are Helens special area of study is the flora of
protected from hunters. the tropical rainforest.
14.11 set (v) 14.23 at your disposal (expr)
(for the sun) go down in the evening available to sb
The sun set over the horizon, and then the I dont have much money at my disposal
whole beach was dark. because its the end of the month.

VErB + ThAT clausEs / clEFt


EccE in action page 183
sEntEncEs / aDVErBs oF FrEQuEncy /
14.24 park ranger (n)
no MATTEr pages 179-181 sb whose job is to protect a park area
14.12 presume (v) The park ranger informed
believe sth that is likely to be true the fire department that he could see smoke in
I presume Katy is your cousin as you did the trees.
mention your cousin was coming to stay.
UNIT 14 69
14.25 peacock (n) 14.27 aviary (n)
 large male bird with long colourful tail feathers  place where birds are kept
that sometimes spread outwards and upwards She doesnt like aviaries because she
The peacock spread its tail to believes birds should fly freely.
show the beautiful blue and green colours. 14.28 scare (n)
14.26 shelter (n)  fright
 place that protects animals or people He got such a scare when he saw the snake
We took the lost dog to an that he screamed.
animal shelter where it was looked after until it
was found a home.

Natural Habitats
Vocabulary in Action pages 184-185 14.40 spin (v)
 make a long thin string by turning fibres (for
Exercise A page 184 webs and thread) Its amazing to
think that a spider can spin such a beautiful
14.29 evolve (v) web.
 develop It is believed that
todays birds evolved from prehistoric species 14.41 intricate (adj)
of dinosaur.  detailed and complex
The close-up photo showed the intricate
14.30 flourish (v) pattern on the peacocks tail.
 grow and improve , The
14.42 hive (n)
plants in your garden are flourishing. How do
 place where bees live and make honey
you make them grow so well?
The bee keeper made the bees
14.31 hatch (v) sleepy with smoke before she opened the hive
 (for an egg) open When the to remove the honey.
egg hatched, a tiny yellow chick popped out. 14.43 hay fever (n)
14.32 migrate (v)  allergy that makes you sneeze
 (for birds and animals) go to another warmer In spring, she sneezes a lot because
part of the world at a certain time of year she gets hay fever.
, Birds migrate south 14.44 allergen (n)
in winter and then return to the north in the  sth that causes allergy
spring. Cat fur is an allergen that makes me sneeze.
14.33 scratch (v) 14.45 dust (n)
 rub with your nails My back itches.  tiny bits of dirt in powder form
Can you scratch it for me? Theres a layer of dust on the TV again. Can
14.34 soil (n) you clean it?
 earth which plants can grow in 14.46 root (n)
It hasnt rained for weeks, so the soil is very  part of plant that is under the ground
dry. Carrots are actually roots that you can eat.
14.35 insect repellent (n) 14.47 pollen (n)
 spray or lotion that keeps insects away  powder in a plant The little bee had
Rub this insect repellent yellow pollen stuck to its legs, which it had
on your skin so you dont get bitten. collected from the flowers it visited.
14.36 mosquito (n) 14.48 amphibian (n)
 small insect that bites I couldnt  animal that lives mostly on land, but produces
sleep because there were so many mosquitoes eggs in water eg frog Frogs
in my room. are fascinating amphibians that start life as
tadpoles before they grow into adult frogs.
14.37 instinctively (adv)
 without thinking Birds 14.49 reptile (n)
instinctively fly south in winter.  cold-blooded animal eg snake That
pet shop specialises in reptiles such as snakes,
14.38 head for (phr v) lizards and turtles.
 go towards The
fishermen headed for deep water where he 14.50 prey (n)
knew there were lots of fish.  animal that is caught and eaten by another
animal The cats prey was an unlucky
Exercise B page 184 mouse.
14.51 predator (n)
14.39 school (n)
 animal that hunts other animals
 group of fish We saw a school of
Lions are dangerous predators that hunt in
little fish swimming together in the sea.
groups.

