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IEEE Computer Society Magazine Editors in Chief


Computer IEEE Micro IEEE Intelligent Systems
Sumi Helal, University of Florida Lieven Eeckhout, Ghent V.S. Subrahmanian, University
University of Maryland
IEEE Software IEEE MultiMedia
Diomidis Spinellis, Athens IEEE Computer Graphics Yong Rui, Lenovo Research
University of Economics and and Applications and Technology
Business L. Miguel Encarnao, ACT, Inc.

IEEE Annals of the History


IEEE Internet Computing IEEE Pervasive Computing of Computing
M. Brian Blake, University of Maria Ebling, IBM T.J. Watson Nathan Ensmenger, Indiana
Miami Research Center University Bloomington

IT Professional Computing in Science IEEE Cloud Computing


San Murugesan, BRITE & Engineering Mazin Yousif, T-Systems
Professional Services Jim X. Chen, George Mason International
University
IEEE Security & Privacy
Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi, Technical
University of Darmstadt

www.computer.org/computingedge 1
APRIL 2017 VOLUME 3, NUMBER 4

THEME HERE

14
Artifi cial
26
There Is
36
Masterminds
Intelligence as No AI of Artifi cial
an Eff ective Without IA Intelligence:
Classroom Marvin Minsky and
Assistant Seymour Papert
7 Editors Note:
A Close Look at Artificial Intelligence
8 Machine Learning
PANOS LOURIDAS AND CHRISTOF EBERT

14 Artificial Intelligence as an Effective Classroom


Assistant
BENEDICT DU BOULAY

20 TJBot and Zooids: The Connection between


Pervasive Computing and AI
MARIA R. EBLING

23 Engineering the New Boundaries of AI


AMIR BANIFATEMI AND JEAN-LUC GAUDIOT

26 There Is No AI Without IA
SETH EARLEY

33 Unreliable Machine Learning


VINTON G. CERF

36 Masterminds of Artificial Intelligence: Marvin


Minsky and Seymour Papert
GEORGE STRAWN AND CANDACE STRAWN

39 Risks
MATTHEW TURK

42 Moving to Autonomous and Self-Migrating


Containers for Cloud Applications
DAVID S. LINTHICUM

39
Risks
Departments
4
46

Magazine Roundup
Computing Careers:
Careers in Artificial Intelligence
48 Career Opportunities

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CS FOCUS

Magazine
Roundup

Current approaches to teaching


software engineering are out-
dated and dont address todays
conditions. In How Best to Teach
Global Software Engineering?
Educators Are Divided, from
IEEE Softwares January/February
2017 issue, pioneering educators

T
discuss how they inject realism
he IEEE Computer ensure their efficiency, security, into global-software engineer-
Societys lineup of 13 and dependability is an impor- ing education.
peer-reviewed technical tant research area. Meanwhile, as
magazines covers cutting-edge essential, life-sustaining systems IEEE Internet Computing
topics ranging from software increasingly connect in cyber-
design and computer graphics space, we must figure out how Fog computing could alleviate
to Internet computing and secu- to identify, assess, anticipate, many of the Internet of Things
rity, from scientific applications and manage risk. Computers challenges by, for example,
and machine intelligence to April 2017 issue has special sec- reducing latency and enhancing
cloud migration and microchip tions on these topics. security. IEEE Internet Comput-
design. Here are highlights from ings March/April 2017 special
recent issues. IEEE Software issue explores the technologys
potential to both form distrib-
Computer With global software engineer- uted and virtualized platforms
ing becoming standard practice, that support computation-
Our society increasingly relies on todays software engineering intensive tasks and distribute
the successful marriage of digital students will become tomor- advanced computing, storage,
and physical systems to perform rows global software engineers. networking, and management
advanced automation and control The education systems under- services to the network edge.
tasks. Thus, engineering these pinning the profession will thus The issue also looks at the
cyber-physical systems to need to change accordingly. obstacles fog computing faces.

4 April 2017 Published by the IEEE Computer Society 2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE
Computing in Science & IEEE Intelligent Systems before the pervasive-health field
Engineering can advance: technological chal-
An Open Semantic Framework for lenges and opportunities, adoption
CiSEs March/April 2017 special the Industrial Internet of Things, and adherence, open data, ethical
issue provides a mix of perspec- from IEEE Intelligent Systems issues, and education.
tives for understanding more deeply January/February 2017 issue, intro-
where Moores law stands today duces the Open Semantic Frame- IT Professional
and the prospects for continued work (OSF), which lets users create,
exponential performance growth in deploy, and manage semantic appli- To achieve digital transformation,
the upcoming computing era. cations. The OSF represents an organizations must control the
important step toward the ability to avalanche of data generated by
IEEE Security & Privacy integrate various knowledge models. supplier, customer, and employee
interactions. This complex data
IEEE S&Ps January/February 2017 IEEE MultiMedia environment has led enterprises to
special issue looks at how the lat- realize that new leadershipin the
est security and privacy research The authors of The Continu- form of a chief data officer (CDO)
is moving the field forward. Articles ing Reinvention of Content-Based is needed to oversee this task and
in the issue address topics such as Retrieval: Multimedia Is Not Dead, to take responsibility for extracting
the use of containerization to secure from IEEE MultiMedias January value from data. The Evolving Role
mobile devices, cloud data-auditing March 2017 special issue, review of the CDO, from IT Pros January/
techniques, and a novel security- how content-based retrieval has February 2017 issue, examines this
development lifecycle model. evolved over the years and discuss relatively new position.
the technologys future goals and
IEEE Cloud Computing research directions. IEEE Micro

IEEE Cloud Computings January/ IEEE Annals of the History of IEEE Micros January/February
February 2017 issue includes arti- Computing 2017 special issue on cognitive
cles on subjects such as combat- architectures includes articles on
ing distributed denial-of-service As part of a broader look at early spacetime computation and the neo-
attacks in the cloud, secure data intrusion-detection systems, The cortex, low-power automatic speech
sharing and searching at the edge March of IDES: Early History of recognition via a mobile GPU and
of the cloud-assisted Internet of Intrusion-Detection Expert Sys- Viterbi accelerator, efficient situ-
Things, and trusting cloud service tems, from IEEE Annals October ational scheduling of graph work-
providers. December 2016 issue, focuses loads on single-chip multicores and
on the first such application, the GPUs, and graph-analytics acceler-
IEEE Computer Graphics and Intrusion Detection Expert System ators for cognitive systems.
Applications (IDES), which SRI International
developed in the 1980s. Computing Now
Articles from CG&As March/April
2017 special issue on information IEEE Pervasive Computing The Computing Now website
visualization examine topics such (computingnow.computer.org)
as layered graph drawing for visu- The authors of The Future of features up-to-the-minute com-
alizing evaluation structures, the Pervasive Health, from IEEE Per- puting news and blogs, along
visualization of rank time series of vasive Computings JanuaryMarch with articles ranging from peer-
top-viewed Wikipedia pages, and 2017 issue, discuss five important reviewed research to opinion
spatial analytic interfaces. matters that must be addressed pieces by industry leaders.

www.computer.org/computingedge 5
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Explore These Artificial Intelligence Resources


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EDITORS NOTE

A Close Look at
Artificial Intelligence

L ong the subject of science fiction, artifi-


cial intelligence (AI) began as a formal
research discipline at a 1956 Dartmouth
College workshop. Since then, optimism about
artificial intelligence has risen and fallen, based in
interdisciplinary teams advance AI technologies
while competing for the grand prize.
The author of There Is No AI Without IA,
from IT Professional, argues that artificial intelli-
gence needs high-quality, structured datain part
part on the limitations of AI itself and the technolo- via effective information architectures (IAs)to be
gies it uses. Now, AI is being employed extensively useful to organizations and their customers.
in business applications and consumer products, In IEEE Internet Computings Unreliable
giving the technology an economic foundation. Machine Learning, Internet pioneer Vinton Cerf
This ComputingEdge issue examines todays speculates about whether neural networks might
important AI-related developments. experience problems as users ask them to work
IEEE Softwares Machine Learning presents with more complex and diverse parameters and
a brief overview of machine-learning technologies, with larger decisions and responsibilities at stake.
with a case study involving code analysis. IT Professionals Masterminds of Artificial
Artificial Intelligence as an Effective Class- Intelligence: Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert
room Assistant, from IEEE Intelligent Systems, highlights the contributions of two AI pioneers.
reviews metareviews and meta-analyses to make ComputingEdge articles on topics other than AI
the case for blended learning, in which a teacher include the following:
offloads some work to systems that use AI and
cognitive science to help with the process. Computing in Science & Engineerings Risks
The author of TJBot and Zooids: The Connec- focuses on scientific computings potential
tion between Pervasive Computing and AI, from hazards.
IEEE Pervasive Computing, looks at a robot and a The author of Moving to Autonomous and
robot kit to show how AI and pervasive computing Self-Migrating Containers for Cloud Applica-
could reshape the way that humans interact with tions, from IEEE Cloud Computing, says con-
computers. tainers should be able to migrate from one type
Computers Engineering the New Boundar- of public cloud to another in automated and
ies of AI discusses the XPRIZE Foundations autonomous ways. He then describes the man-
launching of the IBM Watson AI XPRIZE, in which ner in which this could be done.

2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society April 2017 7
SOFTWARE Editor: Christof Ebert
Vector Consulting Services
TECHNOLOGY christof.eber t@vector.com

Machine Learning
Panos Louridas and Christof Ebert

Machine learning is the major success factor in the ongoing digital


transformation across industries. Startups and behemoths alike
announce new products that will learn to perform tasks that previously
only humans could do, and perform those tasks better, faster, and
more intelligently. But how do they do it? What does it mean for IT
developers and software engineers? Here, Panos Louridas and I
present a brief overview of machine-learning technologies, with a
concrete case study from code analysis. I look forward to hearing from
both readers and prospective column authors. Christof Ebert

MACHINE LEARNING ISNT new; it multisensor fusion for autonomous


has been around at least since the 1970s, driving; and
when the first related algorithms ap- pattern recognition to analyze code
peared. What has changed is that the ex- for weaknesses such as criticality
plosion in computing power has allowed and code smells (for a related case
us to use machine learning to tackle ever- study, see the sidebar).
more-complex problems, while the explo-
sion of data being captured and stored The general idea behind most ma-
has allowed us to apply machine learning chine learning is that a computer learns
to an ever-expanding range of domains. to perform a task by studying a training
Machine learning is used in different set of examples. The computer (or sys-
domains. Here are a few examples: tem of distributed or embedded comput-
ers and controllers) then performs the
security heuristics that distill attack same task with data it hasnt encoun-
patterns to protect, for instance, tered before.
ports or networks;
image analysis to identify distinct Learning Strategies
forms and shapes, such as for medi- Machine learning employs the following
cal analyses or face and fi ngerprint two strategies (see Figure 1).
recognition;
deep learning to generate rules for Supervised Learning
data analytics and big data handing, In supervised learning, the training set
such as are used in marketing and contains data and the correct output of
sales promotions; the task with that data. This is like giving
object recognition and predictions a student a set of problems and their solu-
from combined video streams and tions and telling that student to figure out

8 110 I E E E S O April
F T W2017
ARE | P U B L I S H E D B Y T H E I E E E CPublished
OMPUTE byRthe
SO IEEE
C I E Computer
TY Society  2469-7087/17/$33.00
0740-7459 / 1 6 / $ 3 3 . 0 0 2 0 1 6I E2017
E E IEEE
SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY

CASE STUDY: MACHINE LEARNING FOR CODE ANALYSIS


Machine learning has many practical applications. As befits Step 3: Provide a change history classification (that is, the
this magazine, well present an example that shows how number of compiles or deliveries) for each learning module.
machine learning can manage quality risks and improve Step 4: With static code analysis, assemble for each
quality assurance productivity. learning module a complexity classification such as hot
spots from code analysis.
A CRITICALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL Step 5: With the machine-learning system, construct
Project managers and product owners often wonder when an initial criticality list that takes into account the inputs
would be the right release point and how to assess the from steps 2, 3, and 4, mapped to the list from step 1.
criticality of the code to be delivered. Static-analysis tools Evaluate the criticality lists validityfor example, by
exist but give numerous warnings that might be difficult to screening for the identified critical modules, outliers, and
link to actual weak spots. At Vector Consulting Services, potential misleading effects. Such screening aims to find
we offer clients a machine-learning-based criticality as- undesired influences from the defect or change histo-
sessment tool for software release management. Crite- ries. The screening and ranking must primarily ensure the
ria include hard factors from static code analysis, such as fewest possible type-I prediction errors. (In type-I errors,
cyclomatic complexity, the degree of reuse, and the history defect-prone components are misclassified as uncritical
of defects in preceding versions and variants. We also use components.)
soft factors such as designer competences, experience with Step 6: For the current project, repeat steps 1 to 5 to get
similar projects, and architectural decisions that might incur a predictive result on each new modules criticality. Then,
technical debt. present the rankings so that the developers can decide on
Using these criteria, the machine-learning tool builds further actions.
a criticality prediction model. On the basis of a ranked list Step 7: Manually prepare suggestions based on the new
of the criticality of the modules used in a build, develop- modules ranked the most critical. Critical modules should
ers can apply different mechanisms to improve quality at least undergo a flash review and subsequent refactoring,
refactoring, redesign, thorough static analysis, and unit redesign, or rewritingdepending on their complexity, age,
testing with increased coverage schemes. and reuse in other projects. Refactoring includes reducing
Instead of predicting the number of defects or changes size, improving modularity, balancing cohesion and cou-
(algorithmic relationships), the tool considers assignments pling, and so on. For instance, apply thorough unit testing
to classes (for example, defect prone). The training and with 100 percent C0 coverage (statement coverage) to the
test data come from finished projects that had been under modules. Investigate the details of those modules complex-
configuration control since coding started. After the ma- ity measurements to determine the redesign approach. Typ-
chine-learning process, the data used operationally comes ically, the different complexity measurements will indicate
from active projects. the approach to follow.
To achieve feedback to improve predictions, this ap- Step 8: After the new project is finished, validate and
proach is integrated throughout development (requirements, improve the prediction model on the basis of postmortem
design, code, system test, and deployment). studies with all collected defects and the population of a
real criticality list. Then, compare the actual defect rank-
STEP-BY-STEP CRITICALITY PREDICTION ing with the predicted ranking. Investigate the reasons for
Figure A illustrates criticality classification and validation, deviations, and tune the implemented automatic classifica-
which consists of eight steps. tion approaches. Improve the screening rules to ensure that
Step 1: For the finished projects, provide a list of all the type-II prediction errors will be reduced the next time. (In
modules used for learning from the configuration system. type-II errors, uncritical components are misclassified as
Step 2: Provide a defect list for each learning mod- defect-prone components.)
ule. For high-ranking defects, you might add a root-cause
analysis that allows for a Pareto-based mitigation list. continued on next page

www.computer.org/computingedge SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2016 | I E E E S O F T WA R E 111 9


SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY

continued from previous page

Configuration 4 Static code


data analysis,
technical
debt, and so on 5
Machine learning: statistical
1 analysis and construction of a Soft factors
Finished criticality prediction model
projects 2 Defect data and heuristics
3 Change history
Feedback for learning
8
Static code
Criticality
analysis,
prediction and
technical
heat map 7
debt, and so on
Active 6
Verification,
(running) Change history, actual versus planned effort, Proposals for
refactoring, and
projects degree of reuse, and defect analysis improvement
operational use

FIGURE A. Machine learning for criticality prediction of source code as implemented in this case study. The numbers
refer to the steps described in the sidebar text.

THIS APPROACHS EFFECTIVENESS business case:


Criticality prediction doesnt aim to detect all defects.
Instead, it aims to optimize resource allocation by focusing On average, for each project, 20 percent of the mod-
resources on areas with critical defects that would affect ules were selected as the most critical (after coding).
the delivered products utility. We estimate the trade-off of Those modules contained over 40 percent of all
the costs of applying complexity-based predictive quality defects (up to release time).
models and the eventual code changes versus the improved
quality, on the following basis: In addition, weve determined that 60 percent of all
defects theoretically can be detected until the end of unit
Effortlimited resources are assigned to the high-risk testing. Also, defect correction with unit testing and static
components. analysis costs 10 to 50 percent less than defect correc-
Effortgray-box testing strategies are applied to only tion in subsequent testing activities. So, we calculate that
the high-risk components. developers can detect 24 percent of all defects early by
Benefitsthe risk assessment of changes is eased investigating 20 percent of all modules more intensively,
with code analysis on the basis of the affected or with over 10 percent reduced effort than with late defect
changed complexity. correction. This yields at least a 20 percent cost reduction
Benefitsfewer customers reported failures than for defect correction.
in previous releases, and security and maintain- The necessary tools, such as Coverity, Klocwork, Lat-
ability improved. tix, Structure 101, SonarX, and SourceMeter, are off the
shelf and account for even less per project. These criticality
On the basis of the results from many of our client analyses provide numerous other benefits, such as the re-
projects (and taking a conservative ratio of only 40 per- moval of specific code-related risks and defects that other-
cent defects in critical components), we can calculate the wise are hard to identify (for example, security flaws).

10
112 I E E E S O F Computing
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SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY

how to solve other problems he or she


will have to deal with in the future.
Machine learning
Supervised learning includes clas-
sification algorithms, which take as
Supervised learning Unsupervised learning
input a dataset and the class of each
piece of data so that the computer
can learn how to classify new data. Classification Regression Clustering Dimension
reduction
For example, the input might be a set
of past loan applications with an in- Logic regression Linear regression k-means Principal component
clustering analysis
dication of which of them went bad.
On the basis of this information, the Hierarchical Tensor
Classification trees Decision trees clustering decomposition
computer classifies new loan appli-
cations. Classification can employ Support vector Bayesian Gaussian mixture Multidimensional
machines networks models statistics
logic regression, classification trees,
support vector machines, random Random
Random forests Fuzzy classification Genetic algorithms
forests, artificial neural networks projection
(ANNs), or other algorithms. ANNs Artificial neural Artificial neural Artificial neural Artificial neural
are a major topic on their own; we networks networks networks networks
discuss them in more detail later.
Regression algorithms predict a
value of an entitys attribute (re- FIGURE 1. Machine-learning approaches. In machine learning, a computer first learns
gression here has a wider sense to perform a task by studying a training set of examples. The computer then performs
than merely statistical regression). the same task with data it hasnt encountered before.
Regression algorithms include linear
regression, decision trees, Bayesian
networks, fuzzy classification, and best way for a task through artificial camps: one that prefers R and one
ANNs. selection), and ANNs. that prefers Python. Of course, any
Dimensionality reduction algo- absolute division makes no sense.
Unsupervised Learning rithms take the initial dataset cover- For a field as wide as machine learn-
In unsupervised learning, the train- ing various dimensions and project ing, no single tool will do. The best
ing set contains data but no solutions; the data to fewer dimensions. These a software engineer can do is to be-
the computer must find the solutions fewer dimensions try to better cap- come acquainted with many different
on its own. This is like giving a stu- ture the datas fundamental aspects. tools and learn which one is the most
dent a set of patterns and asking him Dimensionality reduction algorithms appropriate for a given situation.
or her to figure out the underlying include principal component analy- That said, R is more popular with
motifs that generated the patterns. sis, tensor reduction, multidimen- people with a somewhat stronger
Unsupervised learning includes sional statistics, random projection, statistical background. It has a su-
clustering algorithms, which take as and ANNs. perb collection of machine-learning
input a dataset covering various di- and statistical-inference libraries.
mensions and partition it into clus- Essential Tools Chances are, if you find a fancy al-
ters satisfying certain criteria. A Machine learnings popularity has gorithm somewhere and want to
popular algorithm is k-means clus- brought along a wealth of tools. try it on your data, an implementa-
tering, which aims to partition the Most of them are open source, so us- tion in R exists for it. R boasts the
dataset so that each observation lies ers can easily experiment with them ggplot2 visualization library, which
closest to the mean of its cluster. and learn how to use them. Table 1 can produce excellent graphs.
Other clustering approaches include compares some popular machine- Python is more popular with peo-
hierarchical clustering, Gaussian learning tools. ple with a computer science back-
mixture models, genetic algorithms The numerical and statistical ground. Although not made spe-
(in which the computer learns the communities are divided into two cifically for machine learning or

www.computer.org/computingedge SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2016 | I E E E S O F T WA R E 113 11


SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 1

Some popular machine-learning tools.


Tool

Python R Spark Matlab TensorFlow

License Open source Open source Open source Proprietary Open source

Distributed No No Yes No No

Visualization Yes Yes No Yes No

Neural nets Yes Yes Multilayer perceptron classifier Yes Yes

Supported languages Python R Scala, Java, Python, and R Matlab Python and C++

Variety of machine- High High Medium High Low


learning models

Suitability as a general- High Medium Medium High Low


purpose tool

Maturity High Very high Medium Very high Low

statistics, Python has extensive librar- puters main memory. If thats not Julia programming language for
ies for numerical computing (NumPy), possible, you must use a distributed technical computing, which aims at
scientific computing (SciPy), statistics platform. The most well-known is top performance. Because Julia is
(StatsModels), and machine learning Hadoop, but Hadoop isnt the most new, it doesnt have nearly as many
(scikit-learn). These are largely wrap- convenient for machine learning. libraries as Python or R. Yet, thanks
pers of C code, so you get Pythons Making even simple algorithms run to its impressive speed, its popularity
convenience with Cs speed. on it can be a struggle. might grow.
Although there are fewer machine- So, many people prefer to work Strong commercial players in-
learning libraries for Python than at the higher level of abstraction that clude Matlab and SAS, which both
there are for R, many programmers Spark offers. Spark leverages Ha- have a distinguished history. Matlab
find working with Python easier. doop but looks like a scripting envi- has long offered solid tools for nu-
They might already know the lan- ronment. You can interact with it us- merical computation, to which it has
guage or find it easier to learn than ing Scala, Java, Python, or R. Spark added machine-learning algorithms
R. They also find Python convenient has a machine-learning library that and implementations. For engineers
for preprocessing data: reading it implements key algorithms, so for familiar with Matlab, it might be a
from various sources, cleaning it, many purposes you dont need to im- natural fit. SAS is a software suite
and bringing it to the required for- plement anything yourself. for advanced statistical analysis; it
mats. For visualization, Python re- H2O is a relatively newer entrant also has added machine-learning ca-
lies on matplotlib. You can do pretty in the machine-learning scene. Its a pabilities and is popular for business
much everything on matplotlib, but platform for descriptive and predic- intelligence tasks.
you might discover you have to put tive analytics that uses Hadoop and
in some effort. The seaborn library Spark; you can use it with R and Py- ANNs and Deep Learning
is built on top of it, letting you pro- thon. It implements supervised- and Cynics might roll their eyes, arguing
duce elegant visualizations with little unsupervised-learning algorithms and that ANNs resurgence is dj vu.
code. a Web interface through which you Its true; ANNs fundamental com-
In general, R and Python work can organize your workflow. ponents have been around for about
when the dataset fits in the com- A promising development is the half a century. However, its also true

12
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SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY

that you can now architect them in those rules, you can easily under- Inference, and Prediction, 2nd
new ways. ANNs can be used across stand how a classification tree classi- ed., Springer, 2009.
the spectrum of machine learning: fies data. ANNs dont produce any- C.M. Bishop, Pattern Recogni-
classification, regression, clustering, thing their users can interpret. An tion and Machine Learning,
and dimensionality reduction. ANN that classifies images doesnt Springer, 2006.
Innovations in ANN architec- produce any rules; the network itself K.P. Murphy, Machine Learn-
tures and the availability of cheap embodies everything it has learned ing: A Probabilistic Perspective,
computing resources to run ANNs about image classification. MIT Press, 2012.
has brought about the burgeoning E. Alpaydn, Introduction to

M
of deep learningusing big ANNs Machine Learning, 3rd ed., MIT
to perform machine learning. Over any machine-learning Press, 2014.
the last few years, deep learning has books have a practical
chalked up headline-grabbing suc- slant, aiming to intro- PANOS LOURIDAS is an associate professor
cesses by beating humans in Jeop- duce machine learning on a particu- teaching algorithms and software at the Athens
ardy! and Go, learning to play ar- lar platform. As technologies quickly University of Economics and Business. Hes also
cade games, showing an uncanny evolve, its better to focus on getting an active developer. Contact him at louridas@
capability to recognize images, per- a solid grasp of the fundamentals. aueb.gr.
forming automatic translation, and After all, using a machine-learning
so on. Deep learning is particularly platform isnt difficult; knowing CHRISTOF EBERT is the managing director
good at general tasks requiring the when to use a particular algorithm of Vector Consulting Services. He is on the IEEE
elicitation of higher-level, abstract and how to use it well requires quite Software editorial board and teaches at the
concepts from the input data, which a bit of background knowledge. University of Stuttgart and the Sorbonne in Paris.
is what the many layers of an ANN Here are four popular books: Contact him at christof.ebert@vector.com.
excel at.
Deep learning is usually imple- T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Selected CS articles and columns
mented through matrices, so work- Friedman, The Elements of Sta- are alsooriginally
This article available for free at
appeared in
http://ComputingNow.computer.org.
ing with it requires efficient matrix tistical Learning: Data Mining, IEEE Software, vol. 33, no. 5, 2016.
operations and manipulation. Usu-
ally the implementations are in C
or C++, but designing ANNs at that
level is unwieldy. Python program-
mers can use the Theano library to
define ANNs, which are compiled to
C code thats then compiled to ma-
chine language. Recently, Google re- Take the CS Library
leased as open source its TensorFlow
library for working with ANNs.
wherever you go!
You can interact with TensorFlow IEEE Computer Society magazines and Transactions are now
through a Python API. A C++ API is available to subscribers in the portable ePub format.
also available; although not as easy Just download the articles from the IEEE Computer Society Digital
to use, it might give some perfor- Library, and you can read them on any device that supports ePub. For
more information, including a list of compatible devices, visit
mance benefits.
Before jumping on the deep- www.computer.org/epub
learning bandwagon, keep in mind
that all machine-learning approaches
lie on a spectrum based on the ease
of interpreting their results. For ex-
ample, classification trees produce
rules that classify data. By reading

www.computer.org/computingedge SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2016 | I E E E S O F T WA R E 115 13


AI AND EDUCATION
Editor: Judy Kay, University of Sydney, judy.kay@sydney.edu.au

Articial Intelligence
as an Effective
Classroom Assistant
Benedict du Boulay, University of Sussex

T
he field of artificial intelligence in education a model of pedagogy, so that the system can
(AIED) has been in existence for about 40 make sensible tutorial moves, such as providing
effective feedback or adjusting the nature of the
years and has operated under various other names,
next task; and
the most common of which is intelligent tutoring sys- one or more interfaces through which the sys-
tems (ITSs). The field was initially brought to wider tem and the learner can communicate to explore
attention by papers in a special issue of the Inter- and learn about the domain in question.
national Journal of Man-Machine Studies,1 in a
book based on that special issue, 2 and in AI books Over the years, many systems using various
of the era.3 It continues to use techniques from AI pedagogical techniques and topics have been built
and cognitive science to attempt to understand the and evaluated. To illustrate the scope of the work,
nature of learning and teaching and to build sys- I discuss four diverse systems, which range from
tems to assist learners to master new skills or un- classic teaching in a formal subject and a pro-
derstand new concepts in ways that mimic the ac- cedural skill, to learning by creating external-
tions of a skilled human tutor working one-on-one ized forms of knowledge for a highly conceptual
with the learner. That is, such systems attempt to learning task, to rich, natural user interaction via
adapt the way they teach to the learners knowl- speech for learning complex, culture-laden skills.
edge, skill, and preferred ways of learning, and to The first AIED example is a system to help learn-
consider the learners affective trajectory as they ers understand basic algebra by being given prob-
deal with the expected setbacks and impasses of lems and then provided with step-by-step feedback
mastering new material. There is clearly some and guidance for their solution.4 The second exam-
overlap with other uses of computing technology ple is a system that helps learners gain a concep-
in education, although the commitment to individ- tual understanding of river ecosystems by building
ual adaptation through modeling different parts of a concept map of that domain, as if for another
the educational process is key. learner, and having that simulated other learner
For such systems to adapt to the learner and provide take tests on the concept maps adequacy. 5 The
a personalized experience, a typical conceptual archi- third example is a system that helps military per-
tecture has evolved. This consists of sonnel learn to speak Arabic and understand the
social and cultural norms needed to interact with
a model of the domain being learned, so that people in the country in which they are operating.6
the system can reason about and judge whether The fourth example illustrates the increas-
a students answer or a problem-solving step is ing importance of the interface in AIED systems
appropriate; and their use in informal learning environments,
a model of the learners current understanding such as museums, as well as formal ones. Figure 1
or skill level, so that tasks of appropriate com- shows Coach Mike, a pedagogical agent designed
plexity can be posed; to help children visiting a museum learn about

76 1541-1672/16/$33.00 2016 IEEE Ieee InTeLLIGenT SYSTemS


14 April 2017 Published by the IEEE Computer
Published Society
by the IEEE Computer Society  2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE
Answer-, Step-, and Substep-Based Tutoring

I
magine that a student must solve the following equation: In a step-based system, the student might be invited to
2(14 x) = 23 + 3x. multiply out the bracket expression as a first step, and thus will
An answer-based system would expect the student to give 28 2x as the answer to that step. If the student requests
do all the work offline and then provide the answer x = 1. a hint or gives a wrong answer to this step, the tutor can give
If asked for a hint, the tutor can suggest broad ways of help about how to work that step. Once the step is completed
going about the problem, such as to collect all the terms in correctly, the tutor would invite an answer to the next step,
x on one side of the equation, but the tutor has no way of such as reordering terms in the equation, and then on through
knowing that this advice is being followed. If the answer further steps to the final answer.
provided is wrongfor example, x = 1.25the tutor might In a substep-based system, there might be a remedial
be able to hypothesize that the student multiplied out the dialogue at a finer level than an individual step, for instance,
bracket incorrectly, but if the answer provided is, say, x = 14, about what expressions such as 2x or 3x mean, if that seems
it probably will not offer much in the way of specific help. warranted by the request for a hint or by a wrong step answer.

