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Steps in the Scientific Method

1. Observations
 quantitative

 qualitative
2. Formulating hypotheses
 possible explanation for the observation
3. Performing experiments
 gathering new information to decide
whether the hypothesis is valid

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Outcomes Over the Long-Term


Theory (Model)
 A set of tested hypotheses that give an
overall explanation of some natural
phenomenon.
Natural Law
 The same observation applies to many
different systems
 Example - Law of Conservation of
Mass

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Nature of Measurement
Measurement - quantitative observation consisting of
2 parts
Part 1 - number
Part 2 - scale (unit)

Examples:
20 grams
6.63 × 10−34 Joule seconds-1

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International System
(le Système International)

Based on metric system and units


derived from metric system.
See Table 1.1, pg. 8

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Uncertainty in Measurement

A digit that must be estimated is called


uncertain.
uncertain. A measurement always has
some degree of uncertainty.

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Precision and Accuracy

Accuracy refers to the agreement of a


particular value with the true value.

Precision refers to the degree of agreement


among several elements of the same
quantity.

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Types of Error

Random Error (Indeterminate Error) -


measurement has an equal probability of
being high or low.

Systematic Error (Determinate Error) -


Occurs in the same direction each time (high
or low), often resulting from poor technique.

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Figure 1.7
The Difference
between
Precision and
Accuracy

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures -


Overview

1. Nonzero integers
2. Zeros
 leading zeros

 captive zeros

 trailing zeros

3. Exact numbers

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Rules for Counting Significant
Figures - Details

Nonzero integers always count as


significant figures.

3456 has
4 sig figs.

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Rules for Counting Significant


Figures - Details
Zeros
 Leading zeros do not count as
significant figures.

0.0486 has
3 sig figs.

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Rules for Counting Significant


Figures - Details
Zeros
 Captive zeros always count as
significant figures.

16.07 has
4 sig figs.

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Rules for Counting Significant
Figures - Details

Zeros
 Trailing zeros are significant only
if the number contains a decimal
point.

9.300 has
4 sig figs.
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Rules for Counting Significant


Figures - Details

Exact numbers have an infinite number of


significant figures.

1 inch = 2.54 cm, exactly

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Rules for Significant Figures in


Mathematical Operations

Multiplication and Division: # sig figs in


the result equals the number in the least
precise measurement used in the calculation.

6.38 × 2.0 =
12.76 → 13 (2 sig figs)

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Rules for Significant Figures in
Mathematical Operations

Addition and Subtraction: # sig figs in the


result equals the number of decimal places
in the least precise measurement.

6.8 + 11.934 =
22.4896 → 22.5 (3 sig figs)

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Dimensional Analysis

Proper use of “unit factors” leads to proper


units in your answer.

1 kilometer 0.62137 mile


OK: =
0.62137 mile 1 kilometer

1 kilometer 1 mile
NOT OK: =
0.62137 mile 0.62137 kilometer
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Temperature

=°C
Celsius scale =
Kelvin scale = K
=°F
Fahrenheit scale =

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Temperature

TK = TC + 27315
.

9° F
TF = TC × + 32° F
5° C

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Figure 1.9
Normal Body Temperature on the Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin Scales

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Density
Density is the mass of substance per unit
volume of the substance:

mass
density =
volume

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Types of Mixtures

Mixtures have variable composition.


A homogeneous mixture is a solution (for
example, vinegar)
A heterogeneous mixture is, to the naked
eye, clearly not uniform (for example, a
bottle of ranch dressing)

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Pure Substances

Can be isolated by separation methods:


 Chromatography
 Filtration
 Distillation

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Compound: A substance with a


constant composition that can be
broken down into elements by
chemical processes.

Element: A substance that cannot be


decomposed into simpler substances by
chemical means.
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