70
14.52 stroll (v) Exercise E page 185
 walk slowly for relaxation ,
14.68 adaptation (n)
We strolled around the
 process of changing sth to suit new
park admiring the trees and flowers.
conditions Adaptation to the
14.53 lane (n) environment is the key to species survival.
 narrow country road , 14.69 adaptability (n)
Grandma lives in a tiny cottage at  ability to change to suit new conditions
the end of this country lane. ,
14.54 cattle (n pl) Dinosaurs lack of
 cows and bulls Andrew has a adaptability led to their extinction.
dairy farm with a herd of 200 cattle. 14.70 adaptive (adj)
14.55 pack (n) changing to suit new conditions
 group of wild animals eg wolves Humans adaptive
A pack of wolves followed the sleigh as it behaviour is the reason for their success as a
glided through the snow. species.
14.56 caterpillar (n) 14.71 evolution (n)
 insect that eats leaves and becomes a butterfly  process of change and development over time
The caterpillar had eaten all the The early humanoid skeleton
leaves on the branch. which has been found will help scientists learn
more about human evolution.
14.57 spot (v)
 see, notice I didnt spot the 14.72 evolving (adj)
 developing Evolving
snake in the undergrowth because it was the
bacteria cause viruses to change so they are
same colour as the plants.
hard to combat.
Exercise C page 184 14.73 evolutionary (adj)
 relating to the development of species
14.58 captivity (n) Humans are highly-developed
 situation where an animal or person is not on the evolutionary scale.
free This panda was raised in
captivity so it can never return to its natural 14.74 excess (n)
habitat.  more than you need ,
She has an excess of food for the party, so
14.59 extinction (n) shell have to freeze some of it.
 situation when a species no longer exists
Because the polar ice is melting, 14.75 excessive (adj)
polar bears are threatened with extinction.  too much ,
Excessive eating leads to people being
14.60 owl (n) overweight.
 bird with round eyes that hunts at night
The owl flew over the field 14.76 migrant (adj)
where it spotted a mouse.  moving to a new place or country
This migrant bird population only stays in
14.61 sanctuary (n) this area for a few months before moving on.
 safe place ,
The sanctuary looks after old donkeys and 14.77 migratory (adj)
horses that are no longer used on farms  related to migration
He studies the migratory habits of ducks to
Exercise D page 185 see where they fly to for the winter.
14.78 motivation (n)
14.62 carry off (phr v)  reason, desire to do sth
 leave with sth The dog grabbed There is a lot of motivation to do well in this
the steak and carried it off into the garden. class because the teacher rewards good work.
14.63 die out (phr v) 14.79 motivating (adj)
 no longer exist, become extinct  making you feel you want to do sth
Its widely believed that the dinosaurs died He gave a motivating
out because of extreme climate change. speech that inspired us to try harder.
14.64 go for (phr v) 14.80 navigate (v)
 attack The guard dog went for  choose a route so you can go in a particular
the intruders who ran away as fast as they direction ,
could. ,
14.65 go without (phr v) The ability of whales to navigate can be
 live without sth you would like to have affected by human activity.
Sorry, but theres no milk for your 14.81 navigational (adj)
coffee youll just have to go without.  which allows you to find a particular direction
14.66 keep out (phr v)
 not enter You must keep out of Birds have amazing navigational skills and
this field because it is private land. they rarely get lost.
14.67 deer (n) 14.82 disobey (v)
 large animal that eats grass and leaves  not do what sb tells you ,
His favourite Disney film is the one He disobeyed his father when he stayed out
about a baby deer called Bambi. later than he was allowed to.

UNIT 14 71
14.83 obedience (n) FcE in action page 186
doing what you are told
The soldiers had to show obedience and do 14.94 feather (n)
exactly what they were ordered to do. soft thing that covers a bird
Peacocks have very colourful feathers.
14.84 disobedience (n)
the state or act of not doing what you are told 14.95 bitter (adj)
Her disobedience is getting her very cold, freezing
into trouble at school. The wind is bitter today. It must be blowing
from the north.
14.85 obedient (adj)
doing what you are told 14.96 diverse (adj)
Hector is a very obedient dog and always different Greece is a country
does what he is told. with diverse natural habitats including high
mountains, low valleys and dry islands.
14.86 refl ect (v)
show an image of something in a shiny surface 14.97 trigger (v)
, The lake reflected my start sth happening ,
face as I looked down into the water. It is instinct that triggers birds to fly south
to avoid the cold winters.
14.87 refl ective (adj)
able to shine light back ,
Drivers can see signs in EccE in action page 187
the dark because they are made with reflective
14.98 cub (n)
paint that shines in car headlights.
baby animal such as a bear, lion, etc
14.88 surviving (adj) The lioness taught her cubs
who is still alive after others have died how to hunt.
, Her only surviving
14.99 sextant (n)
relative is an elderly aunt who lives in America.
device used for calculating a ships position
Exercise F page 185 The captain worked out the exact
position of the ship by using the sextant.
14.89 blackbird (n)
14.100 demonstrative (adj)
kind of black bird with a yellow beak
showing feelings
The blackbird sat in the tree
Doug is not very demonstrative so its hard
and sang a lovely song.
to tell how hes feeling.
14.90 robin (n)
14.101 thesis (n)
small brown bird with a red chest
long piece of academic writing
I saw a robin hopping
He is writing a 10,000-word thesis French
about in the snow, but then it flew away.
poetry.
Exercise G page 185 14.102 captive (adj)
not free She feels sorry for
14.91 bat (n) captive animals in zoos, and believes they
small flying animal like a mouse that hunts should be freed.
at night There are some bats
hanging upside down in that cave over there. 14.103 fl y (n)
small flying insect I didnt enjoy the
14.92 bee (n) picnic because there were so many flies near
a yellow and black insect which makes honey the food.
Listen to the bees buzzing in the
flowers. 14.104 ant (n)
small insect that lives underground and works
14.93 daisy (n) in groups I watched the ants
small flower with white petals and yellow march in a line back to their nest.
centre The little daisies in the
grass are very pretty flowers.