Figure 1. Coach Mike, a pedagogical agent, in three different poses.7 Source: H. Chad Lane; used with permission.

robotics. This kind of application ex- tors work, including helping orientate duced a small but significant effect
tends the role of classroom teaching7: visitors, encouraging them to explore, on learning.11
and providing problem-solving chal- This column is not intended as sup-
It means that such systems need to go lenges and support. port for an argument about getting
beyond simply focusing on knowledge Some researchers have recently ar- rid of human teachers, but rather
outcomes. They must take seriously gued the benefits of AI systems in ed- as support for blended learning, in
goals such as convincing a visitor to en- ucation, 8,9 whereas others have been which some of the human teachers
gage, promoting curiosity and interest, more skeptical.10 This column looks work can be offloaded to AIED sys-
and ensuring that a visitor has a posi- at the evidence derived from meta- tems, as if to a classroom assistant.
tive learning experience. In other words, reviews and meta-analyses conducted
pedagogical agents for informal learning over the past five years. Its main fo- Meta-Analysis and
need to not only act as coach (or teacher), cus is on the comparative effective- Metareviews
but also as advocate (or salesperson). ness of AIED systems versus human Since 2011, several metareviews and
tutoring. Note that a metareview of meta-analyses have attempted to deter-
Coach Mike was designed to emu- the use of pedagogical agents (not mine the degree to which a whole host
late some of the human museum cura- necessarily in AIED systems) pro- of systems have been educationally

november/december 2016 www.computer.org/intelligent 77


www.computer.org/computingedge 15
Table 1. Effect sizes adapted from work by Kurt VanLehn.12

Comparison No. studies Mean effect size Reliability (%)


Answer based vs. no tutoring* 165 0.31 40
Step based vs. no tutoring 28 0.76 68 In a metareview of 107 studies,
Substep based vs. no tutoring 26 0.40 54 Wenting Ma and colleagues found simi-
lar results to VanLehn for step-based
Human vs. no tutoring 10 0.79 80
ITSs both when compared to a no-
Step based vs. answer based 2 0.40 50
tutoring condition (that is, just a text-
Substep based vs. answer based 6 0.32 33 book; mean effect size = 0.36) and,
Human vs. answer based 1 0.04 0 more positively than VanLehn, when
Substep based vs. step based 11 0.16 0 compared to large-group instruction led
Human vs. step based 10 0.21 30 by a human teacher (mean effect size
Human vs. substep based 5 0.12 0 = 0.44).14 They found no differences
when compared to small group human
*Row 1 was taken by VanLehn from a separate study.13
tutoring or one-on-one tutoring.
The same authors analyzed 22 sys-
effective. Typically, this has meant Given these granularity levels, tems for teaching programming and
comparing them in terms of learning VanLehn derived 10 pairwise com- also found a a significant advantage
gains with other instructional meth- parisons of effect sizes (see Table of ITS over teacher-led classroom
ods, such as whole-class teaching by 1). The rightmost column shows the instruction and non-ITS computer-
a human teacher or the use of a text- proportion of the results for that row based instruction.15 A larger version
book without a teacher. where the individual study compari- of a similar study involving 280 stud-
son was statistically reliable at the ies is currently in progress.16
VanLehns Meta-Analysis level p < 0.05. In a metareview of 50 studies in-
Kurt VanLehn analyzed papers com- For the purposes of this review, the volving 63 comparisons, James Kulik
paring five types of tutoring: no tutor- most interesting comparison is that and J.D. Fletcher found comparable im-
ing (for example, learning with just between one-on-one human tutor- provements (mean effect size = 0.65),17
a textbook), answer-based tutoring, ing and step-based tutors (effect size but they distinguished studies that
step-based tutoring, substep-based tu- = 0.21). By collating all the results in used standardized tests from those in
toring, and human tutoring.12 Table 1, VanLehn found that step- which the tests were more specifically
The difference between answer- based tutors were, within the limita- tuned to the system providing tuition,
based, step-based, and substep-based tions of his review, just as effective as with smaller effect sizes when stan-
tutoring resides in the granularity of adult, one-on-one tutoring for increas- dardized tests were employed. Over-
the interaction between the tutor and ing learning gains in STEM topics.12 all, they concluded that this meta-
student (see the sidebar, Answer-, He also found that although increasing analysis shows that ITSs can be very
Step-, and Substep-Based Tutoring). the granularity of instruction from an- effective instructional tools Devel-
Answer-based systems can provide swer-based to step-based yielded sig- opers of ITSs long ago set out to im-
hints and feedback only at the level nificant gains, going to the finer level prove on the success of CAI tutoring
of the overall answer. Step-based sys- of substep-based tutoring did not add and to match the success of human
tems can provide hints, scaffolding, further value. (Note that this latter tutoring. Our results suggest that ITS
and feedback on every step that the stu- finding was based on a small number developers have already met both of
dent makes in solving the problem. By of studies only.) these goals.17 They also found better
contrast, substep-based systems work results for substep-based systems than
at a finer granularity level still and can Six Metareviews VanLehn, which they ascribed to dif-
give scaffolding and feedback at a level Since VanLehns meta-analysis, six fering comparison methodologies.
of detail that is even finer than the steps metareviews have been published, as Much smaller effect sizes were
students would normally enter when well as a large-scale study of a spe- found by Saiying Steenbergen-Hu and
solving a problem.12 AI techniques are cific tutor (see Table 2). In the table, Harris Cooper in their meta-analysis
required to underpin both step-based the number of comparisons col- of pupils using ITSs in school set-
and substep-based tutors, whereas an- umn shows the number of instances tings.18 Kulik and Fletcher put this
swer-based systems would typically fall for the given comparison in that row, down to the weaker study inclusion
under the heading of computer-based not the total number of studies in the criteria (for example, the inclusion of
or computer-assisted instruction (CAI). overall metareview. answer-based systems as if they were

78 www.computer.org/intelligent Ieee InTeLLIGenT SYSTemS


16 Computing Edge April 2017
Table 2. Six metareviews and a large-scale study.

Row number Metareview Comparison No. comparisons Mean effect size Standard error
1 VanLehn12 Step based vs. one-on-one human 10 0.21 0.19*
tutoring
2 Wenting Ma and colleagues14 Step based vs. one-on-one human 5 0.11 0.10
tutoring
3 Ma and colleagues14 Step based vs. large group human 66 0.44 0.05
instruction
4 John Nesbit and colleagues15 Step based vs. teacher-led group 11 0.67 0.09
instruction
5 James Kulik and J.D. Fletcher 17 Step based and substep based vs. 63 0.65 0.07
conventional classes
6 Saiying Steenbergen-Hu and Step based vs. one-on-one human 3 0.25 0.24
Harris Cooper (2014)19 tutoring
7 Steenbergen-Hu and Cooper Step based vs. traditional classroom 16 0.37 0.07
(2014)19 instruction
8 Steenbergen-Hu and Cooper Step based and answer based vs. 26 0.09 0.01
(2013)18 traditional classroom instruction
9 John Pane and colleagues20 Blended learning including a 147 schools 0.1 0.10
step-based system vs. traditional
classroom instruction
0.21 0.10

0.01 0.11

0.19 0.14
10 Weighted mean AIED system vs. one-on-one human 18 0.19 N/A
tutoring
11 Weighted mean AIED system vs. conventional 182 0.47 N/A
classes
* The standard error in row 1 is based on all 10 studies, not just the 30% that produced reliable results (see Table 1).
Standard errors computed by this articles author.

step-based systems) used by Steen- Rows 10 and 11 of Table 2 summa- lion students use the courses each
bergen-Hu and Cooper, who also rize the results of the metareviews, ex- year.21 They represent the most
noted that lower achievers seemed cluding the evaluation of the Cogni- successful transition, in terms of
to do worse with ITSs than did the tive Algebra Tutor (row 9), and show numbers of students, of AIED work
broad spectrum of school pupils, al- a weighted mean effect size of 0.47 from the laboratory to the class-
though Kulik and Fletcher disputed for AIED systems versus conven- room. They provide scaffolded help
this result.17 However, in a parallel tional classroom teaching. We use the with step-by-step problem-solving in
study of university students, Steen- term AIED system to cover all the sys- various domains, mostly mathemati-
bergen-Hu and Cooper found more temsstep-based, substep-based, cal, and are designed to be used in
positive effect sizes (in the range of and answer-basedlooked at in the a blended learning man ner, thus
0.32 to 0.37) for ITSs as compared to metareviews. The comparison with freeing up the teacher to work with
conventional instruction.19 They con- one-on-one human tutoring shows that other children. Teachers are trained
clude that ITSs have demonstrated AIED systems do slightly worse, with a to make the best of these systems ar-
their ability to outperform many in- mean effect size of 0.19. In both cases, rival in their classrooms in terms of
structional methods or learning ac- the means are weighted in terms of the managing all the pupils in the class-
tivities in facilitating college-level number of comparisons in the metare- room before, during, and after the
students learning of a wide range of view, not in terms of the original N val- use of the tutors.4 Individual evalu-
subjects, although they are not as ef- ues in the studies themselves. ations of various Cognitive Tutors
fective as human tutors. ITSs appear are included in the reviews already
to have a more pronounced effect on Cognitive Tutors described.
college-level learners than on K12 Cognitive Tutors are found in about A large-scale US study of the Cog-
students.19 3,000 schools, and over a half mil- nitive A lgebra Tutor u nder took a

november/december 2016 www.computer.org/intelligent 79


www.computer.org/computingedge 17
between-schools project involv- dle schools and in the second year 5. K. Leelawong and G. Biswas, Design-
ing 73 high schools and 74 middle of the evaluation as opposed to the ing Learning by Teaching Agents: The
schools across seven states. 20 The first year. For various reasons, the Bettys Brain System, Intl J. Artificial
schools were matched in pairs: half way forward for AIED systems in Intelligence in Education, vol. 18, no. 3,
received the Cognitive Algebra Tu- the classroom must be the blended 2008, pp. 181208.
tor and adjusted their teaching to in- modelclassroom assistants, if you 6. W.L. Johnson, Serious Use of a Serious
clude it as they saw fit, whereas the likein order to provide detailed Game for Language Learning, Intl J.
others carried on with their regular one-on-one tutoring for some stu- Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol.
method of teaching algebra. The dents while the human teacher at- 20, no. 2, 2010, pp. 175195.
study ran for two years and found tends to others, as well as having 7. H.C. Lane et al., The Effects of a
no significant differences on post- overall responsibility for all the stu- Pedagogical Agent for Informal Science
test scores in the first year of the dents progress. Education on Learner Behaviors and
study, but in the second year, the Of course, good post-test results Self-Efficacy, Proc. 16th Intl Conf.
high schools that used the Cognitive are not the only criteria for judg- Artificial Intelligence in Education,
Tutor showed a small but significant ing whether an educational technol- 2013, pp. 309318.
effect size of 0.21 (see the bolded ogy will be or should be adopted.10 8. R. Luckin et al., Intelligence Unleashed:
data in row 9 of Table 2). However, the overall message of An Argument for AI in Education, Pear-
Note that how the Cognitive Tutor these evaluations is that blending son, 2016.
was actually used in the classrooms AIED technology with other forms of 9. B.P. Woolf et al., AI Grand Challenges
was not controlled, although post hoc teaching is beneficial, particularly for for Education, AI Magazine, vol. 34,
analyses showed that teachers did not older pupils and college-level students no. 4, 2014, pp. 6684.
generally use the Tutor exactly as rec- studying STEM subjects. 10. N. Enyedy, Personalized Instruction:
ommended by its developers. New Interest, Old Rhetoric, Limited
Results, and the Need for a New Direc-
Acknowledgments
The overall conclusion of these meta-
tion for Computer-Mediated Learning,
This column is an adapted and expanded policy brief, National Education Policy
reviews and analyses is that AIED sys- version of a letter to the editor of the Inter- Center, 2014.
tems perform better than both CAI national Journal of Artificial Intelligence in 11. N.L. Schroeder, O.O. Adesope, and R.B.
Education. 22
systems and human teachers work- Gilbert, How Effective Are Pedagogical
ing in large classes. They perform Agents for Learning? A Meta-Analytic
slightly worse than one-on-one human References Review, J. Educational Computing
tutors. Most of the systems taught 1. J.S. Brown, R.R. Burton, and A.G. Bell, Research, vol. 49, no. 1, 2013, pp. 139.
mathematics or STEM subjects, be- SOPHIE: A Step Towards a Reactive 12. K. VanLehn, The Relative Effective-
cause these are the kinds of subject Learning Environment, Intl J. Man- ness of Human Tutoring, Intelligent
for which it is easier to build the do- Machine Studies, vol. 7, 1975, Tutoring Systems, and Other Tutoring
main and student models mentioned pp. 675696. Systems, Educational Psychologist,
in the introduction. Note that there 2. T. OShea, A Self-Improving Quadratic vol. 46, no. 4, 2011, pp. 197221.
was a degree of overlap between these Tutor, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, D. 13. C.-L.C. Kulik and J.A. Kulik, Effective-
metareviews and analyses in terms of Sleeman and J.S. Brown, eds., Academic ness of Computer-Based Instruction: An
the collections of individual evalu- Press, 1982. Updated Analysis, Computers in Human
ations from which they have drawn 3. J.S. Brown and R.R. Burton, Multiple Behavior, vol. 7, nos. 12, 1991, pp. 7594.
their conclusions. Representations of Knowledge for 14. W. Ma et al., Intelligent Tutoring Sys-
The specific study of the Cogni- Tutorial Reasoning, Representation tems and Learning Outcomes: A Meta-
tive Tutor for Algebra evaluated its and Understanding, D.G. Bobrow and Analysis, J. Educational Psychology,
use as a blended addition to the reg- A. Collins, eds., Academic Press, 1975, vol. 106, no. 4, 2014, pp. 901918.
ular algebra teaching in the schools pp. 311349. 15. J.C. Nesbit et al., How Effective Are
in which it was tried, rather 4. K.R. Koedinger et al., Intelligent Tu- Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Com-
than as a total replacement for the toring Goes to School in the Big City, puter Science Education? Proc. IEEE
teachers, and found good results Intl J. Artificial Intelligence in Educa- 14th Intl Conf. Advanced Learning
in high schools as opposed to mid- tion, vol. 8, no. 1, 1997, pp. 3043. Technologies, 2014, pp. 99103.

80 www.computer.org/intelligent Ieee InTeLLIGenT SYSTemS


18 Computing Edge April 2017
16. J.C. Nesbit et al., Work in Progress: 19. S. Steenbergen-Hu and H. Cooper, A 22. B. du Boulay, Recent Meta-Reviews
Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Com- Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of and Meta-Analyses of AIED Systems,
puter Science and Software Engineer- Intelligent Tutoring Systems on College Intl J. Artifi cial Intelligence in Educa-
ing Education, Proc. 122nd Am. Soc. Students Academic Learning, J. Edu- tion, vol. 26, no. 1, 2016, pp. 536537.
Eng. Education Ann. Conf., 2015, cational Psychology, vol. 106, no. 2,
paper 11861. 2014, pp. 331347.S. benedict du boulay is an emeritus profes-
17. J.A. Kulik and J.D. Fletcher, Effective- 20. J.F. Pane et al., Effectiveness of sor of artificial intelligence and a member of
ness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at Scale, the Human Centered Technology Research
Meta-Analytic Review, Rev. Educa- Educational Evaluation and Policy Group at the University of Sussex. Contact
tional Research, vol. 86, no. 1, 2016, Analysis, vol. 36, no. 2, 2014, him at b.du-boulay@sussex.ac.uk.
pp. 4278. pp. 127144.
18. S. Steenbergen-Hu and H. Cooper, A 21. K.R. Koedinger and V. Aleven, An
Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Interview Refl ection on Intelligent
Intelligent Tutoring Systems on K12 Tutoring Goes to School in the Big Read your subscriptions
Students Mathematical Learning, J. City, Intl J. Artifi cial Intelligence in through the
This article originally myCS pub-
appeared in
Educational Psychology, vol. 105, Education, vol. 16, no. 1, 2016, lications
IEEE Intelligent Systems, at http://
portalvol. 31,
no. 4, 2013, pp. 970987. pp. 1324. no. 6, 2016. mycs.computer.org.

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revised 26 Jan. 2017

november/december 2016 www.computer.org/intelligent 81


www.computer.org/computingedge 19
From the Editor in Chief Editor in Chief: Maria R. Ebling n IBM T.J. Watson Research Center n ebling@us.ibm.com

TJBot and Zooids:


The Connection between
Pervasive Computing and AI
Maria R. Ebling, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

P ervasive computing and AI have


always struck me as a match made
in heaven. The notion that technology
EDIToRIAl BoARD CHAngEs

Im sorry to announce that Anind Dey will be stepping down as Associate Editor-
will fade into the background of our in-Chief. His expertise and leadership in the area of human-computer interaction,
lives necessarily requires understand- especially in context-aware computing, will be missed. We thank him for his many
years of service to IEEE Pervasive Computing.
ing and anticipating our needs, which
requires some level of AI.
Zooids are small, ant-like robots with Both of these projects also leverage
BrIngIng AI to PErvASIvE little wheels, a touch sensor, gyros, and internal AI capabilitieseither explic-
ComPutIng an optical sensor on top to monitor itly or implicitly. These kits highlight
The maker community has recently instructions from a projector overhead. that our industry is on the cusp of fun-
rolled out kits to bring these two areas Zooids work cooperatively, in a swarm, damental changes in the way we will
of computer science together. Two to accomplish things like moving your interact with technology.
notable examples are the TJBot and phone closer to you or coming out of a
the Zooids. mouse hole in the wall at night to tidy up In thIS ISSuE
TJBot is a DIY kit for creating a card- while you sleep (I like this one the best Drones, our theme for this issue, are
board robot with Watson inside. Inside but its still just a vision). Like TJBot, another good example of technology
TJBot is a Raspberry Pi with a camera, Zooids software is available on GitHub, that falls at the intersection of perva-
microphone, speaker, and LED light and the authors invite interested com- sive computing with AI. Many thanks
with easy connection to Watson services. munity members to try them out. You to Albrecht Schmidt and Floyd Mueller
The TJBot kit provides three starter can find the software at https://github. for focusing our attention on drones. In
recipes. The first is a sentiment analysis com/ShapeLab/SwarmUI. this issue, we also introduce two new
that changes the color of TJBots LED Interestingly, both of these maker departments: IoT News and Human
based on the emotional sentiment of a projects are exploring fundamental Augmentation.
particular topic on Twitter. The second questions about human-computer Our first new department, IoT News,
lets you use your voice to control TJBot. interaction. TJBot is looking to under- is led by Florian Michahelles from Sie-
The third lets you have a conversation stand how humans will (want to) inter- mens and presents news and research
with TJBot. This open source project act with cognitive objects, especially on the Internet of Things. The coverage
is available on GitHub. Directions for using voice commands. Zooids are will range from industrial use cases of
printing your very own TJBot, as well exploring how humans might exploit IoT to social and business implications.
as the initial recipes and recipes contrib- swarm-based user interfaces consisting Michahelles is looking for contribu-
uted by the community, are available at of small, tangible robots working in tions from the community and outlines,
https://ibmtjbot.github.io. concert with one another and a human. in more detail, what he is looking for

mISSIon StAtEmEnt: IEEE Pervasive Computing is a catalyst for advancing research and practice in mobile and ubiquitous computing.
It is the premier publishing forum for peer-reviewed articles, industry news, surveys, and tutorials for a broad, multidisciplinary community.

2 20 VA SI V E computing
PER April 2017 Published by the IEEE Computer Society
Published by the IEEE CS n 2469-7087/17/$33.00
1536-1268/17/$33.00
2017
2017 IEEE
IEEE
CAll FoR VolunTEERs
IEEE Computer Society
IEEE Pervasive Computing is launching a open positions include department
drive to recruit new volunteers. Through editors for three departments: Confer- Publications office
a position on the IEEE Pervasive Comput- ences, Education, and Wearable Com- 10662 Los Vaqueros Circle
ing editorial or initiatives team, you can puting. Were also open to proposals Los Alamitos, CA 90720
serve your profession, interact closely for new departments. In addition, were
with leaders in our field, affect our fields creating a new organization within our
direction, and gain recognition and team of volunteers, the initiatives team.
visibility. Members of this team will help the StAff
We are reaching out to our readers to magazine in other roles by contribut-
Lead Editor
expand our editorial team beyond our ing their knowledge, experience, and
Brian Brannon
immediate networks. We encourage connections. The open positions for the
bbrannon@computer.org
researchers from all demographics, loca- initiatives team include the following:
tions, organizations and areas of research online presence and engagement, so- Content Editor
relevant to pervasive computing, mobile cial network ambassador, constituency Shani Murray
computing, and the Internet of Things to ambassador manager, constituency Assoc. Peer Review Manager
join IEEE Pervasive Computings volunteer ambassador, awards, IEEE Computer Hilda Carman
network. you can see the current board society project liaison, and member Publications Coordinator
composition at www.computer.org/ at-large. pervasive@computer.org
pervasive, under About. Anyone interested in volunteering is
Were looking for volunteers to join asked to fill out the application found at: Contributors
our editorial board as well as to join Keri Schreiner,
http://tinyurl.com/zgwrzj5. Joan Taylor, and Teri Sullivan
our new initiatives team. Members of
the editorial board contribute, edit, or Full consideration will be given to appli- Director, Products & Services
manage the magazines content. The cations received by 1 February 2017. Evan Butterfield
Senior Manager, Editorial Services

Call
Robin Baldwin
Senior Business Development Manager
from community submissions. Please built a system that follows human ges- Sandra Brown

Articles
read through it and consider submitting tures from the phone, even when the Membership Development Manager
material for future issues.
Our second new department, Human
phone is in your pocket. Imagine being
able to use gestures to control your
for Cecelia Huffman
Senior Advertising Coordinator
Marian Anderson
Augmentation, is led by Albrecht phone without having to dig it out of
manderson@computer.org
Schmidt. In this department, Schmidt your pocket! I found the article fasci-
plans to discuss technologies designed to nating and seemingly right out of a sci- IEEE Software seeks practical, readable
augment the human intellect, including ence fiction novel. articles that will appeal to experts and
IEEE Pervasive Computing (ISSN 1536-1268) is
cognition and perception. In this issue, In our Pervasive Health depart- nonexperts alike. The magazine aims
published quarterly by the IEEE Computer Society. IEEE
he argues that the ongoing technical rev- ment, Kay Connelly, Oscar Mayora, to deliver reliable,
Headquarters, useful,
Three Park leading-edge
Ave., 17th Floor, New York,
NY 10016-5997; IEEE Computer Society Publications
olution is the modern equivalent of the Jesus Favela, Maia Jacobs, Aleksandar information to software developers, engineers,
Office, 10662 Los Vaqueros Circle, PO Box 3014, Los
industrial revolution. He explains how Matic, Chris Nugent, and Stefan Wag- Alamitos,
and CA 90720-1314,
managers to help phone
them +1 714on
stay 821top
8380;
of
IEEE Computer Society Headquarters, 2001 L St.,
todays technologies enhance our cogni- ner report on the outcomes of a set of rapid technology
Ste. 700, Washington,change. Topics
DC 20036. include
Subscribe to IEEE
tive abilities much the way technologies discussions held at the Future of Per- Pervasive Computing
requirements, by visiting
design, www.computer.org/
construction, tools,
pervasive.
of the industrial revolution enhanced our vasive Health Workshop. During this project management, process improvement,
physical abilities. This department will workshop, they identified five major maintenance, testing, education and training,
help us understand the societal implica- themes: technological challenges and
quality, standards,
Postmaster: and more.
Send undelivered copies and address
tions of pervasive computing and IoT. opportunities, adoption and adherence changes to IEEE Pervasive Computing, Membership
In our Smartphones department, of pervasive health solutions, open data Processing Dept., IEEE Service Center, 445 Hoes
Author guidelines:
Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854-4141. Periodicals
Rajalakshmi Nandakumar and Shyam- for pervasive health, pervasive health postage paid at New York, NY, and at additional mailing
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nath Gollakota discuss the prototype methods and ethical issues, and the offices. Canadian GST #125634188. Canada Post
Further details:
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system they built, demonstrating some road to education on pervasive health.
www.computer.org/software
Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to PO Box
compelling use cases for active sonar I found the summary of the discussion 122, Niagara Falls, ON L2E 6S8. Printed in the USA.
implementations on smartphones. They very interesting, especially the need for
describe two major use cases. First, they open data and a formal curriculum.
built and studied a system that detects Finally, our Notes from the Commu- IEEE prohibits discrimination, harassment and
bullying: For more information, visit www.ieee.org/
sleep disorders using active sonar on a nity department highlights some really web/aboutus/whatis/policies/p9-26.html.
smartphone. What makes this compel- interesting technologies. As someone who IEEE

ling is that you no longer have to attach has experienced physical therapy, includ-
all kinds of wires to the patient using ing for repetitive strain injuries of the
white goo in their hair! Second, they arms, I found the skintillates temporary

www.computer.org/computingedge
JAnuARyMARCH 2017 21
PER VA SI V E computing 3
From the editor in ChieF

From the editor in ChieF

tattoos particularly intriguing. The


potential of this technology for use in
physical therapy seems enormous! My
about users destinations. The authors
recognize the importance of location
predictions as well as the challenges
T he ability to bring AI together with
pervasive computing will help us
to create more compelling user experi-
physical therapist could see the potential faced in making such predictions on ences in the years to come. As we move
in helping change peoples habits, espe- mobile devices, including power con- forward, I anticipate these two fields
cially when they sit in front of a keyboard. sumption, privacy, and data sparsity. coming together more and more, in
We also have three feature articles To overcome these challenges, they applications from health, to drones, to
this issue, starting with A Survey of propose dividing the geographic area smarter cities.
Diet Monitoring Technology, by Haik into regions that uniquely differentiate
Kalantarian, Nabil Alshurafa, and Majid users paths. This approach addresses
Sarrafzadeh. This article provides a deep- the power consumption problem maria r. Ebling is a director at the IBM T.J.
dive analysis of different technologies because updates are needed much less Watson Research Center. she manages a team
available for monitoring eating behav- frequently. It addresses the privacy building systems capable of supporting a
iors. These technologies range from problem because the users exact loca- smarter Planet while not forgetting about the
manual tracking, to acoustic monitoring, tion within the region is unimportant. people who use such systems. Ebling received
to gesture recognition, to instrumented It addresses the data sparsity problem her PhD in computer science from Carnegie Mel-
objects, to visual approaches, to sensors by reducing the overall state space. lon university. shes a member of the IBM Acad-
attached to the skin. The authors also Although this approach shows prom- emy of Technology, a distinguished member of
performed a survey designed to measure ise, more research is needed before it is the ACM, and a senior member of IEEE. Contact
user acceptance of these technologies. applied in the real world. her at ebling@us.ibm.com.
This article provides a thorough review
of the many ways to do automated track-
ing of eating behaviors. This article originally appeared in
The next article is Semi-Automated IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 16, no. 1, 2017.
Tracking: A Balanced Approach for
Self-Monitoring Applications, by Eun

Call rticles
Kyoung Choe, Saeed Abdullah, Mash-
fiqui Rabbi, Edison Thomaz, Daniel

for A
A. Epstein, Felicia Cordeiro, Matthew
Kay, Gregory D. Abowd, Tanzeem
Choudhury, James Fogarty, Bong-
shin Lee, Mark Matthews, and Julie g
A. Kientz. The authors make the case
C o m putin
ive
ervas
for semi-automated tracking of health eer-
te s t p
E P the la
IEE
behaviors. Semi-automated tracking er s o n
ul p a p e , an d
balances the convenience of automated , u s ef sible mobil
a cce s sive,
seek s ts in p e r va
tracking with the awareness of manual pmen are
ard w
ed d evelo inc lude h
tracking. The authors define semi- review opics
ut ing. T l-wor
ld
automated tracking and walk readers ou s co m p c tur e , rea
u biquit e inf ra s t r u
through its characteristics, contrast- f t war u te r
nolog
y, so
man - co m p
ing the strengths and weaknesses with te ch n , hu ding
inte rac tio tion s , inclu
those of both manual and automated g an d sidera
er sensin s co n
tracking. They then examine three Furth nd s y s te m ivac y.
t ion, a it y, a nd pr
important design considerations, and ils: t e ra c s e cu r
det a
in ilit y,
calab
give examples of semi-automated track- @ ym e nt , s
per vasive deplo
ing of food, mood, and sleep to dem- s: .htm
uter.o
rg e lin e u th o r
onstrate these ideas. Semi-automated co m p or guid er v asive /a
. Au t h r g /mc /p
tracking strikes me as a promising com- www .comp
uter.o
www
promise between fully automated and uter.
c om p ive
fully manual tracking approaches. er vas
Finally, in Region Formation for or g / p
Efficient Offline Location Prediction,
Ian Craig and Mark Whitty explore
the use of regions to make predictions

4 22 VA SI V E computing
PER Computing Edge April 2017
www.computer.org/pervasive
EDITOR ANN E.K. SOBEL
COMPUTING EDUCATION Miami University; sobelae@muohio.edu

Engineering the
New Boundaries
of AI
Amir Banifatemi, XPRIZE Foundation
Jean-Luc Gaudiot, University of California, Irvine

Recognizing the increasingly critical role that


AI plays in all aspects of modern society, the
XPRIZE Foundation launched the IBM Watson ENTER XPRIZE
Its this question of the impact of AI
AI XPRIZE. Interdisciplinary teams will advance
on mankind that inspired the IBM
current AI technologies as they compete for the Watson AI XPRIZE, the latest inno-
vation challenge from the XPRIZE
grand prize. Foundation. IBM sponsored the
competition with a prize purse of $5

A
million, including a grand prize of
I surrounds us. Its in our search engines, auto- $3 million, a second-place prize of $1 million, and a third-
mobiles, phones, video-streaming websites, place prize of $500,000. The goal of the competition is to
and even the systems that run our fi nancial accelerate the development of scalable AI solutions to ad-
markets. We interact with and rely on intelli- dress humanitys greatest challenges. The four-year com-
gent machines throughout our daily activities. petition will have milestone completions in 2017, 2018,
AI has made steady, linear progress toward adoption and 2019, with the top three fi nalists competing for the
and integration over the past 50 years. Its now at an im- grand prize in 2020.
portant inflection pointthe adoption curve could soon Recognizing the competitions humanitarian impor-
transcend the linear growth pattern and take an exponen- tance and global reach, the IEEE Computer Society (CS)
tial leap. With machine learning, AI technologies have the formed a partnership agreement in August 2016 with
potential to make sense of vast, complex datasets. This the XPRIZE Foundation. Select CS members will join
begs the question: How can we best leverage both human the XPRIZE scientific advisory board, and the CS will
intelligence and these powerful AI technologies to benefit draw from its global network of experts to help judge
humanity now and in the future? and advise the competitors. The CS will also encourage

2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society April 2017 23
COMPUTER 0018-9162/16/$33.00 2016 IEEE PUBLISHED BY THE IEEE COMPUTER SOCIET Y NOVEMBER 2016 77
COMPUTING EDUCATION

driving competitors to invest every


intellectual and financial resource at
XPRIZE ORIGIN STORY their disposal to solve the problem,
reach the goal, and win the prize, in-

T he history of XPRIZE is unique. The first was inspired by the $25,000 Orteig
Prize, which was awarded in 1927 to American aviator Charles Lindbergh for
flying the Spirit of St. Louis on the first nonstop flight between New York and Paris.
novation can take center stage. A large
number of groups can work in paral-
lel toward the goal, and the resulting
The original XPRIZE, announced in 1996, was a $10 million prize to the first solution or benefit can be quickly ad-
privately financed team that could build and fly a threepassenger vehicle 100 opted and realized by society.
km into space twice within two weeks. The prize, later titled the Ansari XPRIZE
for suborbital spaceflight, motivated 26 teams from 7 nations to invest more INCENTIVE-DRIVEN
than $100 million in pursuit of the $10 million prize. On 4 October 2004, the prize COMPETITIONS SPUR
was awarded to Mojave Aerospace Ventures, kicking off the personal spaceflight INNOVATION
revolution. Challenge-based models offering sub-
The first competition created a funding model to stimulate broad investment stantial financial prizes have histor-
in innovation that produces 10-fold return on the prize as well as a 100-fold in- ically succeed in driving innovation.
crease in followon investment and social benefit. This departure from traditional re-
The XPRIZE Foundation recognized that this extraordinary leverage could be search models enables competitors
beneficial for a range of global grand challenges in which these inducement prizes to focus on a solutions impact, rather
would lead to drastic and important improvements in quality of life. than the particulars of the methods
Active competitions include the $30 million Google Lunar XPRIZE, the $20 that are used to achieve it. Contribu-
million NRG COSIA Carbon XPRIZE, the $15 million Global Learning XPRIZE, the $10 tors are inspired to explore all possible
million Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE, the $7 million Shell Ocean Discovery XPRIZE, and creative ways to meet that objec-
the $7 million Barbara Bush Foundation Adult Literacy XPRIZE, and the $5 million tives and win.
IBM Watson AI XPRIZE. Of course, prizes for innovation
and technological achievements arent
new: The British governments sim-
ple and practical method to precisely
determine a ships longitude; Charles
its members to serve as mentors or to academic or corporate settings. Uni- Lindbergh won the Orteig Prize for
provide other technical expertise to versity- and corporation-based re- the first transatlantic flight from New
entrants in support of improving their search and development traditionally York to Paris; and, more recently, El-
application or approach as well as in have incentivized research advances bert Burt Rutans team won the An-
showcasing their teams progressive through promotion- or salary-based sari XPRIZE for developing the first
achievements. structures. XPRIZE funding and pub- reusable private spaceship.
The XPRIZE Foundation launched licity are untethered to any one cor- With tech-focused prizes, awards
its first competition in 1996 in an effort poration or institution, so they offer are tied to achievements versus at-
to spur privately funded innovation global recognition and opportunities tempts, and teams are driven to lever-
and research for space exploration for successful competitors. age any and all resources and support,
(learn more about XPRIZEs history in XPRIZE competitions draw sig- pulling together an impressive matrix
the XPRIZE Origin Story sidebar). nificant numbers of nontraditional of expertise, capital, collaboration sup-
With the success of this first compe- innovators and entrepreneurs and port, and achievement-oriented struc-
tition, the foundation has attracted enable them to focus completely on ture. In addition, recent incentive-
continued private funding for addi- one area of innovation. With its goal driven competitions have shown that
tional XPRIZE competitions in health, to bring about radical breakthroughs teams invest their own resources in
learning, energy, environment, global for the benefit of humanity through these competitions to the tune of 10 to
development and exploration. incentivized competition, the XPRIZE 100 times the prize itself.
These privately funded, prize- approach doesnt impose budget re- Competitions can come in all sizes
based scientific challenges are highly quirements or other significant ad- from the smaller Kaggle Competitions
attractive to individuals, compa- ministrative overhead. Researchers, (kaggle.com/competition) to the larger
nies, and organizations, and theyre engineers, and entrepreneurs are $1 million Netflix Prizethus theres
clearly inspiring a solution-focused free from constraints that might typ- more awareness and acceptance of
approach to grand challenges that is ically limit them with government- or such incentive prizes than ever. Of
less research oriented than traditional consortia-based funding sources. By course, scale and size matter, and

24 Computing Edge April 2017


78 COMPUTER W W W.CO M P U T E R .O R G /CO M P U T E R
multimillion-dollar competitions tend
to have a greater impact on the market
and innovation than smaller, more JOIN THE COMPETITION
localized versions. However, their
greater popularity has brought them
increasingly into other domainsin-
cluding the classroom. Educators have
D evelopers, engineers, entrepreneurs, and innovators throughout the world
are encouraged to form or join an AI XPRIZE team. To read more or submit an
entry, visit ai.xprize.org.
been enthusiastic to explore chal-
lenge-based learning, appreciating
their potential for developing stu-
dents abilities to work in teams, to be
inventive and resourceful, and to push experience, reason toward specific of stakeholders to help define the
beyond traditional lines of thought goals, and interact naturally with hu- guidelines and mechanisms by which
and institutional boundaries. Indeed, man collaborators. Thus, AI applica- AI could or should be used. The ben-
leveraging such challenges in the tions benefit greatly from expertise in efits of this kind of heterogeneous,
learning environment imparts some data science and machine intelligence team-based approach to address im-
unique skillsets that are invaluable as well as more humanities-focused portant humanitarian challenges is
for students as they transition to the disciplines. that many voices can be heard, allow-
modern workplace. To foster increasing democratiza- ing us to more knowledgably shape
tion and availability in AI technologies our future through technology.
THE AI XPRIZE and allow individuals from many dis- Because this competition is, at its
As the first open challenge in AI, the ciplines to participate in technological core, a large-scale collaboration em-
IBM Watson AI XPRIZE is unlike its and social AI innovation, the competi- ploying interdisciplinary approaches
predecessors. Rather than set a single tion is structured to attract large, col- to problem solving, its a tremendous
universal goal for all teams, this com- laborative teams. In fact, institutions learning opportunityindeed, the
petition invites teams to each create and organizations with computing first real benefit is learning.
their own goal: an application of AI to resources, datasets, tools, and domain
a meaningful problem. Once goals are expertise are encouraged to join the
defined, the teams will use their own competition as supporting partners to
best available resources, along with help teams with the development and
assistance from selected experts in the execution of their plans. Similarly, in-
professional AI and engineering com- dividual engineers, researchers, and
This article originally appeared in
munities, to develop their plans for the specific domain experts (healthcare,
Computer, vol. 49, no. 11, 2016.
duration of the competition. environment, education, art, policy,
Each team must demonstrate prog- economics, and so on) can join teams
ress and annual milestone achieve- as advisors or hands-on support
ments for their plan, which will ulti- indeed, its this cross-pollination of
AMIR BANIFATEMI is the lead
mately qualify them to compete for the knowledge, techniques, social con-
for the XPRIZE Foundations IBM
grand prize on the TED 2020 stage in texts, and methodologies that will
Watson AI XPRIZE. Contact him at
front of a live in-person and online au- contribute to accelerating education
amir.banifatemi@xprize.org.
dience. The audience and a panel of ex- and skills development as it drives
pert judges will crown the grand-prize groups toward meeting their goals and
JEAN-LUC GAUDIOT is a profes-
winner and rank the runners-up from winning the prize.
sor of electrical engineering and
the three finalists.
computer science at University
As AI encompasses a wide range

T
of California, Irvine. He is IEEE
of disciplines, teams can utilize sev- he XPRIZEs public visibility Computer Societys president-elect.
eral types of specialized technology will have a tremendous impact Contact him at gaudiot@uci.edu.
in achieving their goals. Technologies on increasing our everyday
that drive or support intelligent be- awareness of AI, particularly the ways
haviors also integrate sensory inputs in which it benefits society. Through
and cognitive capabilities. These sys- this kind of highly publicized, global, Read your subscriptions
tems support humanmachine collab- interdisciplinary, public/private com- through the myCS
publications portal at
oration through their ability to possess petition, the XPRIZE Foundation also
http://mycs.computer.org
domain understanding, learn from opens up a crucial forum for a variety

www.computer.org/computingedge 25
NOVEMBER 2016 79
Data analytics
EDitOR: Seth
EDITOR: seth Earley, Earley Information
information Science,
science, seth@earley.com

There Is No AI
Without IA
Seth Earley, Earley Information Science

A
rtificial intelligence (AI) ence in 2015,4 uses deep learning customers. These initiatives in-
is increasingly hyped by and neural nets. DigitalGenius first clude improving personalization
vendors of all shapes and classifies the incoming questions of the user experience by present-
sizesfrom well-funded into one of several categories for ing more relevant content; tuning
startups to the well-known software further processing: product infor- search results to return exactly
brands. Financial organizations are mation, account information, ac- what the user is interested in; and
building AI-driven investment advi- tion request, comparison question, improving the effectiveness of of-
sors.1 Chat bots provide everything recommendation question, and so fers and promotions. Organiza-
from customer service2 to sales as- on. These classifications qualify tions might also strive to increase
sistance.3 Although AI is receiv- as a foundational element of infor- response rates to email communi-
ing a lot of visibility, the fact that mation architecture. The starting cations; provide better customer
these technologies all require some point is contextualizing the query, self-service; increase participation
element of knowledge engineer- which is then passed to other mod- in user communities and other
ing, information architecture, and ules, including product informa- social media venues; and gener-
high-quality data sources is not tion systems and other databases ally enhance the product experi-
well known. Many vendors sidestep and APIs. Each of these systems ence through various other online
this question or claim that their al- and sources in turn needs to be mechanisms. In each of these
gorithms operate on unstructured well architected to return the cor- cases, the means of engagement is
information sources, understand rect information. If the informa- providing a relevant piece of data
those sources, interpret the user tion is not structured and curated or content (in the form of promo-
query, and present the result with- in some way, there is nothing for tions, offers, sales, next-best ac-
out predefined architectures or hu- the system to return. The ability of tion, products for cross sell and
man intervention. That very well DigitalGenius to use AI to engage upsell, answers to questions, and
might be true in certain circum- customers is predicated on having so on) at exactly the right time and
stances, but most applications re- high-quality, structured data. in the context that is most mean-
quire a significant amount of hard ingful and valuable to the user.
work on the part of humans before Digital Engagement: This is done by interpreting the
neural nets, machine learning, and The Right Information various signals that users provide
natural language processors can in Context through their current and past
work their magic. Organizations are in a never- interactions with the organiza-
DigitalGenius, a product that ending cycle of improving their tion. These signals include prior
received press coverage at a confer- digital means of engaging with purchases, real-time click-stream

26 April 2017 Published by the IEEE Computer Society  2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE
58 IT Pro May/June 2016 Published by the IEEE Computer Society 1520-9202/16/$33.00 2016 IEEE
data, support center interactions, program is. A corpus of informa- ent the right content for the users
consumed content, preferences, tion contains the answers that the context, and requires not only
buying characteristics, demo- program is attempting to process that our customer data is clean,
graphics, firmographics, social and interpret. Structuring that in- properly structured, and inte-
media information, and any other formation for retrieval is referred grated across multiple systems
electronic body language that is to as knowledge engineering and the and processes but also that the
captured by marketing automa- structures are called knowledge system understand the relation-
tion and integration technolo- representation. ship between the user, his or her
gies. A search query could return specific task, the product, and the
a different result for a technical Ontologies as Knowledge content neededall assembled
user than a nontechnical user, for Representations dynamically in real time. Building
example. At its core, search is a Knowledge representation con- these structures and relationships
recommendation engine. The sig- sists of taxonomies, controlled and harmonizing the architec-
nal is the search phrase, and the vocabularies, thesaurus struc- ture across the various back-end
recommendation is the result set. tures, and all of the relationships platforms and front-end systems
The more that is known about the bet ween terms and concepts. results in an enterprise ontology
user, the more the recommenda- These elements collectively make that enables a personalized, om-
tion can be tailored. If the recom- up the ontology. An ontology rep- nichannel experience. Some might
mendation is related to a product, resents a domain of knowledge call this an enterprise informa-
then clean, well-structured prod- and the information architecture tion architecture; however, there
uct data is a precondition. structures and mechanisms for is more to it than the data struc-
accessing and retrieving answers tures. Recall that the definition of
Personalization, in specific contexts. Ontologies an ontology includes real-world
User Signals, and
Recommendations
Getting these recommendations Every AI program interfaces with information, and
right and truly personalizing the
user experience requires that
the better that information is structured, the more
product data be correctly struc- effective the program is.
tured and organized, that con-
tent processes be integrated into
product onboarding, and that can also capture common sense logic and relationships. The ontol-
associations can be made among knowledge of objects, processes, ogy can contain knowledge about
products, content, and user intent materials, actions, events, and processes, customer needs, and
signals. The relationship of prod- myriad more classes of real-world content relationships.5
ucts to content is based on knowl- logical relationships. In this way,
edge of the users task and what an ontology forms a foundation Mining Content for
content would help him or her for computer reasoning even if the Product Relationships
accomplish it. The task might be answer to a question is not explic- Consumer and industrial prod-
a review, a how-to, product speci- itly contained in the corpus. The ucts need to be associated with
fications, reference materials, in- answer can be inferred from the content and user context, but
structions, diagrams and images, facts, terms, and relationships in content can also be mined to sug-
or other content that helps the the ontology. In a practical sense, gest products for a user context.
user decide on the purchase. this can make the system more For an industrial application, a
AI encompasses a class of ap- user friendly and forgiving when user might need parts and tools
plication that allows for easier the user makes requests using to complete maintenance on a
interaction with computers and phrase variations, and more capa- hydraulic system. Using adap-
also allows computers to take on ble when it encounters use cases tive pattern-recognition software
more of the types of problems that were not completely defined to mine reference manuals about
that were typically in the realm of when it was developed. In effect, hydraulic systems and repair, the
human cognition. Every AI pro- the system can reason and make system can extract a list of needed
gram interfaces with information, logical deductions. tools and related parts. A search
and the better that information is Correctly interpreting user sig- on hydraulic repair will present
structured, the more effective the nals enables the system to pres- a dynamically generated product

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page based on the product rela- first car phone in the 80s, in ad- In many cases, the data being
tionships and correlated with the dition to costing several thousand processed or corpus being ana-
companys offerings. To some dollars, left little room for any- lyzed by AI systems is typically
information professionals, this thing else in the spacious trunk). less structured than better-orga-
might sound complex and cum- Most AI is quietly taken for grant- nized sources such as financial
bersome to implement; however, ed today. The word processor I am and transactional data. Learn-
there are emerging approaches using was once considered an ad- ing algorithms can be used to
that bring these aspirations closer vanced AI application! both extract meaning from am-
to reality. biguous queries and attempt to
Simplicity Is Hidden make sense of unstructured data
If It Works, Its Not AI Complexity inputs. Humans might phrase
The concept of what constitutes Under the covers, AI is complex; questions using different termi-
AI has evolved as technology has however, this complexity is hid- nology, or they might ask overly
evolved. A colleague of mine has den from the user and is, in fact, broad questions. They are not
said, Its artificial intelligence the enabler of an easy, intuitive always clear about their objec-
until you know how it works. An experience. It is not magic, and it tivesthey dont necessarily
interesting perspective indeed. I requires foundational structures know what they are looking for.
found support for this in mate- that can be reused across many This is why human sales people
rial from an MIT AI course (see dif ferent processes, depa r t- typically engage prospects in
http://bit.ly/1WTCUXK): ments, and applications. These conversations about their overall
structures are generally first de- needs, rather than asking them
Theres another part of AI [] veloped in silos and standalone what they are looking for. (At
thats fundamentally about appli- tools; however, the true power least, the good ones do.)
cations. Some of these applications will be realized when consid- Inserting AI into the process is
you might not want to call intel- ered in a holistic framework of more effective when users know
ligent [] For instance, compilers machine-intelligence-enabled what they want and can clearly
used to be considered AI, because infrastructure. AI will change articulate it, and where there is
[] statements [were in a] high- the business landscape but will a relatively straightforward an-
level language; and how could a require investments in product swer. The algorithm does what
computer possibly understand? and content architecture, cus- it does best in terms of handling
[The] work to make a computer un- tomer data, and analytics, and variations in how those ques-
derstand [] was taken to be AI. the harmonization of tools in tions are asked, interpreting the
Now [] we understand compilers, the customer engagement eco- meaning of the question, and
and theres a theory of how to build system. The organizations that processing other unstructured
compilers [] well, its not AI any- adopt these approaches will gain signals that help further con-
more. [] When they finally get significant advantages over the textualize the users intent.
something working, it gets co-opted competition. There are many flavors of AI
by some other part of the field. So, and many classes of algorithm
by definition, no AI ever works; if it Clean Data Is the Price that comprise AI systems. How-
works, its not AI. of Admission ever, even when AI systems are
AI approaches are proposed as the used to find structure f rom
Seemingly intractable problems answer to enterprise challenges completely unstructured in-
have been solved by advances in around improving customer en- formation, they still require
processing power and capabilities. gagement by dealing with infor- structure at the data layer.
Not long ago, autonomous vehicles mation overload. Before those Given that the data being
were considered technologically approaches can be leveraged, searched by the A I system is
infeasible due to the volume of however, organizations need to unstructured, why do we need
data that needed to be processed in possess the data needed as inputs information architecture? Un-
real time. Speech recognition was to machine learning algorithms structured information is typi-
unreliable and required extensive that can in turn process these di- cally in the form of text from pages,
speaker-dependent training ses- verse signals from unstructured documents, comments, surveys,
sions. Mobile phones were once and structured sources. Clean, social media, or some other source.
auto-mobile phones, requiring well-structured, managed data is Though it is unstructured, there
a car trunk full of equipment (my assumed. are still parameters associated with

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60 IT Pro May/June 2016
Table 1. Example applications for AI technology.
Application/problem Typical approach Why it will not work How AI helps
Omnichannel selling Integrations across systems Content is typically out Harvesting signals of user intent
that are inflexible of synch, and systems across channels and devices;
have brittle integrations. intelligent integration across
diverse classes of customer-
engagement technologies.
Personalization Classification of users Assumptions are Incorporating multiple data
and recommendation according to personas rudimentary and simplistic, sources, ontologies, and reasoning
engines and presentation of limit user choice, and rarely algorithms.
content based on use cases anticipate needs.
Dynamic content Limited assembly based on The number of permutations Assembling content that meets
assembly curated content cannot be tracked, managed, a users preferences while
or understood. incorporating real-time data, such
as news and market performance
supported by knowledge
embedded in ontologies.
Field service View of maintenance The volume of information Processing performance data to
equipment maintenance schedules and analysis from sensors and hidden predict or prevent maintenance
of field reports. signals from degrading events.
performance is not perceivable
by humans.
Customer self-service Knowledge bases There are insufficient Enabling intelligent agent
and FAQs considerations of user context, knowledge base access using
language variations, fast- multiple variables to provide
changing content, and a high specific answers with metrics-
volume of possible use cases. driven feedback loops.
Call center support Reps trained through For technical and specialized Enabling intelligent agent access
on-the-job experience, knowledge, the level of integrating answers and content
knowledge bases experience needed is too from multiple knowledge and data
costly. sources using natural language
interfaces.
Product and tool Hand-built landing pages Maintenance of hand-curated Harvesting product relationships
presentation and assembled landing through knowledge acquisition
pages becomes costly and and mining of reference materials
unmanageable. based on maintenance tasks and
repair use cases.

the source and context. Social identified, but the input needs to Some vendors might debate the
media information requires vari- have structure. value of this approach, insisting
ous parameters to describe users, A common fallacy in consider- that their algorithms can handle
their posts, relationships, time and ing big data sources that form in- whatever you throw at them
location of posts, links, hashtags, puts for machine learning is that however, I would argue that this
and so on. The information ar- because the data is schema-less is only the case when the ontolo-
chitecture question in this case (does not have a predefined struc- gies are self-contained in the tool.
characterizes the structures of the ture), no structure is required. Even so, there will always be gaps
input data, so that the system can Data still requires attribute defini- between what a tool developed for
be programmed to find patterns tions, normalization, and cleans- broad adoption can contain and
of interest. Even in the case of un- ing to apply machine learning and the specialized needs of an enter-
super vised machine learning pattern-identification algorithms.6 prise. Even if the tool is developed
(a class of application that derives As enterprises embark on the path for a specific industry, the differ-
signals from data that are not to machine learning and AI, they ences in processes found from or-
predefined by a human), the pro- should, first and foremost, be de- ganization to organization require
grammer still needs to describe veloping an enterprise ontology specialized vocabularies and con-
the data in the first place with at- that represents all of the knowl- textual knowledge relationships.
tributes and values. There might edge that any AI system they This is a significant undertaking;
not be predefined categories for deploy would process, analyze, le- however, not doing so misses an
outliers and patterns that are verage, or require. essential step in the process.

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Data analytics

Table 2. Examples of AI tools with representative applications, limitations, considerations, and data sources.

Class of tool Best suited for Limitations


Inference engine Deriving product and data relationships from Significant effort required in certain cases for
unstructured content development of adaptive pattern-recognition
algorithms
Intelligent agent Highly selective search and information retrieval Breadth of possible use cases, variability of
for definable processes queries and questions, degree of manual
term-relationship mapping
Auto-classifier Large volumes of higher-quality content where Rules bases can become very complex,
training sets or clear rules can be applied high volumes of training content required,
variability of content
Entity extractors Predictable formats for data (Social Security Ambiguity of entity values (for Washington,
numbers, addresses, names, phone numbers, can be Washington State, George Washington,
account numbers) Washington, DC, and so on), variations in
format, quality of content
Unsupervised Pattern detection, recognition, and prediction; Depends on creation of foundational hypothesis
machine learning anomaly detection, outliers, hidden attributes, to define type of outlier or pattern (though
and relationships; discovering new patterns or not necessarily details of pattern); selection
segmenting audiences, content, or data into of class of algorithm requires technical
clusters and groupings sophistication and iterative testing across
many classes of unsupervised learning from
data signals to content, images, or transactions
Supervised Pattern detection based on training data and Requires training sets and example data that
machine learning used for well-understood patterns; discovering teach the algorithm what type of information
data, content, and relationships based on is being sought; needs large enough samples
examples; finding similar documents, purchase to test various hypotheses and an understanding
patterns, audiences with like characteristics; of the specific outcome sought; risk of finding
predicting outcomes patterns where none exist (over fitting)
Hybrid unsupervised Finding hidden patterns (unsupervised); using Similar in concept to creating a survey with
and supervised those patterns to train an algorithm to locate open-ended questions, then taking the answers
learning more instances of the data or content to the survey and using those results to form
closed-ended surveys

Much of what is described as AI that will allow for continuous AI approach will require a greater
is an extension of well-known ap- improvement of AI and cognitive level of investment, sponsorship at
proaches to addressing informa- computing systems. the executive level, program-level
tion management problems, all of governance, and an enterprise
which require clean foundational Identifying Use Cases span of influence. It will also re-
data and information structures as Differentiating AI use cases from quire a longer-term commitment
a starting point. The difference be- standard information manage- than a typical information man-
tween standard information man- ment use cases requires consid- agement project. Although there
agement and practical AI lies in ering the sources of data that are opportunities to deploy limit-
understanding the limits of these comprise the signals being pro- ed scope AI, fully leveraging it as a
technologies and where they can cessed, the type of task the user transformative class of technology
best be applied to address enter- faces, and the systems that will be should be part of an overall digital
prise challenges. part of the solution. The differ- transformation strategy in some
The remainder of this article ence in approaches to these prob- cases on the scale of enterprise re-
describes how your organization lems lies in how the sources of source planning (ERP) programs,
can identify use cases that will data will be curated and ingested, with commensurate support,
benefit from AI, identifies data how organizing principles need funding, and commitment. (Some
sources that offer reliable and to be derived and applied, the ERP programs can cost US$50 to
meaningful insights to train and sophistication of the functional- $100 million or more). Although
guide AI, and defines governance, ity desired, and the limitations of no organization will approach an
curation, and scalable processes the current solution in place. An unproven set of technologies with

30 Computing Edge April 2017


62 IT Pro May/June 2016
Decision factors Example data
Volume of content, quality of corpus, structure of data within Structured documents such as catalogs, engineering
content (use of tables, headers, other identifiers, and delimiters) specifications, knowledge bases, ERP data

Narrow scenarios, defined repeatable Policy and procedure manuals, chat logs, customer
tasks, sophisticated audience, standard terminology for domain service databases, support tickets, knowledge harvested
from human subject matter experts
High-value content that has a predictable structure, Semi-structured content such as regulations, journal
curated with editorial standards articles, news articles, policies and procedures, support
documentation, engineering documents
Security, compliance, and reference-based applications (looking Same semi-structured content sources mentioned
for personally identifiable information, sensitive account above, along with controlled vocabularies and
information, intellectual property protection, fact identification) thesaurus structures to identify entity values

Determination of type of patterns that are being detected; not Unsupervised learning can be applied to virtually any
typically selected in isolation because learning algorithms are data source as the tools look for patterns; can be applied
embedded in many aspects of AI application; requires guidance of to unstructured and semi-structured content as well as
data science specialist knowledgeable in specific type of algorithm transactional data, images, audio and video, scientific
datasets, sensor data, social media sources, and so on