72
15 Inversion

inVErsion For EmpHasis / inVErsion Exercise E page 190


to sHow aGrEEmEnt pages 188-189 15.11 debate (n)
organised discussion
15.1 on no account (expr) The politicians took part in a televised
never, no matter what the situation is debate where they discussed their views on
On no account must the economy.
you open the door to a stranger.
15.2 under no circumstances (expr) Exercise F page 191
never, no matter what the situation is
15.12 introduce yourself (v)
Under no
tell sb your name when you meet for the
circumstances must these books be removed
first time The new teacher
from the library.
introduced himself to the students.
15.13 prejudice (n)
Grammar in action pages 189-191 negative opinion made about sth without
enough knowledge
Exercise a page 189 Prejudice against people because of the
colour of their skin is still a problem in
15.3 housewarming (n)
American society.
party to celebrate moving into a new home

Tony and Penny are having a FcE in action page 192
housewarming at their new flat and were
invited to the party. 15.14 sincerity (n)
honesty I appreciate your
15.4 confront (v) sincerity, so thank you for telling me the truth.
face sb or sth Only when I
confronted Tim about the missing money did 15.15 be on bad terms (expr)
he reveal that he had taken it. not feel friendly towards
They have been on bad terms ever since
Exercise B page 189 she lied to him.
15.5 screenplay (n)
words for a film Whoever did the EccE in action page 193
screenplay for this film is an excellent writer.
15.16 turn up (phr v)
15.6 abolish (v) arrive unexpectedly
officially end Smoking inside Mark turned up at my flat yesterday. I was
cafs was abolished a few years ago, so youll very surprised because I didnt know he was in
have to go outside for a cigarette. town.
15.7 compensation (n) 15.17 irritated (adj)
money you get if you are injured or lose annoyed ,
your job He was paid She was irritated by the way he kept
compensation by the restaurant because he interrupting her.
broke his leg when he slipped on a wet floor.
15.18 chew (v)
15.8 overtime (n) bite with your teeth I cant chew
extra working hours this steak its too tough.
Hes doing overtime, so he wont leave the
office until 7 pm. 15.19 corridor (n)
passage in a train or building
Exercise D page 190 His office is at the end of the corridor next
to the lift.
15.9 misbehave (v)
behave badly 15.20 expel (v)
The child misbehaved at the party and his officially force sb to leave (a place, school,
mother was very angry with him. room, etc)
He was expelled from school again. Its the
15.10 conscientiously (adv) third school that has thrown him out.
working hard and taking care to do things well
He conscientiously put the
litter from his picnic into the bin.