Similar challenges to unsupervised learning: typically embedded Same as unsupervised; the difference is having training
in AI applications rather than being applied as standalone tool sets that contain patterns sought
and requires specialized knowledge; can be used to find types
of images, content or data, purchase patterns, audiences, users,
combinations of products, or other patterns depending
on data sources
Most AI programs contain hybrid implementations of supervised Same data used for unsupervised learning can be used
and unsupervised and therefore the complexity of each approach as input for supervised learning after representative
can be compounded; requires research and experimentation to patterns have been identified
find correct combinations and fine-tune algorithms

that level of commitment, fund- organizations knowledge landscape user problems. Customer account
ing needs to be allocated to extend and implementation of new gov- data and purchase history can be
proven approaches with emerging ernance, metrics, and data quality processed to look for similarities in
AI technologies. programsgovernance to make buyers and predict responses to of-
The roadmap for AI transforma- decisions, metrics to monitor the fers; email response metrics can be
tion includes continuous evaluation effectiveness of those decisions, and processed with text content of offers
of payback and ROI and focuses data quality to fuel the AI engine. to surface buyer segments. Product
on short-term wins while pursuing Table 1 presents example appli- catalogs and data sheets are sources
longer-term goals. Most organiza- cations for AI technology. of attributes and attribute values.
tions are attempting to solve the Public references can be used for
problems described in Table 1 with Identifying Data Sources procedures, tool lists, and product
limited approaches, departmental- Training data can come from typi- associations. YouTube video con-
level solutions, standalone tools, cal knowledge bases, the more tent audio tracks can be converted
and insufficient funding. These highly curated the better. Call cen- to text and mined for product as-
problem classes are facing most en- ter recordings and chat logs can sociations. User website behaviors
terprises, and though progress can be mined for content and data re- can be correlated with offers and
be made with limited resources and lationships as well as answers to dynamic content. Sentiment analy-
siloed approaches, this would be an questions. Streaming sensor data sis, user-generated content, social
extension of business as usual. Tru- can be correlated with historical graph data, and other external data
ly transformative applications will maintenance records, and search sources can all be mined and re-
require an enterprise view of the logs can be mined for use cases and combined to yield knowledge and

www.computer.org/computingedge 31
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Data analytics

user-intent signals. The correct data will occur in subtle wayssuch 17 Nov. 2015; http://blogs.wsj.com/
sources depend on the application, as improved usability of applica- digits/2015/11/17/can-artificial
use cases, and objectives. tions and findability of informa- -intelligence-sell-shoes/.
Table 2 describes examples of tion. These will not necessarily 4. R. Miller, DigitalGenius Brings
AI tools with representative ap- appear on the surface to be AI. Artificial Intelligence to Customer
plications, limitations, consider- Over time, AI-driven intelligent Service via SMS, Tech Crunch, 5
ations, and data sources. Though vir tual assistants will become May 2015; http://techcrunch.com/
not meant to be an exhaustive more fluent and capable, and will 2015/05/05/digitalgenius-brings
list, and recognizing that one become the preferred mechanism -artificial-intelligence-to-customer
class of tool is frequently lever- for interacting with technology. -service-via-sms/.
aged in other tools and applica- Humans create knowledge, while 5. S. Earley, Lessons from Alexa:
tions (an intelligent agent can use machines process, store, and act Artificial Intelligence and Machine
inference engines, which in turn on that knowledge. AI is applied Learning Use Cases, blog, Earley
can leverage learning algorithms, human knowledge. Organizations Information Science, 24 Mar. 2016;
for example), the table articulates need to develop the foundations w w w.e a r l e y.c o m / blo g / l e s s o n s
considerations for exploring one for advancing AI by capturing -alexa-artificial-intelligence-and
approach versus another. and curating that knowledge and -machine-learning-use-cases.
by building the foundational data 6. J. Brownlee, How to Prepare Data
Defining Governance, structures that form the scaffold- for Machine Learning, Machine
Curation, and Scalable ing for that knowledge. Without Learning Mastery, 25 Dec. 2013;
Processes those components, the algorithms http://machinelearningmastery.com/
AI and cognitive computing are have nothing to run on. how-to-prepare-data-for-machine
managed in the same way as many -learning/.
other information and technology References
governance programs. They require 1. J. Vgeli, UBS Turns to Artificial Seth Earley is CEO of Earley Informa-
executive sponsorship, charters, Intelligence to Advise Clients, tion Science (www.earley.com). Hes an
roles and responsibilities, decision- Bloomberg, 7 Dec. 2014; www. expert in knowledge processes, enterprise
making protocols, escalation pro- blo omb e r g.com /ne w s /a r t ic le s / data architecture, and customer experi-
cesses, defined agendas, and linkage 2014-12-07/ubs-turns-to-artificial ence management strategies. His interests
to specific business objectives and -intelligence-to-advise-wealthy include customer experience analytics,
processes. These initiatives are a -clients. knowledge management, structured and
subset of digital transformation and 2. C. Green, Is Artificial Intelligence unstructured data systems and strategy,
are linked to customer life cycles and the Future of Customer Service? and machine learning. Contact him at
internal value chains. Because the MyCustomer, 3 Dec. 2015; www. seth@earley.com.
objective is always to affect a pro- mycustomer.com/service/channels/
cess outcome, all AI and cogni- is-artificial-intelligence-the-future
tive computing programs are closely -of-customer-service. Selected CS articles and
aligned with ongoing metrics at mul- 3. E. Dwoskin, Can Artificial Intelli- Thiscolumns
article originally appeared
are available for free in
at
tiple levels of detailfrom content gence Sell Shoes? blog, Wall Street J., IT Professional, vol. 18, no.
http://ComputingNow.computer.org. 3, 2016.
and data quality to process effective-
ness and satisfaction of business im-
perativesand ultimately are linked IT Professional (ISSN 1520-9202) is published bimonthly by the IEEE Computer Society. IEEE
to the organizational competitive Headquarters, Three Park Avenue, 17th Floor, New York, NY 10016-5997; IEEE Computer So-
ciety Publications Office, 10662 Los Vaqueros Circle, PO Box 3014, Los Alamitos, CA 90720-
and market strategy. Milestones and 1314; voice +714 821 8380; fax +714 821 4010; IEEE Computer Society Headquarters, 1828
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A
I will no doubt continue Editorial: Unless otherwise stated, bylined articles, as well as product and service descriptions,
reflect the authors or firms opinion. Inclusion in IT Professional does not
to impact every aspect of
www.computer.org/itpro
necessarily constitute endorsement by the IEEE or the Computer Society. All
our personal and profes- submissions are subject to editing for style, clarity, and space.
sional lives. Much of this impact

32 Computing Edge April 2017


64 IT Pro May/June 2016
Backspace

Unreliable Machine Learning

Vinton G. Cerf Google

I
m not an expert in machine learning, so this Theres something mildly unsettling about
essay is likely to expose this fact. Machine this it seems to suggest that we dont have
learning has been in the news increasingly in a theory of operation that allows us to make
the past few years with the occasional spectacular direct adjustments in a confident way. When in
headline, such as AlphaGo Beats World Cham- doubt, Google! So I did, and discovered a very
pion Go Player! or Self-Driving Cars Pass Two cogent paper from nearly 20 years ago on the
Million Miles on the Road! We cant help being subject of neural networks and Bayesian meth-
impressed by the successes of neural networks ods. My interpretation of this paper, as applied
and their uncanny ability to perform tasks that in to my worry about theory of operation, is that
some cases surpass human capacity. So how does the Bayesian methods can be applied to the
this work and why am I worried about it? operation of the neural network to corral some
John Giannandrea, Googles Senior Vice Pres- of the side effects of overfitting in consequence
ident for Search, Research, and Machine Intelli- of limited input data. While this doesnt offer
gence, likens neural networks to a box with about a mechanism for direct adjustment of the neu-
a million dials on it. As the box is exposed to ral model parameters, short of training, it does
inputs, it makes choices or decisions, and is given seem to improve the neural networks perfor-
feedback as to the correctness or desirability mance. Presumably, some progress has been
of its output. As these lessons proceed, the box made in the past 20 years so that Bishops paper
adjusts the dials until it performs to the train- doesnt represent the state of the art, although I
ers satisfaction. On the other hand, if someone found it oddly comforting.
said, What happens if you adjust THIS dial by If we presume that neural networks will find
2 percent? its not clear that anyone (including their way into an increasing variety of processes,
the trainer) would have a credible answer. This we might wonder how these systems will behave
is, of course, where my general lack of knowl- when they interact with each other in the real
edge about these mechanisms presumably shows. world. Reading the headlines again, my impres-
My impression is that if such devices are put into sion is that there are a number of companies out to
operation and make a poor decision under some invent self-driving cars, Google included. It would
set of conditions, the only option is to analyze be wrong to assume that these cars rely solely on
the conditions leading to the bad choice and to neural methods for their operation. A great deal of
invent new training sequences to get the system hard information is available for navigation, state
to magically adjust its dials for that case. After information (traffic lights, for example), detection
which, someone then needs to test to see that of moving and fixed objects, collision avoidance,
other inputs still produce satisfactory results. and so on. If theres a significant neural component

january/february 2017 1089-7801/17/$33.00 2017 Ieee Published by the Ieee Computer Society 79
2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society April 2017 33
Backspace

to the operation of these cars, we spots with regard to particular situ- president of ACM. Hes widely known as
might wonder how they will interact ations. Will the training feedback be one of the fathers of the Internet. Hes a
with each other. based on accidents? Back to driver fellow of IEEE and ACM. Contact him at
In the stock market, programmed training for you, Robot 45792B! vgcerf@gmail.com.
trading is now a major component
of all the trades done and multiple
parties run these systems. Ive been
told that they sometimes behave like
young kids playing soccer: they all
A s with all my essays, I hope that I
provoke some discussion so that I
can learn, as well. Of course, I might
This article originally appeared in
IEEE Internet Computing, vol.
run after the ball, leading to various provoke outrage among those who 21, no. 1, 2017.
kinds of instability. I wonder about know a lot more than I do on this
streets fi lled with self-driving cars, topic, but thats the risk you take in
each running its own brand of neu- writing for public consumption. Read your subscriptions
ral network. Each will have been through the myCS publi-
trained with different scenarios Vinton G. Cerf is vice president and chief
cations portal at http://
and each might have its own blind Internet evangelist at Google, and past
mycs.computer.org.

80 www.computer.org/internet/ IEEE INTERNET COMPUTING


34 Computing Edge April 2017
ADAPTIVE
CYBERSECURITY

June 6, 2017 | Waltham, MA

CYBERSECURITY
ATTACKS -
HOW WILL YOU
RESPOND? Caleb Barlow Edna Conway Jim Routh
V.P. Threat CSO, Global CSO, Aetna
Intelligence, Value Chain,
The landscape is ever-changing. IBM Security Cisco
Find out how to win the cyber
war at Rock Stars of Adaptive
Cybersecurity.

Gary Hayslip Shon Lyublanovits


CISO, Deputy IT Security Subcategory
Director, Manager, U.S. General
www.computer.org/AdaptiveCyber City of San Diego Services Administration
MASTERMIND
EDITOR: George Strawn, US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, gostrawn@gmail.com

Masterminds
of Artificial
Intelligence
Marvin Minsky and Seymour
Papert

George Strawn, US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine


Candace Strawn

T
he world lost two great Bronx High School of Science and 1952 (see https://en.m.wikipedia.
scientists this year. Mar- the Phillips Academy. By the last org/wiki/Seymour_Papert). He
vin Minsky passed away years of World War II, he was old then moved to England, where he
on 24 January 2016, and enough to be drafted and spent worked at St. Johns College, Cam-
Seymour Papert passed away on 19441945 in the US Navy. At the bridge, and earned a second PhD
31 July. They were both 88 years end of hostilities, he returned to in mathematics in 1959. Papert was
old. Their careers at MIT were his schooling, obtaining a bach- a prominent activist against South
closely joined, both in artificial in- elors degree from Harvard in 1950 African apartheid policies during
telligence (AI) and in other fields. and a PhD from Princeton in 1954, his university education. He also
This article will highlight some of both in mathematics. His thesis worked at the Henri Poincar In-
their contributions and one con- was titled Theory of Neural-An- stitute at the University of Paris,
troversy that they jointly sparked. alog Reinforcement Systems and the University of Geneva (where
There are a number of YouTube Its Application to the Brain Model he worked with Jean Piaget; see
videos of talks and lectures given Problem. This was an early con- https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/
by both of these masterminds that tribution to the field of artificial Jean_Piaget), and the National
are well worth watching (see, for neural networks (ANNs) which is Physical Laboratory in London be-
example, https://youtu.be/-pb3z the same field in which he and Pa- fore becoming a research associate
2w9gDg). Moreover, a f riends pert created the aforementioned at MIT in 1963.
chapter-length biography of Min- controversy, which we discuss
sky recently appeared in Stephen later. He joined the MIT faculty Careers at MIT
Wolframs Idea Makers.1 in 1958 (see http://web.media.mit. Minsky is best known as a father
edu/~minsky/minskybiog.html). of AI, having cofounded the MIT
Early Life and Education Papert was born in 1927 in South AI laboratory in 1959 (with John
Minsky was born in 1927 in New Africa and was educated there at the McCarthy, who subsequently
York City to prosperous parents. University of the Witwatersrand, moved to Stanford). However,
He received a good education from receiving a BA in philosophy in he made contributions in many
the beginning, including at the 1949 and a PhD in mathematics in domains, including graphics,

36 April 2017 Published by the IEEE Computer Society  2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE
62 IT Pro November/December 2016 Published by the IEEE Computer Society 1520-9202/16/$33.00 2016 IEEE
symbolic mathematical computa- feelings, goals, emotions, and uct was realized by constructing
tion, knowledge representation, conscious thoughts in terms of LOGO programs and robotic de-
commonsensical semantics, ma- multiple levels of processes, some vices that could be controlled by
chine perception, and both sym- of which can reflect on the oth- LOGO programs. Paperts coinventor
bolic and connectionist learning. ers. This view of consciousness of LOGO, Wally Feurzeig (https://
He was also a pioneer of robotics is process-oriented, in that con- en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wally_
and telepresence. He designed sciousness is seen to be the result Feurzeig), had been developing
and built some of the first visu- of more than 20 processes going conversational programming lan-
al scannersmechanical hands on in the human brain. guages at BBN based on Fortran,
with tactile sensors. He also built If The Society of Mind and The which was designed for mathe-
one of the first turtles for Pa- Emotion Machine contain ideas that matical problems. By focusing on
perts LOGO programming lan- can be implemented in comput- nonmathematical problems, they
guage, including the software ers, then Minsky has indeed pro- defined a language simple enough
and hardware interfaces. He vided a path for AI researchers for children to learn. And by con-
published a major work summa- to follow. If cognitive neurosci- necting the language to the control
rizing many years of thought in ence discovers that the agents and of turtles and other robotic devic-
1985, titled The Society of Mind processes he identifies are indeed es, they provided additional moti-
(https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ present in the structures of the vation (fun) for young learners.
Society_of_Mind).2 brain, then he has identified ma- Papert expressed these ideas in
Papert is perhaps best known jor components of natural intel- Mindstorms: Children, Computers,
for his contributions to education, ligence. Perhaps the time is not and Powerful Ideas.3 He also col-
and he also made contributions too far off when these conjectures laborated with the construction
in other fields. Minsky appointed will be supported or refuted. toy manufacturer Lego on their
him codirector of the MIT AI lab- LOGO-programmable Lego Mind-
oratory in 1967. Based on Piagets Paperts LOGO storms robotics kits, which were
constructivist learning theory, As mentioned, Papert had worked named after his book. The third
for which he was a principle ad- with Piaget in Geneva and was an ad- generation of Lego Mindstorms
vocate, Papert codesigned the vocate for his constructivist learning was released in 2013 (see https://
LOGO programming language, theory (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/ en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lego_
which influenced later languages wiki/Constructivism_(philosophy_ Mindstorms_EV3). A Lego Mind-
such as Smalltalk and Scratch (see of_education)). Paperts ideas were storms kit contains software and
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ given the confusingly similar name hardware to create customizable,
Logo_(programming_language)). of constructionist learning theory. programmable robots. It includes
In 1980, he published Mindstorms: In a US National Science Foun- an intelligent brick computer
Children, Computers, and Powerful dation proposal, he defined this that controls the system, a set of
Ideas (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/ theory as follows (see https://en.m. modular sensors and motors, and
wiki/Mindstorms_(book)).3 wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructionism_ Lego parts from the Technic line
(learning_theory)): to create the mechanical systems.
Minskys Society of Mind (Several different programming
The Society of Mind is more specu- Constructionism is a mnemonic for languages can now be used in
lative cognitive science and philos- two aspects of the theory of science Lego Mindstorms.)
ophy than AI. That is, it proposes education underlying this project.
that the human mind is a society From constructivist theories of psy- Artificial Neural Net
of independent agents that evolu- chology, we take a view of learning Controversy and
tion produced over time to deal as a reconstruction rather than as Deep Learning
with various problems that hu- a transmission of knowledge. Then The subject of ANNs goes back
mans needed to solve. The book we extend the idea of manipulative to 1943, when Warren McCull-
consists of 270 one-page chapters, materials to the idea that learning och and Walter Pitts created a
each dealing with a brain agent, is most effective when part of an computational model for neural
process, or interconnection issue. activity the learner experiences as networks (https://en.m.wikipedia.
In 2006, Minsky published a se- constructing a meaningful product. org/wiki/Artificial_neural_network).
quel, The Emotion Machine,4 which As mentioned, Minskys PhD
proposes theories that could ac- The idea of the (child) learner dissertation had contributed to
count for human higher-level constructing a meaningful prod- the early study of ANNs. But in

www.computer.org/computingedge 37
computer.org/ITPro 63
MASTERMIND

1969, Minsky and Papert coau- (See w w w.ucs.louisiana.edu / 3. S.A. Papert, Mindstorms: Children,
thored a book titled Perceptrons, 5 ~isb9112/dept/phil341/histconn. Computers, and Powerful Ideas, Basic
which gave rise to a controversy html for a second view of this Books, 1980.
(over what they really said) that is history.) 4. M. Minsky, The Emotion Machine:
still being argued today. In their By the 2000s, hidden-layer Commonsense Thinking, Artificial In-
book, they showed that simple ANNs had proven to be very telligence, and the Future of the Human
ANNs were quite limited in powerful and in fact were pow- Mind, Simon & Schuster, 2006.
computational power. The as- ering many real AI applications. 5. M. Minsky and S.A. Papert, Percep-
sumption that complex ANNs Hidden-layer ANNs are now part trons, MIT Press, 1969.
(technically called hidden-layer of the family of deep learning al- 6. M. Minsky and S.A. Papert, Percep-
ANNs) were also of limited pow- gorithms (https://en.m.wikipedia. trons: An Introduction to Computational
er might have been made by Min- org/wiki/Deep_learning), which Geometry, expanded ed., MIT Press,
sky and Papert, but not in this has propelled us from an AI win- 1987.
book. One commentator stated ter into an AI summer.
that the often-miscited Minsky/ George Strawn is the director of the
Papert text caused a significant Board for Research Data and Informa-

T
decline in interest and fund- he authority of Minsky tion at the US National Academies of
ing of neural network research, and Papert was evident in Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
and that it would take 10 years that their negative view He is the former director of the National
for neural network research to of ANNs was probably a factor Coordination Office for the Networking
experience a resurgence in the in discouraging researchers and and Information Technology Research
1980s. (An expanded edition of funders of research from further and Development Program (NITRD).
Perceptrons6 was reprinted in 1987 study of ANNs at that time. Their Contact him at gostrawn@gmail.com.
with some errors from the origi- authority arose, of course, from
nal text shown and corrected; see their many important contribu- Candace Strawn is a retired high school,
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ tions to AI and allied fields. They community college, and university teacher.
Perceptron). Another commen- will be remembered more for Contact her at castrawn@gmail.com.
tator, a researcher at the MIT those contributions than for the
AI lab, quoted Minsky and Pap- controversy.
ert in the 1971 Report of Proj-
ect MAC,directed at funding References
agencieson gamba networks 1. S. Wolfram, Idea Makers: Personal
(see https://en.m.wikipedia.org/ Perspectives on the Lives & Ideas of Some
wiki/Perceptrons_(book)): Notable People, Wolfram Media,
This article originally appeared in
Read your subscriptions
2016.
IT Professional, vol. 18, no.publi-
through the myCS 6,
Virtually nothing is known about the 2. M. Minsky, The Society of Mind, Si-
2016. cations portal at http://
mycs.computer.org.
computational capabilities of [these mon & Schuster, 1988.
machines]. We believe that [they] can
do little more than can a low order
perceptron.

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38 Computing Edge April 2017
64 IT Pro November/December 2016
Scientific Programming

Risks
Matthew Turk | National Center for Supercomputing Applications

M
y thoughts about the topic of this department If you cant mitigate risks out of existence, you still have to
are usually in a project contextfor me, sci- deal withand attempt to counterthem in some fashion.
entific programming typically takes the form Three particular risk scenarios have been on my mind re-
of something related to computational physics, cently, and I have a few strategies for addressing them. These
or data analysis and visualization. I proceed through a few wont work for everyonethey dont even always work for
stages when evaluating a new or existing project: deciding mebut they could be of some use, depending on the situation.
what needs to happen, sketching out a rough plan, evaluat-
ing my options, and determining the manageable risks. Par- Risk of Making a Mistake
ticularly when preparing open source scientific projects or The risk that I worry about the most, the one that keeps me up
those that consume large quantities of resources, risk evalu- at night, is the risk of making a mistake. The dangers are both
ation is crucial, both to commit to a project and to harden it overt and subtle. The vagaries of transcription, the translation of
against possible weaknesses. an algorithm into a programming language, for example, can
Ive spent a fair amount of time evaluating how I think result in changes in functionalitywhat if theres a stray paren-
about risk and how it has influenced my projects and plans. thesis, a missing decimal point, or something even more insidi-
As Ive tried to be more self-aware about this process (espe- ous, such as a line of code extending past the character limit in
cially considering that being aware of risk is often a nice a Fortran routine? Fortunately, an algorithm isnt the same as an
way of saying being a tad bit afraid of it), Ive also realized implementation; for all our lofty goals of translating formulas
that implicit in the decision-making process is risk mitigation. into machine code, they still remain separate. But beyond minor
2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society April 2017 39
November/December 2016 Copublished by the IEEE CS and the AIP 1521-9615/16/$33.00 2016 IEEE Computing in Science & Engineering 63
Scientific Programming

Perfection cant be reached; this must be taken as a given. Instead,


we should focus on mistaken identification, mitigation, and reduction.
How can we find mistakes in software? And, from the perspective of
mitigating risks going forward, how can we guard against adding new
mistakes?
mechanical errors, larger errors still lurkperhaps a method Risk of Depending on Something
doesnt converge with sufficiently low error, terms cant be split The rate of change in the scientific software ecosystem can
in some regimes, or a corner case has gone unnoticed. These mis- be very difficult to predict. Libraries interoperate through
takes, too, are risks. Ive heard far too often from colleagues that APIs that provide clearly defined relationships for what
theyre apprehensive of releasing code for fear of exposing mis- serves as input (and what in return serves as output from
takes. The implicit irony is that they arent apprehensive about functions and routines). Although these APIs often remain
utilizing their software for their own purposes but of exposure. stable, theyre fundamentally outside the control of down-
Im reluctant to attribute this quotation, as Im sure Ill stream end usersin this case, scientific programmers us-
misattribute it, but someone once said, Are you afraid of re- ing those APIs. This type of dependency brings with it its
leasing your software because it might have bugs in it? Ill save own risks, with the software developer required to maintain
you some time. It does. This really stuck with me, because it and keep up with changes (or forego gaining access to im-
says not only that this is to be expected and you arent alone, provements and bug fixes) as well as ensure that any behav-
but also that its something you shouldnt be in denial about. ioral changes are understood and accounted for.
The most self-aware expression of this that Ive seen is the ver- Utilizing an external package or project requires giving
sion numbering system used in TeX, which will converge to up a degree of autonomy and self-direction. The converse,
pi during the lifetime of its inventor, Donald Knuth. of course, is that simply implementing every item necessary
The most obvious answer, of course, is to test things, which requires an incredible amount of dedication and hard work
is relatively straightforward when the code being tested is mod- that could be much more easily spent on improving the spe-
ular, has few execution paths, and conforms to a result that can cific project being worked on.
be identified a priori. But when an algorithm, module, or proj- Mitigating this risk is in many ways more difficult than
ect doesnt possess these attributes, ever-increasing circles around mitigating the risk of errors, as it involves people rather than
them can still be identified and tested. You start by breaking code. Ive found that the most productive way of mitigating
the system down into its smallest parts, testing them in multiple the risks in adding a dependency, building in an ecosystem,
combinations, and then testing those combinations. You need or interoperating with a tool is to understand the alignment
to search input space parameters and guard against unknown of interests. Are the motivations of the external library or soft-
behaviorin contrast with a silent, implicit failure that can be ware developers aligned with my own? Or at the very least,
misinterpreted as a result, an explicit failure when applied out- are they not antialigned? Whats on my road map, whats on
side of known input space can save confusion and heartache. theirs, and do they allow for long-term interoperability?
When explicit, analytic, or prior solutions cant be determined For many pieces of software, this is a simple evaluation:
in advance, we often have to resort to testing against regressions API contracts are stable unless specifically noted, and in
through so-called answer testing: if an answer is agreed on some fields of scientific software, these notes come once a
as being a gold standard, subsequent iterations of development decade. But in other areas, particularly the parts of the eco-
shouldnt deviate from it. For more on this, see P.F. Dubois, system undergoing rapid change (or that are well-suited to
Testing Scientific Programs, Computing in Science & Eng., rapid change, such as dynamic languages or anything relat-
vol. 14, no. 4, 2012, pp. 6973, doi:10.1109/MCSE.2012.84; ed to Web services), these situations must be more carefully
and K. Hinsen, Technical Debt in Computational Science, monitored. This can take the form of extensive integration
Computing in Science & Eng., vol. 17, no. 6, 2015, pp. 103107, tests between systems, pinning specific version numbers
doi:10.1109/MCSE.2015.113. as dependencies, and building in contingency plans for if
The best way to mitigatebut not eliminaterisk is to a piece of software shifts in focus or no longer provides the
openly share, discuss, and examine written code. Sharing necessary functionality.
code doesnt immediately and magically ensure that its er-
ror free (it doesnt even guarantee that it will monotonically Risk of Starting Something Big
decrease in error count), but it does increase the opportunity Being wrong and building on an unreliable foundation are
for discovering mistakes. equally scary, but they both have mitigation paths that are
40 Computing Edge April 2017
64 November/December 2016
These are the easy parts to implement; best practices of software
development help guide these types of invasive projects and changes.
But how do we convince ourselves that this is the right path?

easy to see and straightforward to implement. But theres How do we undertake something large, intimidating,
another risk that lurks in the minds of scientific program- overwhelming, knowing that it might be a failure down the
mers, and thats the risk of starting something all-caps BIG. road, or that it may never pay off?
Major undertakings, refactorings, implementationsthese To this, I dont have a ready, easy answer. For some rea-
are the investments of time, resources, and energy that son, computational work seems to draw out different emotions
might or might not flourish. If your fantastic new project than experimental work; experiments are by their nature ex-
idea results in enormous benefits, thats marvelous, but what perimental, sometimes without a known endpoint, and some-
if it results in the alienation of collaborators? If your project times carrying with them the risk of the unknown result.
brings in new people, ideas, and results that are outstanding I can only share the strategies that work for me: faced
and exciting, its a success, but how do you mitigate against with a large project, overwhelming and scary, focusing on
the very real possibility that it might simply go nowhere or the creative urge can be comforting. But this only lasts for a
that it might not work as you expect? while, until infrastructure, maintenance, and integration are
Ive struggled the most with this particular risk. The required to keep pushing the project forward to its conclu-
others I understand better how to mitigate; there are worst- sion. In these cases, I find myself struggling, and the most
case scenarios that can be dealt with. But this one is more successful strategy Ive found has been to foster collaboration.
existential, and it cuts across a broader swathe of profession- Building something can be isolating and lonely, but reducing
al responsibilities. If I start this project, and it doesnt work that isolation can build social capital, share the burden of the
out, how can I justify the time I spent? project, and even guide things forward in unforeseen ways.
Even more to the point, if I start a new project, how
can I justify spending the time that it needs to get boot-
strapped, to reach a minimum viability, to even demon-
strate some of its promise? Many of us have seen this before,
and I confess Ive even participated, for good and ill. In my
T hese risks and strategies are by no means the only ones
we encounter in the process of scientific programming,
and I certainly dont think that Ive identified all the pos-
case, Ive seen this conflict arise around scientific platforms. sible strategies for addressing them. I invite readers to share
Imagine a piece of software, used for knowledge production their thoughts on these and other approaches: When faced
(and thus aligned with the economic and reputational inter- with difficulties or challenges, how have you addressed
ests of its users), that perhaps hasnt been updated with new them? What strategies have you undertaken? What worked
design patterns, new languages, or modern libraries. Maybe and what didnt?
it has started to buckle under design decisions made early in
the projects career. Matthew Turk is a research scientist at NCSA at the University
The opportunity to rebuild, redesign, and start afresh of Illinois. His research interests include data analysis, computa-
is enticing. But for me, at least, theres an undercurrent tional science, and scientific software communities. Turk received
of dread: if I cant undertake this entire project by my- a PhD in physics from Stanford. Contact him at matthewturk@
self, how do I best set it up for success if I cant commit gmail.com.
time to it? How do I build it out in such a way that others
can participate, that it can show immediate results and be
minimally disruptive?
Mitigating this type of risk is much more difficult be-
cause it requires both external and internal preparation. We
have to design our projects in such a way as to minimize This article originally appeared in
disruption to those who might be using themchiefly, our- Computing in Science & Engineering, vol. 18,
selveswhich requires discipline in development, ensuring no. 6, 2016.
changes are as modular as possible and that each new state of
the project is as working and functional as possible. If your
project has an existing user base, it requires that disruptions Selected articles andRead your
columns fromsubscriptions
IEEE Computer through
Society pub-
the myCS publications portal at
are minimal and well-communicated, with stakeholders in- lications are also available for free at http://ComputingNow.
http://mycs.computer.org.
vested in the changes and the reasoning behind them. computer.org.

www.computer.org/computingedge 41
www.computer.org/cise 65
CLOUD TIDBITS

Moving to Autonomous and


Self-Migrating Containers
for Cloud Applications
THE TROUBLE WITH EXISTING APPROACH- vide a common abstraction layer that allows applica-
ES TO CLOUD COMPUTING, INCLUDING tions to be localized within the container, and then
LEVERAGING INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SER- ported to other public and private cloud providers
VICE (IAAS) AND PLATFORM AS A SERVICE that support the container standard.
(PAAS), IS THAT THEY TEND TO COME WITH RightScales new State of the Cloud Report con-
PLATFORM LOCK-IN. Once youve ported an firms that containers (exemplified by Docker and
application to a cloud-based platform, including CoreOS) are undergoing rapid growth.1 The quick
Google, Amazon Web Services (AWS), IBM, and uptake of containers makes a lot of sense given
Microsoft, its tough, risky, and expensive to move what they offer. At a high level, containers provide
that application from one cloud to another. lightweight platform abstraction without using
This isnt by design. The market moved so virtualization.
quickly that public and private cloud providers Containers are also much more efficient for cre-
couldnt build portability into their platform and ating workload bundles that are transportable from
still keep pace with demand. Theres also the fact cloud to cloud. In many cases, virtualization is too
that portability isnt in the best interests of cloud cumbersome for workload migration. Thus, contain-
providers. ers provide a real foundation for moving workloads
Enter new approaches based on old approaches, around hybrid clouds and multiclouds without hav-
namely containers, and thus Docker and container ing to alter much, if any, of the application.
cluster managers, such as Googles Kubernetes, as More specifically, containers provide these
well as hundreds of upstarts. The promise is to pro- advantages:

reduced complexity through container


abstractions;
the ability to use automation with containers to
maximize their portability;
better security and governance from placing ser-
vices around, rather than inside, containers;

DAVID S. better distributed computing capabilities, be-


cause an application can be divided into many
LINTHICUM separate domains, all residing within contain-
ers; and
Cloud Technology Partners the ability to provide automation servic-
david.linthicum@cloudtp.com es that offer policy-based optimization and
self-configuration.

42 April 2017 Published by the IEEE Computer Society  2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE
6 I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G P U B L I S H ED BY T H E I EEE CO M P U T ER S O CI E T Y 2325-6095/16/$33.00 2016 IEEE
Containers provide something weve been trying to
Cloud
achieve for years: a standard application architec-
orchestration
ture that offers both managed distribution and ser-
vice orientation.
Most compelling right now is containers porta-
bility advantage. However, I suspect well discover Containers
more value over time. In fact, I suspect that contain-
ers will become a part of most IT shops, no matter
whether theyre moving to the cloud or not.2 Cloud platform
and
data services
Defining a New Value for Containers
Cloud A Cloud B
Containers are predicated on the goal of
deploying and managing n-tier application
designs. By their nature, containers manage FIGURE 1. A cloud orchestration layer oversees the infrastructure
n-tier application components, e.g., database supporting live migration of containers.
servers, application servers, web servers,
etc., at the operating system level. Indeed,
portability is inherent because all operating vices, which reduces the complexity of dealing with
system and application configuration depen- those platforms. Containers are truly small plat-
dencies are packaged and delivered inside a forms that support an application or an applications
container to any other operating system plat- services that sit inside of a well-defined domain.
form. Containers are preferable to virtual The second advantage is the ability to leverage
machineshere because they share compute automation with containers to maximize their por-
platform resources very well whereas virtual tability, and thus their value. Through the use of
machine platforms tend to acquire and hold automation, we script things we could also do manu-
resources on a machine-by-machine basis.3 ally, such as migrating containers from one cloud to
another. We can also reconfigure communications
In essence, containers can move from cloud to between containers, such as tiered services, or data
cloud and system to system, and thus can also pro- service access. However, today its much harder to
vide automation for this process. In other words, guarantee portability and application behavior when
we not only can leverage containers, but also can using automation. Indeed, automation often relies
have them automatically live migrate from cloud on many external dependencies that can break at
to cloud as needed to support the applications any time, and thus remains a problem. However, its
requirements. indeed solvable.
At the center of the container evolution is a Another advantage is the ability to provide bet-
cloud orchestration layer that can provision the in- ter security and governance services by placing
frastructure required to support the containers, as those services around, rather than within, contain-
well as perform the live migration and monitor their ers. In many instances, security and governance ser-
health after the migration occurs (see Figure 1). vices are platform-specific, not application-specific.
The concepts of autoprovisioning and automi- Placing security and governance services outside
gration are often promoted within modern cloud of the application domain provides better portabil-
computing development but are elusive in prac- ity and less complexity during implementation and
tice. These concepts have a few basic features and operations.
advantages. Better distributed computing capabilities can
First is the ability to reduce complexity by lever- also be provided since an application can be divided
aging container abstractions. Containers remove the into many different domains, all residing with con-
dependencies on the underlying infrastructure ser- tainers. These containers can be run on any number

www.computer.org/computingedge 43
NOVEMBER /DECEMBER 2016 I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G 7
CLOUD TIDBITS

of cloud platforms, including those that provide the noted in an email, portability of container cluster-
most cost and performance efficiencies, and therefore ing and orchestration is likely to quickly become the
applications can be distributed and optimized as to bottleneck.
their use of the platform from within the container.
For example, an I/O-intensive portion of the applica- Making the Business Case
tion could run on a bare metal cloud that provides The problem with technical assertions is that they
the best performance, while a compute-intensive por- need to define a business benefit to be accepted by
tion of the application runs on a public cloud that the industry as a best practice. The technical benefits
provides the proper scaling and load balancing. Per- Ive defined need to be translated into direct business
haps even a portion of the application could run on benefits that provide a quick return on investment.
traditional hardware and software. They all work One business benefit is the ability to automati-
together to form the application, and the application cally find least-cost cloud providers. Part of the ben-
is separated into components that can be optimized. efit of moving from cloud to cloud is that you can
Finally, theres the ability to provide automation leverage this portability to find the least-cost pro-
services that offer policy-based optimization and vider. Assuming most things are equal, the applica-
self-configuration. None of this works without pro- tions within a set of containers can live migrate to a
viding an automation layer that can automagically cloud that offers price advantages for similar types
find the best place to run the container, as well as of cloud services, such as storage.
For example, an inventory control
application that exists within a doz-
en or so containers might have some
storage-intensive components that cost
$100,000 a month on AWS. However,
The problem with technical Google charges $50,000 a month for
assertions is that they need to define the same types of resources. Under-
a business benefit to be accepted by standing this configuration possibility
within the orchestration layer, the con-
the industry as a best practice.
tainers can automigrate/live migrate to
the new cloud where theres a 50 per-
cent savings. If Google raises its pric-
es and AWS lowers theirs, the reverse
could occur.
deal with the changes in the configurations, and These automation concepts also support better
other things specific to the cloud platforms where reliability. Weve all done business cases around up-
the containers reside. time and down-time. In some instances, businesses
However, weve learned that n-tier applications can lose as much as $1 million an hour when sys-
have inherent limitations. They are designed to tems arent operating. Even if the performance issue
scale up with very little focus paid on scaling down lasts for only an hour or two, the lost productivity
and no attention paid to scaling out or in. They typi- can move costs well into thousands of dollars per
cally are rife with single points of failure and tend to minute.
manage their own state via the use of cluster-style This architecture shown in Figure 1 can help
computing. Each tier of the n-tiered architecture avoid outages and related performance issues by
must be scaled independently of the other tiers.3 opening other cloud platforms where the container
Also, keep in mind that the automation/orches- workloads can relocate if issues occur on the pri-
tration required will not always be portable. Indeed, mary clouds. For example, if AWS suffers an out-
thats likely the new lock-in layer; once youve built age, the containers can be relocated to Google in
out the operational side, how easy is it to migrate a matter of minutes, where they can operate once
from cloud to cloud? As Lori MacVittie of F5.com again until the problem is resolved. You might

44 Computing Edge April 2017


8 I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G W W W.CO M P U T ER .O RG /CLO U D CO M P U T I N G
choose to run redundant versions of the containers time, moving from a true platform to good contain-
on both clouds, supporting an active/active type of er hosts. It will be interesting to see if the larger
recovery platform. providers want to take on that role. Considering
provider interest in Docker, that indeed could be
Facing Realities their direction.
Containers might sound like distributed application The core question now: if this is the destination
nirvana. They certainly offer a better way to utilize of this technology and application hosting on cloud-
emerging cloud-based platforms. However, there are based platforms, should I redirect resources toward
many roadblocks in front of us and a lot of work to this new vision? I suspect that most enterprises
be done. already have their hands full with the great cloud
We need to consider the fact that current tech- migration. However, as we get better at cloud ap-
nology cant provide this type of automation. Al- plication architectures using approaches that better
though it can certainly manage machine instances, account for both automation and portability, well
even containers, using basic policy and scripting eventually land on containers.
approaches, automatically moving containers from
cloud to cloud using policy-driven automation, in- Acknowledgments
cluding autoconfiguration and autolocalization, isnt Part of this article was derived from research Ive
there yet. done at Gigaom Pro, which is now out of business.
Also, weve only just begun our Docker con-
tainer journey. We still have a lot to learn about the References
technologys potential as well as its limitations. As 1. Rightscale, State of the Cloud Report, 2016;
we learned from the use of containers and distrib- https://w w w.r ightscale.com / lp/state-of-the
uted objects from years ago, the only way this tech- -cloud?campaign=701700000015euX.
nology can provide value is through coordinating 2. D. Linthicum, Fad? No, Containers Are Here to
clouds that support containers. Although having a Stay, InfoWorld, 12 Feb. 2016; www.infoworld
standard here is great, history shows that vendors .com/article/3032164/cloud-computing/fad-no
and providers tend to march off in their own propri- -containers-are-here-to-stay.html.
etary directions for the sake of market share. If that 3. D. Linthicum, Containers Are Designed for an An-
occurs, all is lost. tiquated Application Architecture, Container J.,
The final issue is complexity. It only seems like 5 June 2015; http://containerjournal.com/2015/
were making things less complex. Over time, the 06/05/containers-are-designed-for-an-antiquated
use of containers as the means of platform abstrac- -application-architecture.
tion will result in applications that morph toward
architectures that are much more complex and dis-
tributed. Moving forward, it might not be unusual DAVID S. LINTHICUM is senior vice president of
to find applications that exist in hundreds of con- Cloud Technology Partners. He also frequently writes
tainers, running on dozens of different models and for InfoWorld on deep technology subjects. His re-
brands of cloud computing. The more complex these search interests include complex distributed systems,
things become, the more vulnerable they are to op- including cloud computing, data integration, service-
erational issues. oriented architecture, Internet of Things, and big data
systems. Contact him at david@davidlinthicum.com.

ALL THINGS CONSIDERED, CONTAINERS


MIGHT BE A MUCH BETTER APPROACH TO
BUILDING APPLICATIONS ON THE CLOUD.
PaaS and IaaS clouds will still provide the plat- Read your subscriptions through
This article originally appeared in
the myCS publications portal at
form foundations and even development capabilities. IEEE Cloud Computing, vol. 3, no. 6, 2016.
http://mycs.computer.org.
However, these things will likely commoditize over

www.computer.org/computingedge 45
NOVEMBER /DECEMBER 2016 I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G 9
COMPUTING CAREERS

Careers in Artificial Intelligence

F or this ComputingEdge issue, we asked


Vanderbilt University professor of com-
puter science and computer engineering
Douglas Fisher about career opportunities in arti-
ficial intelligence. Fisher also serves as director
to do tasks that were previously done by humans
or AI alone is probably the future.
So, AI professionals will be working on teams
with HCI (human-computer interaction) profes-
sionals, and its likely that expertise in this area
for outreach, education, diversity, and synthesis will be a plus. The products they produce will
for CompSustNet, a US National Science Founda- include mobile devices, as well as intelligent per-
tionsponsored research network used to explore sonal assistants that work with, rather than frus-
new directions in computational sustainability. He trate, their owners.
authored the article Recent Advances in AI for Machine learning will also continue to be a
Computational Sustainability in IEEE Intelligent dominant AI subfield for some time. And there
Systems July/August 2016 issue. is plenty of room to improve AI in games and in
social and environmental simulations.
ComputingEdge: What careers in artificial intel-
ligence will see the most growth during the next ComputingEdge: What would you tell college
several years? students to give them an advantage over the
competition?
Fisher: Many AI jobs will be broadly concerned
with designing and implementing automation. Fisher: Students should think about their interests
Theyll be distributed across many sectors, includ- and passions. Students who are in computer sci-
ing retail, transportation, and healthcare. However, ence for guaranteed jobs may get work but not
for the most part, they wont be about full automa- necessarily a career they love. Well-meaning but,
tion because experience suggests this is fraught I think, misguided faculty members sometimes
with problems. Rather, integrating humans and AI promote computer science for its job potential,

46 April 2017 Published by the IEEE Computer Society 2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE
without considering other sources of motivation Thomas Standish in computer science and a
such as a love of technology or the possibility of class in cognition and memory from Tarow Indow
advancing the social good. in psychology. Studying how computers and
Students should consider pairing their AI and humans represented and processed information
computer-science interests with something else led to small revelations that changed the direction
perhaps a love of foreign languages and cultures, of both my studies and my career. This goes to the
medicine and health, psychology, neuroscience, point I made that combining computing and other
the law, journalism and writing, music, film, or fields can be a big win.
other types of art. This can open students eyes

C
to whats possible in an AI career and make them
more attractive to companies. omputingEdges Lori Cameron inter-
Internships are very important, too. These can viewed Fisher for this article. Contact
include summer undergraduate research projects her at l.cameron@computer.org if you
with faculty at their school or at another institu- would like to contribute to a future ComputingEdge
tion. Underclass students who dont feel ready for article on computing careers. Contact Fisher at
a full-blown computer-science internship might douglas.h.fisher@vanderbilt.edu.
want to do something like teaching programming
to kids at a summer camp. I think many companies
appreciate a diversity of internship experience. Read your subscriptions through
the myCS publications portal at
http://mycs.computer.org.
ComputingEdge: What should applicants keep
in mind when applying for artificial-intelligence-
related jobs?

Fisher: Understand the job, including its require-


ments, obligations, and freedoms. Is AI the only
necessary area of expertise? Will they be trained 2017 B. Ramakrishna Rau Award
in other skills on the job? Call for Nominations
ComputingEdge: Name one critical mistake for Honoring contributions to the computer microarchitecture field

young graduates to avoid when starting their New Deadline: 1 May 2017
careers?
Established in memory of Dr. B. (Bob) Ramakrishna
Rau, the award recognizes his distinguished career in
promoting and expanding the use of innovative comput-
Fisher: Dont forget about the futureboth an er microarchitecture techniques, including his innovation
in complier technology, his leadership in academic and
individuals financial and family future, and a industrial computer architecture, and his extremely high
societal and environmental future that requires personal and ethical standards.
WHO IS ELIGIBLE?: The candidate will have made an
active contributions by people with brains, skills, outstanding innovative contribution or contributions to microarchitecture
and use of novel microarchitectural techniques or compiler/architecture
and caring. interfacing. It is hoped, but not required, that the winner will have also
contributed to the computer microarchitecture community through
teaching, mentoring, or community service.
ComputingEdge: Do you have any learning expe- AWARD: Certificate and a $2,000 honorarium

riences you could share that could benefit those PRESENTATION: Annually presented at the ACM/IEEE International
Symposium on Microarchitecture
just starting their careers? NOMINATION SUBMISSION: This award requires 3 endorsements.
Nominations are being accepted electronically: www.computer.org/web
/awards/rau
Fisher: During the same semester as an under- CONTACT US: Send any award-related questions to awards@computer.org.
graduate at the University of California, Irvine, I www.computer.org/web/awards/rau
took a class in data structure techniques from

www.computer.org/computingedge 47
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

DATA MESSAGING MIDDLEWARE SPE- MC:482-C32-D44, Detroit, MI 48265, Transform raw data into insightful infor-
CIALIST, Warren, MI, General Motors. Ref#35904. mation for critical decision making using
Monitor, support, debug &troubleshoot Tableau &MS Power BI. Run data qlty
GSSM (Global Sales, Services & Market- scans &conduct data profiling using IBM
HUMAN RESOURCES DATA STRATE-
ing), GPSC (Global Part Supply Chain) Cognos, IBM InphoSphere Information
GIST, General Motors, Detroit, MI. Desg,
departments app interfaces supporting Servers, Information Analyzer &Atac-
dvlp &execute apps architectures (using
vehicle mfg &aftersales. Support ICVM cama Data Qlty analyzer tools, to identify
PeopleSoft &Oracle Developer), policies,
(Inter Continent Vehicle Movement) in- outlier patterns or anomalies in systems
practices &procedures to properly man-
voice processing &GWM (Global Warranty data &determine structured solutions for
age the full lifecycle for GM Peoples Data
Management) warranty claim processing. unstructured fuzzy data problems. Bach-
(employee, contractor, suppliers, &per-
Execute day to day operation tasks incldg elor, Computer Engrg, Systems Engrg, In-
son of interest) over main sys of record
anlys of failed interfaces in ETL tools such formation Technology or related. 12 mos
of all GM ops. Strategize &ensure imple-
as IBM Datastage, ICAN, SRE &JCAPS. exp as HR Data Strategist, HR Data Scien-
mentation of global HR data qlty mgmt
Perform &manage day-today monitoring tist or related, executing apps architec-
rules definitions, discovery processes,
sys, implementing responsive actions, tures using PeopleSoft, &procedures to
remediation policies, &standards incldg
&reporting on the IBM Information Bus manage full lifecycle Peoples Data (em-
data dictionary with global HR, Finance
messaging sys. Deploy interfaces on IBM ployee, contractor, suppliers, &person
&IT, ensuring one global data definition
Datastage Information Server 11.3. Re- of interest) over main sys of record for
regardless of sys of record. Establish
new certificates on EAI operated &owned a region, establishing MDM &DQM pro-
global Oracle PeopleSoft Data Gover-
servers. Master, Computer Science, Com- cesses, &running data qlty scans &con-
nance, MDM (Master Data Mgmt) &DQM
puter Networking or related. 6 mos exp ducting data profiling using IBM Cognos
(Data Qlty Monitoring) processes to en-
as Computer Programmer, Information to identify outlier patterns or anomalies
sure qlty, integrity &security of people
Technology Analyst or related, execut- in systems data &determine structured
data in HR systems. Establish standards
ing day to day operation tasks incldg an- solutions for unstructured fuzzy data
&procedures for people data life cycle
lys of failed interfaces in ETL tools such problems. Mail resume to Ref#46806, GM
mgmt CRUD standards to ensure data
as IBM Datastage, ICAN, SRE &JCAPS. Global Mobility, 300 Renaissance Center,
is recorded, stored, extracted &retired
Mail resume to Alicia Scott-Wears, GM MC:482-C32-D44, Detroit, MI 48265.
from HR systems in a consistent manner.
Global Mobility, 300 Renaissance Center,

TECHNICAL SOFTWARE TECHNICAL


Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for has openings for has openings for

TECHNICAL SOFTWARE TECHNICAL


ANALYST-
SUPPORT DEVELOPER ANALYST
positions in Orlando, FL. positions in Morrisville, NC. positions in Orlando, FL.

Job duties include: Deliver post-sales Job duties include: Design, develop, Job duties include: Analyze user
support and solutions to the Oracle troubleshoot and/or test/QA requirements to develop, implement,
customer base while serving as an software. and/or support Oracles global
advocate for customer needs. infrastructure.
Apply by e-mailing resume to
Apply by e-mailing resume to christopher.moore@oracle.com, Apply by e-mailing resume to
mine.odok@oracle.com, referencing 385.16880. sharan.alva@oracle.com,
referencing 385.19791. referencing 385.19760.
Oracle supports workforce diversity. Oracle supports workforce diversity. Oracle supports workforce diversity.

48 April 2017 Published by the IEEE Computer Society  2469-7087/17/$33.00 2017 IEEE
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

IT PROJECT MGRS & SOFTWARE DEVS 7. Solid understanding of SQL, Oracle SWL up to 100% of the time anywhere in the
SOUGHT. IT Proj Mgrs req MS or equiv preferred. Exp w/ project implmtn using United States. Must have Bach deg or
in CS, Comp Apps, Engg or rltd & 12 mos technologies such as Java, JSP, Servlet, the foreign equiv in Comp Sci, or related
relevant indus exp. Will also accept BS JDBC, XML/XSLT, & HTML. Multiple po- w/2 yrs of exp Designing, Building & Sup-
or equiv in above fields & 5 yrs progres- sitions avail. Resumes to: Sapna Rao, HR porting integration interfaces that meets
sively responsible relevant indus exp. S/ Manager, 850 Technology Way, Liber- business requirements using WebSphere
ware Devs req BS or equiv in above fields tyville, IL 60048. Process Server, WebSphere Application
& 2yrs relevant indus exp. All positions Server, WebSphere Portal Server v8.x,
based out of San Jose, CA HQ & subj to re- PROGRAMMER ANALYST: Analyze, IBM Rational Software, BlueMix Cloud Plat-
loc to various unanticipated US locations. Develop & Design User Interface us- form, DevOps Tools, IBM Sterling Platform,
Mail resumes to: HR Mgr, Happiest Minds ing knowledge in Oracle Apps(11i & R12) Web Services, SOAP, Databases (IBM DB2
Technologies Pvt. Ltd., 2051 Junction Ave, AP, AR, GL, FA, CM modules, Oracle 8.x,9.x), scripting skills in JavaScript. Basic
Ste 208, San Jose, CA 95131. Developer 9i/10g/11g, OAF, Forms10g, knowledge of Java J2EE (JSF, Struts, Hi-
Reports10g, XML publisher, PL/SQL de- bernate, EJB, JDBC, REST, JSP, JMS, JUnit)
INTERSHOP DEVELOPER, Brightstar US, veloper, SQL*Loader, UNIX, Java, TOAD, and different communication protocols
Inc. (Libertyville, IL) to assist in the dvlpmt WF Builder ,video/audio streaming APIs, (TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, SMTP). Send resume:
of Brightstars next generation e-Com- MarkView, Advisor, Informatica, Visual Ba- Indotronix Intl Corp, Recruiting (AE), 331
merce processes & srvcs for customers. sic, ASP .Net, C#.Net, SQL Server & Busi- Main St, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601.
Align to dsgn reqmts of the Brightstar sys- ness Objects. Must be willing to travel &
tms (applicable) to clients are managed & relocate to unanticipated client locations SYSTEM ANALYST: BA in comp science
successful for applics locally, regionally throughout US. Reqs MS in comp sci, eng + 6 mo. exp in web dev., online-store,
or globally dvlpd. Identify technl issues or rel. Mail resumes to Nitya Software mngmt system, CRM reqd. Design syst
& provide resolution steps. Dsgn & dvlp Solutions Inc. 3100 Mowry Avenue, Suite for inventory, price, orders, dev. online
systms using Intershop platform. Reqmts: 205, Fremont, CA 94538. store mngmt syst, config new softw, im-
Bachelors deg, or foreign equiv, in Comp plement quality standards, analyze data,
Sci or rltd field. Min. 5 yrs exp in job or over- LEAD INTEGRATION DEVELOPER F/T design procedures. Mail CV to UF Corpo-
all s/ware dvlpmt exp w/ a min. 3 yrs work- (Poughkeepsie, NY) Position involves ration, Inc. 1601 S Main Street, High Point,
ing w/ Intershop Enfinity 6.x or Intershop travel to various unanticipated worksites NC 27260.

QA ANALYST SOFTWARE
Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for has openings for

QA SOFTWARE CLOUDERA, INC.


IS RECRUITING FOR
ANALYST DEVELOPER OUR PALO ALTO, CA
OFFICE:
positions in Redwood Shores, CA
positions in Bedford, MA. SOFTWARE ENGINEER #37532:
Design, develop, support &
Job duties include: Responsible for maintain software components
developing, applying and maintaining Job duties include: Design, develop, in Clouderas product offering.

quality standards for company products troubleshoot and/or test/QA CUSTOMER OPERATION EN-
GINEER #37441: Investigate
with adherence to both internal and software. product related issues both for
external standards. individual customers & for com-
mon trends that may arise
Apply by e-mailing resume to
Apply by e-mailing resume to MAIL RESUME WITH JOB
steve.howard@oracle.com, Jeffrey.cioli@oracle.com, CODE # TO
referencing 385.19855. referencing 385.19772. CLOUDERA
ATTN: HR
1001 PAGE MILL RD., BLDG. 3
PALO ALTO, CA 94304
Oracle supports workforce diversity. Oracle supports workforce diversity.

www.computer.org/computingedge 49
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

SENIOR QUALITY ASSURANCE AN- Shell Scripts for UNIX platform to de- &feature functionality on passenger
ALYST, General Motors, Detroit, MI. ploy &monitor application. Master, Elec- vehicles, using Java/J2EE, Oracle,
Test, validate, &perform soft updates trical, Electronics or, Computer Engrg Mysql, AngularJS, &Ajax. Perform soft-
Over the Air on General Motors vehicle or related. 36 mos exp as Quality Con- ware, code &reqmts analysis, software
internal module such as OnStar core sultant, Software Engineer, Quality As- review, identification of code metrics,
module, &external modules such as the surance Analyst or related, performing system risk, software reliability &OOPS
center stack module &the engine con- soft test estimation, test planning, test analysis, &aspect oriented program-
trol unit through soft platform. Perform designing, test optimization &test exe- ming. Mentor younger dvlpmt teams,
functional testing, back-end testing, cution. Will accept bachelors or foreign &review software being dvlpd to ensure
installation testing &sys integration equiv degree, in Electrical, Electronic, the highest standards in code qlty, per-
testing. Train Qlty Assurance Analysts Computer Engrg or related, followed by formance, security, &overall delivery to
&Jr Analysts on vehicle domains, soft at least 5 yrs of progressive exp in the reqmts. Collaborate with Software Ar-
updates reqmts, &Vehicle soft platform. specialty, in lieu of required education chitects to contribute to multilayered
Document &recommend test process, &exp. Will also accept any equally suit- software solution architecture &drive
design vehicle module test artifacts, able combination of education, training, design framework alignment. Dvlp, de-
&functional flows. Dvlp test plans, test &/or exp which would qualify applicant sign &unit test software applications.
reports, &qlty metrics. Design vehicle to perform job offered. Mail resume to Dvlp, design &unit test software appli-
module test artifacts such as test plan, Ref#35608, GM Global Mobility, 300 cations. Master, Information Technol-
test report &qlty metrics. Maintain man- Renaissance Center, MC:482-C32-D44, ogy, Computer Science, or related. 6
ual &automation test suites &update test Detroit, MI 48265. mos exp as Software Developer, Com-
scripts for changes &enhancements. puter Programmer, or related, gathering
Mentor team members on performing SENIOR SOFTWARE ENGINEER-CON- reqmts &executing &supporting full life-
test activities. Execute web service NECTED CAR, General Motors, Detroit, cycle vehicle diagnostic data collection
testing using SOAP user interface tool, MI. Gather reqmts, perform, &execute sys &OTA reflash applications dvlpmt,
&automation testing using Selenium full lifecycle Vehicle Service Mgmt Sys- using Java, Oracle &Ajax. Mail resume
WebDriver 2.0, TestNG, JUnit, &Jen- tem &Over the Air (OTA) reflash appli- to Ref#2875, GM Global Mobility, 300
kins tools. Perform database validation cations dvlpmt incldg vehicle modules Renaissance Center, MC:482-C32-D44,
by writing SQL queries &PL/SQL. Dvlp Detroit, MI 48265.

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY


Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for has openings for
has openings for

SOFTWARE SYSTEMS CONSULTING


DEVELOPERS ANALYST- PROJECT
SUPPORT
positions in Broomfield, Colorado. positions in Redwood Shores, CA. DIRECTOR
Job duties include: Analyze user require- positions in Redwood Shores, CA.
Job duties include: As a member of the
ments, procedures, and problems to
software engineering division, assist in Job duties include: Plan, initiate, and
automate or improve existing systems and
defining and developing software for review computer system capabilities, manage information technology (IT)
tasks associated with the developing, workflow, and scheduling limitations. Some projects. Lead and guide the work of
debugging or designing of software travel may be required to work on projects technical staff. Travel to various,
applications or operating systems. at various, unanticipated sites throughout unanticipated sites throughout the U.S.
the United States. May telecommute from required. May telecommute from home.
Apply by e-mailing resume to home.
grant.burkhart@oracle.com, Apply by e-mailing resume to Apply by e-mailing resume to
referencing 385.19628. sj.kitterman@oracle.com, annette.lawrence@oracle.com,
Oracle supports workforce diversity. referencing 385.16903. referencing 385.7516. Oracle supports
Oracle supports workforce diversity. workforce diversity.