UNIT 15 73
Behaviour
Vocabulary in Action pages 194-196 15.34 optimistic (adj)
 being positive about the future
Exercise A page 194 Hes optimistic about his
results because he knows he did well in the
15.21 compel (v) exams.
 force sb to do sth ,
We were compelled to wear school uniform 15.35 complicated (adj)
even though we all hated it.  difficult, not at all simple
I dont understand these complicated
15.22 compromise (v) instructions.
 change an opinion or demand in order to reach
an agreement You cant 15.36 widespread (adj)
always get your own way sometimes you  affecting many people or a large place
have to compromise.
There was widespread panic across the
15.23 impose (v) region because of the earthquake.
 force a rule on sb A parking time
limit has been imposed outside the train station, 15.37 inferior (adj)
so you can only stop here for ten minutes.  not as good as sb/sth else ,
This canned fruit is of inferior
15.24 justify (v) quality to fresh fruit.
 give a reason for sth ,
She tried to justify her rudeness by saying 15.38 superior (adj)
she didnt speak English very well.  better than sb/sth else
She thinks shes superior to us just because
15.25 overreact (v) she drives an expensive car.
 react in an extreme way
I think you overreacted when you got scared Exercise C page 194
of my dog. Hes actually very gentle.
15.39 restrain (v)
15.26 verify (v)  stop sb by force The police
 check or prove sth is true , officer had to restrain the angry criminal by
The police officer asked to see cuffing his hands.
my driving licence to verify my age.
15.40 jump the queue (expr)
15.27 adopt (v)  go to the front of a queue when you should
 take sb elses child into your home as your own wait your turn
He was adopted by his aunt after
his parents died in a car accident. Nothing annoys me more than people
15.28 biological mother (n) who jump queues they can wait along with
 woman who gives birth to you everyone else!
He never knew his biological mother 15.41 eject (v)
because he was adopted as a baby.  come out of a machine
15.29 ban (n) The CD player wont eject my CD. Its stuck
 official order that sth is not allowed inside it.
Theres a ban on smoking 15.42 confine (v)
in the airport, so you must extinguish your  close sb in a place
cigarette. The prisoners are confined to their cells for
most of the day, only leaving for meals and
Exercise B page 194
exercise.
15.30 in brief (expr) 15.43 devote (v)
 short and quickly ,  give all your time, love, effort, etc to sb/sth
He told the students in brief how to write , He devotes a lot of
an essay, but explained that there were more time to his children because he loves being
details in their books. with them.
15.31 concise (adj) 15.44 conform (v)
 short and clear Please  behave in a way that is expected by most
write a concise conclusion. A short paragraph people ,
is enough. She is expected to conform and to get
15.32 flexible (adj) married and have children.
 able to bend easily This plastic 15.45 regulation (n)
ruler is flexible, but I cant bend the metal one.  rule College regulations
15.33 reckless (adj) state that all assignments must be handed in
 very careless , on time.
Im terrified of your reckless driving!

74
Exercise D page 195 15.59 familiarise (v)
 learn sth new and get to know it well
15.46 etiquette (n)
He familiarised himself with
 unwritten rules which govern correct behaviour
the companys background so he knew what to
and manners ,
talk about in the interview.
The rules of etiquette say that
you should always serve your guests before 15.60 familiarity (n)
yourself.  knowing sth well ,
His familiarity with the law helped him in the
15.47 gesture (n)
court case.
 action, often a kind one
Sending her flowers was a nice gesture. 15.61 infrequency (n)
 the fact that sth doesnt often happen
15.48 handle (v)
She was upset by the growing
 cope with
infrequency of his visits. In the end, he
Hes very patient, so Im sure he can handle
stopped visiting completely.
a class of five-year-olds.
15.62 maximise (v)
15.49 discipline (n)
 make sth larger or more important
 the ability to control your own behaviour (eg
You should maximise the
by working hard or not eating unhealthy foods)
window to fill the whole computer screen, so
It takes a lot of discipline to get
you can read the page more easily.
up at 6 in the morning and train for two hours
before school. 15.63 maximum (n)
 largest amount, number, etc of sth ,
Exercise E page 195 , The maximum number of
bags you can take onto the plane is two.
15.50 cut in (phr v)
 interrupt Im sorry to cut in, but 15.64 minimise (v)
weve only got a minute left on the show so we  make less or fewer To
have to stop there. minimise the risk of accidents on the road,
drivers should not exceed the speed limit.
15.51 rule out (phr v)
 not include The police have 15.65 minimum (n)
ruled out the possibility that this was an  smallest amount, number, etc of sth
accident because they have evidence it was , The minimum age
murder. for obtaining a driving licence in 18 in this
country.
15.52 run over (phr v)
 hit with a vehicle , 15.66 willingness (n)
He ran over a cat with his car and he feels  wanting to do sth He showed a
terrible. willingness to help, so I asked him to wash the
dishes.
15.53 set aside (phr v)
 save sth for future use Exercise G page 196
Shes set aside some money to pay for her
wedding. 15.67 furious (adj)
 very angry Im furious with Larry
15.54 stand up for (phr v)
because he broke the screen on my iPhone and
 support
he didnt even apologise.
We stood up for Joe because we believed he
was innocent. 15.68 remark (n)
 comment She made a remark
15.55 stir up (phr v)
about his weight, which he thought was a rude
 cause trouble ,
thing to do.
He stirred up trouble with the press
again when he shouted at a journalist. 15.69 tension (n)
 bad feeling causing worry or stress
15.56 pedestrian crossing (n)
There was a lot of tension between the
 place where people walking can cross the road
couple because they had argued about money.
Its safer to cross the road
at the pedestrian crossing because cars have 15.70 annoyance (n)
to stop at the red light.  irritation The teachers
annoyance was understandable; nobody had
Exercise F page 196 studied for the test.
15.57 compensate (v)
 give money to sb because they have been FCE in Action page 197
injured, insulted, etc
, 15.71 thereby (adv)
The company had to compensate the  as a result ,
passengers after their flight was cancelled He gained 84% of the marks, thereby
they will refund the full cost of the tickets. gaining an A grade.
15.58 compensatory (adj) 15.72 link (n)
 meant to make up for a bad situation  connection , The police
He received two believe there is a connection between the two
compensatory salaries when he lost his job. crimes, so they are therefore looking for one
criminal.