50 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

Cisco Systems, Inc. is accepting resumes for the following positions:


ALPHARETTA, GA: Network for the support and delivery of Advanced manufacturing designs. Technical
Engineer (Ref.# ALP3): Responsible Services to companys major accounts. Marketing Engineer (Ref.# SJ15):
for the operational support of internal IRVINE, CA: Consulting Systems Responsible for enlarging companys
network systems. Engineer (Ref.# IRV15): Provide market and increasing revenue by
AUSTIN, TX: Customer Support specific end-to-end solutions and marketing, supporting, and promoting
Engineer (Ref.# AUS5): Responsible architecture consulting, technical and sales companys technology to customers. IT
for providing technical support regarding support for major account opportunities Engineer (Ref.# SJ7): Responsible for
the companys proprietary systems and at the theater, area, or operation level. development, support and implementation
software. Telecommuting Permitted. of major system functionality of companys
proprietary networking products.
BELLEVUE/SEATTLE, WA: Product JACKSONVILLE, FL: Solutions Manager, Engineering (Ref.#
Manager (Ref.# SEA384): Develop Architect (Ref.# JAC2): Responsible SJ4): Schedule and evaluate the
the internal business case and customer for IT advisory and technical consulting resources required for multiple projects in
value proposition for new offers and services development and delivery. Travel terms of human resources and hardware
changes to existing offers, based on an may be required to various unanticipated equipment allocation. Network
understanding of the market conditions, locations throughout the United States. Consulting Engineer (Ref.#
customer decision drivers, and competitive LAWRENCEVILLE, GA: Network SJ107): Responsible for the support
dynamics. Consulting Engineer (Ref.# LV16): and delivery of Advanced Services to
BEAVERTON, OR: Software Responsible for the support and delivery companys major accounts. Travel may be
Engineer (Ref.# BEA1): Responsible of Advanced Services to companys major required to various unanticipated locations
for the definition, design, development, accounts. Telecommuting permitted. throughout the United States. Technical
test, debugging, release, enhancement or RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NC: Marketing Engineer (Ref.#
maintenance of networking software. Software Engineer (Ref.# RTP3): SJ178): Responsible for enlarging
BOXBOROUGH, MA: Technical Responsible for the definition, design, companys market and increasing revenue
Lead/Leader (Ref.# BOX3): Lead development, test, debugging, release, by marketing, supporting, and promoting
engineering groups on projects to design, enhancement or maintenance of networking companys technology to customers. Travel
develop or test hardware or software software. Software Engineer (Ref.# may be required to various unanticipated
products. Technical Lead/Leader RTP773): Responsible for the definition, locations throughout the United States.
(Ref.# BOX23): Lead engineering design, development, test, debugging, Network Engineer (Ref.# SJ57):
groups on projects to design, develop release, enhancement or maintenance Responsible for the operational support
or test hardware or software products. of networking software. Telecommuting of internal network systems. Network
Telecommuting permitted. Software permitted. Customer Support Consulting Engineer (Ref.# SJ9):
Engineer (Ref.# BOX1): Responsible Engineer (Ref.# RTP1): Responsible Responsible for the support and delivery
for the definition, design, development, for providing technical support regarding of Advanced Services to companys major
test, debugging, release, enhancement or the companys proprietary systems and accounts. Data Engineer (Ref.#
maintenance of networking software. software. SJ829): Implement complex big data
projects with large sets of data collected
BOSTON, MA: Product Manager, RICHARDSON, TX: Software
from various endpoints in the network
Engineering (Ref.# BOS4): Engineer (Ref.# RIC3): Responsible
and turn this information into useful
Responsible for managing the development for the definition, design, development,
insights. Corporate Development
and implementation of new product test, debugging, release, enhancement or
Engineer (Ref.# SJ368): Configure
introduction engineering activities to meet maintenance of networking software.
and troubleshoot routers and networking
production launch schedules, quality and SAN DIEGO, CA: User Experience equipment. Network Consulting
cost objectives. Telecommuting permitted. Specialist (Ref.# SD4): Identify user Engineer (Ref.# SJ525): Responsible
DENVER, CO: Software/QA interaction requirements and develop user for the support and delivery of Advanced
Engineer (Ref.# DEN2): Debug experience interface specifications and Services to companys major accounts.
software products through the use of guidelines. Telecommuting permitted.
systematic tests to develop, apply, and SAN FRANCISCO, CA: CNG WALTHAM, MA: Software Engineer
maintain quality standards for company Member of Technical Staff (Ref.# (Ref.# WAL2): Responsible for the
products. Software Engineer (Ref.# SF9): Design, implement, and test definition, design, development, test,
DEN7): Responsible for the definition, software for a web application used by our debugging, release, enhancement or
design, development, test, debugging, customers for IT management. maintenance of networking software.
release, enhancement or maintenance
of networking software. Network SAN JOSE/MILPITAS/SANTA PLEASE MAIL RESUMES WITH
Consulting Engineer (Ref.# CLARA, CA: Customer Support REFERENCE NUMBER TO CISCO
DEN8): Responsible for the support and Engineer (Ref.# SJ3): Responsible SYSTEMS, INC., ATTN: G51G, 170 W.
delivery of Advanced Services to companys for providing technical support regarding Tasman Drive, Mail Stop: SJC 5/1/4, San
major accounts. the companys proprietary systems and Jose, CA 95134. No phone calls please.
software. Test Engineer (Ref.# Must be legally authorized to work in the
HOUSTON,TX: Network Consulting SJ16): Build test equipment and test U.S. without sponsorship. EOE.
Engineer (Ref.# HOU4): Responsible diagnostics for new products based on

www.cisco.com

www.computer.org/computingedge 51
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

Microsoft Corporation currently has the following openings (job opportunities available at all levels,
e.g., Principal, Senior and Lead levels):

ALPHARETTA, GA and international travel up to 25%. https:// tic travel up to 25%. Telecommuting per-
Consultant: Deliver design, planning, and jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/6753/go/job mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
implementation services that provide IT jobs/7131/go/job
MOUNTAIN VIEW, PALO ALTO,
solutions to customers and partners. Re- SUNNYVALE, CA Solutions Sales Specialist: Enhance the
quires travel throughout U.S. up to 75% with Microsoft customer relationship from a ca-
Applied Scientist: Utilize knowledge in ap-
work to be performed at various worksites pability development perspective by articu-
plied statistics and mathematics to handle
throughout the U.S. https://jobs-microsoft. lating the value of our services and solutions
large amounts of data using various tools.
icims.com/jobs/7181/go/job and identifying competition gaps in target-
http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Data_Applied_Science
ed accounts. Requires domestic travel up
TEMPE, AZ Data Scientist:Manipulate large volumes of to 25%. Telecommuting permitted. https://
Cloud Solution Architects/Solution Archi- data, create new and improved techniques jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7927/go/job
tects:Architect software, platform, services, and/or solutions for data collection, manage-
hardware or technology solutions.http://bit. ment and usage. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Data_ SAN FRANCISCO, CA
ly/MSJobs_Tech_Solns Applied_Science Data Scientist:Manipulate large volumes of
Design Verification/Validation Engineers: data, create new and improved techniques
IRVINE, CA and/or solutions for data collection, manage-
Responsible for ensuring the quality of Mi-
Premier Field Engineers: Provide technical ment and usage. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Data_
crosoft hardware products. http://bit.ly/
support to enterprise customers, partners, Applied_Science
MSJobs_Hardware_Design_Verification_Eng
internal staff or others on mission critical
Hardware Dev., Test or Design Engineers, Designers: Develop user interface and user
issues experienced with Microsoft tech-
Hardware Engineers, Electrical Engineers, interaction designs, prototypes and/or con-
nologies. Requires domestic travel up to
Design Engineers (all levels, including cepts for business productivity, entertain-
75% with work to be performed at various
Leads and Managers): Design, implement ment or other software or hardware applica-
unknown worksites throughout the U.S.
and test computer hardware that add stra- tions. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Design
Telecommuting permitted. http://bit.ly/MS-
Jobs_Support_Delivery tegic value to the company. (http://bit.ly/ Premier Field Engineers: Provide technical
MSJobs_Hardware_Dev_Eng)(http://bit.ly/ support to enterprise customers, partners,
Premier Field Engineer: Provide technical
MSJobs_Electrical_Eng) internal staff or others on mission critical
support to enterprise customers, partners,
Hardware Dev., Test or Design Engineers, issues experienced with Microsoft tech-
internal staff or others on mission critical
Hardware Engineers, Electrical Engineers, nologies. Requires domestic travel up to
issues experienced with Microsoft technolo-
Design Engineers (all levels, including 75% with work to be performed at various
gies. Requires travel up to 50% with work to
Leads and Managers): Design, implement unknown worksites throughout the U.S.
be performed at various unknown worksites
and test computer hardware. Requires Do- Telecommuting permitted. http://bit.ly/MS-
throughout the U.S. Telecommuting per-
mestic and International travel up to 25%. Jobs_Support_Delivery
mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
jobs/7246/go/job (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Hardware_Dev_Eng) Solutions Sales Professional/Specialist/
(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Electrical_Eng) Technology Solutions Professionals: En-
Technology Solutions Professional: Improve
Solutions Sales Professional/Specialist/ hance the Microsoft customer relationship
the Enterprise Mobility business metrics
Technology Solutions Professionals: En- from a capability development perspective
(revenue and scorecard) through excellence
hance the Microsoft customer relationship by articulating the value of our services and
in technical sales strategy and execution.
from a capability development perspective solutions and identifying competition gaps
Requires travel throughout U.S. up to 50%
by articulating the value of our services and in targeted accounts. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_
with work to be performed at various un-
solutions and identifying competition gaps Solution_Sales
known worksites throughout the U.S. Tele-
commuting permitted. https://jobs-micro- in targeted accounts. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ Solution Specialist: Enhance the Microsoft
soft.icims.com/jobs/7144/go/job Solution_Sales customer relationship from a capability devel-
Solutions Specialist: Enhance the Micro- opment perspective by articulating the value
LOS ANGELES, CA of our services and solutions and identifying
soft customer relationship from a capabili-
Technical Account Managers: Assure pro- ty development perspective by articulating competition gaps in targeted accounts. Re-
ductive use of Microsoft technologies, fo- the value of our services and solutions and quires domestic and international travel up
cusing on delivery quality through planning identifying competition gaps in targeted ac- to 25%. Telecommuting permitted. https://
and governance. Telecommuting permitted. counts. Telecommuting permitted. https:// jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7708/go/job
http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Delivery_Relation- jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7383/go/job Solutions Specialist: Enhance the Micro-
ship_Mgmt soft customer relationship from a capabili-
Sr. Quality and Reliability Engineer Pack-
Senior Consultant: Deliver design, planning, aging: Design, implement and test computer ty development perspective by articulating
and implementation services that provide IT hardware products that add strategic val- the value of our services and solutions and
solutions to customers and partners. Re- ue to the company. https://jobs-microsoft. identifying competition gaps in targeted ac-
quires domestic and international travel up icims.com/jobs/7704/go/job counts. Requires domestic travel up to 25%.
to 50%. Telecommuting permitted. https:// https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7672/
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7139/go/job CAMBRIDGE, MA go/job
Technical Evangelist: Collaborate with sales Senior Technical Evangelist: Collaborate GUAYNABO, PR
teams to understand customer require- with sales teams to understand customer
requirements, promote the sale of products, Premier Field Engineer, Senior: Provide
ments, promote the sale of products, and
and provide sales support. Requires domes- technical support to enterprise customers,
provide sales support. Requires domestic

52 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

partners, internal staff or others on mission CHICAGO, IL cusing on delivery quality through planning
critical issues experienced with Microsoft Cloud Solution Architects/Solution Archi- and governance. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_De-
technologies. Travel up to 50% with work to tects: Architect software, platform, ser- livery_Relationship_Mgmt
be performed at various unknown worksites vices, hardware or technology solutions.
throughout the U.S. Telecommuting per-
FARGO, ND
Telecommuting permitted. http://bit.ly/
mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ Support Engineers / Escalation Engi-
MSJobs_Tech_Solns
jobs/7201/go/job neers: Install, configure, support and trou-
Cloud Solution Architect: Responsible for bleshoot issues related to Microsoft technol-
FT. LAUDERDALE, FL architecting software, platform, services, ogies. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Support_Eng
Business Managers and Business Devel- hardware or technology solutions. Requires
opment Managers/Business Development domestic and international travel up to 50%. ISELIN, NJ
and Strategy Analyst/Manager: Develop Telecommuting permitted. https://jobs-mic- Cloud Solution Architects/Solution Archi-
business opportunities for sales of soft- rosoft.icims.com/jobs/6757/go/job tects:Architect software, platform, services,
ware and services. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ Solution Specialist: Enhance Microsoft hardware or technology solutions.http://bit.
Business_Development customer relationship from capability ly/MSJobs_Tech_Solns
Solutions Sales Professional/Specialist/ development perspective by articulat- Cloud Solution Architects/Solution Archi-
Technology Solutions Professionals: En- ing value of services and solutions and tects: Architect software, platform, ser-
hance the Microsoft customer relationship identifying competition gaps in targeted vices, hardware or technology solutions.
from a capability development perspective accounts. Requires domestic travel up to Telecommuting permitted. http://bit.ly/
by articulating the value of our services and 25%. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ MSJobs_Tech_Solns
solutions and identifying competition gaps jobs/6786/go/job Cloud Solution Architect: Architect and de-
in targeted accounts. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ DOWNERS GROVE, IL ploy Microsoft cloud solutions for custom-
Solution_Sales ers. Requires travel up to 25% with work to
Associate Architect: Architect software,
Business Operations Associate: Analyze be performed at various unknown worksites
platform, services, hardware, or technolo-
data to identify business insights related to throughout the U.S. https://jobs-microsoft.
gy solutions. Domestic travel required up
business performance and growth. Requires icims.com/jobs/7164/go/job
to 50%. Telecommuting permitted. https://
international travel up to 25%. https:// jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/6776/go/job Premier Field Engineer, SharePoint: Provide
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7280/job technical support to enterprise customers,
Delivery Manager: Responsible for engaging SOUTHFIELD, MI partners, internal staff or others on mission
with and managing accounts of customers Solutions Sales Professional/Specialist/ critical issues experienced with Microsoft
utilizing Microsoft Dynamics AX and CRM Technology Solutions Professionals: En- technologies. Requires travel up to 50% with
business solution. Requires domestic and hance the Microsoft customer relationship work to be performed at various unknown
international travel up to 75%. https:// from a capability development perspective worksites throughout the U.S. Telecommut-
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/6867/go/job by articulating the value of our services and ing permitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.
solutions and identifying competition gaps com/jobs/7350/job
Senior Technical Advisor: Provide technical
advice and support on issues experienced in targeted accounts. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ Solution Architect: Engage with strategic
with Microsoft technologies. Telecommut- Solution_Sales customers to solve their business needs by
ing permitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. EDINA, MN conceiving, designing, and implementing
com/jobs/7250/go/job digitally transformative technical architec-
Solutions Sales Professional/Specialist/ ture on Microsofts public cloud offering
Solution Architect: Architect software, Technology Solutions Professionals: En- (Azure). Telecommuting permitted. https://
platform, services, hardware or technology hance the Microsoft customer relationship jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7242/go/job
solutions. Requires international travel up from a capability development perspective
to 25%. Telecommuting permitted. https:// by articulating the value of our services and NEW YORK, NY
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/6815/job solutions and identifying competition gaps Research Software Development Engi-
Solution Specialist: Enhance the Microsoft in targeted accounts. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ neers (all levels):Responsible for conduct-
customer relationship from a capability Solution_Sales ing applied research into new products and
development perspective by articulating CHARLOTTE, NC services through software engineering tech-
the value of our services and solutions and niques. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Research_
identifying competition gaps in targeted ac- Support Engineers / Escalation Engineers: Software_Engineer
counts. Telecommuting permitted. https:// Install, configure, support and troubleshoot
issues related to Microsoft technologies. Solutions Sales Professional/Specialist/
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7398/go/job Technology Solutions Professionals: En-
http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Support_Eng
Solutions Sales Specialist, Education: hance the Microsoft customer relationship
Enhance Microsoft customer relationship Senior Technical Account Manager: As- from a capability development perspective
from capability development perspective sure productive use of Microsoft technol- by articulating the value of our services and
by articulating value of services & solutions ogies, focusing on delivery quality through solutions and identifying competition gaps
& identifying competition gaps in targeted planning and governance. Requires travel in targeted accounts. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_
accounts. Requires travel up to 25% with up to 25% with work to be performed at Solution_Sales
work to be performed at various unknown various unknown worksites throughout the
worksites throughout the U.S. and Latin U.S. Telecommuting permitted. https://jobs
America. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ -microsoft.icims.com/jobs/6825/go/job
jobs/6821/go/job Technical Account Managers: Assure pro-
ductive use of Microsoft technologies, fo-
CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE

www.computer.org/computingedge 53
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE ing permitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/


com/jobs/6750/go/job jobs/7178/go/job
Technical Evangelist: Collaborate with sales MCALLEN, TX
Account Technology Strategist: Identify and teams to understand customer requirements,
analyze internal client and partner business Hardware Dev., Test or Design Engineers,
promote the sale of products, and provide
needs, and translate needs into business re- Hardware Engineers, Electrical Engineers,
sales support. Requires domestic travel up
quirements and value-added solutions and Design Engineers (all levels, including
to 25%. Telecommuting permitted. https://
solution roadmaps. Requires travel up to Leads and Managers): Design, implement
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7746/go/job
and test computer hardware that add stra-
25% with work to be performed at various Technology Solutions Professional Devices: tegic value to the company. (http://bit.ly/
worksites throughout the U.S. Telecommut- Enhance the Microsoft customer relationship MSJobs_Hardware_Dev_Eng)(http://bit.ly/
ing permitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. from a capability development perspective
com/jobs/6766/job MSJobs_Electrical_Eng)
by articulating the value of our services and
Hardware Dev., Test or Design Engineers,
Associate Architect: Architect solutions by solutions and identifying competition gaps
Hardware Engineers, Electrical Engineers,
mapping common customer business prob- in targeted accounts. Telecommuting per-
Design Engineers (all levels, including
lems to reusable end-to-end technology mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
Leads and Managers): Design, implement
solutions. Requires domestic and interna- jobs/7065/job
and test computer hardware. Requires Do-
tional travel up to 50%. Telecommuting per-
mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ WILSONVILLE, OR mestic and International travel up to 25%.
Hardware Dev., Test or Design Engineers, (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Hardware_Dev_Eng)
jobs/7170/go/job
Hardware Engineers, Electrical Engineers, (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Electrical_Eng)
Cloud Solution Architect: Architect and de-
ploy Microsoft cloud solutions for customers. Design Engineers (all levels, including RESTON, VA
Requires travel up to 25% with work to be Leads and Managers): Design, implement
Technical Account Managers: Assure pro-
and test computer hardware that add stra-
performed at various unknown worksites ductive use of Microsoft technologies, fo-
tegic value to the company. (http://bit.ly/
throughout the U.S. Telecommuting per- cusing on delivery quality through planning
MSJobs_Hardware_Dev_Eng)(http://bit.ly/
mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ and governance. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Deliv-
jobs/6802/job MSJobs_Electrical_Eng)
ery_Relationship_Mgmt
Hardware Dev., Test or Design Engineers,
Principal Solution Specialist: Enhance the REDMOND, WA
Hardware Engineers, Electrical Engineers,
Microsoft customer relationship from a ca-
Design Engineers (all levels, including Applied Scientist: Utilize knowledge in ap-
pability development perspective by articu-
Leads and Managers): Design, implement plied statistics and mathematics to handle
lating the value of our services and solutions
and test computer hardware. Requires Do- large amounts of data using various tools.
and identifying competition gaps in targeted
mestic and International travel up to 25%. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Data_Applied_Science
accounts. Requires domestic travel up to
(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Hardware_Dev_Eng) Business Managers and Business Devel-
25% to various unknown locations. Tele-
commuting permitted. https://jobs-micro- (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Electrical_Eng) opment Managers/Business Development
soft.icims.com/jobs/7265/go/job HOUSTON, TX and Strategy Analyst/Manager: Develop
Solution Sales Professional: Enhance the business opportunities for sales of software
Technical Account Managers: Assure produc-
Microsoft customer relationship from a ca- and services. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Busi-
tive use of Microsoft technologies, focusing on
pability development perspective by articu- ness_Development
delivery quality through planning and gover-
lating the value of our services and solutions nance. Roving Employee - requires travel up Business Process Manager: Responsible for
and identifying competition gaps in targeted to 100% with work to be performed at various the design, implementation, and release of
accounts. Requires travel up to 25% with unknown worksites throughout the U.S. http:// programs or projects. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_
work to be performed at various unknown bit.ly/MSJobs_Delivery_Relationship_Mgmt Fin_Plan_Analy_Contr
worksites throughout the U.S. Telecommut- Cloud Solution Architects/Solution Archi-
ing permitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. AUSTIN, TX
tects:Architect software, platform, services,
com/jobs/7243/go/job Partner Business Evangelist: Research market hardware or technology solutions.http://bit.
Solution Specialist: Enhance the Microsoft conditions in regional area and gather infor- ly/MSJobs_Tech_Solns
customer relationship from a capability mation to determine sales of Windows Azure.
Requires Domestic and International travel up Consultants: Deliver design, planning, and
development perspective by articulating implementation services that provide IT solu-
the value of our services and solutions and to 25%. Telecommuting permitted. https://
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7530/job tions to customers and partners. Requires
identifying competition gaps in targeted domestic and international travel up to 25%.
accounts. Requires travel up to 25% to per- IRVING, TX http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Technical_Delivery
form work at various unknown customer
Support Engineers / Escalation Engi- Consultants: Deliver design, planning, and
sites. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
neers: Install, configure, support and trou- implementation services that provide IT
jobs/7380/job
bleshoot issues related to Microsoft technol- solutions to customers and partners. Roving
Solutions Specialist: Enhance the Micro- ogies. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Support_Eng Employeerequires travel up to 100% with
soft customer relationship from a capabili- work to be performed at various unknown
Premier Field Engineer: Provide technical
ty development perspective by articulating worksites throughout the U.S. http://bit.ly/
support to enterprise customers, partners,
the value of our services and solutions and MSJobs_Technical_Delivery
internal staff or others on mission critical
identifying competition gaps in targeted ac-
issues experienced with Microsoft technolo- Consultants: Deliver design, planning, and
counts. Requires travel up to 50% with work
gies. Requires travel up to 75% with work to implementation services that provide IT
to be performed at various unanticipated
be performed at various unknown worksites solutions to customers and partners. Roving
worksites throughout the U.S. Telecommut-
throughout the U.S. Telecommuting per- Employeerequires travel up to 100% with

54 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

work to be performed at various unknown issues experienced with Microsoft technol- mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
worksites throughout the U.S. Telecommut- ogies. Roving Employeerequires travel jobs/6819/job
ing permitted. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Techni- up to 100% with work to be performed at Audience Engagement Development En-
cal_Delivery various unknown worksites throughout the gineer: Responsible for building audience
Content Developer/Engineer: (All levels, in- U.S. Telecommuting permitted. http://bit.ly/ measurement and engagement tools to
cluding Leads and Managers) Responsible MSJobs_Support_Delivery support the organizations effort in under-
for the design, development, deployment, Research Software Development Engi- standing audience experiences relative to
vision, and business strategy for content neers (all levels):Responsible for conduct- the communications and marketing objec-
creation, acquisition, production, editorial, ing applied research into new products and tives. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
and publishing activities at Microsoft. http:// services through software engineering tech- jobs/7347/job
bit.ly/MSJobs_Content_Publishing niques. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Research_ B2B Global Demand Center Analyst:
Data Scientist:Manipulate large volumes of Software_Engineer Responsible for converting high vol-
data, create new and improved techniques Researchers/Scientists: Conduct re- umes of complex data into actionable in-
and/or solutions for data collection, man- search and lead research collaborations sights. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
agement and usage. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ that yield new insights, theories, analy- jobs/6862/go/job
Data_Applied_Science ses, data, algorithms, and prototypes and Business Analytics Specialist: Provide in-
Design Researchers: Develop user inter- that advance state-of-the-art of computer sights, facilitate data-driven testing and
face and user interaction designs, proto- science and engineering, as well as gen- learning, and develop ways to optimize Win-
types and/or concepts for business pro- eral scientific knowledge. http://bit.ly/MS- dows Devices Group (WDG) performance
ductivity, entertainment or other software Jobs_Research marketing campaigns. https://jobs-micro-
or hardware applications. http://bit.ly/MS- Service Engineers/Managers, Service soft.icims.com/jobs/7377/go/job
Jobs_Design_Research Operations Engineers, and Systems/Op- Business Analytics Specialist: Identify
Design Verification/Validation Engineers: erations Engineers/Site Reliability En- strategic areas of focus for insights and an-
Responsible for ensuring the quality of Mi- gineer: Research, design, develop, and alytics. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
crosoft hardware products. http://bit.ly/MS- test operating systems-level software, jobs/7137/go/job
Jobs_Hardware_Design_Verification_Eng compilers, and network distribution soft-
ware. (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Service_Engi- Business Analytics Specialist: Provide deep
Designers: Develop user interface and user neering) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_Serv_Eng) level data analytics and modeling for search
interaction designs, prototypes and/or con- (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_Serv_Ops) advertising platform. https://jobs-microsoft.
cepts for business productivity, entertain- icims.com/jobs/6806/job
ment or other software or hardware applica- Solutions Sales Professional/Specialist/
Technology Solutions Professionals: En- Business Analytics Specialist, Digital
tions. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Design Technology & Operations: Analyze and opti-
hance the Microsoft customer relationship
Evangelists/Technical Evangelists: Col- from a capability development perspective mize Business Intelligence systems and pro-
laborate with sales teams to understand by articulating the value of our services and cedures. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
customer requirements, promote the sale of solutions and identifying competition gaps jobs/7148/go/job
products, and provide sales support. http:// in targeted accounts. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ Business Development Analyst: Devel-
bit.ly/MSJobs_Tech_Evangelist Solution_Sales op and analyze business opportunities for
Evangelists/Technical Evangelists: Col- Support Engineers / Escalation Engi- sales of software and services. Requires
laborate with sales teams to understand neers: Install, configure, support and trou- domestic and international travel up to
customer requirements, promote the sale bleshoot issues related to Microsoft technol- 25%. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
of products, and provide sales support. Re- ogies. http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Support_Eng jobs/7230/go/job
quires travel throughout the U.S. up to 25%. Business Manager: Develop business op-
http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Tech_Evangelist Architect: Deliver design, planning, and im-
plementation services that provide IT solu- portunities for sales of software and ser-
Hardware Dev., Test or Design Engineers, tions to customers and partners. https:// vices. Requires domestic and international
Hardware Engineers, Electrical Engineers, jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7389/job travel up to 25%. https://jobs-microsoft.
Design Engineers (all levels, including icims.com/jobs/6758/go/job
Leads and Managers): Design, implement Associate Architect: Plan, develop and
market solutions that enable Microsoft Sell- Channel Executive OEM: Build and main-
and test computer hardware that add stra- tain business relationships with Original
tegic value to the company. (http://bit.ly/ ers, architects, and consultants to sell and
deliver our products and services. https:// Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) to assess
MSJobs_Hardware_Dev_Eng)(http://bit.ly/ needs, determine requirements, and deliver
MSJobs_Electrical_Eng) jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7257/go/job
new Agreements and net new opportunity
Hardware Dev., Test or Design Engineers, Associate Architect: Design and develop revenue. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
Hardware Engineers, Electrical Engineers, business intelligence, big data and advanced jobs/6756/go/job
Design Engineers (all levels, including analytics-based IT solutions for Microsoft
Leads and Managers): Design, implement customers. Requires travel up to 25% with
and test computer hardware. Requires Do- work to be performed at various unknown
mestic and International travel up to 25%. worksites throughout the U.S. https://
(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Hardware_Dev_Eng) jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/6789/job
(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_Electrical_Eng) Associate Architect: Architect and deploy
Premier Field Engineers: Provide technical complex solutions mapping customer busi-
support to enterprise customers, partners, ness problems with end-to-end technology
internal staff or others on mission critical solutions. Requires domestic and interna-
tional travel up to 50%. Telecommuting per-
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www.computer.org/computingedge 55
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE


ware products that add strategic value to the jobs/7582/go/job
company. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ Senior Industry Technology Strategist:
jobs/7046/job Work with commercial segments to help
Channel Executive-Hosting: Enhance the
Microsoft customer relationship from a ca- Premier Field Engineer: Provide technical them successfully transform and deploy Mi-
pability development perspective by articu- support to enterprise customers, partners, crosoft technologies. https://jobs-microsoft.
lating the value of our services and solutions internal staff or others on mission critical icims.com/jobs/7251/go/job
and identifying competition gaps in target- issues experienced with Microsoft technol- Senior IT Service Operations: Partner within
ed accounts. Requires travel throughout ogies. Requires travel throughout U.S. up to Engineering organizations and other stake-
U.S. up to 25% with work to be performed 50% with work to be performed at various holders to be continually improving the
at various unknown worksites throughout unknown worksites throughout the U.S. predictability of our service and enhancing
the U.S. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7211/ our service offerings based on customer
jobs/6775/go/job go/job feedback balanced against business pri-
Cloud Solution Architect: Architect and Premier Field Engineer: Provide technical orities. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
deploy Microsoft Azure cloud solutions for support to enterprise customers, partners, jobs/7400/job
portfolio partners. https://jobs-microsoft. internal staff or others on mission critical Senior Patent Engineer: Perform analysis,
icims.com/jobs/7684/go/job issues experienced with Microsoft technol- reverse engineering, testing and investiga-
ogies. Requires international and domestic tions on software and information technol-
Cloud Solution Architect: Architect soft- travel up to 50%. Telecommuting permitted.
ware, platform, services, hardware or tech- ogy that are being deployed and used widely
https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7037/ in the industry. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.
nology solutions. Requires domestic and go/job
international travel up to 25%. Telecommut- com/jobs/6773/job
ing Permitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. Premier Field Engineer: Provide technical Senior Premier Field Engineer: Provide
com/jobs/7067/go/job support to enterprise customers, partners, technical support to enterprise customers,
internal staff or others on mission critical partners, internal staff or others on mission
Cloud Solution Architect: Design, plan, and issues experienced with Microsoft tech-
implement cloud deployments to move cus- critical issues experienced with Microsoft
nologies. Travel up to 50% with work to be technologies. Position requires travel up
tomer workloads to Azure. Roving Employ- performed at various unknown worksites
eerequires travel up to 100% with work to to 25% with work to be performed at vari-
throughout the US. Telecommuting per- ous unknown worksites throughout the U.S.
be performed at various unknown worksites mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
throughout the U.S. Telecommuting per- Telecommuting permitted. https://jobs-mic-
jobs/6751/go/job rosoft.icims.com/jobs/6891/go/job
mitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/
jobs/7184/go/job Premier Field Engineer: Provide technical Service Engineer 2: Responsible for network
support to enterprise customers, partners, designs, deployments, testing, and certifi-
Data & Applied Scientist; Apply scientific internal staff or others on mission critical
methodology and algorithms to large vol- cations; and operational escalation support
issues experienced with Microsoft technolo- of complex network infrastructure https://
umes of data using various tools. https:// gies. Requires travel up to 25% with work to
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7688/go/job jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7425/go/job
be performed at various unknown worksites
Design Researcher II: Develop user interface throughout the U.S. https://jobs-microsoft. Solution Specialist: Enhance the Microsoft
and user interaction designs, prototypes icims.com/jobs/6752/go/job customer relationship from a capability
and/or concepts for business productivity, development perspective by articulating
Principal Researcher: Conduct research and the value of our services and solutions and
entertainment or other software or hardware lead research collaborations that yield new
applications. Requires domestic and inter- identifying competition gaps in targeted ac-
insights, theories, analyses, data, algorithms counts. Requires travel up to 25% through-
national travel up to 25%. https://jobs-mic- and prototypes and that advance state-of-
rosoft.icims.com/jobs/6961/job out the U.S. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.
the-art of computer science and engineer- com/jobs/7168/go/job
IT Audit Group Manager: Manage a port- ing, as well as general scientific knowledge.
folio of IT audit projects including driving Requires international and domestic travel Solutions Architect: Engage with strategic
value to the business, quality, and execution up to 25%. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. customers to solve their business needs by
excellence. Requires domestic travel up com/jobs/7064/job conceiving, designing, and implementing
to 50%. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ transformative technical architecture on
Product Intelligence Manager: Build busi- data and cloud-based platforms and related
jobs/7365/go/job ness process and business intelligence technologies. Roving Employeerequires
Marketing Operations Automation Special- solutions based upon different telemetry travel up to 100% with work to be performed
ist: Utilize modern big data management systems. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ at various unknown worksites throughout
tools, marketing analytics methods, CRM jobs/6788/go/job the U.S. Telecommuting permitted. https://
tools, and marketing automation technology Senior Camera Module Engineer: Specify, jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7387/go/job
to prepare findings in marketing trends and design, implement, and verify hardware for
assist the design of marketing plans. https:// Solutions Specialist (Technology Solutions
microcomputers. Requires domestic and in- Professional): Enhance the Microsoft cus-
jobs-microsoft.icims.com/jobs/7355/job ternational travel up to 25%. https://jobs-mi- tomer relationship from a capability devel-
Optical Engineer II: Design tools, technolo- crosoft.icims.com/jobs/6949/go/job opment perspective by articulating the value
gies and processes for next generation op- Senior Designer: Support the creation and of our services and solutions and identifying
tical systems. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. improvement of user experiences for new competition gaps in targeted accounts. Re-
com/jobs/7420/go/job products, and mature all successful indus- quires travel throughout the U.S. up to 25%.
Packaging Engineer: Develop, qualify and trial design concepts through to product Telecommuting permitted. https://jobs-mic-
implement structural packaging for hard- launch. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ rosoft.icims.com/jobs/6840/job