UNIT 15 75
15.73 in a nutshell (expr) ECCE in Action page 198
 in a few words I could
explain for hours. But in a nutshell, Im moving 15.77 changeable (adj)
to America.  which tends to change often or quickly
, They say the
15.74 run through (phr v) weather is going to be changeable today so
 quickly explain, read, do, etc sth , wed better take warm clothes as well as sun
, Lets run through cream.
that scene one more time, shall we?
15.78 fed up (adj)
15.75 make out (phr v)  tired of Im fed up with
 be able to see It was so dark in studying all the time. I need a break.
the room that I couldnt make anything out.
15.79 norm (n)
15.76 devotion (n)  usual behaviour Shaking hands
 love, loyalty The athlete to greet someone is a business norm in the
thanked his family for their devotion. UK. Kissing is not so common.

Review 5

FCE Part 1 page 200 ECCE in Action page 202


15.80 lay (v) 15.84 medication (n)
 produce an egg () Our hens  medicine
lay eggs every day. The only medication he takes for headaches
are these painkillers.

FCE Part 2 page 200 15.85 ceremony (n)


 event to mark sth special
15.81 reunite (v) The wedding ceremony took place in church.
 get back together The friends
15.86 pass away (phr v)
reunited after not seeing each other for over
 die
twenty years.
Sadly, Grandma passed away yesterday, but
15.82 venue (n) she did live to the grand old age of 94.
 place where an event happens ,
15.87 crystal clear (adj)
The venue for the concert is the
 very clear ,
Olympic Stadium.
He washed the windows until they were
crystal clear.
FCE Part 3 page 201
15.83 cultivate (v)
 make sth develop He tried
to cultivate a good relationship with his
colleagues.

76
Alphabetical Word List
An alphabetical word list of all the words that appear in the glossary follows. The number next to each entry shows where the
word appears. If there is more than one number, it means that the word appears more than once, sometimes with a different
meaning. We use the abbreviations sb for somebody and sth for something.