56 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

SOFTWARE ENGINEER, Warren, MI, Create oracle &mysql database scripts


General Motors. Dvlp soft tools to sup- to debug issues related to vehicle data
Support Engineer: Install, configure, port the dvlpmt of GMs in Over the Air collection &reflash. Create Perl script for
support and troubleshoot issues relat- (OTA) vehicle soft remote reflash dvlpmt app failover &maintain high availability
ed to Microsoft technologies. Requires kit for 2018-2020 &beyond model year of app. Create &request infrastructure
domestic travel up to 25% to perform passenger vehicle infotainment/radios team to provide CSS, firewall &IP tables
work at various unknown customers &telematic systems, using C/C++, &per- rules for app to interact with vehicle &to
worksites. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. forming root cause analysis on defects external cmpt svces. Master, Electrical
com/jobs/6810/job &provide fixes. Use network app pro- or Electronics Engineering or related. 36
Support Planner: Build assisted support tocols incldg HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TCP/IP mos exp as Network Infrastructure Engi-
experiences for customers inquiring about to troubleshoot, debug &fix OTA issues. neer, Module Lead, Senior Software Engi-
our product offerings or about an existing Coordinate &participate in architecture, neer, Software Engineer or related, using
order. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ reqmt, design, code, &test case reviews. &improving J2EE &Web Svces-based app
jobs/7190/go/job Dvlp soft using C/C++ &porting to Ra- soft to analyze &perform OTA Reflash
dio head units &Telematic Devices that &data collection of OnStar ECU in vehi-
Technical Data Analyst: Analyze, vali- run on QNX, Linux &Android operating cles communicating through VCP. Will ac-
date, and present data findings to answer systems. Use State Machine, Threads, cept bachelors or foreign equiv degree,
high-impact business and product devel- Socket programming, Mutex, Semaphore in Electrical or Electronics Engineering
opment questions. https://jobs-micro- &message queues for soft dvlpmt. Use or related, followed by at least 5 yrs pro-
soft.icims.com/jobs/6768/job SqLite for storing sys status over ve- gressive exp in the specialty, in lieu of re-
Technology Solutions Professional: hicle ignition cycles. Dvlp automation quired education &exp. Will also accept
Enhance the Microsoft customer rela- test scripts using perl for remote reflash any equally suitable combination of ed-
tionship from a capability development unit test execution. Dvlp CANoE vector ucation, training, &/or exp which would
perspective by articulating the value of tool scripts to simulate Electronic Con- qualify applicant to perform job offered.
our services and solutions and identifying trol Units. Use QNX Momentics as inte- Mail resume to Ref#2783, GM Global Mo-
competition gaps in targeted accounts. grated dvlpmt environment. Use Vehicle bility, 300 Renaissance Center, MC:482-
Requires domestic travel up to 25% to Spy vector tool to monitor messages on C32-D44, Detroit, MI 48265.
perform work at unknown customer CAN bus. Bachelor, Computer Science,
sites. https://jobs-microsoft.icims.com/ Computer Engrg, or related. 60 mos exp STORAGE ENGINEER, Warren, MI, Gen-
jobs/7366/job as Software Engineer, Senior Software eral Motors Company. Perform opera-
RENO, NV Engineer, Remote Reflash Engineer, us- tional support for 10PB storage allocation,
ing State Machine, Threads, Socket pro- resolving storage incidents, evaluating
Partners OPS Manager Launch: Plan, ini- gramming, Mutex, Semaphore &message
tiate, and manage information technology team member scripts, reporting on stor-
queues for soft dvlpmt, &network app age hardware, &performing regular ca-
(IT) projects. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. protocols incldg HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, TCP/
com/jobs/7208/go/job pacity planning. Execute scripts for stor-
IP to troubleshoot, debug &fix wireless or age allocation on hardware such as EMC
SACRAMENTO, CA OTA issues. Exp must be post baccalau- Vmax, Vplex, XtremIO, DMX-4/DMX-3,
Premier Field Engineer, SharePoint Dev: reate &progressive. Any suitable combi- CX3-80 using symcli &Unisphere, cre-
Provide technical support to enterprise nation of education, training &exp is ac- ate hyper mapping Luns, Lun masking,
customers, partners, internal staff or oth- ceptable. Mail resume to Ref#2675, GM &configure RAID groups on Clariion LUN.
ers on mission critical issues experienced Global Mobility, 300 Renaissance Center, Configure Zoning &troubleshoot storage
with Microsoft technologies. Requires MC:482-C32-D44, Detroit, MI 48265. &host related issues. Engr storage hard-
local travel up to 25%. Telecommuting ware for capacity to ensure storage pro-
permitted. https://jobs-microsoft.icims. APPLICATION SUSTAIN ENGINEER, visioning, efficiency &maintenance. Desg
com/jobs/7357/go/job General Motors, Detroit, MI. Deploy, op- SRDF/S (Symmetrix Remove Data Facility
erate, &enhance OnStar Infotainment Synchronous) &Timefinder Clone/Snap
MADISON, WI Advanced Systems Dvlpmt Pilot Apps on production sys for disaster recovery
Research Software Development En- &operating environments such as Unix, meeting RTO (Recovery time objectives)
gineers (all levels): Responsible for Oracle, Java. Use &improve J2EE &Web &RPO (Recovery Point Objectives) for
conducting applied research into new Svces-based app soft to analyze &per- SAP. Master, Computer Science, Infor-
products and services through software form OTA Reflash &data collection of mation Systems, or related. 6 mos exp as
engineering techniques. http://bit.ly/MS- OnStar Electronic Control Units (ECU) in Storage Administrator, Storage Engr or
Jobs_Research_Software_Engineer vehicles communicating through Vehi- related, executing scripts for storage al-
cle Computer Platform (VCP). Enhance location on hardware such as EMC Vmax
Multiple job openings are available for current Pilot App product cmpts &lead &Vplex using symcli &Unisphere, &creat-
each of these categories. To view de- dvlpmt efforts for new service offerings ing Lun masking, or related. Mail resume
tailed job descriptions and minimum re- to troubleshoot pilot apps. Create cer- to Ref#3493, GM Global Mobility, 300
quirements, and to apply, visit the web- tificates service request, generate Java Renaissance Center, MC:482-C32-D44,
site address listed. EOE. keystore using openssl &keytool IUI for Detroit, MI 48265.
OnStar ADPA cmpts for vehicle commu-
nication using SMS &packet gateways, VISITING FACULTY POSITION in Com-
implementing certificates accordingly puter Science (Non-Tenure Track) The
to VSMS environments &test them us- Department of Computer Science at The
ing VSMS. Use Jenkins &zuul configura- College of New Jersey invites applica-
tion tools to build, deploy &operate the tions for a ten-month, non-tenure track
apps in N.A., Europe &China. Configure visiting faculty position in computer sci-
zabbix, kibana &log stash for log mgmt. ence starting August 2017.

www.computer.org/computingedge 57
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

SENIOR RESEARCHER, Warren, MI, Gen- bounded constraint solvers &CONCOLIC approaches combined with ATG meth-
eral Motors. Research, investigate, inno- testing, with traversal approaches com- ods with enhanced model structural
vate, &dvlp new methods &techniques bining concrete &symbolic simulation by coverage. Mail resume to Ref#2456, GM
to automate (or complement techniques means of local constraint solvers &Monte Global Mobility, 300 Renaissance Center,
in) rigorous dvlpmt, verification, valida- Carlo Simulation approaches. Dvlp tech- MC:482-C32-D44, Detroit, MI 48265.
tion &testing of high-integrity embedded niques to check code conformance of
electronic control unit systems &soft that auto generated code from parallel &hi- SENIOR USER EXPERIENCE & PROD-
implement required automotive control erarchical State Flow &Simulink models UCT DESIGN. Position available in New
features such as Automated Driving Sys using the Model Based Testing (MBT) ap- York, NY. Provide full stack services from
Controllers, Automated steering sub sys, proaches combined with Automatic Test- information architecture, wire frames and
Power distribution sub sys, Vehicle con- case Generation (ATG) methods with en- flow charts, User Experience/User Inter-
trols, Interface gateways, Automatic Lane hanced model structural coverage. PhD, face and visual design. Lead internal and
Changing &Obstacle Deduction &Avoid- Computer Science, Information Tech- external teams on multi-platform projects
ance features in autonomous vehicles for nology, Computer Engrg, or related. 12 in the design and development of best
smoother &safer ride qlty, &conventional mos exp as Researcher, Scientist or En- user experiences for large scale web-
vehicle features such as Body Control gineer, identifying &solving gaps in tools sites and applications. Conduct usability
Module, Engine Control Module, Airbag &methods in existing engrg anlys &dvlpg evaluations of existing and proposed de-
Control Module. Dvlp first-order predicate techniques, &methods for psgr vehicle signs in-person or using online platform
logic model to analyze safety impact of features such as Automated steering usertesting.com. Create wireframes and
autonomous systems feature interfaces sub sys, Power distribution sub sys, Au- design prototypes using Sketch, InVision,
through concurrent sys predicate &prop- tomatic lane changing &warning &Ob- Adobe Creative Suite and Axure. Apply:
ositional modelling, &anlys through Bool- stacle deduction &collision avoidance in L. Sawtelle, MIP F105, Massachusetts Mu-
ean satisfiability solver techniques. Per- autonomous vehicles, dvlpg techniques tual Life Insurance Company, 1295 State
form verification &validation using Binary to check code conformance of auto gen- Street, Springfield, MA 01111; Please Ref-
Decision Diagrams based on advanced erated code from parallel &hierarchical erence Job ID: 708203400
formal verification methodology with State Flow &Simulink models using MBT

Microsoft Corporation currently has the following


openings (job opportunities available at all levels,
e.g., Principal, Senior and Lead levels):
TECHNICAL
IRVINE, CA cations, systems or services working with
Oracle America, Inc.
Business Program Managers: Plan, initi- development and product planning teams. has openings for
(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ProgMgr) (http://bit.

TECHNICAL
ate, and manage technology and business
projects. http://bit.ly/MSJobs-Buss_Oper_ ly/MSJobs_HW_ProgMgr)(http://bit.ly/MS-
Prog_Mgmt Jobs_ProdQlty_Supp)(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_
IT_ProgMgr)
MOUNTAIN VIEW, PALO ALTO,
SUNNYVALE, CA
Program Managers: (All levels, including
Leads and Managers) Coordinate program
BOSTON, MA
Program Managers: (All levels, including
Leads and Managers) Coordinate program
ANALYST positions in
development of computer software appli- development of computer software appli-
cations, systems or services working with
cations, systems or services working with
development and product planning teams.
Colorado Springs, CO.
development and product planning teams.
(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ProgMgr) (http://bit. (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ProgMgr) (http://bit.
ly/MSJobs_HW_ProgMgr)(http://bit.ly/MS- ly/MSJobs_HW_ProgMgr)(http://bit.ly/MS-
Jobs_ProdQlty_Supp)(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_
Job duties include: Deliver solutions to
Jobs_ProdQlty_Supp)(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_
IT_ProgMgr) IT_ProgMgr) the Oracle customer base while serving
SAN FRANCISCO, CA IRVING, TX as an advocate for customer needs.
Program Managers: (All levels, including Program Managers: (All levels, including
Leads and Managers) Coordinate program Leads and Managers) Coordinate program Offer strategic technical support to
development of computer software appli-
development of computer software appli-
cations, systems or services working with cations, systems or services working with assure the highest level of customer
development and product planning teams. development and product planning teams.
(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ProgMgr) (http://bit.
satisfaction.
(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ProgMgr) (http://bit.
ly/MSJobs_HW_ProgMgr)(http://bit.ly/MS- ly/MSJobs_HW_ProgMgr)(http://bit.ly/MS-
Jobs_ProdQlty_Supp)(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ Jobs_ProdQlty_Supp)(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ Apply by e-mailing resume to
IT_ProgMgr) IT_ProgMgr)
Multiple job openings are available for
valerie.mayes@oracle.com,
CAMBRIDGE, MA
Program Managers: (All levels, including
each of these categories. To view detailed
job descriptions and minimum require-
referencing 385.19923.
Leads and Managers) Coordinate program ments, and to apply, visit the website ad- Oracle supports workforce diversity.
development of computer software appli- dress listed. EOE.

58 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

SENIOR BIG DATA ENGINEER, General IBM Big Insights, &Oracle ExaData. Dvlp of required education &exp. Will also
Motors, Detroit, MI. Use Hadoop platform BI reports using Cognos for automotive accept any equally suitable combination
&Kafka, HBASE, Hive &Spark to perform telematics platforms. Install, configure of education, training, &/or experience
Big Data analysis incldg complete vehicle Information Server suite on Redhat, Suse which would qualify applicant to perform
prognostics &diagnostics. Design, &opti- &Oracle Enterprise Linux servers. Master, job offered. Mail resume to Ref#2251, GM
mize infotainment Customer Relationship Computer Science, Computer Science Global Mobility, 300 Renaissance Center,
Mgmt, Provisioning &Vehicle Diagnos- &Engrg, or Information Systems. 36 mos MC:482-C32-D44, Detroit, MI 48265.
tics Systems, &Billing &Revenue mgmt exp as Sr Application Architect, Solu-
business processes. Mentor, train &lead tion Architect, Big Data Engr, or related, ENGINEERING. PROJECT MANAGER 1.
internal customers &colleagues in dvlpg performing Data Mgmt using InfoSphere CH2M HILL, Inc. in Kansas City, MO seeks
&deploying emerging technologies for Information Server Product Suite for au- a Project Manager 1 to lead and manage
business use cases. Perform Data Mgmt tomotive telematics platforms, &Data projects/programs that are aligned to
using InfoSphere Information Server Replication using Oracle Golden Gate the water business group markets and
Product Suite (incldg Information Gover- &InfoSphere Change Data Delivery. Will underlying business objectives. To ap-
nance Catalog) for automotive telematics accept bachelors or foreign equiv de- ply, mail resume to: Shelly Saitta, CH2M
platforms. Perform Data Replication using gree, in Computer Science, Computer HILL, 9191 S. Jamaica St., Englewood, CO
Oracle Golden Gate &InfoSphere Change Science and Engineering, or Information 80112. Must reference job code: 13176.
Data Delivery. Use large scale database Systems, followed by at least 5 yrs of
platforms such as Hadoop, Teradata, progressive exp in the specialty, in lieu

Microsoft Corporation currently has the following openings (job opportunities available at all levels,
e.g., Principal, Senior and Lead levels):

ALISO VIEJO, CA MORRISVILLE, NC


Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test
(all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel- (all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel-
oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser- oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser-
vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE) vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE)
LOS ANGELES, CA FARGO, ND
Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test
(all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel- (all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel-
oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser- oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser-
vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE) vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE)
MOUNTAIN VIEW, PALO ALTO, SUNNYVALE, CA NEW YORK, NY
Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test
(all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel- (all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel-
oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser- oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser-
vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE) vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE)
SAN FRANCISCO, CA RESTON, VA
Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test
(all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel- (all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel-
oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser- oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser-
vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE) vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE)
BOSTON, MA REDMOND, WA
Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test
(all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel- (all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for develop-
oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser- ing or testing computer software applications, systems or services.
vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE) Requires domestic and international travel up to 25%. (http://bit.ly/
Program Managers: (All levels, including Leads and Managers) Co- MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE)
ordinate program development of computer software applications, Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test
systems or services working with development and product planning (all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for develop-
teams. (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ProgMgr) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_HW_ ing or testing computer software applications, systems or services.
ProgMgr)(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ProdQlty_Supp)(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_ Telecommuting permitted. (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/
IT_ProgMgr) MSJobs_IT_SDE)
CAMBRIDGE, MA Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test
(all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel-
Software Engineers and Software Development Engineers in Test
oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser-
(all levels, including Leads and Managers): Responsible for devel-
vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE)
oping or testing computer software applications, systems or ser-
vices.(http://bit.ly/MSJobs_SDE) (http://bit.ly/MSJobs_IT_SDE) Multiple job openings are available for each of these categories. To
view detailed job descriptions and minimum requirements, and to
apply, visit the website address listed. EOE.

www.computer.org/computingedge 59
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES TECHNICAL
Oracle America, Inc.
LIGHTBEND SEEKS: Sr. Software Engi- Ericsson Inc. 6300 Legacy Drive, R1-C12
has openings for

TECHNICAL
neer Full Stack -Architect, design, de- Plano, TX 75024 and indicate applying
velop, deliver company products, plat- for 16-TX-3320.
forms and APIs, create automated tests/
infrastructures; Present at conferences,

ANALYST
SOLUTIONS ARCHITECT ASCENSION
meetups worldwide. 10% Domestic Travel. HEALTH-IS, INC. is seeking a Solutions
Worksite: May telecommute from any US Architect in Austin, Texas to identify is-
location or headquarters (San Francisco, sues between the architecture and ven-
CA 94105). To apply send resume/cov- dor solution implementation; identify
er(20170301HE) to Lightbend, 625 Market
St., Ste. 1000, San Francisco, CA, 94105.
solutions and formulate implementation positions in Lehi, UT.
and migration strategies; and provide
expertise in technical knowledge, meth-
ERICSSON INC. has openings for the fol-
lowing positions: ENGINEER-SERVICES
odology and framework, data integration
and data flows, Enterprise Architecture,
Job duties include: Deliver solutions
SOFTWARE _ OVERLAND PARK, KS in- and software development and coding. to the Oracle customer base while
tegration, certification, & implementation Contact Denise D. Dodge, Project Lead,
of 4G LTE technology into customers lab 11775 Borman Drive, St. Louis, MO 63146. serving as an advocate for customer
facilities & first market appls. Travel reqd.
Mail resume to Ericsson Inc. 6300 Legacy VALASSIS COMMUNICATIONS INC. has
needs.
Dr, R1-C12, Plano, TX 75024 & indicate an opening for the position of Applica-
applying for 17-KS-2569. DATA SCIEN-
TIST/DATA ANALYTICS ARCHITECT _
tions Engineer in WINDSOR, CT to ana-
lyze, write, test, & deploy software appli-
Apply by e-mailing resume to
PLANO, TX provide analysis of big data,
mathematical modeling, & Data Mining
cations & research, design, document, & Al.Rocek@oracle.com,
modify software specifications. To apply
techniques applied to data monetization
opportunities for telecomm. Travel reqd.
mail resume to Valassis, Attn: Patty [CT- referencing 385.19075.
11307.26], 19975 Victor Parkway, Livonia,
Telecommuting available. Mail resume to MI 48152.
Oracle supports workforce diversity.

SOFTWARE TECHNICAL SOFTWARE


Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for has openings for
has openings for
SOFTWARE SOFTWARE
DEVELOPER TECHNICAL DEVELOPER
positions in Burlington, Massachusetts. ANALYST positions in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Job duties include: design, develop, trouble- Job duties include: design, develop, trouble-
shoot and/or test/QA software; as a member positions in Lehi, Utah. shoot and/or test/QA software; as a member
of the software engineering division, apply of the software engineering division, apply
knowledge of software architecture to Job duties include: Deliver solutions to knowledge of software architecture to
perform tasks associated with developing, the Oracle customer base while serving perform tasks associated with developing,
debugging, or designing software applica- as an advocate for customer needs. debugging, or designing software applica-
tions or operating systems according to tions or operating systems according to
provided design specification. Apply by e-mailing resume to provided design specifications.
don.debeaux@oracle.com,
Apply by e-mailing resume to Apply by e-mailing resume to
referencing 385.19975.
rob.levine@oracle.com, shanti.atrangada@oracle.com,
referencing 385.18388. referencing 385.18110.
Oracle supports workforce diversity.
Oracle supports workforce diversity. Oracle supports workforce diversity.

60 ComputingEdge April 2017


SOFTWARE SOFTWARE TECHNICAL
Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for has openings for
has openings for
SOFTWARE SOFTWARE TECHNICAL
DEVELOPER ANALYSTS-
positions in Irvine, CA. DEVELOPER SUPPORT
Job duties include: Design, develop, trouble- positions in Seattle, Washington.
shoot and/or test/QA software. As a positions in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Job duties include: design, develop, trouble-
member of the software engineering
shoot and/or test/QA software; as a Job duties include: offer strategic technical
division, apply knowledge of software
member of the software engineering support to assure the highest level of customer
architecture to perform tasks associated
division, apply knowledge of software satisfaction; quickly isolate and clarify customer
with developing, debugging, or designing issues, apply technical knowledge to reproduce
architecture to perform tasks associated
software applications or operating systems product issues, identify solutions based on
with developing, debugging, or designing
according to provided design specifications. testing results and/or comprehensive research,
software applications or operating systems
Travel to various unanticipated sites all while meeting multiple customers critical
according to provided design specifications.
throughout the United States required. timelines.

Apply by e-mailing resume to Apply by e-mailing resume to Apply by e-mailing resume to


john.melon@oracle.com, rob.showalter@oracle.com, valerie.mayes@oracle.com,
referencing 385.19985. referencing 385.20615. referencing 385.19769.
Oracle supports workforce diversity. Oracle supports workforce diversity. Oracle supports workforce diversity.

QA ANALYST SOFTWARE TECHNICAL


Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for has openings for
has openings for
QA TECHNICAL
ANALYST SOFTWARE ANALYST-
positions in Bedford, Massachusetts. DEVELOPER SUPPORT
Job duties include: responsible for positions in Orlando, FL. positions in Orlando, FL.
developing, applying and maintaining Job duties include: deliver solutions to
quality standards for company products Job duties include: Design, develop,
troubleshoot and/or test/QA the Oracle customer base while serving
with adherence to both internal and as an advocate for customer needs; offer
external standards; develop and execute software.
strategic technical support to assure the
software test plans. Analyze and write highest level of customer satisfaction.
test standards and procedures. Apply by e-mailing resume to
Apply by e-mailing resume to maher.muhanna@oracle.com, Apply by e-mailing resume to
vida.haririan@oracle.com, referencing 385.18437. dana.downing@oracle.com,
referencing 385.20197. referencing 385.20037.
Oracle supports workforce diversity. Oracle supports workforce diversity. Oracle supports workforce diversity.

www.computer.org/computingedge 61
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

Juniper Networks is recruiting for Software Engineer Staff #28235: Par- and SDN. Develop and execute test
our Sunnyvale, CA office: ticipate in new product development plans for new functionality and fea-
Engineering Program Manager #50766: and contribute technical innovation tures developed in Junos.
Design, develop and monitor the execu- to Juniper network security platform. Functional Systems Analyst Staff #38661:
tion of software development projects Design and develop solutions for new Design and document solutions to
in partnership with engineering team. features and enhancements for exist- address complex business problems.
ing Juniper security products. Analyze business processes, gather
Software Engineer Staff #37399: Ana-
lyze complex business problems and Software Engineer #35871: Design, project requirements, and contribute
collaborate with project team mem- develop, troubleshoot and debug to design and review workshops.
bers to ensure development and im- high-performance packet forward- Software Engineer Staff #14818: De-
plementation of new data driven busi- ing software for the current genera- sign, develop, troubleshoot and de-
ness solutions. tion and next generation terabit-core bug software modules forCompanys
routers. products and platforms.
Test Engineer #34383: Design, develop
script and implement sophisticated Hardware Engineer #30838: Plan, de- Software Engineer #37443: Work close-
tests to verify software feature func- sign and develop signal integrity de- ly with product marketing software
tionality for Company products. sign rules for boards, packages and and hardware development teams to
ASICs with high speed electrical review design specification, then de-
Software Engineer #23245: Design,
interfaces. velop functional test plan for review.
develop troubleshoot and debug de-
tailed software functional and design Technical Systems Analyst #38746: Ana- Systems Engineer #11815: Develop and
specifications for new software fea- lyze, design, develop and support SAP deliver technical sales strategy and
tures on Juniper products. technical enhancements and deliver solutions by providing pre-sales tech-
new and complex business solutions nical support, training, and lab sup-
Software Engineer Senior Staff #4587:
by integrating modules of SAP and ex- port to meet end customer require-
Design, develop, troubleshoot and
ternal systems to meet business and ments. Telecommuting allowed.
debug high performance forwarding
user requirements. Hardware Engineer #30222: Respon-
software for current generation and
next generation Terabit Core Routers. Sales Demonstration Engineer #26725: sible for the testing and character-
Work with customers, Company ization of optical sub-systems and
Systems Engineer #27726: Assist Com-
business units and account teams to modules used in Company platforms
pany Account Managers with the de-
demonstrate Company products and to evaluate reliability of materials,
velopment and delivery of technical
technologies through Proof of Con- properties and techniques used in
solutions and sales activities for new
cept (POC) testing. production.
and existing opportunities. Telecom-
muting allowed. Software Engineer #29261: Design, de- Software Engineer #39619: Design,
velop, troubleshoot and debug func- develop, troubleshoot and debug in-
Software Engineer #38704: Design, de-
tional and design specifications for gestion pipelines for a variety of data
velop, troubleshoot and debug com-
software products and enhancement. from enterprise systems, routers,
ponent and system level diagnostics
software/firmware using Python pro- Systems Engineer #29195: Design, de- switches, and firewalls.
gramming language. velop and test software modules to Software Engineer #18288: Analyze,
support security and networking fea- design, program, debug and modify
Software Engineer Staff #6201: Design,
tures in Company products. Telecom- novel operating system techniques
develop, troubleshoot and debug de-
muting allowed. Travel required. and algorithms for On-Device man-
sign specifications for network secu-
rity products in physical and virtual Software Engineer Sr. Staff #8050: agement software products.
environments that are being imple- Work with product line management Sr. Strategic Delivery Engineer #28167:
mented in Data Center, Mobile LTE, and customers to analyze, design, and Design, develop and implement test-
Enterprise and Cloud deployments. modify device and network manage- ing efforts which could include au-
ability requirements and help imple- tomated testing, regression testing,
Software Engineer #37060: Analyze,
ment solutions. scale testing, migration testing, certifi-
design, develop, program, debug
and modify test management and Test Engineer Staff #15855: Using cation testing and end to end solution
workflow related software applica- product definitions, scaling targets, testing for Network security products.
tions for JUNOS developers and test and customer use scenarios, design, Software Engineer #29835: Develop
communities. develop and implement product per- and maintain virtual machine creation
formance and scaling tests for high and control software. Debug issues
QA Engineer #39696: Work within a
performance Ethernet switching found within the virtual cloud envi-
security system testing team to debug
platforms. ronment. Implement new OpenStack
and test complex multi-service net-
working and network security prod- Test Engineer #26482: Provide sys- and Contrail based functionality.
ucts for Data Center and cloud. tem-level testing for routing protocols Software Engineer #39316: Design and