A anticipate 5.25 bar 4.11 broadcast 1.184 coast 4.24 conserve 8.46
a cross between anxiety 3.74 barely 2.20 brochure 2.81 coastguard 8.17 consider 1.58
12.86 anxious 2.153 bargain 10.28 Bronze Age 7.90 collapse 6.110 considerably 8.147
a great deal 12.33 apart from 1.171 basement 2.46 browse 5.48 colleague 1.104 considerate 13.48
a living 1.277 apologetic 10.55 basket 4.12 bump into 2.8 college 1.95 consist of 4.67
a must 11.29 apologise 5.15 bat 14.91 bungalow 11.39 column 7.103 consume 8.101
a shoulder to cry on appalling 6.63 be about to 3.9 burglar 2.18 combat 13.75 consumerism
13.23 apparently 1.166 be concerned burgle 9.41 combine 5.51 10.27
a stones throw appeal 4.94 12.39 bury 4.45 come back 1.87 consumption 8.102
11.77 appealing 4.95 be cut out 7.60 bustling 11.76 come down with contact 1.250
abandon 13.35 applaud 6.121 be due to 3.11 button 8.64 3.78 contain 4.84, 9.93
abolish 15.6 application 1.271 be familiar with by force 9.76 come on 7.61 contender 7.92
abroad 1.130 apply 1.79 12.26 come out 1.159 contest 1.182
absolutely 1.55 appointment 1.78 be fond of 2.103 C come round 3.75 continuously 1.28
accent 1.260 appreciate 1.110 be guilty of 9.13 calculator 1.144 come true 2.45 contract 1.203
accept 2.129 appreciated 7.73 be in charge of call by 13.66 come up 8.119 contrast 12.1
acceptable 2.130 appreciative 7.72 7.15 call for 6.94 comedian 7.12 contribute 1.255
access 7.19 approach 1.122, be made up of call off 12.56 command 8.1 contribution 7.51
accommodation 7.81 13.38 campsite 1.101 commentary 1.15 control 1.284
4.61 approval 9.99 be on bad terms campus 2.62 commentator 6.44 controversial 6.64
accompany 7.38 approximately 3.14 15.15 cant bear 11.16 commercial break convenient 7.7
accomplishment arena 12.44 be on the point of cant stand 2.101 6.55 convention 8.141
9.98 argumentative 3.10 cancellation 2.27 commit 9.5 conversion 5.93,
according to 1.136 13.45 be on the verge candidate 1.219 committee 13.13 11.48
accurately 13.17 arrange 1.237 of 3.7 cap 8.74 common 1.147 convert 5.80
accusation 9.53 arrangement 1.23 be rich in 3.102 capable 5.81 common practice converted 11.83
accuse 6.42 arrogant 13.50 be sbs fault 10.15 captive 14.102 8.114 convertible 11.82
ace 12.30 arson 9.43 be situated 8.41 captivity 14.58 communal 11.34 convince 11.12
ache 3.111 as opposed to be to blame 8.53 capture 6.9 communicative convincing 6.3
acre 9.109 8.125 be worth 4.53 car boot sale 12.97 6.70 cooperate 9.11
act 2.85 as/so long as 8.6 bear in mind 12.20 caravan 4.7 community centre cooperation 9.54
action 1.3 ash 4.46 beat 10.75 care 1.51 13.25 cooperative 9.55
active 8.40 ashamed 6.90 become 1.128 career 1.220 commute 1.4 corner shop 2.51
adapt 14.9 asking price 11.35 bee 14.92 careful 1.205 company 1.80 correspondent
adaptability 14.69 assembly 13.101 beforehand 10.82 careless 2.156 compass 8.25 6.111
adaptation 14.68 assignment 3.41 beg 10.4 carry off 14.62 compel 15.21 corridor 15.19
adaptive 14.70 assistance 9.113 behaviour 2.71 carry out 5.67 compensate 15.57 cosmopolitan
adequate 8.37 assistant 1.235 behind bars 9.83 carton 4.13 compensation 15.7 11.100
administrative associate 13.73 belong to 1.41 case 5.42, 9.12 compensatory cost 1.71
13.94 association 13.29 belongings 10.23 case dismissed 15.58 cosy 10.73
admission 7.9 assume 12.28 bend 12.91 9.32 compete 1.191 cottage 11.75
admit 9.1 assumption 5.1 benefit 1.149 cash 10.10 competent 7.33 coughing 3.28
adopt 3.132, 15.27 astonished 10.58 benefit 3.97 cast 6.5 complaint 1.273 count sb in 12.57
adore 1.50 astonishing 10.57 betray 13.52 casually 9.9 completed 2.1 course 12.42
advance 11.97 astonishment betrayal 13.53 casualty 14.3 complex 10.78 court 12.41
advancement 5.92 10.56 beware 10.37 catch on 5.68 complicated 15.35 courtroom drama
adverse 8.60 at a loss for words biodiversity 14.16 catering 10.19 composer 6.23 9.89
advertisement 12.73 biological mother caterpillar 14.56 comprehensive courtyard 4.40
1.238 at all costs 12.72 15.28 cattle 14.54 1.328 cover 6.38
advertising 1.100 at present 1.36 bitter 14.95 caution 12.24 compromise 15.22 crack 5.43
advisor 3.20 at your disposal blackbird 14.89 celebrity 1.194 compulsory 1.264 cream 3.45
affection 1.178 14.23 blackmail 9.4 cell 9.96 concentrate 1.318 creep 9.22
affordable 10.64 at your fingertips blame 10.1 censor 6.67 concert 1.195 crew 6.46
agent 9.46 2.149 blend in 4.41 censorship 6.59 concession 12.2 critic 6.68
agree 1.57 attachment 11.46 block 2.7 ceremony 15.85 concierge 11.92 critical 6.69
ahead 1.320 attempt 8.35 blockbuster 1.213 certainty 5.12 concise 15.31 criticism 5.13
aid 5.74 attend 6.31 blow the whistle on certificate 1.221 concrete 11.42 crossing 4.87
air fare 4.107 attic 11.26 sth 12.81 challenge 11.11 condition 3.12 cruelty 2.39
airline 4.106 attitude 8.38 board 2.26 changeable 15.77 conduct 3.126 cruise line 1.232
alarm 2.4 attract 1.192 boarding pass 4.93 changing room conductor 7.53 crystal clear 15.87
alert 8.94 attractive 4.96 bond 3.124 10.17 conference 3.6 cub 14.98
alike 2.64 attribute 12.29 book 2.76 charge 7.101, 9.84 confess 9.6 cul de sac 11.30
alive 2.126 audience 2.61 border 4.88 charger 5.31 confession 9.95 cultivate 15.83
allergen 14.44 audition 6.41 borrow 1.199 charitable 13.33 confide 2.75 curator 7.14
allergy 3.44 author 2.23 boundary 8.148 charity 4.58 confide in 13.20 cure 3.8
allowance 6.17 availability 4.52 bowling alley charter flight 4.108 confident 2.16 curious 13.47
already 1.89 average 3.138 12.47 chat 1.86 confidential 5.19 current 8.84,
alteration 8.135 aviary 14.27 box office 6.60 cheat 1.326 confine 15.42 12.96
alternative 3.101 avoid 3.107 bracelet 12.13 cheque 10.50 confirm 2.144 curve 12.92
amateur 12.78 await 5.86 brainstorm 6.116 chew 15.18 confirmation 3.34 cut down 5.95
amateur dramatic award 1.160 branch 10.9 chief 13.37 confirmed 4.97 cut down on 3.76
society 7.68 aware 1.129 break 1.107 childhood 2.119 conform 15.44 cut in 15.50
amount 3.129 awful 3.17 break down 2.106, choice 1.272 confront 15.4 cut off 5.69
amphibian 14.48 4.121 choreographer confuse 5.98 cut out 5.97
ancestor 13.96 B break in 9.68 7.59 connect 11.80 cut up 5.96
ancient 13.8 back onto 11.31 break off 13.65 circulate 6.65 connected 1.257 CV 1.228
anniversary 4.56 back out of 11.66 break out 11.64 civilisation 13.30 connecting 11.81
announce 6.114 back then 2.13 break out of 9.69 claim 3.73 conscientiously D
annoy 1.200 backgammon break up 2.107 clap 7.67 15.10 daily 1.177
annoyance 15.70 12.76 breakthrough 5.35 clear out 11.28 consciousness 3.84 daisy 14.93
annoyed 2.132 background 2.12 breathtaking 4.47 clear up 8.118 consecutive 6.104 dare 11.13
annoying 1.25 back-stage 7.20 breed 1.167 climate change consequence 8.23 day by day 1.135
annually 8.57 baggage 4.8 bright side 13.72 7.35 consequently deadline 6.58
anonymous 13.85 ban 15.29 bring about 6.93 clue 9.35 12.11 deal 4.57
ant 14.104 bank clerk 10.26 bring up 2.108 coach 1.29, 4.31 conservation 8.69 deal with 1.317
debate 15.11 drown 8.16 experiment 2.58 free of charge 7.22 half-board 4.73 in private 5.28
deceive 9.78 drug 2.42 expert 5.36 frequency 8.30 hall of residence in progress 1.17
decent 3.134 dump 8.44 explain 1.141 frequently 1.126 1.99 in stock 10.51
decide 1.208 duration 1.85 explode 4.128 frustrating 9.2 hand down 2.112 in tandem 1.121
decision 1.274 dusk 14.4 exploit 6.86 full-board 4.63 hand in 1.293 in the vicinity
decline 12.36 dust 14.45 exploration 5.53 fumes 8.134 handicraft 10.72 11.91
decorate 7.34 duty 2.88 exploratory 5.54 function 3.71 handkerchief 3.66 in touch 1.162
dedicate 7.23 expose 7.4 fund 11.56 handle 15.48 inauguration 7.41
dedicated 12.55 E exposure 6.28 furious 15.67 hang around 13.68 incentive 5.101
deep 11.38 eager 1.321 expressively 7.2 furnish 11.85 hardly 2.21 incident 9.66
deer 14.67 earn 1.102 extend 3.32 furnished 4.116, hardly ever 1.34 include 1.153