62 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, MEM- solution & maint. of Hyperion Financial


PHIS, TENNESSEE: Limited domestic Mgmt. (HFM) appls. Execute coding,
travel and/or occasional relocation to testing & maint. activities. Provide crit-
client sites nationwide to write code, ical appl. design recommend. to client
forms, and script using Java, JSP, Serv- which aligns with its long & short term IT
develop applications and web ser- lets, JDBC, PL/SQL, HTML. Debug, trou- & business strategies & build solutions
vices for JUNOS developers and test bleshoot existing code. Reply to: SVS as per external SEC reporting & mgmt.
teams. Research software technolo- Technologies Limited, 8700 Trail Lake reporting requirements. Resp. for de-
gies to optimize existing infrastruc- Drive, #228, Memphis, TN 38125 veloping solutions for Hyperion FDMEE,
ture or software design. Hyperion Acct. Reconciliation &Hype-
REPORTS DEVELOPER: design & de- rion Planning appls. Advise clients on
Software Engineer #7391: Design,
velop data models using Cognos; ana- financial best practices & drive day-to-
develop, troubleshoot and debug day execution of client engagements
functional, design and architectural lyze & troubleshoot Cognos reporting.
BS+5 yrs. or MS+3. marcela.niemeyer@ related to EPM project. Create strategy,
specifications for next generation blueprint, & process & data optimiza-
laureate.net w/ Job # 20501BR in subj
interfaces and long haul optical line. Job in McLean, Virginia. Laureate tion for clients for Oracle EPM products.
products. Education, Inc. EOE. Requires: M.S. degree in Finance, Bus.
Test Engineer #39241: Design, devel- Adm., or related field & 3 yrs. exp. in job
op and implement testing for com- offered or 3 yrs. exp. as a Consultant.
MANAGER. Job location: Miami, FL &
plex multi-service networking and Will accept B.S. (or foreign equiv.) & 5
any other unanticipated locations in U.S.
network security products. yrs. exp. in the finance in lieu of M.S. &
Travel Required. Duties: Resp. for ad-
3 yrs. exp. Concurrent exp. must incl.:
Product Marketing Manager #29873: vising & implement. strategic solutions
3 yrs. exp. executing coding, testing &
Create and maintain marketing as- for Finance & Enterprise Performance
maint. activities. Send resume (no calls)
sets for Company product lines and Mgmt. (EPM) processes incl. Financial
to: Michelle Ramirez, The Hackett Group,
solutions across all media types, to Close & Reporting, Acct. Reconcilia-
Inc., 1001 Brickell Bay Dr., Suite 3000,
tion, Planning, Budgeting, Forecasting &
establish, enhance, and distinguish Miami, FL 33131.
Data Integration using Oracle EPM Prod-
product within industry.
ucts. Resp. for developing end-to-end
Sustaining Engineer #51117: Diagnose,
troubleshoot, repair and debug com-
plex networking issues in the Data
Center and Switching areas.
Software Engineer #36797: Design, OCEAN PREDICTION
develop, troubleshoot, debug and
modify large scale networking
POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS
software. Naval Research Laboratory,
Juniper Networks is recruiting for
our Westford, MA office:
Stennis Space Center, MS
Technical Support Engineer #37316: The Naval Research Laboratory is seek-
Provide technical phone support to
customers and assistance to other
ing postdoctoral researchers to push for-
support engineers to resolve prod- ward the frontiers of ocean forecasting. cover a wide scope
uct issues. of physics including surface waves, thermohaline circula-
Juniper Networks is recruiting for tion, nearshore circulation, and ocean/atmosphere coupling
our Herndon, VA office: from global to nearshore scales. This challenging work
Systems Engineer #33983: Provide includes processing and analysis of satellite and in water
onsite technical guidance to the observations, construction of numerical model systems on
customers on Junipers routing,
high performance computing and assimilation for predicting
switching, security solutions and
services. Understand customers the ocean environment. For a quick overview of some of the
environment and position Junipers research projects within the NRL oceanography division at
solutions within the customers in- Stennis Space Center, visit the web site: http://www7320.
frastructure. Must be willing to travel nrlssc.navy.mil/projects.php
to client sites locally.

Mail single-sided resume with


Applicants must be a US citizen or permanent resident at
job code # to time of application. Applications will be accepted until po-
Juniper Networks sitions are filled. Please e-mail a resume and description of
Attn: MS A.4.435 research interests:
1133 Innovation Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Gregg Jacobs: jacobs@nrlssc.navy.mil

www.computer.org/computingedge 63
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

INFOSYS LIMITED is in need of indi- teams with customer context, com- lead IT change management tracks for
viduals to work full-time in Plano, Texas petitor and industry context, details medium to large engagements. Will
and various and unanticipated locations on pain-points and client introduc- lead the engagement effort at differ-
throughout the U.S. Must be willing tions required for opening diverse ent stages of IT projects from business
to work anywhere in the U.S. as all job service offerings in own account(s). process consulting, and problem defini-
opportunities may involve relocation to Travel required. (Req ID: 20548BR). tion to solution design and deployment.
various and unanticipated client site lo- Industry Principal(s) - U.S. needed to Travel required. (Req ID: 20549BR).
cations; any travel and/or relocation to
be paid by employer pursuant to inter-
nal policy. We have multiple openings
for each job opportunity, and are an
Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/D/V.
Please apply to Infosys Limited online
at: https://www.infosys.com/careers/
job - oppor tunities/pages/index.aspx.
Select the box labeled Technical
which will bring you to the site with the
Experienced Professionals link in the
right column. Click on the Experienced
Professionals link. Once a user ac-
count has been created, please follow
the link for Search Openings and click
on Advanced Search. Enter the Req ID
listed below in the Auto Req ID box. NEXT ISSUE
Engagement Manager(s) needed
to navigate IT business account to SOFTWARE
identify different kinds of deals; form
and lead pursuit teams; help pursuit

TECHNOLOGY
Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for the following positions (all levels/types) in San Mateo County, including Redwood Shores, CA and San Bruno, CA; Alameda County, including Pleasanton, CA;
San Francisco, CA; Santa Clara County, including Santa Clara and San Jose, CA; and other locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Some positions may allow for telecommuting.

Hardware Developers (HWD317): Evaluate reliability of materials, properties and techniques used in production; plan, design and develop electronic parts, components, integrated circuitry,
mechanical systems, equipment and packaging, optical systems and/or DSP systems.
Product Managers (PM317): Participate in all software and/or hardware product development life cycle activities. Move software products through the software product development
cycle from design and development to implementation, testing, and/or marketing.
Software Developers (SWD317): Design, develop, troubleshoot and/or test/QA software.
Applications Developers (APD317): Analyze, design, develop, troubleshoot and debug software programs for commercial or end user applications. Write code, complete programming and
perform testing and debugging of applications.
Programmer Analysts (PA317): Analyze user requirements to develop, implement, and/or support Oracles global infrastructure.
Technical Analysts-Support (TAS317): Deliver solutions to the Oracle customer base while serving as an advocate for customer needs. Offer strategic technical support to assure the
highest level of customer satisfaction.
Consultants (TCONS317): Analyze requirements and deliver functional and technical solutions. Implement products and technologies to meet post-sale customer needs. Travel to various
unanticipated sites throughout the U.S. required.
Sales Consultants (TSC317): Provide presales technical/functional support to prospective customers. Design, validate and present Oracles software solutions to include product concepts
and future direction. Travel to various unanticipated sites throughout the U.S. required.
Software Developers (TSWD317): Design, develop, troubleshoot and/or test/QA software. Travel to various unanticipated sites throughout the U.S. required.
Applications Developers (TAPD317): Analyze, design, develop, troubleshoot and debug software programs for commercial or end user applications. Write code, complete programming and
perform testing and debugging of applications. Travel to various unanticipated sites throughout the U.S. required.

Submit resume to applicant_us@oracle.com. Must include job#. Oracle supports workforce diversity.

64 ComputingEdge April 2017


CLASSIFIED LINE AD SUBMISSION DETAILS: Rates are
$425.00 per column inch ($640 minimum). Eight lines per col-
umn inch and average five typeset words per line. Send copy Applications are invited for:-
at least one month prior to publication date to: Debbie Sims, Faculty of Engineering
Classified Advertising, Computing Edge Magazine, 10662 Los Professors / Associate Professors / Assistant Professors
Vaqueros Circle, Los Alamitos, CA 90720; (714) 816-2138; fax (Ref. 1700004N)
(714) 821-4010. Email: dsims@computer.org. The Faculty of Engineering is seeking several faculty posts at Professor / Associate
Professor / Assistant Professor levels with prospect for substantiation. The professors
will play a signicant role in the Cyber Security Center, which will be established by
In order to conform to the Age Discrimination in Employment the Faculty of Engineering.
Act and to discourage age discrimination, Computing Edge Cyber security is identied as one of the Facultys strategic research areas, to be developed
by both the Department of Computer Science & Engineering and Department of
may reject any advertisement containing any of these phras- Information Engineering. Talented candidates are sought to complement existing efforts
and create new synergies. Candidates in the following areas are encouraged to apply:
es or similar ones: recent college grads, 14 years
- cryptography and computational theory in security
maximum experience, up to 5 years experience, or 10 - network, system and software security
- data security and privacy
years maximum experience. Computing Edge reserves the - computer forensic
right to append to any advertisement without specific notice - hardware and IoT security
Applicants should have a relevant PhD degree and a good scholarly record demonstrating
to the advertiser. Experience ranges are suggested minimum potential for teaching and research excellence.
requirements, not maximums. Computing Edge assumes that Appointments will normally be made on contract basis for up to three years initially
commencing August 2017, which, subject to performance and mutual agreement, may
since advertisers have been notified of this policy in advance, lead to longer-term appointment or substantiation later. The exact start date can be
worked out with the successful applicants.
they agree that any experience requirements, whether stat-
Applications will be accepted until the posts are lled.
ed as ranges or otherwise, will be construed by the reader as Application Procedure
minimum requirements only. Computing Edge encourages em- Applicants please upload the full resume with a cover letter, copies of academic
credentials, publication list with abstracts of selected published papers, a research
ployers to offer salaries that are competitive, but occasionally plan, a teaching statement, together with names and e-mails addresses of three to ve
a salary may be offered that is significantly below currently ac- referees to whom the applicants consent has been given for their providing reference
(unless otherwise specied).
ceptable levels. In such cases the reader may wish to inquire of The University only accepts and considers applications submitted online
the employer whether extenuating circumstances apply. for the posts above. For more information and to apply online, please visit
http://career.cuhk.edu.hk.

TECHNOLOGY

Intuit Inc.
has openings for the following positions in Mountain View, California:
Staff Application Operations Engineers (Job code: I-292): Apply a full understanding of the business, the customer, and
the solutions that a business offers to effectively design, develop, and implement operational capabilities, tools and
processes. Senior Business Data Analysts (Job code: I-2311): Write SQL queries to pull sales data using Site Catalyst.
Technical Data Analysts (Job code: I-2422): Partner with marketing, finance, analytics, and cross-functional teams to
interpret large volumes of data, address key business questions, from hypothesis to execution.

Positions in Woodland Hills, California:


Software Engineers (Job code: I-3134): Apply software development practices to design, implement, and support
individual software projects.

To apply, submit resume to Intuit Inc., Attn: Olivia Sawyer, J203-6, 2800 E. Commerce Center Place, Tucson, AZ 85706.
You must include the job code on your resume/cover letter. Intuit supports workforce diversity.

www.computer.org/computingedge 65
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

Apple Inc. has the following job opportunities in Cupertino, CA:


Software Engineer Applications Software Quality Assurance Engi- big data, & artificial intelligence w/
(Req# 9KSNDX) Dev the next gen neer (Req# A9CU96) Build app test focus on Span user exp.
geolocation system. Optimize & cases (auto & manual) & exec reqd
Software Engineer Applications
improve processing pipeline. tests.
(Req# A7T2TW) Des & dev SW for
Software Development Engineer Software Development Engineer iCloud reporting sys.
(Req# 9U4RR8) (Lang Req Ger- (Req# 9Q5MF8) Des & dev SW
Systems Design Engineer (Req#
man) Cond sw qual test to ensure testing for camera, video, audio, &
9CYVYJ2ND) Des and dev int SW
the qual of groundbreaking tech graphics of Apple prods.
tools and sys for the Wireless Des
for large scale sys, spoken lang, big
Software Engineer Applications dept.
data, and AI with a focus on the
(Req# ACQ24M) Dsgn, dev, &
German user exp. Mechanical Quality Engineer
support Apples realtime cmmuni-
(Req# 9T65WU) Support new Ap-
Software Engineer Applications cations infrstrctre.
ple product launches from a mech,
(Req# A6F33Z) Des, build, and
Software Development Engineer tooling, eng & product dev level.
sup new, critical infra systems and
(Req# AAZPJ3) Perf diff types of Travel req 30%.
frameworks.
test ranging from fnctnl, feature,
Product Design Engineer (Req#
Software QA Engineering Lead regression & auto test.
9TATXU) Dev & implement high
(Req# 9X5SQN) Lead Web QA
Software Engineer Applications precision factory & manufacturing
Team. Assist & guide in dev javas-
(Req# AHYU5W) Validate sys automation processes in high vol-
cript-based web automation.
capacity to ensure suff resource ume environment for Apple prod-
Software Engineer Applications availability. ucts. Travel required 35%.
(Req# 9WNPT9) Des & dev SW for
Software Development Engineer Product Quality Engineer (Req#
telemetry systs.
(Req# A8XSM7) Dsgn & dvlp re- 99N36Z) Dev & impl new tech to
Software Engineer Applications al-time comm SW for FaceTime. enhance production quality, capac-
(Req# A9GTLG) Des & drive new ity & efficiency. Travel req 30%.
Software Development Manager
prods/pltfrms frm concept to im-
(Req# 9DTNVH) Des & lead dev Software Development Engineer
plem in the Architecture tm.
of Siri SW & languags. (Req# 9UJVV5) Des, dev, debug &
Software Engineer Applications test Apple Maps SW on iOS & OSX.
Software Engineer Applications
(Req# 9XE23J) Res, des, dev, im-
(Req# 9PNSHN) Des & implemnt Software Quality Assurance Engi-
plmnt, & debug iOS apps. Travel
SW to aid in the anlysis & correctn neer (Req# A7449N) Drive SW qual
reqd 10%.
of client-facng prdcts, usng machine & integration to improve cust exp.
Software Engineer Applications learng technques, on a globl scale.
Software Engineer Systems (Req#
(Req# 9F8TLF) Research, des, dev,
Software Development Engineer 9TU28B) Dev SW to automate en-
& productize machine learning
(Req# A3FW45) Des, dev, debug & gineering data collection in the RF
mdls for iTunes & App Store rec-
port bootloader & driver SW for Hardware organizatn.
ommender sys for personalization.
mobile realtime OS.
Software Development Manager
Software Development Engineer
Software Development Engineer (Req# 9E5QEN) Mange the des of
(Req# A2GTX4) Dsgn & implmnt
(Req# A7A24T) Dsgn, dvlp & im- algorthms tht cntrl a cmplx mchncl/
features in iAd Workbench News
plmnt search relevnce & quality sys elctrcl sys.
Web App & API.
Software Development Engineer Development Engineer (Req#
Software Engineer Applications
(Req# A3RW5F) Dvlp the SW build A8R2LR) Dsgn, implmnt & main-
(Req# 9XJVXU) Des and dev large
sys. Set up & supprt CI & dplymnt tain highly scure & redundant nt-
scale distributed sys to sup workflow
tools. wrk envirnmnts.
engines that process and compute
large amt of data in var domains. Software Development Engineer Software QA Engineer (Req#
(Req# 9QEP8Z) (Lang Req Span) A5EVZJ) Dsgn, dev, excute & ana-
Software Engineer Applications
Conduct SW Quality Testing to en- lyze low lvl automated tsts fr mbile
(Req# 9WJ2EP) Develop REST Web
sure the quality of groundbreaking devcs.
services for third party interactions.
tech for lrg scale sys, spoken lang,

66 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

ASIC Design Engineer (Req# AF- Localization Engineer (Technical Hardware Development Engineer
H2UQ) Archtct, dsgn & vrfy Pwr Translator) (Req# 9FM2U6) Trans- (Req# 9LTQ3L) Dsng HW for Ap-
Mangmnt ICs. late Apple SW prdcts & rel mate- ples Input Devices group. Travel
rials from English to Simplified Req 20%.
Software Engineer Applications
Chinese.
(Req# A6D8PM) Dsgn & dvlp Software Engineer Applications
mbile & web apps w automated Software Development Engineer (Req# 9JG29L) Des & dev SW for
tsts. (Req# 9VSSMZ) Rspnsble for the Apple News ecosys & feats pertain-
wireless quality on Apple macOS, ing to content mgmnt & authoring.
Software Engineer Systems (Req#
iOS, WatchOS, & TVOS devices.
9T8VNY) Archtct, spcfy, dsgn, Hardware Development Engineer
dvlp, & launch Apples touch tech Hardware Development Engineer (Req# 9SZ2Z2) Dev, prototype &
prdct chrctriztion & prdction in- (Req# A7M53A) Analyze, debug, implmnt cutting-edge color imag-
strmntation SW. Travel Reqd 25% & imprv perf for new comp sys un- ing sols & tech for Apple prods.
der dev.
Systems Design Engineer (Req# Software Engineer Applications
9U32VA) Dev & optimize RF au- Engineering Project Lead (Req# (Req# 9W9SUA) Eval quality of al-
tomation sys used on Apples new- A4YU2G) Plan, coordnte, & reprt gorithmic results in Apple Maps.
est prods incl iPhones, iPods, iPads the status of SW eng prjcts.
Machine Learning Manager (Req#
& other wireless tech. Travel reqd:
Software Development Engineer 9USPXF) Dsgn & execute a De-
20%.
(Req# 9FJTY5) Des, impl & debug cision Sci prgrm fcsd on IDing,
Software Quality Assurance Engi- location frmwrk SW, APIs & func- trgtng, & seizing fncl opportunities
neer (Req# 9TA3Q6) Test audio & tionality on iOS, macOS, watchOS for AppleCare.
vid tech w manual & automation & tvOS.
tst methods.
Software Development Engineer
Software Development Engineer (Req# A7245T) Dsgn & implmnt
Apple Inc. has
(Req# 9Y6SJE) Des & dev SW and features for contnt mngmnt app for the following job
test cases for testing map SW. lrge nmbr of pblishrs.
Software Quality Assurance Engi- Research Scientist/Engineer (Req#
opportunities in
neer (Req# A663S5) Des test plans A6SN4E) Anlyze data fr Apples Austin, TX:
to test wirless SW & HW featrs. SW & srvics. Write code to anlyz &
visualze data. ASIC Design Engineer (Req# 9FT-
Software Development Engi- JLV) Deliver low-power analysis,
neer (Req# A393BM) Perform sys Software Development Engineer optimization, estimation, & mi-
bring-up of new HW platforms. (Req# 9QJ38L) Dev & main- cro-archtcture power modeling for
tain test plans. Carry out testing Apples GPU.
Hardware Development Engineer
across a variety of netwrk topolo-
(Req# 9KT2B8) Dsgn antennas ASIC Design Engineer (Req#
gies to ensure the hghst vid & au-
for mobile communication devices. 9XJVYN) Dsgn, simulate & verfy
dio quality.
Travel req. 15%. analog crcuits usng Cadence tools.
Firmware Engineer (Req# 9LUTLF)
Software Development Engineer
Des & dev firmware for wireless
(Req# 9WY3JX) Qualify Wi-Fi fea-
audio prdcts.
ture fnctnalty & prfrmnce acrss
various Apl pltfrms. Software Development Engineer
(Req# A9VQE8) Analyze reqs, des Refer to Req# & mail
Hardware Development Engineer
(Req# A8SVW4) Dev motion & be-
& implement new user-facing web resume to Apple Inc.,
apps ATTN: D.W.
hvr predictn algs & corrspndng SW
in C++/MATLAB. Software Development Engineer 1 Infinite Loop 104-1GM,
(Req# 9YNM8P) Des & dvlp highly Cupertino, CA 95014.
Development Engineer (Req#
scalable distributed sys to process
9R2NK7) Detct & rspond to in- Apple is an EOE/AA m/f/
large scale data.
formtn secrty threats. disability/vets.

www.computer.org/computingedge 67
TECHNOLOGY
LinkedIn Corp.
LinkedIn Corp. has openings in our Mtn View, CA location for:
Software Engineer (All Levels/Types) (SWE0317SV) Design, develop & integrate cutting-edge software
technologies; Senior Software Engineer in Test (Test Engineer) (6597.1766) Design & develop advanced test
suites using object-oriented methodologies; Manager, Software Engineering (6597.722) Act as thought-leader
for team and others, proposing and building investments in automation frameworks and tools to drive improve-
ments and efficiencies across the larger test engineering organization; Performance Engineer (6597.1655)
Design, develop & integrate cutting-edge software technologies; User Experience Designer (6597.1193)
Develop original visual designs against specific communication priorities, utilizing tools such as Adobe Photo-
shop, Adobe Illustrator, Apple Keynote, Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Word & online media collections like
Getty Images & iStockPhoto; Sr. Engineer, Site Reliability (6597.1050) Serve as a primary point responsible for
the overall health, performance & capacity of one or more Internet-facing service; Senior Product Manager
(6597.1896) Analyze the competitive environment, customers & product metrics to determine the right set of
features to drive engagement & usage on LinkedIn; Engineer, Service Operations (6597.872) Coordinate short-
& long-term initiatives with LinkedIn DevOps teams, as well as partners (CDN, DNS, monitoring/measurement)
prioritizing & driving project closure on all sides; Senior User Experience Designer (6597.1223) Create holistic
design solutions that address business, brand, and user requirements; Associate Web Developer (6597.968)
Design, develop & integrate cutting-edge software technologies; Product Manager, ProFinder (6597.1927)
Develop a comprehensive product & marketing roadmap to deliver business goals; Manager, Software Engi-
neering (6597.115) Manage the performance & career development of a small team of engineers, & own signifi-
cant parts of LinkedIn products that require design, architecture, & coding; Quality Assurance Manager, Sales
Systems (6597.1779) Develop a QA program strategy which includes planning, evaluating, designing, architect-
ing, implementing & maintaining test frameworks.

LinkedIn Corp. has openings in our San Francisco, CA location for:


Software Engineer (All Levels/Types) (SWE0317SF) Design, develop & integrate cutting-edge software
technologies.

LinkedIn Corp. has openings in our New York, NY location for:


Software Engineer (All Levels/Types) (SWE0317NY) Design, develop & integrate cutting-edge software
technologies; Director, Software Engineering (6597.255) Architect, design, develop, & support the most
visible Internet-scale products & infrastructure at LinkedIn.

Please email resume to: 6597@linkedin.com. Must ref. job code above when applying.

68 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

CONFERENCES
in the Palm of Your Hand
IEEE Computer Societys Conference Publishing Services (CPS) is now offering
conference program mobile apps! Let your attendees have their conference
schedule, conference information, and paper listings in the palm of their hands.

The conference program mobile app


works for Android devices, iPhone,
iPad, and the Kindle Fire.

For more information please contact cps@computer.org

TECHNICAL TECHNICAL TECHNOLOGY


Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc. Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for has openings for

TECHNICAL has openings for


PRODUCT
ANALYST- TECHNICAL SUPPORT
SUPPORT ANALYST MANAGER
positions in Lehi, Utah. positions in
positions in Orlando, FL. Colorado Springs, CO.
Job duties include: deliver solutions to the
Oracle customer base while serving as an Job duties include: Deliver solutions Job duties include: Contribute to the
advocate for customer needs; offer to the Oracle customer base while development of customer support
strategic technical support to assure the management model and consistent
serving as an advocate for customer
highest level of customer satisfaction. business practices including team readiness
Travel to various unanticipated sites
needs.
to support new product releases or
throughout the United States required. functionality.
Apply by e-mailing resume to
Apply by e-mailing resume to Al.Rocek@oracle.com, Apply by e-mailing resume
harshal.patil@oracle.com, referencing 385.19786. to jon.green@oracle.com,
referencing 385.19904. Oracle supports workforce diversity. referencing 385.19495. Oracle supports
Oracle supports workforce diversity. workforce diversity.

www.computer.org/computingedge 69
TECHNICAL
Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for

TECHNICAL
ANALYSTS-
SUPPORT
positions in Lehi, Utah.

Job duties include: Deliver post-sales


support and solutions to the Oracle
customer base while serving as an
advocate for customer needs.

Apply by e-mailing resume to


vandana.sharma@oracle.com,
referencing 385.19669.
Oracle supports workforce diversity.

TECHNOLOGY
Oracle America, Inc.
has openings for

HARDWARE Are Enemy Hackers Slipping

DEVELOPERS through Your Teams Defenses?

positions in Burlington, MA. Protect Your Organization from Hackers


by Thinking Like Them
Job duties include: Evaluate reliability of
materials, properties and techniques used Take Our E-Learning Courses
in production; plan, design and develop in the Art of Hacking
electronic parts, components, integrated
circuitry, mechanical systems, equipment You and your staff can take these courses where you are
and packaging, optical systems and/or DSP and at your own pace, getting hands-on, real-world training
systems. that you can put to work immediately.

www.computer.org/artofhacking
Apply by e-mailing resume to
adam.reed@oracle.com,
referencing 385.14655.
Oracle supports workforce diversity.

70 ComputingEdge April 2017


CAREER OPPORTUNITIES
Recognizing Excellence in High-Performance Computing

Nominations are Solicited for the

SEYMOUR CRAY
SIDNEY FERNBACH
& KEN KENNEDY AWARDS

SEYMOUR CRAY COMPUTER ENGINEERING AWARD


Established in late 1997 in memory of Seymour Cray, the Seymour Cray Award
is awarded to recognize innovative contributions to high-performance comput-
ing systems that best exemplify the creative spirit demonstrated by Seymour
Cray. The award consists of a crystal memento and honorarium of US$10,000.
This award requires 3 endorsements.
Sponsored by:

SIDNEY FERNBACH MEMORIAL AWARD


Established in 1992 by the Board of Governors of the IEEE Computer Soci-
ety, this award honors the memory of the late Dr. Sidney Fernbach, one of the
pioneers on the development and application of high-performance computers
for the solution of large computational problems. The award, which consists of
a certificate and a US$2,000 honorarium, is presented annually to an individual
for an outstanding contribution in the application of high-performance comput-
ers using innovative approaches. This award requires 3 endorsements.
Sponsored by:

ACM/IEEE-CS KEN KENNEDY AWARD


This award was established in memory of Ken Kennedy, the founder of Rice
Universitys nationally ranked computer science program and one of the worlds
foremost experts on high-performance computing. A certificate and US$5,000
honorarium are awarded jointly by the ACM and the IEEE Computer Society
for outstanding contributions to programmability or productivity in high-
performance computing together with significant community service or mentor-
ing contributions. This award requires 2 endorsements.

Cosponsored by:

Deadline: 1 July 2017


All nomination details available at awards.computer.org
www.computer.org/computingedge 71
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IEEE Computer Society 2017 Call for
MAJOR AWARD NOMINATIONS
Help Recognize Computings Most Prestigious

IEEE Computer Society awards recognize outstanding achievements and highlight significant
contributors in the teaching and R&D computing communities. All members of the profession
are invited to nominate individuals who they consider most eligible to receive international
recognition of an appropriate society award.

Computer Entrepreneur Award Computer Pioneer Award


Sterling Silver Goblet Silver Medal
Vision and leadership resulting in the growth of Pioneering concepts and development of the
some segment of the computer industry. computer field.

Technical Achievement Award W. Wallace McDowell Award


Certificate/$2,000 Certificate/$2,000
Contributions to computer science or computer Recent theoretical, design, educational,
technology. practical, or other tangible innovative
contributions.
Harry H. Goode Memorial Award
Bronze Medal/$2,000 Taylor L. Booth Award
Information sciences, including seminal ideas, Bronze Medal/$5,000
algorithms, computing directions, and concepts. Contributions to computer science and
engineering education.
Hans Karlsson Award
Plaque/$2,000 Computer Science & Engineering
Team leadership and achievement through Undergraduate Teaching Award
collaboration in computing standards. Plaque/$2,000
Recognizes outstanding contributions to
Richard E. Merwin Award for undergraduate education.
Distinguished Service
Bronze Medal/$5,000 IEEE-CS/Software Engineering Institute
Outstanding volunteer service to the profession Watts S. Humphrey Software Process
at large, including service to the IEEE Computer Achievement Award
Society. (Joint award by CS/SEI)
Plaque/$1,500
Harlan D. Mills Award Software professionals or teams responsible for
Plaque/$3,000 an improvement to their organizations ability to
Contributions to the practice of software create and evolve software-dependent systems.
engineering through the application of sound
theory.

Deadline: 15 October 2017


Nomination Site: awards.computer.org
For more information visit: www.computer.org/awards