definitely 1.120 ease 7.55 extension 11.47 11.86 harm 1.289 increase 1.134
degree 1.239, 7.3 east 1.8 external 5.18 harmful 8.113 incredible 1.157
delay 4.82 easy-going 7.6 extinct 3.16 G harsh 9.67 indecision 2.133
deliberate 13.80 eco-friendly 11.79 extinction 14.59 gadget 9.15 hatch 14.31 indecisive 2.134
delicacy 10.74 edit 5.44 extinguish 8.153 gain 3.118, 8.43 have the final say indefinite 1.82
delicious 2.53 edition 6.50 extra 7.56 gap 10.84 14.6 indication 8.137
delighted 11.7 editor 6.49 extract 7.91 garment 10.13 hay fever 14.43 indigestion 3.94
demand 10.6 effect 1.83 extraordinary 4.42 gather 12.98 hazard 8.54 indoor 11.71
demanding 2.102 effective 3.63 extremely 1.316 gender 13.7 head for 14.38 indulge 4.70
demolish 11.69 efficient 4.112 generate 8.126 headline 6.61 industry 3.33
demonstrate 3.120 effort 1.275 F generous 1.233 heal 3.69 inexperienced 12.5
demonstrative eject 15.41 face 11.8 genre 6.112 heart disease 3.93 infection 3.46
14.100 elderly 13.39 face to face 1.132 gentle 1.168 heatwave 8.97 infectious 3.60
denial 9.56 eliminate 12.63 facilities 9.16 geothermal 8.78 heavy 5.16 inferior 15.37
deny 9.40 embarrassed 2.69 fact 1.5 gesture 15.47 hence 8.131 inflamed 6.109
depart 1.12 emerge 4.129 faint 3.82 get along 12.35 herbal 3.117 influence 6.75
department store emergency 8.63 fair 2.84 get away with herd 8.123 influential 6.76
10.47 emission 8.104 fall back on 6.95 1.295 hereby 7.105 informative 4.103
departure 4.111 emit 8.103 fall out 2.110 get back 4.74 hesitant 6.74 infrequency 15.61
departure lounge emotion 1.49 fall through 2.109 get back at 9.70 hesitate 4.119 ingredient 2.52
2.25 emotional 13.41 falsely 9.24 get by 1.296 hesitation 6.73 inhabitant 8.24
depend 1.329 emphasise 1.84 fame 1.188 get into 1.330 high blood pressure initially 12.87
depict 1.117 employer 1.241 familiarise 15.59 get off 1.327 3.89 injection 3.47
deposit 10.67 employment 1.218 familiarity 15.60 get on 1.297, 4.75 high temperature injury 6.88
depressed 13.19 enable 11.14 famine 8.96 get out of 6.96 3.29 insect repellent
describe 1.39 encounter 13.79 fan 1.158 get over 1.298 highlight 6.53 14.35
deserve 1.207 encourage 1.105 fancy 11.9 get rid of 5.50 hijacker 9.45 insert 4.91
destination 4.18 endangered 4.4 faraway 4.62 get round to 1.299 hiking 11.1 insight 5.76
destructive 8.127 endure 2.37 fascinating 7.1 get the hang of sth hire 1.269 insignificance 7.77
detached 11.70 engagement 13.71 fatal 8.55 12.88 hive 14.42 insist 6.87
detain 9.25 enhance 3.68 faulty 10.38 get through 1.334 hold 1.181 inspection 6.106
detection 1.172 enjoy oneself fauna 14.21 get to 1.333 hold out 12.59 inspector 7.104
determined 13.1 1.113 favour 1.288 get together 1.300 honest 2.91 inspiration 12.64
devastating 8.11 enjoyable 4.99 fear 1.52 get up 1.332 horror film 1.202 inspirational 2.43
develop 1.155 enjoyment 4.98 feather 14.94 gifted 7.93 host 7.26 inspiring 12.65
developing 11.84 enormous 4.104 fed up 15.78 give in 13.67 hostage 9.47 install 8.18
devote 15.43 ensure 4.118 fee 4.125 give it a shot 2.48 hostile 13.81 installation 8.105
devotion 15.76 entertainer 6.71 fence 5.33 give out 10.40 household appliance instalment 10.8
die out 14.63 entertaining 6.72 figure 8.58 give sb the boot 10.53 instinctively 14.37
differ 4.115 entrepreneur 5.83 figure skating 12.79 housewarming 15.3 institution 6.119
digest 3.98 environment 1.127 12.45 give the game away human race 8.117 instruct 10.5
digital camera epidemic 3.27 fill in 1.291 12.80 humidity 8.98 instrumental 7.18
1.146 equal 1.72 finalise 6.122 give up 3.77 humiliate 13.83 insulate 11.62
diploma 1.240 era 6.108 financial 12.67 give yourself up humiliation 2.38 insult 9.107
disappoint 2.118 erase 8.145 find out 1.138 9.71 hurricane 8.29 insurance 9.108
disaster 8.86 erode 8.146 fire brigade 11.63 glacier 8.32 hurry up 1.119 integration 13.95
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